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Moringa Oleifera is one of the most useful tropical trees. Its leaves are extremely valuable source of nutrition for people of all ages. Nutritional analysis indicates that Moringa leaves contain affluence of essential, disease preventing nutrients. They even contain all of the essential amino acids, which is unusual for a plant source. The young leaves are edible and are commonly cooked and eaten like spinach or used to make soups and salads. They are an exceptionally good source of provitamin A, vitamins B, and C, minerals (in particularly iron), and the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine. The composition of the amino acids in the leaf protein is well balanced since the dried leaves are concentrated; they contain higher amounts of many of these nutrients. In this paper processing of fresh Moringa leaves into dry form for consumption purpose has been described. INTRODUCTION Moringa oleiferaLam. is a multipurpose and exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses.It is a sub-tropical species that is known by different regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, mooringai and sajna. It has very high nutritional properties that would be useful as a food supplement, especially in those relegated communities. Besides its nutritional and medicinal applications, M. oleifera is very useful as an alley crop in the agro-forestry industry. It is useful not only for human beings but also foranimals and also in various industrial applications. Besides Moringa oleifera being processed into a medicine, it contains acetone which can be prepared into herbal formulation which is an effective anti-malaria bio agent [1]. Such trees have the potential to be a source of new drugs [2]. It is also an effective water clarifier using the seed, thus providing millions of people with clean drinking water [3]. The leaves, fruit, flowers and immature pods of this tree are used as a highly nutritive vegetable in many countries, particularly in India, Pakistan, Philippines, Hawaii and many parts of Africa.It is originatedinitially in the Northern part of India some 5000 years back and soonmoved into the Southern parts as well, where it was known as 'Murungaikeerai' (Moringa leaves) and 'Murungaikaai' (Moringa vegetable). The Moringa tree had spread to most part of Asia, nearly the whole of Africa, South America, southern part of North America and some pockets in Europe [4,5]. Moringa has been used as a traditional medicine around the world, for anemia, skin pregnancy. The healing properties of Moringaoil have been documented by ancient cultures. Moringa oil has tremendous cosmetic value and is used in body and hair care as a moisturizer and skin conditioner. Moringa oil has been used in skin preparations and ointments since Egyptian times [6-9]. The leaves possess remarkable nutritional and medicinal qualities [10,11].They contain high amount of vitamin C, which fights a host of illnesses including colds and flu; vitamin A, which acts as a shield against eye disease, skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhea, and many other diseases; Calcium, which builds strong bones and teeth and helps prevent osteoporosis; Potassium, which is essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves, and Proteins, the basic building blocks of all our body cells. Another important point is that Moringa leaves contain all of the essential amino acidsin a good proportion, which are the building blocks of proteins. These leaves could be a great boon to people who do not get protein from meat. Moringa even contains argenine and histidine B Bu ul ll le et ti in n o of f E En nv vi ir ro on nm me en nt t, , P Ph ha ar rm ma ac co ol lo og gy y a an nd d L Li if fe e S Sc ci ie en nc ce es s
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BEPLS Vol 2 [1] December 2012 ~ 28 ~ ©2012 AELS, INDIA
Processing of Moringa oleifera Leaves for Human Consumption
Satya Prakash Mishra*, Pankaj Singh and Sanjay Singh
*Moringa Biotech, Ranchi Gumla NH-23, Ranchi-835303,Jharkhand. India
Institute of Forest Productivity, Ranchi Gumla NH-23, Ranchi-835303,Jharkhand. India
ABSTRACT
Moringa Oleifera is one of the most useful tropical trees. Its leaves are extremely valuable source of nutrition for people of all
ages. Nutritional analysis indicates that Moringa leaves contain affluence of essential, disease preventing nutrients. They
even contain all of the essential amino acids, which is unusual for a plant source. The young leaves are edible and are
commonly cooked and eaten like spinach or used to make soups and salads. They are an exceptionally good source of
provitamin A, vitamins B, and C, minerals (in particularly iron), and the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and
cystine. The composition of the amino acids in the leaf protein is well balanced since the dried leaves are concentrated; they
contain higher amounts of many of these nutrients. In this paper processing of fresh Moringa leaves into dry form for
consumption purpose has been described.
