Article

Molecular data resolve a new order of Arthoniomycetes sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales and composed of black yeasts, lichenicolous and rock-inhabiting species

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Abstract

Lichenicolous fungi belonging to the anamorph-typified genus Phaeosporobolus and to the teleomorph-typified genus Lichenostigma were isolated in pure culture or sequenced directly, with nuLSU and mtSSU sequences obtained. Phylogenetic analyses place the species of Phaeosporobolus in a strongly supported clade with the generic type of Lichenostigma (L. maureri), the genus Phaeococcomyces and several melanized rock-inhabiting isolates. This strongly supported nonlichenized lineage is sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales in the Arthoniomycetes and is here described as the Lichenostigmatales. The new order is characterized by cells multiplying by budding, either representing black yeasts, or species in which conidiomata and ascomata are entirely made of an organised agglomeration of spherical yeast-like cells. This way of life is not only very different from all other Arthoniomycetes that exist only in the mycelial stage, but ascomata and conidiomata representing a dense and organised agglomeration of yeast cells might be unique amongst fungi. A further difference with the Arthoniales is the absence of paraphysoids. Phylogenetic results suggest that Phaeosporobolus usneae is the asexual stage of Lichenostigma maureri. Most species of Phaeosporobolus are transferred to the genus Lichenostigma except P. trypethelii, for which the new genus Etayoa is described. The genus Diederimyces is reduced into synonymy with Lichenostigma. Several other members of Lichenostigma are placed in the Dothideomycetes and are intermixed with Lichenothelia species.

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... As in other groups, connections between sexual and asexual morphs have often been discovered or affirmed using sequence barcoding, leading to a consolidation of the taxonomy of lichenicolous fungi in recent years (e.g. Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011Ertz et al. 2014;Suija et al. 2015Suija et al. , 2018aFlakus et al. 2019a). Interestingly, some generic names introduced as pycnidial lichenicolous fungi were found to represent pycnidia of lichenized fungi and those names are now used for lichens: e.g. ...
... Many asexual lichenicolous fungi produce conidia in conidiomata of various shapes and structures, some of them are closed like pycnidia, others are stromatic or open (e.g. Hawksworth 1981;Diederich 2003;Diederich et al. 2012;Flakus and Kukwa 2012;Ertz et al. 2014). Rarely synnemata (e.g. ...
... Hawksworth 1979(e.g. Hawksworth , 1981Ertz et al. 2014;Suija et al. 2015;Heuchert et al. 2018;Flakus et al. 2019a). Some genera, e.g., Briancoppinsia and Lichenoconium, are known only from their asexual morph (Lawrey et al. 2011;Diederich et al. 2012). ...
Article
Asexually reproducing fungi play a significant role in essential processes in managed and wild ecosystems such as nutrients cycling and multitrophic interactions. A large number of such taxa are among the most notorious plant and animal pathogens. In addition, they have a key role in food production, biotechnology and medicine. Taxa without or rare sexual reproduction are distinguished based on their sporulating structures and conidiomata in traditional morphology-based taxonomy. The number, variation and diversity of asexually reproducing taxa are insufficiently known, even though fungi capable of asexual reproduction may provide an untapped, rich biological resource for future exploitation. Currently, ca. 30,000 asexual species belonging to ca. 3800 genera have been reported (including 1388 coelomycetous and 2265 hyphomycetous genera). Recent reports (2017–2020) reiterate that the number of asexually producing fungi is higher than the number of frequently sexually-reproducing fungi. With the advent of molecular tools and the abandonment of the dual nomenclature system for pleomorphic fungi, priority criteria were established and revisited in the latest outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa. However, species numbers and taxonomic boundaries of pleomorphic taxa and their synanamorphs or synasexual morphs have yet to be addressed. The number of species of speciose genera (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Phoma and Pseudocercospora), cryptic species, species of pleomorphic genera, less studied life modes (such as lichenicolous taxa, taxa from extreme environments) and species from biodiversity-rich areas still need evaluation to achieve more reliable estimates of their diversity. This paper discusses the current knowledge on the matter, with diversity estimates, and potential obstacles in several chapters on (1) speciose genera; (2) pleomorphic genera; (3) cryptic species; (4) well-studied but insufficiently resolved taxa, e.g. leaf inhabiting species, marine fungi, (5) less studied life modes, e.g. lichenicolous, rock-inhabiting fungi, insect-associated and yeast-forming taxa and (6) species from biodiversity-rich areas.
... A fungus with peculiar characteristics has been recurrently isolated (first isolate MNA-CCFEE5176, [17]) in over approximately 25 years of culture-based studies, undertaken on a wide selection of colonized rocks collected during numerous sampling campaigns in Antarctica. Its nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nucITS) sequence showed an identity of 87-88% in GenBank, with sequences barely related to the lichenized order Arthoniales, while, in a multilocus phylogeny, this fungus was placed close to the lichenicolous genus Lichenostigma [18]. This fungus appeared new also for morphological and cultural characteristics, having a yeast-like habitus and was difficult to propagate in pure culture, possibly suggesting that it represented a transitional group between a free-living and symbiotic lifestyle in the Arthoniomycetes. ...
... In this selection, we considered both lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, as well as basal lineages in Arthoniomycetes and Dothideomycetes, which represent the borderline lichens. The fungal taxa have been selected according to previous phylogenetic studies [18,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] and their sequences were downloaded from the NCBI GenBank (Supporting Table S1). Due to missing sequence data in GenBank for many taxa, which caused inconsistency among the nucITS and the other two loci, we decided to follow first a consensus phylogenetic approach in which the three sequenced loci were analyzed individually. ...
... The ML and Bayesian analyses of the combined nucLSU-nucSSU dataset are topologically concordant ( Figure 2). Furthermore, this tree topology is concordant with previous phylogenies, including Dothideomyceta [18,29,32], and consistently supports the phylogenetic placement of the new taxon as the sister lineage of Etayoa ( Figure 2). Dothideomycetes clearly segregates from Arthoniomycetes and the order Collemopsidiales is recovered basal to Dothideomycetes. ...
Article
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Microbial endolithic communities are the main and most widespread life forms in the coldest and hyper-arid desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and other ice-free areas across Victoria Land, Antarctica. There, the lichen-dominated communities are complex and self-supporting assemblages of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, including bacteria, chlorophytes, and both free-living and lichen-forming fungi living at the edge of their physiological adaptability. In particular, among the free-living fungi, microcolonial, melanized, and anamorphic species are highly recurrent, while a few species were sometimes found to be associated with algae. One of these fungi is of paramount importance for its peculiar traits, i.e., a yeast-like habitus, co-growing with algae and being difficult to propagate in pure culture. In the present study, this taxon is herein described as the new genus Antarctolichenia and its type species is A. onofrii, which represents a transitional group between the free-living and symbiotic lifestyle in Arthoniomycetes. The phylogenetic placement of Antarctolichenia was studied using three rDNA molecular markers and morphological characters were described. In this study, we also reappraise the evolution and the connections linking the lichen-forming and rock-inhabiting lifestyles in the basal lineages of Arthoniomycetes (i.e., Lichenostigmatales) and Dothideomycetes.
... Recently, ERTZ et al. (2014) showed that the type species of the two genera are genetically identical, and following the new Art. 59 of ICN, Phaeosporobolus (1986) has been reduced under the synonymy of Lichenostigma (1982) as has been Phaeosporobolus usneae under Lichenostigma maureri. ...
... In a phylogenetic tree, Lichenostigma species form a separate clade in Arthoniomycetes with a rather isolated position. Therefore the authors decided to describe an order Lichenostigmatales (ERTZ et al. 2014). ...
... Fortunately, as far as we know, anamorphs of Lichenothelia have not been named so far and therefore when searching for legitimate names of Lichenothelia species, no anamorph names need to be considered. The Lichenothelia (ERTZ et al. 2014). Several Lichenostigma species, many of those connected to Lichenothelia species. ...
... Molecular approaches showed both that many lineages exist which have not been named so far while described taxa turned out to be polyphyletic (e.g. Ertz et al. 2014). DNA data are still of limited use to recognise species as little is known about the genetic variation within species, but they clearly showed that black fungi are phylogenetically more diverse than previously thought and that they primarily belong to two lineages of ascomycetes, the early diverging clades of Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes in Ascomycota ( Fig. 7.1). ...
... Lichenothelia arida, L. calcarea, L. convexa, L. rugosa and L. umbrophila, and a yet undescribed Lichenothelia sp.; Hyde et al. 2013;Muggia et al. 2013Muggia et al. , 2015, thus pending the analysis of 23 further accepted species (Henssen 1987;Øvstedal and Smith 2001;Atienza and Hawksworth 2008;Zhurbenko 2008;Etayo 2010;Muggia et al. 2013Muggia et al. , 2015Valadbeigi et al. 2016). Lichenostigma was earlier thought to be a closely related genus comprising lichenicolous species, but recent phylogenetic analyses revealed its position at the basis of the primarily lichenised class Arthoniomycetes (Ertz et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Fungi with dark-coloured cells and mycelia—also known as black fungi—form a ubiquitous fraction of microbial communities on rock surfaces and often occur on rock-inhabiting lichens as well. The diversity and lifestyles of these fungi are still insufficiently known. In this chapter we review the current state of knowledge about the diversity and biology of these fungi focusing on rock and lichen habitats. The production of melanin pigments in cell walls shields black fungi effectively against radiation stress. High osmotic tolerance to withstand a wide range of environmental challenges, such as drought, temperature and pH extremes, is mediated by osmoprotective small compounds (osmolytes). Most of the black fungi demonstrate a high degree of phenotypic plasticity and heterogeneity, which we regard as important to adapt and thrive in a wide range of ecological conditions, including extremes of temperatures and radiation. First genomic data from black fungi provide insights in the variation of gene families that are potentially involved in stress tolerance, but reconciliation with transcriptomic data is required to elucidate the gene functions. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches demonstrate that black fungi are frequently associated with lichens. To better understand their association with the algal partners of lichen symbioses, we established co-culture experiments. These showed that some of the black fungi have a transient capacity to optionally develop lichen-like associations with algae (or cyanobacteria), which can also be observed in natural and urban surfaces of rocks and concrete, respectively. This chapter indicates that extremotolerant fungi creatively use a wide range of survival strategies to adapt to stressful environments.
