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Fracking in unkonventionellen Erdgas-Lagerstätten in NRW. Kurzfassung zum Gutachten „Gutachten mit Risikostudie zur Exploration und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstätten in Nordrhein-Westfalen (NRW) und deren Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt insbesondere die öffentliche Trinkwasserversorgung“

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... The amount of scholarly literature on the topic is limited. Aside from a number of scientific-technical assessments (particularly BGR, 2012(particularly BGR, , 2016Meiners, 2012;UBA, 2012UBA, , 2014 and energy industry publications (for example, Rehbock, 2013;ZEW, 2013), as well as a few more recent review volumes and monographs from different specialised perspectives (Habrich-Böcker, Kirchner, & Weißenberg, 2015;Zittel, 2016), there are mostly legal essays and assessments dedicated to different aspects of fracking (for example, Attendorn, 2011;Ludwig, 2012;Böhm, 2013;Eftekharzadeh, 2013;Frenz, 2013;Gaßner & Buchholz, 2013). To date, analyses Analyses in political science have dealt mostly with the relevant influence of citizens' initiatives (Burgartz, 2013;Yang, 2015), the role of discourse and discourse coalitions (Schirrmeister, 2014), as well as the dialogue process that Exxon initiated (Bornemann, 2016). ...
... In some cases, human health risks have been exclusively based on data of acute toxicity (Stringfellow et al. 2014(Stringfellow et al. , 2017a. However, human risk evaluation of HF-associated processes should not be limited to the analysis of the inherent acute and chronic toxicity of chemicals in frac fluids or components of the flow-back, i.e., the hazard of the individual compounds (Stringfellow et al. 2014(Stringfellow et al. , 2017aElliott et al. 2017a, b;Wattenberg et al. 2015;Webb et al. 2014;Bergmann et al. 2014;Meiners et al. 2012a, b;Meiners 2012;Yost et al. 2016). In fact, the identification of inherent toxicity (hazard) represents a first and essential step in risk evaluation (NRC 1983(NRC , 2009Wattenberg et al. 2015). ...
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The use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to extract oil and natural gas has increased, along with intensive discussions on the associated risks to human health. Three technical processes should be differentiated when evaluating human health risks, namely (1) drilling of the borehole, (2) hydraulic stimulation, and (3) gas or oil production. During the drilling phase, emissions such as NOx, NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) as precursors for tropospheric ozone formation, and SOx have been shown to be higher compared to the subsequent phases. In relation to hydraulic stimulation, the toxicity of frac fluids is of relevance. More than 1100 compounds have been identified as components. A trend is to use fewer, less hazardous and more biodegradable substances; however, the use of hydrocarbons, such as kerosene and diesel, is still allowed in the USA. Methane in drinking water is of low toxicological relevance but may indicate inadequate integrity of the gas well. There is a great concern regarding the contamination of ground- and surface water during the production phase. Water that flows to the surface from oil and gas wells, so-called ‘produced water’, represents a mixture of flow-back, the injected frac fluid returning to the surface, and the reservoir water present in natural oil and gas deposits. Among numerous hazardous compounds, produced water may contain bromide, arsenic, strontium, mercury, barium, radioactive isotopes and organic compounds, particularly benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). The sewage outflow, even from specialized treatment plants, may still contain critical concentrations of barium, strontium and arsenic. Evidence suggests that the quality of groundwater and surface water may be compromised by disposal of produced water. Particularly critical is the use of produced water for watering of agricultural areas, where persistent compounds may accumulate. Air contamination can occur as a result of several HF-associated activities. In addition to BTEX, 20 HF-associated air contaminants are group 1A or 1B carcinogens according to the IARC. In the U.S., oil and gas production (including conventional production) represents the second largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions. High-quality epidemiological studies are required, especially in light of recent observations of an association between childhood leukemia and multiple myeloma in the neighborhood of oil and gas production sites. In conclusion, (1) strong evidence supports the conclusion that frac fluids can lead to local environmental contamination; (2) while changes in the chemical composition of soil, water and air are likely to occur, the increased levels are still often below threshold values for safety; (3) point source pollution due to poor maintenance of wells and pipelines can be monitored and remedied; (4) risk assessment should be based on both hazard and exposure evaluation; (5) while the concentrations of frac fluid chemicals are low, some are known carcinogens; therefore, thorough, well-designed studies are needed to assess the risk to human health with high certainty; (6) HF can represent a health risk via long-lasting contamination of soil and water, when strict safety measures are not rigorously applied.