INTRODUCTION
Moringa oleiferaLam. is a multipurpose and exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of
potential uses.It is a sub-tropical species that is known by different regional names as benzolive,
drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, mooringai and sajna. It has very high
nutritional properties that would be useful as a food supplement, especially in those relegated
communities. Besides its nutritional and medicinal applications, M. oleifera is very useful as an
alley crop in the agro-forestry industry. It is useful not only for human beings but also foranimals
and also in various industrial applications. Besides Moringa oleifera being processed into a
medicine, it contains acetone which can be prepared into herbal formulation which is an effective
anti-malaria bio agent [1]. Such trees have the potential to be a source of new drugs [2]. It is also an
effective water clarifier using the seed, thus providing millions of people with clean drinking water
[3]. The leaves, fruit, flowers and immature pods of this tree are used as a highly nutritive
vegetable in many countries, particularly in India, Pakistan, Philippines, Hawaii and many parts of
Africa.It is originatedinitially in the Northern part of India some 5000 years back and soonmoved
into the Southern parts as well, where it was known as Murungaikeerai’ (Moringa leaves) and
‘Murungaikaai’ (Moringa vegetable). The Moringa tree had spread to most part of Asia, nearly the
whole of Africa, South America, southern part of North America and some pockets in Europe [4,5].
Moringa has been used as a traditional medicine around the world, for anemia, skin infections,
blackheads, anxiety, bronchitis, catarrh, chest congestion, asthma, blood impurities, cholera,
glandular, swelling, headaches, conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhea, eye and ear infections, fever,
abnormal blood pressure, hysteria, pain in joints, pimples, psoriasis, respiratory disorders, scurvy,
semen deficiency, sore throat, sprain, tuberculosis, for intestinal worms, lactation ,diabetes and
pregnancy. The healing properties of Moringaoil have been documented by ancient cultures.
Moringa oil has tremendous cosmetic value and is used in body and hair care as a moisturizer and
skin conditioner. Moringa oil has been used in skin preparations and ointments since Egyptian
times [6-9].
The leaves possess remarkable nutritional and medicinal qualities [10,11].They contain high
amount of vitamin C, which fights a host of illnesses including colds and flu; vitamin A, which acts
as a shield against eye disease, skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhea, and many other diseases;
Calcium, which builds strong bones and teeth and helps prevent osteoporosis; Potassium, which is
essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves, and Proteins, the basic building blocks of all
our body cells. Another important point is that Moringa leaves contain all of the essential amino
acidsin a good proportion, which are the building blocks of proteins. These leaves could be a great
boon to people who do not get protein from meat. Moringa even contains argenine and histidine
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Online ISSN 2277-1808
Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. Volume 2 [1] December 2012: 28- 31
© 2012, Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Website: www.bepls.com
Original Article
BEPLS Vol 2 [1] December 2012 ~ 29 ~ ©2012 AELS, INDIA
two amino acids especially important for infants,who are unable to make enough protein for their
growth requirements [12-18]. The micro-nutrient content is even more in dried leaves; (ten times
the vitamin A of carrots), (17 times the calcium of milk), (15 times the potassium of bananas), (25
times the iron of spinach) and (nine times the protein of yogurt)[18, 19].
Therefore it is necessary to increase the utilization of Moringa leaves consumption by the different
communities. It should be consumed either fresh or dry. Dried leaves can be stored for a long time
and can be used regularly. Many companies across the world manufacturing various products of
Moringa leaves such as Moringa Tea, Moringa Tablets, Moringa Capsules, Moringa leaf Powder,
Moringa Soaps and Moringa Face wash. Some beverages are also available in market prepared by
Moringa leaves. So it is necessary to hygienically drying and processing of Moringa leaves for
further uses. In this paper we have described processing of fresh Moringa leaves into dry form for
consumption purpose.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Leaf Harvesting
Young and old leaves both are suited to making dried leaf powder. Morphology of leaf can be
identified as they are 20-70 cm long, grayish-downy when young, long petiole with 8-10 pairs of
pinnae each bearing two pairs of opposite, elliptic or obovate leaflets and one at the apex, all 1-2
cm long; with glands at the bases of the petioles and pinnae [20]. Moringa leaves can easily lose
moisture after harvesting, therefore, harvest early in the morning and complete the initial phase of
processing in the same day, if possible.