... Many genera have been tested for their monophyly, either confirming it (e.g., see review by Tedersoo et al. 2018) or not (e.g., Aveskamp et al. 2009;Rai et al. 2014;Ertz et al. 2015a, b). Additionally, comparisons of anamorphic and teleomorphic states, sometimes complemented by axenic cultures, have allowed researchers to establish the connections between sexual and asexual states in numerous fungi (e.g., Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011;Ertz et al. 2014;Muggia et al. 2015). Together, these findings have led to important taxonomic revisions, including the introduction and invalidation of several species names (Hawksworth 2011). ...
... Interestingly, the close relationship of non-lichenized fungal lineages (clades IV, V and VI+VII of endolichenic fungi) and lichenicolous fungi (Muellerella spp. 1 and spp. 2 clades) with a lineage of lichenized fungi (Verrucariales), recovered in the phylogenies based on the 28S and the combined datasets, recalls a pattern already observed in other fungal groups. This is observed also for lichenicolous fungi placed in Polycoccaceae and recovered as sister to the lichenized family Trypetheliaceae (Ertz et al. 2015a) within Dothideomycetes, and for the order Lichenostigmatales sister group of the lichenized lineage Arthoniales/ Arthoniomycetes (Ertz et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular data and culture-dependent methods have helped to uncover the phylogenetic relationships of numerous species of lichenicolous fungi, a specialized group of taxa that inhabit lichens and have developed diverse degrees of specificity and parasitic behaviors. The majority of lichenicolous fungal taxa are known in either their anamorphic or teleomorphic states, although their anamorph-teleomorph relationships have been resolved in only a few cases. The pycnidium-forming Lichenodiplis lecanorae and the perithecioid taxa Muellerella atricola and M. lichenicola were recently recovered as monophyletic in Chaetothyriales ( Eurotiomycetes ). Both genera are lichenicolous on multiple lichen hosts, upon which they show a subtle morphological diversity reflected in the description of 14 species in Muellerella (of which 12 are lichenicolous) and 12 in Lichenodiplis . Here we focus on the teleomorphic genus Muellerella and investigate its monophyly by expanding the taxon sampling to other species occurring on diverse lichen hosts. We generated molecular data for two nuclear and one mitochondrial loci (28S, 18S and 16S) from environmental samples. The present multilocus phylogeny confirms the monophyletic lineage of the teleomorphic M. atricola and M. lichenicola with their L. lecanorae -like anamorphs, but places the rest of the Muellerella species studied in two different monophyletic lineages with strong support. The first, Muellerella spp. 1, is nested within some new lineages of black fungi isolated from different epilithic lichen thalli, while the second, Muellerella spp. 2, is closely related to the Verrucariales . Based on these results, we reappraise the phylogenetic placement of Muellerella and suggest its polyphyly within Chaetothyriomycetidae .
... The genus Lichenostigma currently contains five lichenicolous species 8,43 , of which L. alpinum (R. Sant., Alstrup & D. Hawksw.) Ertz & Diederich is known from several extant species of Ochrolechia 43 . ...
... Among the extant Lichenostigma, presence of mycelium is extremely rare, and, especially since we are lacking more detailed information about the host taxa of these fungi, it is possible that they rather represent some other taxa for example within Lichenostigma s. lat. 43 . ...
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Lichens, symbiotic consortia of lichen-forming fungi and their photosynthetic partners have long had an extremely poor fossil record. However, recently over 150 new lichens were identified from European Paleogene amber and here we analyse crustose lichens from the new material. Three fossil lichens belong to the extant genus Ochrolechia (Ochrolechiaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and one fossil has conidiomata similar to those produced by modern fungi of the order Arthoniales (Arthoniomycetes). Intriguingly, two fossil Ochrolechia specimens host lichenicolous fungi of the genus Lichenostigma (Lichenostigmatales, Arthoniomycetes). This confirms that both Ochrolechia and Lichenostigma already diversified in the Paleogene and demonstrates that also the specific association between the fungi had evolved by then. The new fossils provide a minimum age constraint for both genera at 34 million years (uppermost Eocene).
... obtained sequences of Lichenothelia and Saxomyces sequences were added to a broad data set including representatives of most of the orders of Dothideomycetes (available up to August 2017) and previous data from Muggia et al. (2013Muggia et al. ( , 2015. As Arthoniomycetes are considered the sister group of Dothideomycetes according to recent phylogenetic inferences (Schoch et al. 2009;Egidi et al. 2014;Ertz et al. 2014), four species belonging to Arthoniales (Dendrographa leucophaea, Lecanactis abietina, Schismatomma decolorans, and Roccella fuciformis) were used as outgroups. Single-locus alignments were prepared in BioEdit 7.2.5 (Hall 1999). ...
... So far, we have recovered RIF associated with morphologically identified Lichenothelia and Saxomyces thalli in four lineages of Dothideomycetes. Interestingly, six isolates form a lineage within Lichenostigmatales, an order sister to Arthoniomycetes established by Ertz et al. (2014) to accommodate the lichen parasitic genera Etayoa and Lichenostigma. Eight cultured isolates together with two environmental samples are recovered within Capnodiales as close relatives of other RIF isolated from calcareous rocks from the Mediterranean region (Ruibal et al. 2005(Ruibal et al. , 2009, from Antarctica , and as plant pathogens (reference). ...
Article
Rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are adapted to thrive in oligotrophic environments and to survive under conditions of abiotic stress. Under these circumstances, they form biocoenoses with other tolerant organisms, such as lichens, or with less specific phototrophic consortia of aerial algae or cyanobacteria. RIF are phylogenetically diverse, and their plastic morphological characters hamper the straightforward species delimitation of many taxa. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of two RIF genera, Lichenothelia and Saxomyces. Representatives of both genera inhabit rather similar niches on rocks, but their phylogenetic relationships are unknown so far. The cosmopolitan genus Lichenothelia is recognized by characters of fertile ascomata and includes species with different life strategies. In contrast, Saxomyces species were described exclusively by mycelial characters found in cultured isolates from rock samples collected at high alpine elevations. Here, we use an extended taxon sampling of Dothideomycetes to study the phylogenetic relationships of both Lichenothelia and Saxomyces. We consider environmental samples, type species, and cultured isolates of both genera and demonstrate their paraphyly, as well as the occurrence of teleomorphs in Saxomyces. We applied three species delimitation methods to improve species recognition based on molecular data. We show the distinctiveness of the two main lineages of Lichenothelia (Lichenotheliales s. str.) and Saxomyces and discuss differences in species delimitation depending on molecular markers or methods. We revise the taxonomy of the two genera and describe three new taxa, Lichenothelia papilliformis, L. muriformis, and Saxomyces americanus, and the teleomorph of S. penninicus.
... In spite of these attempts for a natural classification, the debate for the classification of many anamorphic genera remains unsolved. Recent application of molecular-and culture-based analyses have helped resolving many anamorph-teleomorph connections (e.g., Crous et al. 2001Crous et al. , 2004Crous et al. , 2006Lizel et al. 2003;Seifert 2004, 2011;Huhndorf and Fernández 2005;Shenoy et al. 2007;Ertz et al. , 2013Ertz et al. , 2014Pérez-Ortega et al. 2011;Muggia et al. 2015). ...
... After Hawksworth's (1979) initial treatment, ongoing research continues to contribute to understanding diversity of lichenicolous hyphomycetes (e.g., Hawksworth and Poelt 1986;Diederich and Scheidegger 1996;Earland-Bennett and Hawksworth 2005;Heuchert and Braun 2006;Zhurbenko et al. 2015). This research has included the description of new species and, to a lesser extent, discovering anamorph-teleomorph relationships (Ertz et al. , 2014Frisch et al. 2014;Muggia et al. 2015). ...
Article
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The genus Cheiromycina is one of the few genera of lichenized hyphomycetes for which no sexual reproductive stages have been observed. The genus includes species from boreal to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere where it is found growing on bark or wood. Congeners in Cheiromycina are characterized by a noncorticate thallus, nearly immersed in the substrate and presenting powdery unpigmented sporodochia, and containing chlorococcoid photobionts. The relationships of members of Cheiromycina with other fungi are not known. Here we inferred the phylogenetic placement of Cheiromycina using three loci (nuSSU, nuLSU, and mtSSU) representing C. flabelliformis, the type species for the genus, C. petri, and C. reimeri. Our results revealed that the genus Cheiromycina is found within the family Malmideaceae (Lecanorales) where members formed a monophyletic clade sister to the genera Savoronala and Malmidea. This phylogenetic placement and the relationships of Cheiromycina with other lichenized hyphomycetous taxa are here discussed.
