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Species clarification of the prize medicinal Ganoderma mushroom “Lingzhi”

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“Lingzhi” is a mushroom that has been renowned in China for more than 2,000 years because of its claimed medicinal properties plus its symbolic fortune. “Lingzhi” has high economic value mostly as a dietary supplement in the modern market especially in East Asia, and its medicinal functions have become a hot study topic. For over a century, the highly prized medicinal fungus, known as “Lingzhi” in East Asia, has been assigned to Ganoderma lucidum, a species originally described from Europe. Molecular studies in recent years have revealed that the commercially cultivated ‘G. lucidum’ (“Lingzhi”) in East Asia is a different species from the true G. lucidum. The present study aims to clarify the species identity of “Lingzhi” based on morphological studies and analysis of rDNA nuc-ITS sequences, and additional gene fragments of mt-SSU, RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1-α of “Lingzhi” were provided. All Ganoderma species that mostly resemble “Lingzhi” in phylogeny and /or morphology were included for analysis. We propose a new species G. lingzhi for “Lingzhi”, which has an East Asia distribution. The most striking characteristics which differentiate G. lingzhi from G. lucidum are the presence of melanoid bands in the context, a yellow pore surface and thick dissepiments (80–120 μm) at maturity. G. curtisii is most closely related to G. lingzhi in phylogeny and is from North America. Ganoderma flexipes, G. multipileum, G. sichuanense, G. tropicum and ‘G. tsugae’, are also closely related with G. lingzhi and are reported from China. These species are compared and discussed. ‘Ganoderma tsuage’ reported from China is determined as conspecific with G. lucidum, hence the distribution of G. lucidum extends from Europe to northeastern China.

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... G. multipileum Ding Hou 1950 [104], G. sichuanense J.D. Zhao & X.Q. Zhang 1983 [105] and G. lingzhi Sheng H. [106,107] from China, G. resinaceum Boud. 1889 [108] from Europe, and G. oregonense Murrill 1908, G. sessile Murrill 1902, G. tsugae Murrill 1902 andG. ...
... Anyhow, the species concept of the G. lucidum complex lacks agreement in morphology, and the taxonomy of this species complex is thus problematic, and this ultimately limits both further research on this complex and their medicinal usefulness. For example, the widely used medicinal species in biochemical and pharmaceutical studies have been assumed to be G. lucidum, but evidence has emerged that this medicinal species is, in fact, a different species [116] and was described as G. lingzhi [106]. ...
... Asian specimens classified as G. lucidum were divided into two clades; both were separated from European G. lucidum [122], with one clade being composed of tropical collections represented by G. multipileum, while the other clade was unknown [122], yet later recognized as G. sichuanense [123]. It was found that the holotype of G. sichuanense was not conspecific with the unknown clade, and the unknown clade was identified as a new species, G. lingzhi, which also is the most widely cultivated species in China [106]. Meanwhile, the distribution of genuine G. lucidum in China was also confirmed [106,124]. ...
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Mahesh C.A. Galappaththi, Nimesha M. Patabendige, Bhagya M. Premarathne, Kalani K. Hapuarachchi, Saowaluck Tibpromma, Dong-Qin Dai, Nakarin Suwannarach, Sylvie Rapior, Samantha C. Karunarathna. A review of Ganoderma triterpenoids and their bioactivities. Biomolecules, Special Issue Fungal Metabolism - Enzymes and Bioactive Compounds II, 13 (1), 24 (2023). doi:10.3390/biom13010024. hal-03912698 ___ For centuries, Ganoderma has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries to prevent and treat various diseases. Numerous publications are stating that Ganoderma species have a variety of beneficial medicinal properties, and investigations on different metabolic regulations of Ganoderma species, extracts or isolated compounds have been performed both in vitro and in vivo. However, it has frequently been questioned whether Ganoderma is simply a dietary supplement for health or just a useful "medication" for restorative purposes. More than 600 chemical compounds including alkaloids, meroterpenoids, nucleobases, nucleosides, polysaccharides, proteins, steroids and triterpenes were extracted and identified from Ganoderma, with triterpenes serving as the primary components. In recent years, Ganoderma triterpenes and other small molecular constituents have aroused the interest of chemists and pharmacologists. Meanwhile, considering the significance of the triterpene constituents in the development of new drugs, this review describes 495 compounds from 25 Ganoderma species published between 1984 and 2022, commenting on their source, biosynthetic pathway, identification, biological activities and biosynthesis, together with applications of advanced analytical techniques to the characterization of Ganoderma triterpenoids.