Figure: A Figure: B
Figure: A- Young and tender leaf of Moringa oleifera
Figure: B-Pure and Fresh Moringa Leaf Powder(ready to eat)
Selection of healthy leaves
Fungi like Cercosporaspp and Septorialycopersic causing brown spot in the leaves and further
turning the leaves yellow and killing them. Apart from fungi the most common pests on the leaves
are grasshoppers, crickets and caterpillars [21,11].Therefore diseased and damaged leaves are
discarded manually just after the collection of fresh leaves.
Washing
Collected leaves are washed in running tap water till the removal of dirt. After this leaves are
soaked in 1% saline solution (NaCl) for 5 minutes to remove microbes. Leaves are further washed
with 70 % ethanol followed by twice washing with distilled water. This step plays a substantial role
in removal of dust, pathogens as well as microbes present on the leave surface.
Draining
The excess water can be removed by spreading the leaves in sunlight for a brief period till the
removal of water present on the leaf surface.
Mishra et al
BEPLS Vol 2 [1] December 2012 ~ 30 ~ ©2012 AELS, INDIA
Drying
It is estimated that only 20-40% of vitamin A will be retained if leaves are dried under direct
sunlight, but that 50-70% will be retained if leaves are dried in the shade. High temperature may
lead down to the breakage of protein present in the leaves [22]. Therefore shade dry is
recommended for the drying process. Spread the leaflets on the sterile clean green net in a well-
ventilated room. Mosquito net may be used for this purpose because these materials give a space
between the floor and the leaves. This room should be insect, rodent and dust proof. Air circulation
can be improved by using ceiling and floor level vents protected with a clean filter to keep the sun
and dust out. It is possible to use a fan, but the air must not be directly oriented towards the leaves,
as it can increase contamination with germs in the air. It is advisable to turn the leaves over at least
once, with sterile gloves, to improve uniform drying. Leaves should be completely dry within a
maximum of 4 days. The loading density should not exceed 1 kg/m2. All persons involved in this
step must ensure that, while on duty, personal cleanliness and hygiene are maintained. Personal
protective equipment (PPE) such as head caps, nose masks, disposable gloves, etc. must be used at
all times.
Grinding
In small scale dried leafs can be grinded by mortar and pestles or pulmonizer machine can be used
for fine grinding. Commonly 0.5 mm – 1.0 mm pore size screen is used for the separation of the fine
grinded leaf powder.
Drying of the leaf powder
Moringa leaf powder immediately absorbs moisture and the product can reabsorb humidity during
or after grinding. For this reason, Moringa leaf powder should be dried at 50OC for 30 minutes to
reduce moisture content.If stored powder is exposed to heat or light it will degrade and the
nutrient content will be reduced. Moringa Leaf Powder can be stored for up to 6 months under the
following conditions: clean, dried powder stored in air-tight containers, protected from light and
humidity, and kept below 24°C (75.2 °F).
DISCUSSION
Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing
mothers. One rounded tablespoon (8 g) of leaf powder will satisfy about 14% of the protein, 40%
of the calcium, 23% of the iron and nearly all the vitamin A needs for a child aged 1-3. Six rounded
spoonful of leaf powder will satisfy nearly all of a woman's daily iron and calcium needs during
pregnancy and breast-feeding. Three non-governmental organizations in particular—Trees for
Life, Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization—have advocated
Moringa as “natural nutrition for the tropics.” Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried
powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value.
Moringa is especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leaf at the
end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce. Leaves were also used for food
fortification [8].Spoonful of the powder can then be added to baby food, soups, and vegetables,
adding nutrition but not changing the taste.This powder can be used in place of fresh leaves to
make lead sauces, or few spoonful of the powder can be added to other sauces just before serving.
Addition of small amounts of leaf powder will have no discernible effect on the taste of a sauce. In
this way, Moringa leaves will be ready available to improve nutritional intake on a daily basis.The
relative ease with which it propagates through both sexual and asexual means and its low demand
for soil nutrients and water after being planted makes its production and management easy.
