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Stretching and Its Effects on Recovery: A Review

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Stretching and Its Effects
on Recovery: A Review
William A. Sands, PhD, CSCS,
Jeni R. McNeal, PhD, CSCS*D,
Steven R. Murray, DA,
Michael W. Ramsey, PhD,
Kimitake Sato, PhD,
Satoshi Mizuguchi, PhD,
and Michael H. Stone, PhD, FNSCA
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee;
Department of Physical Education, Health, and Recreation, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, Washington; and
Department of Kinesiology, Colorado Mesa University, Grand Junction, Colorado
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided
in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (
Stretching has long been a part of
athlete training, defined as “.
the application of force to mus-
culotendinous structures in order to
achieve a change in their length, usu-
ally for the purposes of improving joint
range of motion (ROM), reducing stiff-
ness or soreness, or preparing for
(physical) activity” (3, p. 3). Flexibility
is the ROM of a joint or a related series
of joints, such as the spine (61,84).
Stretching for increased flexibility
tends to be uncomfortable, seeking to
enhance stretch tolerance by relatively
extreme body positions that put mus-
cles and tendons under unaccustomed
tensile stresses (51,53). Stretching as
a preparatory activity (i.e., warm-up)
is clearly not intended to help an ath-
lete “recover” because the stretching
precedes the bulk of the training lesson.
Stretching to reduce stiffness and sore-
ness is a therapeutic aspect of stretch-
ing that is distinct from the other
concepts listed above (87). Thus, the
term “stretching” can be somewhat
paradoxical by application to several
diverse purposes. For example, Kisner
and Colby (44, p. 187) differentiate
between stretching and “ROM exerci-
ses,” with stretching involving tissue
tensions and lengths beyond those nor-
mally available, whereas ROM exerci-
ses seek to keep movements within the
current boundaries of tissue extensibil-
ity (2, p. 5).
There are a number of confusing
notions about stretching, flexibility,
and recovery. For example, the ROM
of a joint almost always is determined
statically or passively, whereas the
actual expression of ROM in sport is
usually dynamic (87, p. 311). As a desir-
able property of movement, and the link
between stretching and flexibility, Siff
(81, p. 123), has commented that move-
ment proficiency is based on a balance
of static and dynamic positions and
motions and that tissues must be con-
ditioned to withstand deformations and
shocks. In terms of recovery, stretching
seeks to achieve motion that is pain free,
unencumbered, and coordinated.
However, other activities and modal-
ities can enhance ROM in the short
term. Heat, cold, vibration, massage,
hydrotherapy, anesthetics, and other
modalities have been shown to
reduce pain and enhance ROM
Stretching can be categorized as active
or passive, static or dynamic, and acute
or chronic (61). Active stretching refers
to a limb position that places a joint at its
extreme ROM by virtue of the tension
obtained from agonist muscles (e.g.,
while standing, raising a straight leg
from the hip in flexion using the tension
from hip flexors). Active stretching po-
sitions are opposed by the antagonist
muscles’ elastic and viscous resistances
(e.g., while standing, raising a straight leg
from the hip in flexion is resisted by hip
extensor muscles and resistive properties
of tendons, ligaments, skin, and fascia).
Passive stretching involves placing a joint
recovery; stretching; flexibility; range of
motion; extensibility; stiffness
VOLUME 35 | NUMBER 5 | OCTOBER 2013 Copyrig ht ÓNational Strength and Conditioning Association
in an extreme ROM position by the use
of gravity or inertia (e.g., a gymnast or
dancer sitting in a split position or
swinging a limb to an extreme position).
Static stretching is the most commonly
prescribed type of stretching involving
placement of the body and limbs in an
extreme ROM position and holding this
position for a period by gravity, partner
assistance, or agonist muscle tension.
Dynamic stretching moves joints
through extreme ROM movements
without long pauses or holds and
momentarily taking a limb to an extreme
position (e.g., swinging the leg at the hip,
forward and backward in the sagittal
plane, momentarily stretching hip flex-
ors and extensors). Acute stretching
for a relatively short duration, usually 30
seconds or less (6,68). Chronic stretch-
ing refers to repeated stretching exer-
cises or sets of exercises over days and
Stretching to develop semipermanent
ROM improvements relies largely on
the achievement of “stretch tolerance”
(50,52,54). Achievement of stretch toler-
ance requires focused practice in extreme
and uncomfortable ROM positions.