... The species is represented only by the asexual stage, which is morphologically very similar to Lichenostigma alpinum s.lat. mainly growing on Lepra, Ochrolechia and Varicellaria (Ertz et al. 2014). Compared with the latter species it has the following values of diagnostic characters: conidiomata (30- The species is known from North America, Europe and Asia (Berger & Brackel 2011;Ertz et al. 2014;Zhurbenko 2014), but poorly recorded. ...
... mainly growing on Lepra, Ochrolechia and Varicellaria (Ertz et al. 2014). Compared with the latter species it has the following values of diagnostic characters: conidiomata (30- The species is known from North America, Europe and Asia (Berger & Brackel 2011;Ertz et al. 2014;Zhurbenko 2014), but poorly recorded. It was previously documented in Asia only from two localities in Russia in Krasnodar Territory and the Far East Federal District (Zhurbenko 2014(Zhurbenko , 2017 The examined material differs from the species protologue in having somewhat darker and larger conidia, (4.8-)5.8-7.6(-9.2) × (2.4-)3.3-4.1(-4.6) ...
Article
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A first synopsis of lichenicolous fungi of Mongolia based on new collections and literature data is provided, including 114 species. Five new species are described: Capronia cogtii (on Vahliella leucophaea ), Echinothecium hypogymniae (on Hypogymnia bitteri ), Feltgeniomyces mongolicus (on H. bitteri ), Phacopsis vulpicidae (on Vulpicida juniperina ) and Roselliniella javkhlanae (on Rinodina turfacea var. ecrustacea ). Two new combinations are proposed: Endococcus hafellneri (≡ Stigmidium hafellneri ) and Sphaerellothecium taimyricum (≡ Sphaerellothecium thamnoliae var. taimyricum ). Unidentified specimens of Acremonium (on Mycoblastus sanguinarioides ), Cercidospora (on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca s.lat.), Didymocyrtis (on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca s.lat.), Lichenochora (on Physcia alnophila ), Lichenostigma (on species of Xanthoparmelia ), Phoma (on Vulpicida juniperina ) and a leotialean fungus (on Cetraria laevigata ) are characterized and discussed. Taxonomic notes are provided for Cercidospora macrospora s.lat., Didymocyrtis cf. melanelixiae , Minutoexcipula cf. beaglei , Nesolechia cetrariicola , Sphaerellothecium cf. parmeliae and Stigmidium cf. psorae . Sphaeropezia intermedia is newly reported for Eurasia. Didymocyrtis grumantiana is newly reported for Asia. Additionally, 71 species of lichenicolous fungi and five species of lichenicolous lichens are documented in Mongolia for the first time. Allocetraria is reported as a new host genus for Abrothallus peyritschii , Vulpicida for Arthonia triebeliae , and Anamylopsora for Muellerella pygmaea .
... Previous studies of fungal identification from extreme environments [4,14,33,34] have shown that RIF groups require specific conditions of humidity, temperature, pH and time for the formation of reproductive structures, which are used for their morphological identification. However, many of these fungi do not produce spores, making their micro-morphological identification. ...
... Fungal communities from collections 1 and 2 from Congonhas showed a wide variety of populations, specifically, Cetradonia linearis, Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia and Phyllobates erythrella species and the one specie of the order Capnodiales (Figs. 3-b2, b3, b4, b5), which showed dominance. Earlier reports suggest that these fungal species are also present in lichen thallus, which explains the occurrence of lichenised fungi on the surface of the studied stones [14,34,39,40]. ...
Article
The present study aims to evaluate the environmental effect on fungal community composition associated with biodeterioration occurring in stones (soapstone) at two distinct locations in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: Congonhas city and Sanctuary of Caraça. Four collections of fungal communities over one year were obtained from both research sites from the soapstone block surfaces exposed for over two decades. The molecular diversity profile of the fungal community at the two localities was obtained by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis), and the genomes of the most representative population were sequenced. DGGE showed the formation of two clusters with filamentous fungal communities. Sequencing of the most representative bands revealed the presence of fungi associated with the biodeterioration of soapstone. In addition, many of the identified species were associated with photobionts that could generate lichens, indicating that environmental characteristics affect the occurrence of filamentous fungi, which leads to biodeterioration of stones. Authors’ study focused on an environmental variation of an extreme habitat for fungi associated with soapstone in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and identified the presence of interesting rock-inhabiting fungal communities including species related to lichens, which can accelerate the deterioration of stones by the production of organic acids.
... Dothideomycetes (209 taxa) including four strains from the "dark" group, and two representatives of Geoglossomycetes (used to root the tree). Families and higher taxa in Arthoniomycetes were delimited following Ertz et al. (2014) and in Dothideomycetes according to Wijayawardene et al. (2014) Table 2) based on an eight-locus data set (ITS,nrLSU,nrSSU,mitSSU,MCM7,RPB1,RPB2, for 207 taxa representing Ostropomycetidae, the outgroup species from Lecanoromycetes and Lichinomycetes, and one representative of Geoglossomycetes (used to root the tree). Sequences of the fungal strain CBS 140290 and Cyanodermella viridula were added to the concatenated matrix of the 205 reference taxa derived from Resl et al. (2015). ...
... This is the data set used in Analysis 3 (Fig. 1) that was supplemented with additional members of Trypetheliales (24 taxa; Nelsen et al. 2009Nelsen et al. , 2011. Taxonomic groups in Arthoniomycetes were delimited following Ertz et al. (2014) ...
Article
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A culture-based survey of staining fungi on oil-treated timber after outdoor exposure in Australia and the Netherlands uncovered new taxa in Pezizomycotina. Their taxonomic novelty was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, mitSSU, RPB1, RPB2, and EF-1α) using multiple reference data sets. These previously unknown taxa are recognised as part of a new order (Superstratomycetales) potentially closely related to Trypetheliales (Dothideomycetes), and as a new species of Cyanodermella, C. oleoligni in Stictidaceae (Ostropales) part of the mostly lichenised class Lecanoromycetes. Within Superstratomycetales a single genus named Superstratomyces with three putative species: S. flavomucosus, S. atroviridis, and S. albomucosus are formally described. Monophyly of each circumscribed Superstratomyces species was highly supported and the intraspecific genetic variation was substantially lower than interspecific differences detected among species based on the ITS, nrLSU, and EF-1α loci. Ribosomal loci for all members of Superstratomyces were noticeably different from all fungal sequences available in GenBank. All strains from this genus grow slowly in culture, have darkly pigmented mycelia and produce pycnidia. The strains of C. oleoligni form green colonies with slimy masses and develop green pycnidia on oatmeal agar. These new taxa could not be classified reliably at the class and lower taxonomic ranks by sequencing from the substrate directly or based solely on culture-dependent morphological investigations. Coupling phenotypic observations with multi-locus sequencing of fungi isolated in culture enabled these taxonomic discoveries. Outdoor situated timber provides a great potential for culturable undescribed fungal taxa, including higher rank lineages as revealed by this study, and therefore, should be further explored.
... Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa are primarily found in the subphyla Saccharomycotina (Saccharomycetes) and Taphrinomycotina (Neolectomycetes, Pneumocystomycetes, Schizosaccharomycetes, Taphrinomycetes) [24], but have also been revealed in other lineages: Arthoniomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Xylonomycetes (subphylum Pezizomycotina), and Gemmulina (Ascomycota incertae sedis) [50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. ...
... Only recently, the black yeast genus Phaeococcomyces was placed in a newly erected order Lichenostigmatales (Arthoniomycetes) along with taxa forming colonies of stromatic ascomata or conidiomata (Etayoa, Lichenostigma)-a lineage that is unique within this class, which is otherwise composed primarily of lichenized species [51]. ...
Article
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Sporobolomyces lactosus is a pink yeast-like fungus that is not congeneric with other members of Sporobolomyces (Basidiomycota, Microbotryomycetes, Sporidiobolales). During our ongoing studies of pink yeasts we determined that S. lactosus was most closely related to Pseudeurotium zonatum (Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, Thelebolales). A molecular phylogenetic analysis using sequences of the ITS region and the small and large subunit (SSU, LSU) rRNA genes, indicated that four isolates of S. lactosus, including three ex-type isolates, were placed in Thelebolales with maximum support. A new genus is proposed to accommodate S. lactosus, Inopinatum. This is the first pink yeast reported in Leotiomycetes.
... Les genres Lichenostigma et Lichenothelia posent des problèmes nomenclaturaux et phylogénétiques car l'importante étude d 'Ertz et al. (2013) sur les Licheno stigmatales ne comprend qu'un petit nombre d'espèces de Lichenostigma au sens traditionnel (dont aucune espèce déterminée du subgen. Lichenogramma) et parce que le type de Lichenothelia (L. ...
... C'est pourquoi, dans l'attente d'une révision phylogéné tique complémentaire, nous nous en tiendrons à la com préhension actuelle, résumée par Roux et coll. (2020) : accepter la position générique des espèces de Licheno thelia et Lichenostigma établie par Ertz et al. (2013), mais suivre la conception traditionnelle du genre Liche nostigma pour toutes les espèces, les plus nombreuses, n'ayant pas fait l'objet d'une étude phylogénétique. ...