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The energy revolution in Germany will pose a challenge due to the ongoing useof natural gas and oil energy resources. In 2014 natural gas covered around 20%of primary energy consumption. Self-sufficiency is falling steadily and was 7% inthe year 2015. The domestic, conventional natural gas resources will be depletedin 10 years time due to continued consumption according to predictions. One wayto achieve greater independence from importing foreign raw materials is in thedevelopment of oil and natural gas from unconventional deposits using fracking.Primarily, the unconventional natural gas resources could, according to recentcalculations, secure a supply for decades to come and serve as a bridgingtechnology because of their low effect on global warming. Fracking is a technology for the development of different energy commoditiessuch as natural gas, oil and geothermal energy from the earth's interior. It ismainly used in the extraction of natural gas from shale and sandstone. Aconventional extraction is not implementable with these types of stone. Becauseof the low permeability of the stone, a hydraulic stimulation is required to producecleavage planes in the rock that make it possible to break up the raw material.For this purpose, the frac fluid, consisting of around 80 – 95% water, 5 – 20%proppants and 1 – 3% of various chemicals is squeezed at high pressure into theformation. This technique is mainly used in the US and has led to greater independence from the natural gas market.However, we can observe that the general public has taken a critical stancetowards fracking. This stance is primarily based on environmental risksassociated with the contamination of groundwater. Contamination may result inparticular from influx at the ground surface and from inadequate drilling integrity.Regulatory and precise drilling parameters can primarily prevent this. Moreover,toxic additives are not added to frac fluids, to avoid toxicological effects by apossible discharge into the environment.XIV Overall, the use of fracking technology is possible from a geoscientificperspective, if a detailed geological survey is carried out and existing legalregulations and site-specific safety standards are observed.
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Mit Fracking greift der Mensch erheblich in die Landschaft ein, vor allem in dicht besiedelten Ländern wie Deutschland. So trägt der Flächenbedarf der unkonventionellen Erdgas- und Erdölförderung stark zur Landschaftsfragmentierung und -zerschneidung bei – mit negativen Folgen für Pflanzen- und Tierpopulationen. Zudem konkurriert Fracking mit anderen Landnutzungen wie der Landwirtschaft und dem Naturschutz. Bei der Prüfung der Genehmigungsfähigkeit von Fracking müssen die Folgen für die Landschaft künftig dringend einbezogen werden
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Zusammenfassung Das Hessische Landesamt für Naturschutz, Umwelt und Geologie (HLNUG) teilte bei der fachlichen Bewertung eines Antrags für die Aufsuchung von Gas einschließlich Frackingversuchen in dichten Tongesteinen in Frage kommende geologische Strukturräume in Potenzialräume ein, die hinsichtlich der potenziellen Gas-Höffigkeit und der Eignung von Deckgebirgsschichten als geologische Barrieren in einer Rangfolge eingestuft wurden. Untersucht wurden tektonisch-strukturelle Merkmale, Reservoirtyp und die Überdeckung der Zielhorizonte einschließlich deren Einteilung in hydrogeologische Einheiten sowie die Differenzierung in Grundwasserleiter oder hydraulische Barrieren. An den Nachweis der Integrität des Deckgebirges und seiner hydraulischen Barrieren sowie an das Monitoring aller Grundwasserstockwerke müssen schon im Fall einer Aufsuchung äußerst hohe Anforderungen gestellt werden. Des Weiteren wurden die möglichen Einflüsse auf Trinkwassergewinnungsanlagen, Heilquellen und Brauchwassergewinnungsanlagen beurteilt. Eine Analyse konkurrierender Nutzungen schloss sich an. Ein eventuelles Schiefergaspotenzial und mögliche wirksame Barriereschichten können lediglich in einem Potenzialraum nördlich Kassel, der rund 16 % des beantragten Feldes einnimmt, vermutet werden. Dieses Gebiet wird zu 65 % mit Trinkwasser- und Heilquellenschutzgebieten, Naturschutzgebieten und weiteren Gebieten öffentlichen Interesses überdeckt.
Technical Guidance Document concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market, Part II
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Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Kohlenwasserstoffen aus unkonventionellen Lagerstätten in NRW. Vortrag auf dem 13. Aachener Altlasten-und Bergschadenskundliches Kolloquium
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