Stretching discomfort is difficult to quan-
tify but relates directly to stretching
intensity and pain tolerance (11, p. 2,
18,30). The presence of discomfort or
pain in an effort to achieve recovery
appears contradictory to the concept of
recovery. However, the discomfort level
of stretching often has been pre-
scribed as tension remaining below
a pain threshold (2, pp. 58, 145),
without considering that an optimal
discomfort and tension level may be
obtained in a different position that
results in the more effective achieve-
ment of a new ROM. Moreover, the
inducement of pain also appears to
contradict the concept of recovery-
relaxation (2, p. 5, 62,71).
Recovery is usually defined as the pro-
cess of returning something that was
lost (85, pp. 260–261). “Mostly, recov-
ery is defined as the compensation of
deficit states of an organism (e.g.,
fatigue or decrease in performance)
and, according to the homeostatic
principle, a reestablishment of the ini-
tial state” (39, p. 6). However, recovery
in sport is a 2-stage process: returning
what was lost (i.e., reducing fatigue)
and adapting or supercompensating
to training demands (85, pp. 260–
261). Adaptation results from the inter-
play of work and recovery. Recovery is
not, and should not be, considered
complete or effective unless the athlete
reaches a higher state of fitness after
recovery (61,85, pp. 260–261). Thus,
simply reducing fatigue or returning
to a nonfatigued state represents in-
complete recovery. Moreover, the ulti-
mate test of recovery-adaptation lies
in the transfer of newly acquired
fitness and/or skill to actual sport
performance (10, pp. 1–21, 14,87,
pp. 173–174).
In terms of recovery, the primary
objective of stretching should be to
achieve enhanced ROM and/or
reduced stiffness and soreness. The
acute effects of stretching are short-
lived, from seconds to minutes
(21,22,28,43,45,82,93). Supporting
Wolff’s law (function determines
structure), semipermanent changes
in ROM require focused training for
days to months (13,23,46,65). Acute
therapeutic stretching may return
ROM after immobilization from
injury (55,58,72) and quasi-therapeu-
tically in dynamic "loosening" activi-
ties to promote ease of motion after
warm-up and/or cooldown activities
(1,15,38,89), as a means of developing
concentration control (27,42) and the
ability to cope with chronic pain
(78,79,91). The difference in stretch-
ing and ROM exercise concepts, as
described above, has been noted by
Verkhoshansky and Siff (87, pp. 173–
174), who have attributed some gains
in ROM to changes in muscle and
tendon stiffness and neuromuscular
properties. If stretching is included
in recovery efforts, the movements
should be dynamic and pain free,
contraindicating stretching positions
that elicit discomfort and pain.
The role of stretching and recovery
has a relatively long, and somewhat
confusing, history. As early as 1961,
de Vries (19) observed reduced mus-
cle distress after static stretching.
Static stretching has been shown to
reduce electromyographic median
frequency fatigue of back extensor
muscles and thereby enhanced cop-
ing with chronic pain (24). Smaller
decreases and more rapid return of
strength after delayed onset muscle
soreness (DOMS) were observed
using static and proprioceptive neu-
romuscular facilitation stretching
(16). Stretching via pain-free motions
with minimal resistance may enhance
postexercise strength, ROM, and
recovery (62). Heat-shock protein
incursion of immobilized rat gastroc-
nemius muscle was reduced after
static stretching and was thought to
protect the muscle against reloading
injury after immobilization (34). Cold
combined with stretching was supe-
rior to either alone or heat in reduc-
ing postexertional pain (67).
In contrast to the previous para-
graph, an acute reduction in muscu-
lar strength after fatiguing exercise
has been shown to continue after
static stretching for recovery (25).
Maximal voluntary contraction force
remained unchanged, whereas reflex
and stretch-shortening parameters
were reduced after fast, repeated
muscle stretching (5). Pre-exercise
stretching was not effective in reduc-
ing postexercise soreness and
reduced force abilities (36). In a study
of active exercise, passive resting, and
stretching for recovery from isoki-
netic knee extensions at 50% maximal
voluntary contractions to fatigue,
active recovery (i.e., light exercise,
cycling with no resistance) showed
better return to baseline recovery
(62). Active recovery was better in
returning strength-endurance perfor-
mance than either passive recovery
or stretching, which did not differ
from each other (62). Cold-water
immersion was better than carbohy-
drate supplementation and stretching
on recovery of basketball players
Strength and Conditioning Journal | 31
participating in a 3-day tournament
(62). Heat, cold, and stretching
groups performing stair running did
not achieve enhanced recovery over
a control group (69). Rat sciatic nerve
axonal retrograde transport (i.e.,
intracellular material movement
toward the cell body from the termi-
nal ending) was inhibited by 6% strain
(10% neuron lengthening) stretching.
This rodent study showed that
stretching caused ischemia and
increased neuron tensile forces (86).