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Résumé : Description de deux espèces nouvelles de Lichenostigma parasites d’Aspicilia chez lesquels elles ne produisent pas d’altération appréciable : L. cupreogriseae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia cupreogrisea, caractérisé par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels nombreux et bien développés, portant des ascomes globuleux ou fusiformes bien distincts des cordons ; par ses spores devenant rapidement brun sombre, de (9,5)11,5 – 13,9 – 16,5(20) × (5,5)7 – 8,9 – 10,5(13) µm, d’abord 1 – 3 – septées puis devenant submurales à la fin ; et par ses macroconidies nettement allongées (20 – 53 × 7 – 16 µm). L. spermatomanis P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia spermatomanes, caractérisé par ses cordons d’hyphes superficiels relativement peu nombreux mais bien développés, ternes, à surface rugueuse, ses ascomes ronds ou allongés, souvent peu distincts des cordons, portés en partie par ces derniers et en partie par le thalle de l’hôte, par ses spores devenant rapidement brun sombre, de (12,5)14 – 15,8 – 19,5(22,5) × (7)8 – 9,4 – 11(14) µm, et par l’absence de macroconidies. Remarques générales sur les Lichenostigma, comparaison entre les deux espèces nouvelles et distinction de celles – ci avec les autres espèces du genre. ===================== Resumo : Priskribo de du novaj specioj de Lichenostigma parazitaj al Aspicilia, ĉe kiuj ili ne estigas notindan difekton : L. cupreogriseae P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia cupreogrisea, karakterizata pro supraĵaj hifkordonoj multaj kaj bone kreskintaj, portantaj askujojn globajn aŭ ŝpinilformajn, bone distingeblajn de la kordonoj ; pro sporoj fruevolue malhele brunaj, de (9,5)11,5 – 13,9 – 16,5(20) × (5,5)7 – 8,9 – 10,5(13) µm, unue 1 – 3 – septaj, finevolue submurecaj ; kaj pro makrokonidioj distingeble longformaj (20 – 53 × 7 – 16 µm). L. spermatomanis P. Pinault et Cl. Roux sp. nov., sur Aspicilia spermatomanes, karakterizata pro supraĵaj hifkordonoj relative malmultaj sed bone kreskintaj, malbrilaj, malglat – supraĵaj, pro askujoj rondaj aŭ longformaj, ofte ne tre distingeblaj de la kordonoj, portataj parte de ĉi tiuj kaj parte de la talo de la loĝato, pro sporoj fruevolue malhele brunaj, de (12,5)14 – 15,8 – 19,5(22,5) × (7)8 – 9,4 – 11(14) µm, kaj pro la malesto de makrokonidioj. Ĝeneralaj rimarkoj pri la Lichenostigma, komparo inter la du novaj specioj kaj distingo inter ĉi tiuj kaj la aliaj specioj de la genro. ====================
... Distribution and ecology: Lichenostigma alpinum has a worldwide distribution but is mainly confined to boreal and alpine-arctic areas (Wedin 1994, Brackel 2011b, Ertz et al. 2014). This species grows on a number of crustose lichens, mainly on Lecanora, Ochrolechia, Pertusaria, and Varicellaria (Brackel 2011b, Ertz et al. 2014). ...
... Distribution and ecology: Lichenostigma alpinum has a worldwide distribution but is mainly confined to boreal and alpine-arctic areas (Wedin 1994, Brackel 2011b, Ertz et al. 2014). This species grows on a number of crustose lichens, mainly on Lecanora, Ochrolechia, Pertusaria, and Varicellaria (Brackel 2011b, Ertz et al. 2014). ...
Article
Data on 17 species of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Belarus are presented, of which three lichens (Fuscidea pusilla, Protoparmelia hypotremella, and Ropalospora viridis) and 13 lichenicolous fungi (Abrothallus cladoniae, Acremonium lichenicola, Arthonia coronata, Epicladonia simplex, Intralichen lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenoconium erodens, L. lecanorae, L. pyxidatae, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Lichenostigma alpinum, Pyrenochaeta xanthoriae, and Syzygospora physciacearum) are new to the country. The facultatively lichenicolous fungus Taeniolina scripta is reported on lichens for the first time from Belarus.
... Both specimens of this widespread lichenicolous ascomycete (Ertz et al. 2014) represent the asexual stage. New to Seychelles. ...
... Direct PCR as proposed by Wolinski et al. (1999) is commonly used for minute samples (e.g. Lawrey et al. 2007;Ertz et al. 2014) to avoid an extraction step. It is not, however, always easy to use for lichenicolous fungi intimately associated with the host, or appropriate if a stock of extracted DNA is required for future studies. ...
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Extraction of DNA from lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi: a low-cost fast protocol using Chelex - Volume 49 Issue 5 - Zuzana Ferencova, Víctor J. Rico, David L. Hawksworth
... For conflicts at the phylum rank, i.e. one match was to a Basidiomycota species and another to an Ascomycota species, no taxonomic rank was assigned, and 'Fungus' was recorded. Phylogenetic classification was assigned after Schoch et al. (2006); Hibbett et al. (2007); Boehm et al. (2009); Hodkinson and Lendemer (2011); Rosling et al. (2011); Zhang et al. (2011); Boonmee et al. (2014); Ertz et al. (2014); Chen et al. (2015). ...
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Foliar fungal species are diverse and colonize all plants, though whether forest tree species composition influences the distribution of these fungal communities remains unclear. Fungal communities include quiescent taxa and the functionally important and metabolically active taxa that respond to changes in the environment. To determine fungal community shifts along a tree species diversity gradient, needles of Norway spruce were sampled from trees from four mature European forests. We hypothesized that the fungal communities and specific fungal taxa would correlate with tree species diversity. Furthermore, the active fungal community, and not the total community, would shift along the tree diversity gradient. High-throughput sequencing showed significant differences in the fungal communities in the different forests, and in one forest, tree diversity effects were observed, though this was not a general phenom-enon. Our study also suggests that studying the metabolically active community may not provide additional information about community composition or diversity. N.B. 454 sequencing data can be found at the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), Study ID: PRJEB24541 (ERP106371)
... Note: Lichenostigma chlaroterae is mostly found in its anamorphic state (Phaeosporobolus type anamorph). It is closely related to Lichenostigma maureri (teleomorph) for which Ertz et al. (2014) could prove the conspecifity with Phaeosporobolus usneae (anamorph) and a phylogentic position within the Arthoniomycetes. Lichenostigma chlaroterae is usually found on thalli of corticolous species of the Lecanora subfusca group. ...
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Altogether 56 species of lichenicolous fungi – most of them non-lichenized, a few lichenized – are recorded from various countries in south-eastern Europe, of which 20 species are reported for the first time from the Balkan Peninsula. The new records for individual countries are: Arthonia molendoi and Lichenoconium pyxidatae for Albania; Arthonia varians, Biatoropsis usnearum, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, and Tremella hypogymniae for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Arthonia molendoi, Endococcus perpusillus, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Miriquidica intrudens, Muellerella pygmaea, Plectocarpon encausticum, Polycoccum pulvinatum, and Stigmidium congestum for Bulgaria; Abrothallus bertianus, Abrothallus parmeliarum, Lichenoconium usneae, and Nesolechia oxyspora for Croatia; Arthonia phaeophysciae, Arthophacopsis parmeliarum, Cercidospora xanthoriae, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenostigma maureri, Lichenothelia rugosa, Nectriopsis lecanodes, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Stigmidium squamariae, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Toninia plumbina, Tremella christiansenii, Unguiculariopsis lettaui, Tremella ramalinae, and Unguiculariopsis thallophila for Greece; Carbonea aggregantula, Carbonea supersparsa, Cercidospora epipolytropa, Echinothecium reticulatum, Endohyalina insularis, Lichenoconium pyxidatae, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Miriquidica invadens, Opegrapha pulvinata, Sclerococcum montagnei, and Sphaerellothecium cladoniae for Kosovo; Arthonia apotheciorum, Arthonia caerulescens, Arthonia epiphyscia, Arthonia protoparmeliopseos, Lichenochora obscuroides, Lichenosticta alcicornaria, Lichenothelia rugosa, Miriquidica intrudens, Muellerella erratica, Polycoccum pulvinatum, Skyttea tephromelarum, Sphaerellothecium parmeliae, Sphinctrina turbinata, Tetramelas pulverulentus, and Unguiculariopsis thallophila for Macedonia; Arthonia apotheciorum, Cercidospora macrospora, Dactylospora lobariella, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae, Sclerococcum serusiauxii, Stigmidium gyrophorarum, Tremella phaeophysciae, and Tremella ramalinae for Montenegro; Arthonia varians and Muellerella pygmaea for Serbia. Additionally, Arthonia phaeophysciae is reported as new to Slovenia.
... (Roux & Triebel 1994;). Lichenostigma Hafellner s.l. also has stromatic ascomata but does not form locules and lacks hamathecial filaments (Ertz et al. 2014). ...