Introduction of this plant into a farm which has a biodiverse environment can be beneficial for both
the owner of the farm and the surrounding eco-system.The present study recommends the
prospect of more aggressive introduction and utilization of drumstick leaves by the food sector. It
also implies that it may be worthwhile for industry to take up the production of drumstick leaf
powder. Such promotion of drumstick leaf incorporation into the diet in India and other countries
could go a long way towards not only alleviating micronutrient deficiencies, but also towards the
development of functional foods for several chronic degenerative disorders. These efforts could
also be an additional source of income generation, employment and exports providing a viable
alternative to imported food supplies to treat malnutrition in poor countries.
Mishra et al
BEPLS Vol 2 [1] December 2012 ~ 31 ~ ©2012 AELS, INDIA
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Mishra et al
... One rounded tablespoon (8 g) of leaf powder will satisfy about 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and nearly all the vitamin A needs for a child aged 1-3 years. Six rounded spoonfuls of leaf powder will satisfy nearly all of a woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breast-feeding (Mishra et al. 2012) [41] . A research report by Rockwood et al. (2013) [75] confirmed that, dry leaves of M. oleifera contains 9 times higher proteins than yogurt, 10 times higher vitamin A than carrot, 25 times higher iron than spinach, 15 times higher potassium than bananas, 17 times higher calcium than milk and 7 times more vitamin C than an orange (Mishra et al. 2018) [40] . ...
... One rounded tablespoon (8 g) of leaf powder will satisfy about 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and nearly all the vitamin A needs for a child aged 1-3 years. Six rounded spoonfuls of leaf powder will satisfy nearly all of a woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breast-feeding (Mishra et al. 2012) [41] . A research report by Rockwood et al. (2013) [75] confirmed that, dry leaves of M. oleifera contains 9 times higher proteins than yogurt, 10 times higher vitamin A than carrot, 25 times higher iron than spinach, 15 times higher potassium than bananas, 17 times higher calcium than milk and 7 times more vitamin C than an orange (Mishra et al. 2018) [40] . ...
Article
Moringa species are commonly known as miracle tree because of its manifold benefits that have tremendous potential in combating malnutrition and alleviating nutritional deficiencies. It emerges as low cost nutritional supplement especially for the vegetarians with its enriched protein content. In this review, we tried to emphasis the importance of Moringa spp. particularly the nutritional, medicinal, bioremediation and ecosystem services. This tree with its worldwide distribution can be grown in almost all environment and mostly suited to arid and semiarid regions. Leaves of M. spp. are rich in protein, mineral, beta-carotene and antioxidant compounds, which are often lacking among the poor populations of underdeveloped or developing countries. Benefits of this wondrous tree need to be disseminated to poor people in developing countries to combat malnutrition. M. spp. can be promoted as food fortificant to enhance the nutritive value of food items. Moringa with its multifaceted benefits seems promising in achieving the sustainable development goals for a healthy and brighter future.
... Its nutritional research demonstrates that it is high in critical, diseasefighting elements. It also contains all essential amino acids, which is unique for a plant source, and the amino acid composition of the leaf protein is well balanced because the dried leaves are a concentrated source of nourishment (Mishra et al., 2012). ...
... Because traditional medicine is mostly used for self-care, Moringa oleifera, an herbal plant that can be used to treat various ailments and malnutrition, should be cultivated in backyard gardens for ready availability. Mishra et al., (2012) stated that Moringa trees were being used to treat malnutrition, particularly in infants and nursing mothers. One rounded tablespoon (8 g) ...