The reduction of pain via stretching
is a laudable goal for recovery activ-
ities. However, perceived muscle
pain was not relieved by static
stretching (59). Stretching pre- and
posteccentric exercise did not reduce
DOMS (90). Inconsistent results
were obtained using warm-up,
stretching, and massage treatments
to reduce soreness after eccentric
exercise (70). Recovering from trau-
matic muscular injury usually seeks to
ensure rapid return of ROM within
the constraints of tissue healing.
However, more recent work has
be based on full recovery of the
muscle and tendon unit and that
programs based solely on stretching
and strengthening result in poorer
outcomes (35). A review of DOMS
and effective treatments concluded
that cold therapy, stretching, hom-
eopathic remedies, ultrasound, and
electrical modalities had little
or no influence on the alleviation of
muscle soreness or other DOMS
symptoms (17).
A serious problem permeates nearly
all studies of stretching—how does
one measure stretching intensity?
How does one determine if the
stretching activity elicited slightly
uncomfortable, moderately uncom-
fortable or painful sensations during
stretching? Individual athletes have
idiosyncratic tolerances for pain.
Moreover, discomfort and pain may
be exercise specific (61). Soreness and
stiffness may elicit pain and reduced
ROM that inhibits the use of even small
ROM movements thereby presenting
a new stress rather than the reduction
of stress. There does not appear to be
a single metric ever proposed to ascer-
tain the level, intensity, or magnitude of
stretching, short of static measurements
of maximum ROM positions (e.g., sit-
and-reach tests) that are too often
completely lacking in a conceptual
framework and sport specificity (33).
As such, how can any judgment of
the effectiveness of stretching on
recovery be determined? The subject
or athlete is usually directed to per-
form movements that are pain free,
fort and pain is not clear (11,
p. 2,18,30). Moreover, the tolerance
of discomfort and pain is likely to be
greater during short duration expo-
sures as opposed to those of longer
duration (4,63,76). Some athletes
may perform extreme positions more
zealously and achieve greater ROM or
incur and endure greater discomfort
than studymates (63). Stretching studies
are inherently incomparable if there is
no standard means of measuring the
stretching effort.
There is a consensus that serious stretch-
ing (i.e., flexibility-related stretching that
is uncomfortable and intended to
enhance ROM rather than relaxation
through acquisition of stretch tolerance,
54) results in reduced strength and
power after stretching exercises. The del-
eterious effects may not be reversed by
transitional exercises, and the effect can
last up to an hour (8,9,12,37,56,60,88).
Unskilled, reckless, and unsupervised
use of ballistic stretching (e.g., powerful
jerking-type stretch) actually causes mus-
cle soreness and stiffness and is therefore
contrary to the idea of enhancement and
maintenance of relaxation and pain-free,
fluid motion (87).
Recovery modalities, such as heat,
cold, hot/cold contrast, hydrotherapy,
massage, light exercise, electrical
stimulation, and nutritional supple-
mentation, rely heavily on increasing
overall blood flow to sore areas of the
body. Paradoxically, in a conceptual
model of recovery, it was postulated
that cooldown activities and stretch-
ing accelerate the elimination of
waste products, despite evidence that
stretching decreases blood flow.
Blood flow, capillary region oxygena-
tion, and velocity of red blood cells
decrease during stretching (57,66,83).
However, one study of ballet-trained
athletes and untrained controls indi-
cated that oxygenation during pain-
free stretching of the anterior tibialis
muscle was better maintained in the
ballet-trained athletes (64). Although
the fascicle lengths of the anterior ti-
bialis muscles were measured in both
groups, one wonders about the choice
of muscle in this study because of the
difficulty of stretching this muscle. In
this study, one could argue that
the anterior tibialis was simply length-
ened with little or no accompanying
Reduction of edema, both local and
systemic, are important objectives of
the recovery process but are poorly
understood by practitioners. More-
over, the new “frontier” in recovery
probably lies in the study and
control of training-induced infl-
ammation and associated edema
(20,26,29,32,48,49,77). Reduction of
edema is reliant on free lymphatic
fluid flow, and the accumulation of
cellular debris from exercise can
obstruct lymphatic uptake of fluids
(77). Herbert and Gabriel performed
a meta-analysis of the effects of
stretching on muscle soreness and
the risk of injury and found that
“Stretching before or after exercising
does not confer protection from mus-
cle soreness” (32, p. 468). However,
there may be a connection between
movements such as combinations of
stretching and contraction that may
mechanically aid lymphatic flow and
venous return and thereby help con-
trol sports-related edema and post-
training soreness (92).