Article
Sixteen species of lichenicolous fungi are documented from Siphula -like lichens. Two new genera based on new species are introduced. Amylogalla Suija, Motiej. & Kantvilas, characterized by I+ blue, K/I+ violet vegetative hyphae and ascomatal wall, immersed, cleistohymenial, yellowish to orange ascomata, unitunicate, non-amyloid, 8-spored asci and hyaline, ellipsoid, aseptate ascospores, is described from Parasiphula in Tasmania. Saania Zhurb., characterized by superficial, stromatic, multilocular ascomata, non-amyloid hymenial gel, persistent periphysoids, bitunicate, non-amyloid, 4(–8)-spored asci and narrowly obovate to ellipsoid, 1(–3)-septate, initially hyaline and smooth-walled, later sometimes brown and verruculose ascospores, is described from Siphula in South Africa. Four additional species are described as new: two from Siphula ( Cercidospora santessonii Motiej., Zhurb., Suija & Kantvilas and Stigmidium kashiwadanii Zhurb.) and two from Parasiphula ( Endococcus hafellnerianus Motiej., Suija & Kantvilas and Pyrenidium macrosporum Motiej., Zhurb., Suija & Kantvilas). Additional hosts and/or expanded geographical ranges are reported for Aabaarnia siphulicola , Epigloea soleiformis, Plectocarpon gayanum and Pyrenidium actinellum . The Southern Hemisphere is the centre of species richness for siphulicolous fungi, with 12 species restricted to this region. Taxa recorded for the Northern Hemisphere are Sphaerellothecium siphulae (arctic and boreal) and the subcosmopolitan Epigloea soleiformis and Pyrenidium actinellum , both of which are also known from various lichen hosts. The distribution of siphulicolous fungi strongly underpins the current generic classification of Siphula -like lichens, with five species being confined exclusively to Parasiphula and nine to Siphula . A key to the taxa occurring on Siphula and Parasiphula is provided.
... The results highlight this lifestyle as ancestral, though taxon sampling within the phylogeny is heavily biased by the lifestyles of those taxa which have been preferentially sequenced due to their economical and biotechnological potential, such as saprotroph and plant pathogens. In the superclass Dothideomyceta, rock inhabitants are also known from Capnodiales , of which Rachicladosporium is a representative in this study, and Lichenostigmatales (Ertz et al. 2014). ...
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Abstract Dothideomycetes is the most diverse fungal class in Ascomycota and includes species with a wide range of lifestyles. Previous multilocus studies have investigated the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of these taxa but often failed to resolve early diverging nodes and frequently generated inconsistent placements of some clades. Here, we use a phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Dothideomycetes, focusing on two genera of melanized, extremotolerant rock-inhabiting fungi, Lichenothelia and Saxomyces, that have been suggested to be early diverging lineages. We assembled phylogenomic datasets from newly sequenced (4) and previously available genomes (238) of 242 taxa. We explored the influence of tree inference methods, supermatrix vs. coalescent-based species tree, and the impact of varying amounts of genomic data. Overall, our phylogenetic reconstructions provide consistent and well-supported topologies for Dothideomycetes, recovering Lichenothelia and Saxomyces among the earliest diverging lineages in the class. In addition, many of the major lineages within Dothideomycetes are recovered as monophyletic, and the phylogenomic approach implemented strongly supports their relationships. Ancestral character state reconstruction suggest that the rock-inhabiting lifestyle is ancestral within the class.
... The biological roles and the abundances of these cryptically occurring (=endolichenic) fungi are still unclear. Although numerous fungi have been retrieved by culture-dependent approaches so far [9,17,18], only a few studies reliably assign isolates to visible phenotypes of lichenicolous fungi [19][20][21][22]. ...
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Microscopic and molecular studies suggest that lichen symbioses contain a plethora of associated fungi. These are potential producers of novel bioactive compounds, but strains isolated on standard media usually represent only a minor subset of these fungi. By using various in vitro growth conditions we are able to modulate and extend the fraction of culturable lichen-associated fungi. We observed that the presence of iron, glucose, magnesium and potassium in growth media is essential for the successful isolation of members from different taxonomic groups. According to sequence data, most isolates besides the lichen mycobionts belong to the classes Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. With our approach we can further explore the hidden fungal diversity in lichens to assist in the search of novel compounds.
... However, a recombination was made only for Lichenostigma rugosum to Lichenothelia rugosa. Ertz et al. (2013) and Muggia et al. (2013Muggia et al. ( , 2015a provided cladograms of the phylogenetic relationships within Dothideomyceta including Lichenothelia species and showed that most of the species or samples cluster within the Lichenotheliales. In Muggia et al. (2013) single specimens were placed outside of this group, into Teratosphaeriaceae or unnamed groups, in one type of analysis and in another analysis within the Lichenotheliales. ...
Article
Two new species of Lichenothelia , both from Iran, are described. Lichenothelia iranica is characterized by a black thallus with often finely lobate, slightly effigurate, not areolate margins, eight non-amyloid spores per ascus and 1–3-septate ascospores with 1–2 longitudinal or oblique septa. Lichenothelia ilamensis is distinguished by a black areolate, fissured, slightly effigurate or rarely lobulate thallus. The areoles are confluent and aggregated in the centre, becoming dispersed towards the margin, and the asci contain (4–)6(–8) non-amyloid, 1-septate spores.
... µm long [incl.C. herteliana] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. intermedia Etayoa trypethelii (Flakus & Kukwa) Diederich & ErtzThis species has been reported byErtz et al. (2014) from Florida, Collier Co. (Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve), Hernando Co., Hillsborough Co. (Hillsborough River State Park), Marion Co. (Ocala National Forest), Sarasota Co. (Myakka River State Park) and Taylor Co. (Big Blend Wildlife Management Area) on Dyplola bia afzelii, Fissurina columbina, F. mexicana, Graphis caesiella, G. cupei, G. lucifuga, Graphis sp., Ocellularia americana, Phaeographis inconspicua, P. major, P. schi zoloma and Phaeographis sp. examined. ...
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The lichenicolous fungi growing on Graphidales hosts in Florida are revised, mainly based on collections by the second author (R. C.). Twenty-one species are recognized. The new genus and species Lawreya glyphidiphila is described for a common asexual fungus growing on Glyphis scyphulifera and more rarely Trypethelium eluteriae , characterized by black stromatic conidiomata in which subspherical conidiogenous loculi develop, producing aseptate, subglobose, brown conidia. Nine additional new species are described: Amerosporiopsis phaeographidis (on Phaeographis brasiliensis ), Arthonia acanthotheciicola (on Acanthothecis floridensis ), A. subgraphidicola (on Graphis assimilis ), Hemigrapha graphidicola (on G. assimilis ), Skyttea graphidicola (on Graphis spp.), Strigula graphidicola (on G. assimilis ), S. perparvula (on Graphidales ), Talpapellis graphidis (on Graphis caesiella ) and Tremella wedinii (on Glyphis scyphulifera ). Phylogenetic placements of Lawreya glyphidiphila , Skyttea graphidicola and Tremella wedinii are presented. Identification keys are given for the species of Cornutispora and Talpapellis , and for the 66 species known to grow on Graphidales hosts worldwide.
... and Saania Zhurb.) are less suitable for the new species. Lichenostigma differs in the absence of pseudothecia and interascal filaments, with asci developing between stromatic cells (Ertz et al. 2014). Perigrapha and Plectocarpon are distinct in a K/I+ blue hymenial gel, asci with a K/I+ blue apical ring, and at least initially hyaline, persistently transversely septate ascospores (Ertz et al. 2005, Hafellner 1996, Zhurbenko & Ohmura 2018. ...
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The new lichenicolous fungus, Clypeococcum lenae, growing on Solorina is described from the Siberian Arctic. The species is characterized by immersed, aggregated pseudothecia, united by a common, K+ violet clypeus, and often laterally and basally surrounded by stromatically transformed host tissues, I and K/I− hymenium, well-developed pseudoparaphyses, bitunicate, 8-spored, I and K/I− asci, and brown, ellipsoid to obovate, muriform ascospores. A key to the species of lichenicolous fungi that grow on Solorina is provided.
... The conspecifity of the anamorphic state Phaeosporobolus usneae with the teleomorphic state Lichenostigma maureri has been established by Ertz et al. (2014) based on sequence data. Consequently, other Phaeosporobolus-type anamorphic states have also been transferred to Lichenostigma, as this generic name has priority. ...
Article
A total of 42 taxa of lichenicolous fungi – most of them non-lichenized, a few lichenized – are recorded from various countries in southeastern Europe. Of these, 22 species (Clypeococcum cetrariae, Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lecanora printzenii, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenoconium reichlingii, Lichenostigma alpinum, Merismatium decolorans, Niesslia cladoniicola, Paralecia pratorum, Phaeospora peltigericola, “Phoma” lobariae, “Phoma” lobariicola, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Stigmidium schaereri, Stigmidium stygnospilum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Taeniolella thelotrematis, Talpapellis beschiana, Trichonectria rubefaciens, and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae) are reported for the first time from the Balkan Peninsula. A further 20 taxa previously known from the Balkan are added to the mycofloras of additional Balkan countries. The new records for individual countries are: Muellerella erratica and Lichenoconium reichlingii for Albania; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenostigma maureri and Taeniolella phaeophysciae for Bosnia and Herzegovina; Stigmidium gyrophorarum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, and Xanthoriicola physciae for Bulgaria; “Phoma” lobariae and Taeniolella thelotrematis for Croatia; Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Lichenoconium erodens, Merismatium decolorans, “Phoma” lobariicola, Talpapellis beschiana, Telogalla olivieri, and Zwackhiomyces lecanorae for Greece; Didymocyrtis pseudeverniae, Endococcus propinquus, Lecanora lecanoricola, Lichenoconium erodens, and Lichenosticta alcicornaria for Kosovo; Telogalla olivieri for North Macedonia; Arthonia molendoi, Arthonia varians, Buellia uberior, Clypeococcum cetrariae, Endococcus propinquus, Endohyalina insularis, Heterocephalacria physciacearum, Illosporiopsis christiansenii, Lecanora printzenii, Lichenochora weillii, Lichenoconium erodens, Lichenoconium usneae, Lichenostigma alpinum, Lichenostigma chlaroterae, Muellerella pygmaea var. athallina, Niesslia cladoniicola, Paralecia pratorum, Phaeospora peltigericola, “Phoma” lobariae, Raesaenenia huuskonenii, Stigmidium schaereri, Stigmidium squamariae, Stigmidium stygnospilum, Taeniolella phaeophysciae, Talpapellis beschiana, Thelocarpon epibolum, Toninia plumbina, and Trichonectria rubefaciens for Montenegro.