Thesis
MAHARANA PRATAP UNIVERSIITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY, UDAIPUR, RAJASTHAN COLLEGE OF COMMUNITY AND APPLIED SCIENCES Department of Food Science and Nutrition M.Sc. Thesis (2022) Title : Formulation and quality evaluation of moringa leaves powder and development of value-added products Abstract Moringa oleifera is a plant native to the Indian subcontinent that has become naturalised in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and is a fast-growing, drought- resistant tree also known as the drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzolive tree that can be eaten and is extremely safe. For the formulation of moringa leave powder fresh green leaves were collected from the campus which were blanched in boiling water at 100-degree Celsius for 5 minute and immersed in cold water for 2 minutes and then the blanched leaves were dried in shade to avoid loss of nutrients. The formulated moringa leaves were analyzed for their physical properties such as bulk density, swelling capacity and index, hydration capacity and index. The bulk density of MLP was 179.6g/ml swelling capacity was 3.40ml/g, swelling index was 0.09g/ml, hydration capacity was 3.39% and hydration index was 0.07. the nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors were analyzed on the basis of moisture which was 6.33g/100g, crude fibre was 9.53g/100g, crude protein was 24.18g/100g, crude fat was 3.43g/100g, ash was 8.4g/100g, carbohydrate was 48.22g/100g, energy was 365.2kcal, calcium was 94.52mg/100g, iron was 12mg/100g and phytic acid was 0.48mg/100g In the lab, a variety of products were prepared using powdered moringa leaves. all value-added products developed from moringa leaves powder with 5%, 10% and 15% incorporation were assessed for their sensory characteristics viz. colour, flavor, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability. The mean score for overall acceptability of mathri was ranged from 6.60-8.50 for all the trials. Mean scores for overall acceptability of muffins was varied from 7.40- 8.10 however, maximum scores were noted for control while, minimum was detected for T3. The mean score for overall acceptability of multigrain bread was ranged from 6.80-8.00 for all the trials. The mean overall acceptability of idli ranged from 7.00-8.20 and the mean overall acceptability of chapati was ranged from 6.40-8.10. Dr. Sumitra Meena (Major Advisor) Yashasvi Rathore Research Scholar
... Later on, several research demonstrated significant decline in both fasting and postprandial blood glucose level of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes as a result of dosing with tablet of M. Oleifera dried leaf (Kumari, 2010;Nambiar et al., 2010;Ghiridhari et al., 2011). Moringa is also reported to be used for the treatment of sore throat, ear infections, sprain, hypertension, cough, anxiety, headache, hysteria, skin infections, epilepsy, for intestinal worms, respiratory disorders, joints pain, anaemia, blackheads, bronchitis, lactation diabetes, abnormal blood pressure, chest congestion, asthma, fever, tuberculosis, hyperthyroidism and Herpes Simplex virus type -1 (Lipipun et al., 2003;Mishra et al., 2012;Singh and Singh, 2019). ...
... The Moringa leaf powder is one of the most sought value-added products from this divine tree as it possesses remarkable nutritional and medicinal properties (Mishra et al., 2012). Both young and matured leaves are suitable for powder making. ...
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Moringa oleifera, a perennial tree of Indian origin, is cultivated in several tropical and sub-tropical countries because of its ability to grow under unfavourable conditions such as poor soil, lower requirement of water and managemental practices. The leaves and pods of the plant are highly rich in essential nutrients such as protein, vitamin, essential amino acids, macro and micro elements in addition to the presence of diverse nutraceutical molecules such as antioxidant, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, phenolics etc. The presence of bioactive principles in different parts of the Moringa plant prompted the people to use it as part of traditional medicines for the cure of several human ailments such as diabetes, intestinal worms, hyperlipidaemia, high blood pressure, muscle spasm, constipation, ringworm, etc. With the growing health consciousness coupled with phobia against modern chemical based therapeutic, there is increasing demands for plant sourced nutraceuticals. Evidently, this gives opportunity for development of Moringa based product for welfare of human society. The current review made an effort to summarize the research advancement on different aspects of Moringa oleifera focussing on taxonomy, cultivation, nutritional attributes, therapeutic values, and value-added products of this divine tree. SAARC J. Agric., 20(2): 1-15 (2022)
... Moringa oleifera is believed to be a panacea against many diseases and many parts of the plant, including leaves and seeds, have long been used as ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine and supplements for both pregnant women and babies during weaning (Mishra et al., 2012). A fast-growing perennial plant, M. oleifera can resist extreme conditions such as drought and high temperatures (Alhakmani et al., 2013). ...