The emphasis on dynamic movements
rather than static stretch positions is
Stretching and Recovery
important for recovery stretching. In
a review of recovery modalities, Barnett
wrote the following for athlete recovery
between events: “.there is no compel-
ling scientific evidence to support the
use of contrast temperature water
immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen
therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs, compression garments, stretching,
electromyostimulation, and combination
modalities” (emphasis added) (7, p. 781).
As we learn more about recovery, inves-
tigations may focus more light on many
modalities and some effectiveness may
yet be apparent. However, one would be
wise to question the relevance and effec-
tiveness of stretching in sport, particu-
larly stretching for recovery.
Possibly the most heretical remark to
make about stretching is to suggest that
the dedicated use of stretching sessions
may not even be necessary, especially
since many athletes dispense entirely with
special stretching or even warm-up ses-
sions before or after training without suf-
fering injury in training or competition.
The prescription of stretching and warm-
up or cooling down sessions has become
a well-accepted ritual, but that does not
imply that this is essential (87, p. 192).
Stretching exercises should be varied
under the same principle as strengthening
exercises, but rarely are (35,80). Light
training followed by pain-free stretching
is proposed as an effective means of
achieving an active recovery that was
superior to taking a day off from training
(40). Finally, a meta-analysis update of 12
studies, one including over 2,000 subjects,
showed that pre- and post-activity
stretching reduced muscle soreness from
1 to 3 days after exercise by one point in a
100-point scale. The authors concluded
that although the results were statistically
significant, the magnitude of effect was
not clinically significant (31). Practitioners
are encouraged to consider recovery
stretching carefully, that the activity is
not a panacea, and prescription of recov-
ery stretching should not be undertaken
blindly, unskillfully, and without careful
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding:
The authors report no conflicts of interest
and no source of funding.
William A.
Sands is a profes-
sor in the
Department of
Exercise and
Sport Science at
East Tennessee
State University.
Jeni R. McNeal
is a professor at
Eastern Wash-
ington University
and Strength and
Consultant for
United States
Steven R.
Murray is a pro-
fessor at Colorado
Mesa University.
Michael W.
Ramsey is the
chair of the
Department of
Exercise and
Sport Science at
East Tennessee
State University.
Kimitake Sato
is an assistant
professor in the
Department of
Exercise and
Sport Science,
faculty for Cen-
ter of Excellence
for Sport Science and Coach Education
at East Tennessee State University.
Mizuguchi is an
assistant profes-
sor in the
Department of
Exercise and
Sport Science at
East Tennessee
State University.
Michael H.
Stone is the lab-
oratory supervi-
sor, PhD
coordinator, and
a professor in the
Department of
Exercise and
Sport Science at
East Tennessee State University.
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Stretching and Recovery
... The thermal effects of ultrasound are to increase tissue temperature, improves blood flow, increase extensibility of the tissue, and reduce the viscosity of fluid elements in the tissue, while the nonthermal effects accelerate tissue metabolism by promoting cellular permeability and ion transport. Ultrasound therapy reduces pain and muscle spasms and improves contractures of joints and injured tissues [9]. ...
... Tissue affected by this cooling effect can experience decreased pain. Ultrasound was more effective if exercises associated with pain relief, such as stretching or ROM exercise were applied after ultrasound [9]. ...
Conference Paper
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Shoulder stiffness (SS) is a condition describing a limited ROM in the glenohumeral joint. SS can arise spontaneously (primary or idiopathic SS, also known as “frozen shoulder”) or due to known causes, including surgical procedures on the shoulder (secondary or post-operative SS). Ultrasound is one of the physiotherapy modalities for treating musculoskeletal cases; a combination of ultrasound and stretching exercises is expected to increase ROM and reduce pain in the shoulder so that patients can move optimally. The clinical question therefore arises: “do ultrasound and stretching increase the ability to raise hands in shoulder stiffness dextra cases?”. To answer this question, evidence was searched for in five databases: PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, and SpringerLink. The keywords used were: Ultrasound Therapy AND Stretching AND Shoulder Stiffness AND Fracture. The search identified 3898 articles, of which 636 articles met the inclusion criteria. Then, after reading the articles, 68 articles (comprising 25 articles in PubMed, 16 in Science Direct, 20 in ProQuest, 0 in the Cochrane Library, and 7 in SpringerLink) were selected. Ultrasound and stretching were administered and four evaluations of pain in the shoulder and the limitations of range of motion (ROM) were performed. Home programs, such as stretching, to make the exercise more effective were evaluated. After four evaluations, positive results were obtained on the pain scale, reducing SPADI after using ultrasound interventions and increasing ROM and decreasing disability scale (SPADI) after stretching exercise.