... EukCL4 belonging to the class Arthoniomycetes was mostly found at the apical and middle parts of thalli and closely related with E. trypethelii. E. trypethelii is known as a lichenicolous fungus that grows on several corticolous lichens with crustose thalli, such as Graphidaceae, Pertusaria, and Lecanora, in subtropical and tropical regions without causing them any visible damage (Flakus and Kukwa, 2012;Ertz et al., 2014). The species was not observed in the previous study on LAF from several lichens on King George Island, Antarctica (Park et al., 2015). ...
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Lichens are miniature ecosystems that contain fungi, microalgae, and bacteria. It is generally accepted that symbiosis between mycobiont and photobiont and microbial contribution to the ecosystem support the wide distribution of lichens in terrestrial ecosystems, including polar areas. The composition of symbiotic components can be affected by subtle microenvironmental differences within a thallus, as well as large-scale climate differences. In this study, we investigated fine-scale profiles of algal, fungal, and bacterial compositions through horizontal and vertical positions of the Antarctic lichen Cladonia squamosa colonies by next-generation sequencing of the nuclear large subunit rRNA gene (nucLSU) of eukaryotes and the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria. Apical parts of thalli were exposed to strong light, low moisture, and high variability of temperature compared with basal parts. Microbial diversity increased from apical parts to basal parts of thalli. Asterochloris erici was the major photobiont in apical positions of thalli, but other microalgal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae were major microalgal components in basal positions. Photochemical responses of algal components from apical and basal parts of thalli were quite different under variable temperature and humidity conditions. Several fungal OTUs that belonged to Arthoniomycetes and Lecanoromycetes, and diverse bacterial OTUs that belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria_Gp1, and candidate division WPS-2 showed a clear distribution pattern according to their vertical positions within thalli. The overall lichen microbiome was significantly differentiated by the vertical position within a thallus. These results imply that different microclimate are formed at different lichen thallus parts, which can affect microbial compositions and physiological responses according to positions within the thalli.
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The new commensalistic lichenicolous genus Ajaysinghia, is described, illustrated and compared with other morphologically similar fungi. The type species, A. dendriscostictae, grows on the thallus of the corticolous lichen Dendriscosticta praetextata in temperate and subalpine regions of Central Himalaya (Uttarakhand, India). It is distinguished from other lichenicolous ascomycetes described so far in having pseudoperithecia growing in clumps making it appear like galls, (0–)1-septate, brown ascospores [(12–)14.2–17.3(–18) x (3–)3.7–4.8(–5) μm, l/b = (2.8–)3.3–4.2(–4.6) μm], with rounded to pointed ends, slightly constricted at the septum and a cyanobacterial host (Dendriscosticta praetextata).
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Ninety years after Zahlbruckner, we present the most recent update to the classification of lichen fungi in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota to genus level, with species numbers and references to changes compared to the 2010 Outline of Ascomycota and other recent classifications. Updated statistics on global species richness of lichen fungi and species richness at family, order and class level are given. The number of accepted species is 19,387 in 995 genera, 115 families, 39 orders and eight classes. Lichenized Basidiomycota amount to 172 species (0.9% of the total), 15 genera (1.5%), five families (4.3%), five orders (12.8%) and one class (12.5%). The most speciose genera are Xanthoparmelia, Lecanora, Arthonia, Cladonia, Pertusaria, Ocellularia, Graphis, Caloplaca, Usnea and Buellia. The average number of species per genus is 19.5 and 256 genera are monospecific. Using newly defined categories, two genera (Xanthoparmelia, Lecanora) are ultradiverse (more than 500 species), 17 hyperdiverse (201–500 species) and 12 megadiverse (101–200). The largest family is Parmeliaceae, with 2,765 species and 77 genera, followed by Graphidaceae (2,161; 79), Verrucariaceae (943; 43), Ramalinaceae (916; 43) and Lecanoraceae (791; 25). The largest order is Lecanorales, with 6,231 species and 234 genera, followed by Ostropales (3,261; 138), Arthoniales (1,541, 103), Peltigerales (1,301; 67) and Caliciales (1,276; 55). The largest class is Lecanoromycetes, with 15,131 species and 701 genera, followed by Arthoniomycetes (1,541; 103), Eurotiomycetes (1,203; 63), Dothideomycetes (812; 39) and Lichinomycetes (390; 50). A total of 751 out of 995 genera (75%) have molecular data. Fifty-nine genera remain in unresolved positions at the family, order or class level. The phylogenetic position of the 39 orders containing lichenized fungi suggests 20–30 independent lichenization events during the evolution of higher Fungi, 14–23 in the Ascomycota and 6–7 in the Basidiomycota. The following names are validated: Candelariomycetidae Miądl. et al. ex Timdal & M.Westb. subcl. nov., Cystocoleaceae Locq. ex Lücking, B.P.Hodk. & S.D.Leav. fam. nov, Letrouitineae Gaya & Lutzoni subordo nov., Rhizocarpales Miądl. & Lutzoni ordo nov. and Teloschistineae Gaya & Lutzoni subordo nov. Lectotypes are designated for Clathroporinopsis M.Choisy and Protoschistes M.Choisy, making both synonyms of Gyalecta Ach., and Stromatothelium Trevis., making it a synonym of Pyrenula Ach. Members of Cyphobasidiales, which are here interpreted as hyperlichenized fungi, as well as fossil lichen fungi, are added in additional classifications in two appendices.
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This is a continuation of a series of studies incorporating asexually reproducing fungi in a natural classification. Over 3653 genera (ca. 30,000 morphological species) are known from asexual reproduction (1388 coelomycetes and 2265 hyphomycetes) in their life cycle. Among these, 687 genera are pleomorphic (305 coelomycetous; 378 hyphomycetous and four genera show both coelomycetous and hyphomycetous morphs). We provide notes for these pleomorphic genera in this paper. The 1544 unlinked genera without molecular data (which comprise ca. 3850 species) are listed as Ascomycota genera incertae sedis. It is essential to recollect the fungi which are placed in Ascomycota genera incertae sedis and subject them to DNA based phylogenetic analysis as they might represent new fungal lineages.
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The paper documents 70 species of fungi found on species of the lichen genus Cladonia, 65 of which are obligately lichenicolous. One genus, Brackelia, and seven species, Biciliopsis cladoniae, Brackelia lunkei, Caeruleoconidia biazrovii, Neolamya ahtii, Niesslia keissleri, Sclerococcum crassitunicatum and S. epicladonia, are here described as new to science. The names Caeruleoconidia and C. ochrolechiae are validated. Ameroconium cladoniae is considered as a heterotypic synonym of Taeniolella beschiana. Merismatium cladoniicola most likely is a heterotypic synonym of M. decolorans. Taxonomic notes on critical specimens, including those of Abrothallus cf. pezizicola, Arthonia cf. lepidophila, Cladophialophora cf. cladoniae, Hainesia cf. bryonorae, Merismatium cf. nigritellum as well as of unidentified species of Acremonium, Dactylospora, Leptosphaeria, Lichenopeltella and Pronectria found on Cladonia are provided. Cercidospora cladoniicola, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Pezizella ucrainica, Plectocarpon cladoniae and Polycoccum laursenii are documented as new to Asia. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae and Polycoccum microcarpum are new to North America. The following species are new to various countries: Argentina (Bachmanniomyces uncialicola and Niesslia cladoniicola), Finland (Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila and Roselliniella cladoniae), Japan (Lichenosticta alcicorniaria), Lithuania (Abrothallus cf. pezizicola), Mongolia (Arthonia digitatae, Didymocyrtis cladoniicola, Epicladonia stenospora s. lat., Lichenostigma alpinum s. lat., Phaeopyxis punctum, Sphaerellothecium cladoniicola and Taeniolella beschiana), New Zealand (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat. and Epicladonia sandstedei), Norway (Arthonia digitatae), Kazakhstan (Sphaerellothecium cladoniae), Kyrgyzstan (Epicladonia sandstedei), Papua New Guinea (Opegrapha cladoniicola), Portugal (Epicladonia stenospora s. lat.), Russia (Abrothallus cladoniae s. lat., A. cf. pezizicola, Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa, Didymocyrtis foliaceiphila, Hainesia longicladoniae, Neoburgoa freyi, Pezizella ucrainica and Polycoccum laursenii), Spain (Lichenoconium aeruginosum), U.S.A. (Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Hainesia longicladoniae, Niesslia cladoniicola and Polycoccum microcarpum), Venezuela (Roselliniella cladoniae) and Vietnam (Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat.). Epicladonia sandstedei and E. stenospora s. lat. are new to Macaronesia. Heterocephalacria bachmannii is for the first time documented in the polar desert biome. Biazrovia stereocaulicola, Coniochaeta sp., Merismatium coccisporum and Pyrenidium actinellum s. lat. are newly reported to occur on Cladonia. A key to 138 species of fungi so far known to occur on Cladonia is provided.