... As a consequence of several taxonomic and molecular phylogenetic studies on Ganoderma, an unexpectedly high level of species diversity has been uncovered worldwide, with the description of many new species (Cao et al., 2012;Cao and Yuan, 2013;Li et al., 2015;Xing et al., 2016Xing et al., , 2018Hapuarachchi et al., 2018bHapuarachchi et al., , 2019Liu et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2020;He et al., 2021). However, many taxonomy confusions have resulted from the great variability in the macroscopic characters of the Ganoderma basidiomata. ...
... China has a complex and diverse plant diversity, and a diversified three-dimensional climate environment that breeds abundant wild Ganoderma resources, thus, a total of 40 species of Ganoderma have been reported in China (Cao et al., 2012;Cao and Yuan, 2013;Li et al., 2015;Xing et al., 2018;Hapuarachchi et al., 2018bHapuarachchi et al., , 2019Liu et al., 2019;Wu et al., 2020;He et al., 2021;Sun et al., 2022). Yunnan is an inland Province with low latitude and high altitudes in southwest China, which is a hotspot of global biodiversity and has abundant wildlife resources Nine type species of Ganoderma viz. ...
... To date, 25 species of Ganoderma have been recorded in YPC (Cao et al., 2012;Ye et al., 2019;He et al., 2021;Sun et al., 2022), however, the species diversity of Ganoderma is still not well known, especially in the subtropical and tropical areas. According to our survey of different sample sites in Yunnan Province from 2016 to 2021, a total of 268 samples of Ganoderma were collected. ...
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Ganoderma is a globally distributed genus that encompasses species with forestry ecological, medicinal, economic, and cultural importance. Despite the importance of this fungus, the studies on the species diversity of Ganoderma in Yunnan Province, China (YPC) have poorly been carried out. During this study, opportunistic sampling was used to collect 21 specimens of Ganoderma from YPC. Morphology and multigene phylogeny of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nrLSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1-α), and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) were used to identify them. Morphological and molecular characterization of the 21 specimens showed that they belong to 18 species of Ganoderma, of which three are novel viz. G. artocarpicola, G. obscuratum and G. yunnanense. Ganoderma artocarpicola is characterized by the sessile and concrescent basidiomata, reddish brown to yellowish brown pileus surface, heterogeneous context, wavy margin, and ovoid basidiospores. Ganoderma obscuratum is distinguished by small pores (6–9 per mm), dorsolaterally sub-stipitate basidiomata which become greyish-brown when dry, and narrow ellipsoid basidiospores. Ganoderma yunnanense is characterized by cream colour pore surface and context, centrally to laterally stipitate basidiomata with reddish-brown to violet-brown strongly laccate pileus surface, and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. With the help of an extensive literature survey and the results of this study, a checklist of 32 Ganoderma species from YPC was established, which accounts for 71.11% of the known species in China. In addition, a key to the Ganoderma in YPC is also provided.
... Ganoderma is one of the most taxonomically scrutinized genera among the Ganodermataceae and even in Polyporales (Richter et al. 2015;Costa-Rezende et al. 2020). Most Ganoderma species are wood decomposers, found in all temperate and tropical regions (Pilotti et al. 2004;Cao et al. 2012;Zhou et al. 2015). ...
... Species diversity of Ganoderma is abundant in China and more than 30 species have been described (Zhao et al. 2000;Wang et al. 2009;Cao et al. 2012;Li et al. 2015;Xing et al. 2016;Hapuarachchi et al. 2018;Liu et al. 2019;He et al. 2019;Wu et al. 2020). Yunnan province is considered as one of the hot-spots for studying biodiversity of polypores, and some new Ganoderma species have been described (Zhao 1989;Wang et al. 2010;Cao and Yuan 2013). ...