... The other well-documented active recovery treatment is dynamic stretching (DS) which is commonly used for increasing flexibility and reducing stiffness, and delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) after physical exertion (33). The stretching activity performs by moving joints without holding and momentarily taking a limb to an extreme position, for example, the forward and backward swing of the leg at the hip joint in the sagittal plane. ...
... Cooper et al. [16] claim that appropriately done stretching exercises (lasting 10 minutes with instructor supervision) substantially minimize the risk of PRMD in string players. The assistance of an experienced trainer allows for avoiding the adverse effects of stretching, such as pain, muscle stiffness, or a decrease in muscle strength [17]. ...
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Background: Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD) are an often-reported problem in the literature. PRMD are usually defined as pain, numbness, weakness, paresthesia, or other feelings affecting the musician's performance. Aims: The study aimed to assess the epidemiology of PRMD among violin players in relation to their age, sex, and experience. Additionally, the analysis covered prevention strategies. Material and methods: A total of 70 musicians (Me 24 years, IQR 18- 30) were enrolled in the study (with an advantage of women – 83%). The study was carried out with an online questionnaire based on the modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for the Analysis of Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SNQ). The questionnaire was equipped with additional questions regarding the prevention strategies used by the respondents. Results: The majority of the respondents (53 people, 76%) confirmed to have sustained a PRMD in the period of the last 12 months. Reported PRMD were significantly related with sex (women at higher risk) and specific body locations such as the cervical and lumbar spine, as well as shoulder joints/arms. They did not correlate with the inability to carry out day-to-day activities but had an effect on musical performance (p<0.001). Most of the respondents with PRMD resorted to the help of a medical specialist, of which physiotherapist was found to be highly effective according to their subjective assessment. Conclusion: PRMD constitute a serious problem among violin players. Physiotherapy plays an important role in minimizing the effects of PRMD.
... Persiapan tubuh biasa yang dilakukan hanya melakukan aerobic ringan, kegiatan yang sering dilakukan seperti lari ringan selama 5 menit, tentu saja ini tidak cukup untuk menghadapi latihan yang sifatnya harus menggunakan kelompok otot tertentu, Gerakan yang menstimulasi persendian yang banyak melibatkan tendon dan ligament sangat jarang dilakukan bahkan pengetahuan pentingnya aktivasi otot dan mobilisasi sendi tidak diketahui peserta latihan. Pada kenyataanya bahwa peregangan statis 40 detik menyebabkan lebih banyak kerusakan pada kinerja otot dari pada peregangan statis 20 detik (Franco, et al, 2008), hal ini tentu saja beresiko terhadap anggota yang mengikuti pelatihan tersebut selain proses pemanasan yang tidak maksimal bisa mengakibatkan cedera dikarenakan pada saat persiapan sebelum latihan tidak dilakukan pemanasan dengan terfokus sesuai bantuk latihan fisik yang akan dilakukan, dalam hal pemulihan, yang utama tujuan peregangan harus untuk mencapai range of motion yang ditingkatkan atau mengurangi kekakuan dan nyeri (Sands, et al., 2013). ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of petrissage, vibration, strokes and friction on the optimization of heating in members of the Borneo Sport Science training to improve physical condition in Banjarmasin. The reality on the field is that warm-up is more often done in the form of an ordinary ritual, so it is not in accordance with the needs of training and this form of heating increases body temperature which should also be muscle readiness to be the focus of the warm-up goal. This research is an experimental research with a quantitative descriptive approach. The study population consisted of 30 members of the physical condition improvement training, while the research sample consisted of 20 people who were determined using a purposive sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive analysis method. Statistical data shows that the value of F count against F tabl e is 2.92 > 2.17 with a significance level of 0.05, so it can be concluded that petrissage, vibration, strokes and friction are carried out in less than seven minutes to provide a stimulus to soft tissues and a sense of comfort in the condition of the body significantly affects significantly to the optimization of warm-up physical exercise.
... When the literature is examined, it is seen that many methods such as massage, cold or hot water therapy, vibration equipment, stretching, and foam roller (FR) exercises that affect the recovery process are applied (Chatzopoulos, Galazoulas, Patikas, & Kotzamanidis, 2014;De Oliveira Ottone et al., 2014;Kalén et al., 2017). In dynamic stretching (DS) exercise, the muscle is extended to the joint range of motion in a stretching position, and contraction and relaxation are performed with successive repetitions without stopping at the limit point (Sands et al., 2013). Some studies stated that DS increases performance by positively affecting maximum muscle strength, speed, balance, and vertical jump skills (Behm & Chaouachi, 2011;Chatzopoulos et al., 2014;Perrier, Pavol, & Hoffman, 2011). ...