... M. oleifera has a long history of usage in developing countries for the weaning of malnourished infants (Zhou et al., 2012). It is also reported that about 50 g of leaf powder could satisfy a woman's daily iron and calcium requirements during pregnancy and nursing (Mishra et al., 2012), providing essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins (Rocchetti et al., 2020). ...
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... The medicinal value of the parts of Moringa can never be overemphasized, however over an extended period, a different part of the plant was used in folk medicine to cured certain diseases [7]. A study [8] has confirmed that the plants is used as traditional medicine for many purposes that enhance the body health. Several active constituents of Moringa can be used as modern medicine [9]. ...
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This study evaluated the curative and prophylactic antiplasmodial potential of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera seed. Seventy mice, weighing 20-30grams were used for the study. The mice were divided into seven groups (A-G) of five rats each. Groups A-F were the treatment groups, while group G was the control group. The mice were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei and then treated with standard antimalarial drugs (A, B and C) and 200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg (D, E and F). The mice were treated for three days. Thereafter, blood films were made from the mice, dried, stained and viewed using x10 lens. The % parasitaemia and chemosuppression were determined. The ethanol extract significantly reduced the % parasitaemia in the treated mice, compared to the control group. However, the effects of the extract at the doses used for the study were less comparable to those of the standard drugs used for this study. The ethanol extract of Moringa seed has both curative and prophylactic antiplasmodial potential. However, these effects were less comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the study. It is recommended that the extract be considered for use as an antiplasmodial agent.
... The effects of methanolic extract of M. oleifera roots on the haematological and hepatorenal functions of the plant, as well as the effects of different doses of the crude extract (CE) on the liver and kidney functions, have all been documented. 110 • The hepatoprotective effect of ethanol leaf extract of M. oleifera was investigated through oral administration, and the results revealed that the extract considerably lowered the activity of serum hepatic marker enzymes after administration. M. oleifera leaf extract was studied for its influence on oxidative stress indicators in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam. or munga is one of the most important plants widely cultivated in India. It belongs to family Moringaceae. It is a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used commonly in Ayurvedic system of medicine. M. oleifera is rich in various active phyto-constituents (tannins, sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, alkaloids, and vitamins) in addition to different minerals in its leaves and seeds. The plant has been found to exhibit diverse number of pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticancer, antioxidant, nootropic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, anti-ulcer, cardiovascular, anti-obesity, antiepileptic, anti-asthmatic, antidiabetic, anti-urolithiatic, diuretic, local anaesthetic, anti-allergic, anthelmintic, wound healing, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antidiarrheal properties. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. So, the aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive information from recognized sources on the ethnobotany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological efficacy and of the medicinal plant, M. oleifera. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials using Moringa for a variety of combinations in different formulations should also be conducted.
... High fiber content in moringa leaves facilitates digestion and prevents colon cancer (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). Moringa tea, tablets, capsules, powder, soaps, and face washes are just a few of the many items made from the moringa plant by several companies throughout the globe (Singh & Singh, 2022). It is referred as the miracle tree because of its nutritional properties. ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera), aka "Shigru," "mother's best friend," "miracle tree," "horseradish tree," "drumstick tree," and "oil tree," native of the sub-Himalayan region of northern India, belongs to the Moringaceae family. The high nutritional value of M. oleifera makes it suitable for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. Because of its chemical constituents, M. oleifera is used to treat and combat malnutrition, especially in infants and nursing mothers. These days, herbal medicine and its phytocompound derivatives are also being recognized as effective complementary therapies for cancer treatment. So, in this study, M. oleifera is reviewed for its anticancer property. By thoroughly scanning the PubMed, Embase, SinoMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, an extensive up-to-date report on its ethnomedicinal use, nutritional, phytochemistry, and pharmacotherapeutic potential is done. It has valuable nutrients such as vitamins, proteins, iron, calcium, antioxidants (flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenols) and ascorbic acid. Additionally, it is used as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antidiabetic agent. There are also concrete evidence that this plant's bioactive constituents, numerous extracts have a high biopotential in a number of cancer cells, through its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and cell cycle arresting properties. This extensive literature review will provide insights into several mechanisms and signaling pathways of its various phytoconstituents that can mitigate the growth of cancer cells in various experimental models, safety and toxicity concerns, and drug-drug interactions.