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Fifty-nine species (21 lichens, 37 lichenicolous fungi and 1 non-lichenized fungus) are reported as new or noteworthy from the Harz Mountains in north-central Germany. Trimmatostroma arctoparmeliae (on Arctoparmelia incurva) is described as new, Lasiosphaeriopsis lecanorae and Tremella diploschistina are new to Central Europe, Lichenothelia tenuissima, Pertusaria lactescens, Polycoccum kerneri, Sphaerellothecium atryneae, S. contextum and Verrucaria policensis are new to Germany; 41 species are new to Saxony-Anhalt, and one for each to Lower Saxony, Thuringia and Bavaria. Hyperphyscia adglutinata was rediscovered in Saxony-Anhalt after more than 180 years, Lichenodiplis pertusariicola after 141 years and Porpidia flavocruenta after 83 years. Eopyrenula leucoplaca was rediscovered in Lower Saxony after more than 130 years.
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Knowledge of the relationships and thus the classification of fungi, has developed rapidly with increasingly widespread use of molecular techniques, over the past 10–15 years, and continues to accelerate. Several genera have been found to be polyphyletic, and their generic concepts have subsequently been emended. New names have thus been introduced for species which are phylogenetically distinct from the type species of particular genera. The ending of the separate naming of morphs of the same species in 2011, has also caused changes in fungal generic names. In order to facilitate access to all important changes, it was desirable to compile these in a single document. The present article provides a list of generic names of Ascomycota (approximately 6500 accepted names published to the end of 2016), including those which are lichen-forming. Notes and summaries of the changes since the last edition of ‘Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi’ in 2008 are provided. The notes include the number of accepted species, classification, type species (with location of the type material), culture availability, life-styles, distribution, and selected publications that have appeared since 2008. This work is intended to provide the foundation for updating the ascomycete component of the “Without prejudice list of generic names of Fungi” published in 2013, which will be developed into a list of protected generic names. This will be subjected to the XIXth International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen in July 2017 agreeing to a modification in the rules relating to protected lists, and scrutiny by procedures determined by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). The previously invalidly published generic names Barriopsis, Collophora (as Collophorina), Cryomyces, Dematiopleospora, Heterospora (as Heterosporicola), Lithophila, Palmomyces (as Palmaria) and Saxomyces are validated, as are two previously invalid family names, Bartaliniaceae and Wiesneriomycetaceae. Four species of Lalaria, which were invalidly published are transferred to Taphrina and validated as new combinations. Catenomycopsis Tibell & Constant. is reduced under Chaenothecopsis Vain., while Dichomera Cooke is reduced under Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not. (Art. 59).
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Zhurbenko, M. P., Diederich, P. & Gagarina, L. V. 2020. Lichenicolous fungi from Vietnam, with the description of four new species.-Herzogia 33: 525-543. Twenty six species of lichenicolous fungi are reported from Vietnam. Arthophacopsis heterodermiae (on Heterodermia; also known from Australia), Diplolaeviopsis vietnamensis (on Bathelium), Minutoexcipula kovalenkoi (on Lecanora) and Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii (on Parmotrema) are described as new to science. Cladophialophora cf. megalo-sporae and Microsphaeropsis cf. olivacea possibly represent undescribed species and are informally described and discussed. Lawreya glyphidiphila, Milospium lacoizquetae, Spirographa arsenii (also new to Papua New Guinea and the U.S.A.), S. intermedia s. lat. and S. pyramidalis are newly reported for Asia; Stigmidium microspilum is newly reported for South America (Brazil) and Hong Kong. Another 15 species are newly documented from Vietnam, including Opegrapha physciae, which is also new to Cape Verde, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Zusammenfassung: Zhurbenko, M. P., Diederich, P. & Gagarina, L. V. 2020. Lichenicole Pilze aus Vietnam, mit Beschreibung von vier neuen Arten.-Herzogia 33: 525-543. Sechsundzwanzig Arten von lichenicolen Pilzen werden aus Vietnam dokumentiert. Arthophacopsis heterodermiae (auf Heterodermia; auch bekannt aus Australien), Diplolaeviopsis vietnamensis (auf Bathelium), Minutoexcipula ko-valenkoi (auf Lecanora) und Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii (auf Parmotrema) werden als neu für die Wissenschaft beschrieben. Cladophialophora cf. megalosporae und Microsphaeropsis cf. olivacea repräsentieren möglicherweise unbeschriebene Arten und werden informell beschrieben und diskutiert. Lawreya glyphidiphila, Milospium lacoiz-quetae, Spirographa arsenii (auch neu für Papua-Neuguinea und die USA), S. intermedia s. lat. und S. pyramida-lis werden erstmals für Asien dokumentiert; Stigmidium microspilum als neu für Südamerika (Brasilien) und für Hongkong. Weitere 15 Arten werden erstmals aus Vietnam angegeben, darunter Opegrapha physciae, die auch neu ist für die Kapverden, die Dominikanische Republik und Puerto Rico.
Article
Zhurbenko, M. P., Diederich, P. & Gagarina, L. V. 2020. Lichenicolous fungi from Vietnam, with the description of four new species.-Herzogia 33: 525-543. Twenty six species of lichenicolous fungi are reported from Vietnam. Arthophacopsis heterodermiae (on Heterodermia; also known from Australia), Diplolaeviopsis vietnamensis (on Bathelium), Minutoexcipula kovalenkoi (on Lecanora) and Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii (on Parmotrema) are described as new to science. Cladophialophora cf. megalo-sporae and Microsphaeropsis cf. olivacea possibly represent undescribed species and are informally described and discussed. Lawreya glyphidiphila, Milospium lacoizquetae, Spirographa arsenii (also new to Papua New Guinea and the U.S.A.), S. intermedia s. lat. and S. pyramidalis are newly reported for Asia; Stigmidium microspilum is newly reported for South America (Brazil) and Hong Kong. Another 15 species are newly documented from Vietnam, including Opegrapha physciae, which is also new to Cape Verde, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Zusammenfassung: Zhurbenko, M. P., Diederich, P. & Gagarina, L. V. 2020. Lichenicole Pilze aus Vietnam, mit Beschreibung von vier neuen Arten.-Herzogia 33: 525-543. Sechsundzwanzig Arten von lichenicolen Pilzen werden aus Vietnam dokumentiert. Arthophacopsis heterodermiae (auf Heterodermia; auch bekannt aus Australien), Diplolaeviopsis vietnamensis (auf Bathelium), Minutoexcipula ko-valenkoi (auf Lecanora) und Sclerococcum pseudosipmanii (auf Parmotrema) werden als neu für die Wissenschaft beschrieben. Cladophialophora cf. megalosporae und Microsphaeropsis cf. olivacea repräsentieren möglicherweise unbeschriebene Arten und werden informell beschrieben und diskutiert. Lawreya glyphidiphila, Milospium lacoiz-quetae, Spirographa arsenii (auch neu für Papua-Neuguinea und die USA), S. intermedia s. lat. und S. pyramida-lis werden erstmals für Asien dokumentiert; Stigmidium microspilum als neu für Südamerika (Brasilien) und für Hongkong. Weitere 15 Arten werden erstmals aus Vietnam angegeben, darunter Opegrapha physciae, die auch neu ist für die Kapverden, die Dominikanische Republik und Puerto Rico.
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Promputtha I 2018-Mycosphere Notes 225-274: types and other specimens of some genera of Ascomycota. Mycosphere 9(4), 647-754, Doi10.5943/mycosphere/9/4/3 Abstract This is the fifth in a series, Mycosphere notes, wherein 50 notes are provided on types of genera and other specimens with descriptions and illustrations. This includes one genus in Arthoniomycetes, one genus in Eurotiomycetes, 38 genera in Dothideomycetes, six genera in Sordariomycetes, two genera in Ascomycota, families incertae sedis, one genus in Pezizomycotina, and one taxon, Angatia rondoniensis, is treated as a doubtful species. Pycnocarpon magnificum is classified in Asterinaceae. We reinstate Eopyrenula in Dacampiaceae on the basis of its Mycosphere 9(4): 647-754 (2018) www.mycosphere.org ISSN 2077 7019
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Pronectria japonica growing on an unidentified Ochrolechia species is described as new to science. Dactylospora glaucomarioides, D. cf. pertusariicola, Lichenodiplis anomala, L. ochrolechiae and Sagediopsis campsteriana are newly reported for Japan. Pyrenidium actinellum s. l. is for the first time documented on Ochrolechia. A key to the known species of lichenicolous fungi and lichens growing on Ochrolechia is presented.