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The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of foam roller (FR), dynamic stretching (DS), and passive recovery (PR) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in hearing-impaired athletes after submaximal exercise. Twelve congenital (sensorineural) hearing impaired (>91dB) basketball players aged between 18-30 participated in the study voluntarily. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 4 subjects, and 3 different recovery methods after submaximal treadmill running exercises were performed in a cross-over design. BP and HRV parameters of the participants were measured at 4 different times, (i) pre-exercise, (ii) post-exercise, (ııı) during recovery, and (iv) after recovery. Data were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance test for repeated measurements (3 groups x 4 times). There was a significant increase in RMSSD and HF compared to PR after the FR recovery and in 10-minute after recovery (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in LF at 10 min after recovery exercise in FR compared to PR (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between DS and FR and between DS and PR in neither BP nor HRV parameters (p>0.05). The FR recovery method applied after submaximal exercise in hearing-impaired basketball players significantly improved HRV compared to PR. Performing FR recovery exercises in the post-exercise or post-competition period may positively affect HRV. FR exercise can be recommended to coaches and athletes as a method of recovery after post-submaximal exercises.
... Static stretching Static stretching is just like placing the joint in the extreme range of motion and holding it for considerable amount of time. 15 Subject were in supine lying then he/she was asked to flex hip joint with knee also in full extension. Using universal goniometer ROM was measured placing the axes over the greater trochanter and movable arm was placed parallel to the thigh. ...
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Introduction: Hamstrings are a group of muscles which acts on two joint systems, performing multiple functions, thus prone to various injuries. Muscle tightness can be caused by active or passive mechanisms. Active mechanism involves shortening by spasm or contraction while passive mechanism involves postural adaptation or scarring for muscular shortening. Nevertheless, hamstring muscles usually become tight regardless of active or sedentary lifestyle. It is proved that hamstring tightness is the main leading factor to the risk of disorders of the knee and spine. This study was designed to find out immediate effect of Hold Relax versus Static Stretch on hamstrings tightness. Material & Methods: Seventy subjects were included (age 18-30) without excessive hamstring muscle flexibility and were randomly assigned to the one of two stretch groups. Group A was treated with static stretching and Group B was treated with hold relax technique. The left leg was treated as a control and did not receive any intervention. The Right leg was measured for Range of motion pre and post stretch intervention. Data was analysed with paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test to see the effectiveness of hold relax and static stretch in hamstring tightness. Self-made questionnaire was used and asymptomatic participants having tight hamstrings were included in the study after their consent form was signed. Only those subjects who fulfilled inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: Paired sample t-test for both case and control group showed that there was significant improvement in the hamstring flexibility as the p value for both groups were less than 0.05 (p value 0.00). So, both HR and SS improves SLR. Independent sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups as p value was greater than 0.05 (p value 0.011). So, both of these treatment techniques have same effect in the improvement of hamstring tightness with mean difference -3.543 and standard error 1.360. Conclusion: The results of this study concluded that both Hold Relax and static stretch techniques are equally effective in the release of hamstrings tightness.
... performance en sauts, perception de récupération Aloulou et al. (2020) Après ; b ; c Cochrane (2004) ; d Hing et al. (2008) ; e Wilcock et al. (2006) ; f Davies et al. (2009) ;g MacRae et al. (2011) ;h Haghayegh et al. (2019) ; i Weerapong et al. (2005) ; j Poppendieck et al. (2016) ; k Aboodarda et al. (2015) ; l Cavanaugh et al. (2017) ; m Romero et al. (2017) ; n Babault et al. (2011) ;o Tucker et al. (2010) ; p Opplert & Babault (2018) ; q Sands et al. (2013) ; r Kräuchi et al. (2018) ; s Aloulou et al. (2020) ; t Caia et al. (2018) ; u Walsh et al. (2020) ; v Swinbourne et al. (2018) ...