... Moringa oleifera has been widely used in conventional pharmacotherapy to treat many ailments. It is ordinarily well-known by totally different regional names like Drumstick trees, Horse radish, Morango [8]. In Nigeria, it's referred to as Zugale within the northern region and commonly named a miracle tree plant. ...
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious surgical site infections and remains a major dilemma, especially in developing country like Nigeria. This issue has led to investigation of the antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against multidrugresistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from postoperative wounds at the two sites used in the study (Central Hospital, Benin and University of Benin Teaching Hospital) and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed to identify MDR isolates. A qualitative phytochemical screening of leaves was performed using standard methods, followed by antibacterial testing of various M. oleifera leaf extracts against selected multidrug-resistant isolates. Results showed that 99 (35%) of the patients examined had wound infections, out of a total of 284 specimens collected. Thirty-four (54.8%) P. aeruginosa strains showed multidrug-resistance capacity from both learning sites. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. In vitro results of antibacterial tests showed that ethyl acetate extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera had the highest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain Iraq.PA-9, followed by dichloromethane at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. The different effects may be attributed to secondary plant substances contained in different leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of Moringa oleifera leaf extract as an antibacterial agent by inhibiting the growth of test organisms isolated from postoperative wound infections.
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This datasheet on Moringa oleifera covers Identity, Overview, Associated Diseases, Pests or Pathogens, Distribution, Dispersal, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Natural Enemies, Impacts, Uses, Management, Genetics and Breeding, Food Quality, Food Safety, Economics, Further Information.
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Moringa oleifera is a plant native to the Indian subcontinent that has become naturalised in tropical and subtropical regions around the world and is a fast-growing, drought resistant tree also known as the drumstick tree, horseradish tree, and ben oil tree or benzolive tree that can be eaten and is extremely safe. For the formulation of Moringa leave powder fresh green leaves were collected from the campus which were blanched in boiling water at 100-degree Celsius for 5 minute and immersed in cold water for 2 minutes and then the blanched leaves were dried in shade to avoid loss of nutrients. The formulated Moringa leaves were analyzed for their physical properties such as bulk density, swelling capacity and index, hydration capacity and index. The bulk density of MLP was 179.6 g/ml swelling capacity was 3.40 ml/g, swelling index was 0.09 g/ml, hydration capacity was 3.39% and hydration index was 0.07. the nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors were analyzed on the basis of moisture which was 6.33 g/100 g, crude fibre was 9.53 g/100 g, crude protein was 24.18 g/100 g, crude fat was 3.43 g/100 g, ash was 8.4 g/100 g, carbohydrate was 48.22 g/100 g, energy was 365.2 kcal, calcium was 94.52 mg/100 g, iron was 12 mg/100 g and phytic acid was 0.48 mg/100 g. In the lab, a variety of products were prepared using powdered Moringa leaves. all value-added products developed from Moringa leaves powder with 5%, 10% and 15% incorporation were assessed for their sensory characteristics viz. colour, flavor, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability. The mean score for overall acceptability of mathri was ranged from 6.60-8.50 for all the trials. Mean scores for overall acceptability of muffins was varied from 7.40-8.10 however, maximum scores were noted for control while, minimum was detected for T3. The mean score for overall acceptability of multigrain bread was ranged from 6.80-8.00 for all the trials. The mean overall acceptability of idli ranged from 7.00-8.20 and the mean overall acceptability of chapatti was ranged from 6.40-8.10.
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Increase resistance of Plasmodium falciparum for the present drugs is the impetus for the dynamic study in the filed of new antimalarial agent from plants as well as synthesized chemicals. Crude acetone extract after treatment of 50 % lead acetate of traditionally used plants like Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br., Moringa oleifera Lam. and Tinospora cordifolia was screen for the schizonticidal activity against Plasmodium falciparum in 96 well titer plate. IC values of A.scholaris, Moringa oleifera and Tinospora cordifolia were 50 found as 0.08, 0.26 and 0.16µM, respectively. Component of acetone fraction of all plants were separated by HPTLC and Rf value recorded by scanning at 366 nm. In conclusion, this work provided basement investigation for the further work, whereas acetone extract of all three plants showed strong schizonticidal activity.