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Numerous new taxa and classifications of Dothideomycetes have been published following the last monograph of families of Dothideomycetes in 2013. A recent publication by Honsanan et al. in 2020 expanded information of families in Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae with modern classifications. In this paper, we provide a refined updated document on orders and families incertae sedis of Dothideomycetes. Each family is provided with an updated description, notes, including figures to represent the morphology, a list of accepted genera, and economic and ecological significances. We also provide phylogenetic trees for each order. In this study, 31 orders which consist 50 families are assigned as orders incertae sedis in Dothideomycetes, and 41 families are treated as families incertae sedis due to lack of molecular or morphological evidence. The new order, Catinellales, and four new families, Catinellaceae, Morenoinaceae Neobuelliellaceae and Thyrinulaceae are introduced. Seven genera (Neobuelliella, Pseudomicrothyrium, Flagellostrigula, Swinscowia, Macroconstrictolumina, Pseudobogoriella, and Schummia) are introduced. Seven new species (Acrospermum urticae, Bogoriella complexoluminata, Dothiorella ostryae, Dyfrolomyces distoseptatus, Macroconstrictolumina megalateralis, Patellaria microspora, and Pseudomicrothyrium thailandicum) are introduced base on morphology and phylogeny, together with two new records/reports and five new collections from different families. Ninety new combinations are also provided in this paper.
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Lichen-inhabiting fungi are highly specialized mycoparasites, commensals or rarely saprotrophs, that are common components of almost every ecosystem, where they develop obligate associations with lichens. Their relevance, however, contrasts with the relatively small number of these fungi described so far. Recent estimates and ongoing studies indicate that a significant fraction of their diversity remains undiscovered and may be expected in tropical regions, in particular in hyperdiverse fog-exposed montane forests. Here, we introduce the new genus Zhurbenkoa, from South America and Europe, for three lichenicolous fungi growing on thalli of the widespread lichen genus Cladonia (Lecanorales). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequence data of mt and nuc rDNA obtained from Andean populations (Bolivia) placed Zhurbenkoa as a member of Malmideaceae, a recently introduced family of lichen-forming fungi in the class Lecanoromycetes. Zhurbenkoa is closely related to the genera Savoronala and Sprucidea. The new genus is characterized by the development of grayish brown to almost black apothecia lacking an evident margin, an epihymenium interspersed with crystals (often seen as pruina), a strongly conglutinated hymenium made of noncapitate and sparsely branched paraphyses, a colorless exciple composed of radially arranged hyphae, a Lecanora/Micarea-like ascus type, and aseptate or 1-septate ellipsoidal colorless ascospores. Zhurbenkoa includes two Neotropical (Z. cladoniarum, Z. latispora) and one widespread (Z. epicladonia) species. The lichenicolous trophic mode is documented for the first time in the Malmideaceae, which until now included only lichen-forming associations between fungi and green algae.
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Identification, classification and nomenclature of asexual fungi (including coelomycetes) have been changing rapidly. However, nomenclatural changes of coelomycetous fungi have not been thoroughly discussed since Sutton (1977). Hence, it is essential to compile all scattered data and revisit the list of generic names. In this study, we compiled all published generic names of coelomycetous taxa including invalid and illegitimate names. Further, sexual genera which have coelomycetous asexual morphs are also provided. The present paper is a part of a series of papers on coelomycetous genera.
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A first checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi from the Republic of Mauritius is presented. It is based on older literature reports and on collections made by the authors, mainly in 2016, from the isles of Mauritius and Rodrigues. A total of 216 species are accepted, either as relevant specimens have recently been critically studied or revised by lichen taxonomists, or as we have collected and identified such material ourselves. A further 226 taxa have been reported from Mauritius but are not accepted here, either as no relevant herbarium material has recently been examined, or as previous records are dubious or erroneous; 111 taxa have been newly described from Mauritius in the past, plus 12 of which the Mauritian origin is dubious. Here we report 56 taxa as new for the island of Mauritius, and we describe two new genera (Baidera, Serusiauxia) and eight new species (Baidera mauritiana, Biatoropsis millanesiana, Chapsa alletii, Collemopsidium mauritiae, Nyungwea pyneei, Porina florensii, Pyrenula muriciliata, Serusiauxia inexpectata). Two new combinations are proposed: Loekoesia apostatica (≡ Lecanora apostatica) and Sticta flavireagens (≡ Stictina flavireagens). Phylogenetic analyses are presented for species of Arthoniales, Biatoropsis, Porinaceae, Pyrenulaceae and Teloschistales.
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Based on the study of specimens from quoted institutional herbaria, private collections, the author's collections and on analysis of literature records; 156 lichenicolous fungi and lichens are reported from the Czech Republic, 70 for the first time. Four species, so far known from the type locality only, were also found: Arborillus IIimonae, Keissleriomyces sandstedeanus, Sclerococcum epiphytorum and Sclerococcum verrucisporum; six species are reported for the first time from Central Europe: Clypeococcum cladonema, Cornutispora triangularis, Didymellopsis collematum, Polycoccum kerneri, Sphaerellothecium coniodes and Stigmidium neofusceliae; several very rare species are also reported: Endococcus verrucosus, Epicladonia stenospora, Roselliniella microthelia, Roselliniopsis groedensis, Sclerococcum leuckertii, Taeniolella beschiana, and Taeniolella cladinicola, all of which were collected in the Czech Republic. Dactylospora lobariella, Phaeopyxis punctum, Phaeospora parasitica, Trimmatostroma lichenicola and Vezdaea religera are new for the Slovak Republic. Notes to problematic species, a rough sketch of the world distribution to every species, extensive references to literature, microphotographs of rare and interesting species, as well as both fungus and host indices are provided.
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Studies of large and mainly recent collections of lichens and lichenicolous fungi led to the addition of 27 taxa to the flora of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France: Arthonia coronata, A. mediella, Candelaria pacifica, Chaenothecopsis parasitaster, Dacampia cyrtellae, Dactylospora parellaria, Diplotomma epipolium var. parasiticum, Epigloea urosperma, Graphis betulina, Graphium aphthosae (also new to the Netherlands), Lepraria toensbergiana (also new to France), Lichenopeltella maculans (also new to France), Melaspilea bagliettoana, Miriquidica atrofulva, Mycocalicium subtile, Phaeopyxis punctum, Phaeosporobolus chlaroterae (also new to Norway), Placynthium posterulum, Pleospora physciae, Pronectria septemseptata, Sclerophora amabilis, Spiloma auratum, Stigmidium xanthoparmeliarum, Strangospora deplanata, Trapeliopsis wallrothii, Tylophoron hibernicum and Xanthoria ucrainica. 11 additional taxa were reported in recent publications: Buellia saxorum, Cladophialophora cladoniae, Fusicladium peltigericola, Graphis macrocarpa, G. pulverulenta, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenoconium aeruginosum, Ochrolechia mahluensis, Phoma ficuzzae, Trimmatostroma quercicola and Verrucaria rhizicola. New to Belgium: Echinodiscus lesdainii, Tremella hypogymniae; new to Luxembourg: Caloplaca arcis; new to France: Graphis macrocarpa, Laetisaria lichenicola, Lichenochora obscuroides, L. weillii, Lichenopeltella peltigericola. Additional notes are given on some rare and threatened macrolichen species. Arthonia digitatae and Placynthium stenophyllum have to be deleted from the checklist. The following new combinations are proposed: Alyxoria culmigena (Lib.) Ertz (basionym Opegrapha culmigena), A. ochrocincta (Werner) Ertz (O. ochrocincta), A. variiformis (Anzi) Ertz (O. variiformis), A. viridipruinosa (B. J. Coppins & R. Yahr) Ertz (O. viridipruinosa), Zwackhia bonplandii (Fée) Ertz (O. bonplandii), Z. circumducta (Nyl.) Ertz (O. circumducta), Z. prosodea (Ach.) Ertz (O. prosodea), Z. robusta (Vain.) Ertz (O. robusta) and Z. sorediifera (P. James) Ertz (O. sorediifera).
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Two species of Lichenostigma, both from Iran, are described as new to science: L. iranicum, growing on Lobothallia praeradiosa, is characterised by rounded to elongate ascomata, sparse hyphal strands, 6(-8)-spored asci and the almost complete absence of pigmentation in the lower ascomatal wall; L. verrucosum, growing on Pleopsidium gobiense, is distinguished by rounded to irregular ascomata with radiating superficial hyphae, verrucose brown ascospores and by the complete absence of pigmentation in the lower ascomatal wall.
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Berger, F. & Brackel, W. v. 2011. A new species of Phaeosporobolus on Lecanora chlarotera. — Herzogia 24: 351–356. The new species Phaeosporobolus chlaroterae is described. It is dwelling on Lecanora chlarotera and characterized by big, thin-walled cells of the stroma and packets of conidia with few cells.
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BRACKEL, W. v. 2011. Lichenicolous fungi and lichens from Puglia and Basilicata (southern Italy). — Herzogia 24: 65–101. During an excursion to Puglia and Basilicata in summer 2010, 50 sites of lichenological interest were visited. The results of this field study with special emphasis on lichenicolous fungi are presented here. The new genus Asteroglobulus, the new species Asteroglobulus giselae, Phoma melanelixiae and Unguiculariopsis lucaniae are described, and a list of 92 taxa of lichenicolous fungi, including some lichenicolous lichens, is provided. Notes on some remarkable lichens (e.g., Collema italicum) and on two hepaticolous fungi are added.
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The lichenicolous fungus Lichenostigma rupicolae Fdez.-Brime & Nav.-Ros., collected in France, Spain and Turkey, is described as new to science. It is found growing on the surface of the thalli and apothecia of Pertusaria rupicola, where it forms black patches of radiating plurihyphal strands connecting the fertile stromata. An updated key of the species of subgenus Lichenogramma is included.
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