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The repeated sprint ability (RSA) was considered as a major physical determinant of performance in rugby union. However, some studies from rugby league highlighted that the simple RSA is not sufficiently representative of the physical constraints of the sport and does not prepare properly the players to the game. In this context, the ability to repeat high intensity efforts (RHIE) is suggested as a physical quality more specific to rugby union and thus more discriminant of the performance. The RHIE topic is address in 3 different steps : the evaluation, the development and the optimization. In a first study, the assessment of metrological properties of key outcomes from sprint and tackle performance is made using a RHIE test, specifically modified to represent the physical demands of rugby union. Results show that only sprint indices have a sufficient level of reliability to be used with players. Measures of tackle intensity are too variable for an appropriate interpretation. However, this test allows practitioners to identify the physical qualities associated with RHIE, in order to prescribe coherent development strategies with rugby union players. This topic is discussed during the second study. In this context, body composition, maximal sprinting speed and aerobic capacity are the major performance determinants of the RHIE. Therefore, they should be integrated to specific strength and conditioning programs in rugby union. To verify this hypothesis is the aim of the third study, during which an improvement in RHIE ability is observed after a training block composed of an integrated high intensity interval method. Furthermore, results show that coaches or athletes could benefit from a training methodology based on the alternation of contacts and movements, without limiting the adaptation process. The third part of this thesis focus on the RHIE optimization specially to prepare key games or playoffs, periods during which a taper strategy seems to be preferred by coaches. However, the meta-analysis and review of literature performed during the fourth study of this thesis highlight that although a taper is effective to improve neuromuscular and cardiovascular qualities, there is no information available concerning the RHIE ability. In this context, the fifth study consists in the implementation of a taper strategy following an overload training block, with a focus on the influence of the pre-taper fatigue level on the RHIE supercompensation process. Results confirm the improvement of RHIE after the taper, and highlight an inverted U relationship between the pre-taper fatigue level and the magnitude of improvement in performance. Despite minor performance consequences, players on the left side of the relationship do not benefit from the taper due to a too small accumulated fatigue level. However, the situation of those on the right side of the relationship is more problematic. These players do not benefit from the taper due to an incomplete recovery provoked by a too severe state of accumulated fatigue considering the taper implemented. This phenomenon could be observed during short-term taper, often the only solution available within the context of professional sport. By including sleep quality as a moderator of the taper benefits, results of the sixth study show that poor sleep quality predispose athletes to a severe state of accumulated fatigue and therefore to a reduced taper efficiency with a higher risk of injury and upper respiratory tract infections. This thesis is based on scientific studies providing key information to coaches wishing to focus on the evaluation, development and optimization of their players’ repeated high intensity efforts ability. This work leads to key practical applications, which should guide coaches in their understanding of the RHIE.
... Static stretching exercises as a recovery strategy in football have been widely discussed, but currently there is not enough strong scientific evidence that static stretching exercises contribute to players regeneration (Sands et al., 2013;Nedelec et al., 2013). Furthermore only 50% of professional clubs in France use stretching exercises at the end of the training as a recovery strategy (Nedelec et al., 2013). ...
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Training programmes for young football players are designed to stimulate an optimal development of physical performances relevant to football game. The primary aim of this research is to establish the effect of the static stretching exercise on the motor abilities (flexibility and speed) of young football players. A total of 24 young football players (U17 category) from Football Club "Ramiz Sadiku" were included in this pilot study. Participants were divided into control and experimental group. The research implemented 6 variables: 1) 2 variables for estimation of morphological characteristics (body height, body mass) and 2) 4 variables for estimation of motor abilities such as flexibility (Sit-and-Reach test), and speed (sprint 5m, sprint 10m and sprint 30m). Data processing was conducted with the software package SPSS, 23.0 version and uni-variant analysis was performed. Acquired results show that conducted experimental program for development of flexibility have statistically significant effect only on flexibility variable "sit and reach test" with the experimental group, and no significant effect on speed 5m, 10m and 30m. Based on the data obtained in this research, it is recommended to use static stretching exercises after training (in the recovery phase), 2-3 times a week for the optimal development of the flexibility of the players at the U17 category.