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The present work reports the characterization and comparison of Moringa concanensis seed oil from Tharparkar (a drought hit area), Pakistan. The hexane-extracted oil content of M. concanensis seeds ranged from 37.56 to 40.06% (average 38.82%). Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were found to be 30.07, 6.00, 5.88 and 9.00%, respectively. The extracted oil exhibited an iodine value of 67.00; a refractive index (40°C) of 1.4648; its density (24°C) was 0.8660mgmL−1; the saponification value (mg of KOHg−1 of oil) was 179.00; unsaponifiable matter 0.78%; color (1 in. cell) 1.90R+19.00Y; and acidity (% as oleic acid) 0.34%. Tocopherols (α, γ, and δ) in the oil accounted for 72.11, 9.26 and 33.87mgkg−1, respectively. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270nm were 3.17 and 0.65, respectively. The peroxide and p-anisidine values of the oil were found to be 1.75 and 1.84meqkg−1, respectively. The induction periods (Rancimat, 20Lh−1, 120°C) of the crude oil was 10.81h and reduced to 8.90h after degumming. The M. concanensis oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 68.00%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acids up to levels of 11.04, 3.58, 3.44 and 7.09%, respectively. The results of the present analytical study, compared with those for other Moringa species and different vegetable oils, showed M. concanensis to be a potentially valuable non-conventional seed crop for high quality oil.
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Moringa oleifera Lam is a multipurpose tree cultivated to use as a vegetable, for spice, for cooking and cosmetic oil and as a medicinal plant. Owing to the use of its seeds as food and as a clarifying agent of turbid water some nutritional and antinutritional characteristics were studied. The mature seeds contained 332.5 g crude protein, 412.0 g crude fat, 211.2 g carbohydrate and 44.3 g ash per kg dry matter. The essential amino acid profile compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU scoring pattern requirements for different age groups showed deficiency of lysine, threonine and valine. The content of methionine + cysteine (43.6 g kg−1 protein), however, was exceptionally higher and close to that of human milk, chicken egg and cow's milk. The seed extract agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes but did not show trypsin inhibitor and urease activities. Feeding rats with a diet containing the seed meal showed loss of appetite, impaired growth, lower NPU and enlargement of stomach, small intestine, caecum + colon, liver, pancreas, kidneys, heart and lungs and atrophy of thymus and spleen in comparison with rats fed on an egg-white diet. The results indicated that consumption of M oleifera raw mature seeds should be viewed with some caution until suitable processing methods are developed to abolish the yet unknown adverse factors. © 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
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The horseradish tree (Moringa pterygosperma,) is being introduced into drought-ridden lands to augment the local food and fodder supply. The tree grows up to 5 m per year. The foliage is high in calcium and has half the oxalates of amaranth. Seeds yield edible oil and the seed meal is used as fertilizer and as a coagulant to clarify turbid water. The philanthropic center, ECHO (Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization), North Fort Myers, Florida, receives many requests for seeds. A missionary in Mali wrote: “The seeds you sent arrived during the worst year of 14 years of dry weather. Only the moringa survived, and they have flourished. ”Another seed shipment resulted, after harvesting a crop, in 25 000 trees being planted by university students and faculty, around laborers’ houses in Maranhao, Brazil. The tree is not limited to tropical lowlands, but thrives at elevations of 800-1200 m in protected mountain areas of southern Mexico. The long-range effects of ingesting various parts of the tree as food or folkmedicine need study. Attention should be given to horticultural improvement, perhaps through hybridization with one or more related species now being compared with M. pterygosperma in India and Africa.
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TheMoringa peregrina kernel contains 1.8% moisture, 54.3% oil, 22.1% protein, 3.6% fiber, 15.3% carbohydrate and 2.5% ash. The composition and characteristics of the extracted oil were determined. Gas liquid chromatography of methyl esters of the fatty acids shows the presence of 14.7% saturated fatty acids and 84.7% unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid composition is as follows: palmitic 9.3%, palmitoleic 2.4%, stearic 3.5%, oleic 78.0%, linoleic 0.6%, linolenic 1.6%, arachidic 1.8% and behenic 2.6%.