Futbol; sürat, çeviklik, ivmelenme, esneklik, sıçramalar ve denge gibi özelliklerin performansı doğrudan etkilediği, çeşitli dinamik aktivitelerini içeren karmaşık bir spordur. Birçok spor aktivitesinde olduğu gibi futbolda da hareket açıklığını kısıtlayan sınırlı kas esnekliğinin kası yaralanmaya yatkın hale getirdiği ve performansı bozduğu bilinmektedir. Bu bilgiler doğrultusunda çalışmanın amacı; futbolcularda hamstring kas grubu esnekliği ile seçili biyomotor beceriler arasındaki ilişkinin karşılaştırılmasıdır. Araştırmaya yaş ortalaması 16.50±0.50 vücut ağırlık ortalaması 61.92±8.16 kg., boy uzunluğu ortalaması 1.74±0.06 cm., spor yaşı ortalaması 5.96±1.40 ve BKİ ortalaması 20.31±1.72 kg.m−2 olan 28 erkek futbolcu katılmıştır. Araştırmada “Kişisel Bilgi Formu,” “Aktif Diz Ekstansiyon Testi (ADET),” “İllinois Çeviklik Testi,” “20 Metre Sürat Testi,” “Durarak Uzun Atlama Testi” ve “Y Dinamik Denge Testi (YDDT)” veri toplama aracı olarak kullanılmıştır. Çalışma verileri SPSS paket programında tanımlayıcı istatistiklerden Pearson Korelasyon Testi ve Bağımsız Örneklem T Testi ile elde edilmiştir. Analizlerin tamamında p
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Abstract Introduction. Today, the Stretching system is an effective way to increase the level of physical activity of middle-aged women. The introduction of elements of the "Stretching" system in the author’s fitness programs at the "Faktura" fitness center in Kyiv encourages the study of their impact on the physical and psychological condition of women. The aim of this work is to study the impact of physical culture and health classes using the system "Stretching" on the physical and psycho-emotional state of middleaged women. Material and methods. In the course of the research the following methods were used: analysis of a scientific writer on the research topic, questionnaires, flexibility tests using exercises for spinal mobility, methods of mathematical statistics. The research was conducted on the basis of Fitness Studio "Invoice" in Kyiv. The study involved middle-aged women aged 21-35, who are engaged in a fitness studio (a total of 64 people). Results. As a result of the study, it was found to improve flexibility, increase the level of physical performance, physical fitness of women. During the study, it was found that in the structure of motivation of middle-aged women to exercise using the "Stretching" system in the first place is a preventive and health motive. Conclusions. In the course of the study it was found that in addition to improving flexibility, classes using the "Stretching" system help to increase the level of physical performance, physical fitness of middle-aged women. In the structure of motivation of middle-aged women to classes using the means of the "Stretching" system in the first place is a preventive and health motive. Key words: middle-aged women, stretching, pilates, physical condition, psychological state, health.
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Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted. A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of muscle soreness or other DOMS symptoms. Exercise is the most effective means of alleviating pain during DOMS, however the analgesic effect is also temporary. Athletes who must train on a daily basis should be encouraged to reduce the intensity and duration of exercise for 1–2 days following intense DOMS-inducing exercise. Alternatively, exercises targeting less affected body parts should be encouraged in order to allow the most affected muscle groups to recover. Eccentric exercises or novel activities should be introduced progressively over a period of 1 or 2 weeks at the beginning of, or during, the sporting season in order to reduce the level of physical impairment and/or training disruption. There are still many unanswered questions relating to DOMS, and many potential areas for future research.
Vibration enhance stretching improved split ROM but did not show a protective effect nor enhancement of subsequent SLSVJ performance.
Equipment was assembled to record resting muscle action potentials electromyographically at a very high sensitivity level (10 microvolts per cm. of needle deflection). Electromyograms for seven subjects having chronic muscular involvement of the shin splint type were recorded before and after static stretching procedure was administered. In six of the seven subjects muscle action potentials were markedly reduced after the stretching procedure while in one subject an increase was observed. Of the six subjects who showed lowered electromyograms those who had pain symptoms at the time of experimentation also showed some measure of symptomatic relief.
Principles and Practice of Resistance Training represents a true breakthrough in planning and monitoring strength training programs. This research-based book details how to systematically examine the physical, physiological, and biomechanical parameters associated with crafting resistance training programs to improve sport performance and strength and power in athletes. The authors bring together more than 100 collective years of teaching, conducting research, and coaching national- and international-level athletes to share their unique insights concerning adaptations to strength and conditioning. The text is written in a manner that challenges professionals while remaining accessible to advanced coaches. It begins by presenting readers with an understanding of basic science. This scientific foundation allows readers to formulate a sound training process that is more likely to produce the desired short- and long-term results. Next, the text examines how to test, monitor, and evaluate adaptations to various types of training programs. It emphasizes the significance of appropriately monitoring training programs to identify elements of the program to adjust so the goals of clients or athletes are more effectively and efficiently achieved. Finally, the authors discuss exercise selection and present a practical example so readers can learn to apply the information in the text to build their own training programs. Each chapter is written in a “stand-alone” manner so that readers can refer back to the material as needed. Principles and Practice of Resistance Training also explores key questions that currently have no clear, scientifically proven answers. For these issues, the authors offer reasoned, speculative explanations based on the best available information and data--including anecdotal evidence-- intended to stimulate additional observation and research that will eventually offer a clearer understanding and resolution of the issues involved. In sharing their personal experiences as coaches and research scientists, the authors are able to address issues that are not normally dealt with in academic programs. Principles and Practice of Resistance Training is far more than a general guide for strength training. It is an in-depth exploration of the science behind the training. Armed with the scientific understanding and the tools to put that information into practice, you will be able to develop training programs that help your athletes or clients excel.