... The dataset composed of ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 genes, comprising a total of 2092 characters including gaps, ITS (1-656 bp), TEF1-α (657-1192 bp) and RPB2 (1193-2092 bp), including 57 taxa with Tomophagus colossus (Fr.) C.F. Baker as the outgroup taxon (Wang et al. 2009;Cao et al. 2012). Best model for the combined 3-gene dataset estimated and applied in the Bayesian analysis was GTR+I+G, lset nst = 6, rates = invgamma; prset statefreqpr = dirichlet (1,1,1,1). ...
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Ganoderma dianzhongense sp. nov. and G. esculentum sp. nov. are proposed as two new species based on both phenotypic and genotypic evidences. Ganoderma dianzhongense is characterized by the stipitate basidiomata, laccate and oxblood red pileus, gray white pore surface, duplex context and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores (9.0–12.5 × 6.5–9.0 μm) with coarse interwall pillars. Ganoderma esculentum is characterized by its basidiomata with slender stipe, white pore surface, homogeneous pileus context, and slightly truncate, narrow basidiospores (8.0–12.5 × 5.0–8.0 µm). Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) sequence data. The illustrations and descriptions for the new taxa are provided.
... Ganoderma was established by Karsten [1] with Polyporus lucidus (Curtis) Fr. (=Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.) as the type species [2]. The genus has a worldwide distribution but is predominantly found in tropical and temperate regions, including Africa, America, Europe, and Asia [3][4][5][6]. Most members of Ganoderma are pathogenic in nature, inflicting various diseases to plants such as white rot and stem rot as well as much ambiguity among Ganoderma taxa. ...
... Notes: Ganoderma flexipes is originally described from Vietnam by Patouillard [124]. It has been recorded from China, India, Laos, Nepal, and Pakistan [4,13,30,110,122]. G. flexipes is characterized by its small reddish-brown pileus, long and thin stipe, usually reddishbrown to dark brown context, and ellipsoid or ovoid basidiospores [125]. ...
... G. flexipes is characterized by its small reddish-brown pileus, long and thin stipe, usually reddishbrown to dark brown context, and ellipsoid or ovoid basidiospores [125]. Among the Chinese Ganoderma species, G. flexipes is one of the most similar species to G. sichuanense as they share a reddish-brown pileal surface, similar basidiospores, and cuticle cells [4]. Our G. flexipes from China is very similar to the description of Ryvarden [125] and Hapuarachchi et al. [30], and basidiospores are within the range of 9.7-10.2 ...
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The cosmopolitan fungal genus Ganoderma is an important pathogen on arboreal plant hosts, particularly in tropical and temperate regions. It has long been used as a traditional medicine because of its medicinal properties and chemical constituents. In this study, Ganoderma collections were made in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), encompassing tropical parts of Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and temperate areas in Yunnan Province, China. The specimens used in this study are described based on micro-macro-characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS, LSU, TEF1�, and RPB2 sequence data. In this comprehensive study, we report 22 Ganoderma species from the GMS, namely, G. adspersum, G. applanatum, G. australe, G. calidophilum, G. ellipsoideum, G. flexipes, G. gibbosum, G. heohnelianum, G. hochiminhense, G. leucocontextum, G. lucidum, G. multiplicatum, G. multipileum, G. myanmarense, G. orbiforme, G. philippii, G. resinaceum, G. sichuanense, G. sinense, G. subresinosum, G. williamsianum, and G. tsugae. Some of these species were reported in more than one country within the GMS. Of these 22 species, 12 were collected from Yunnan Province, China; three were collected from Laos; three species, two new records, and one new species were collected from Myanmar; 15 species and four new records were collected from Thailand, and one new species was collected from Vietnam. Comprehensive descriptions, color photographs of macro and micro-characteristics, the distribution of Ganoderma within the GMS, as well as a phylogenetic tree showing the placement of all reported Ganoderma from the GMS are provided.
... These are Favolus tenuiculus, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma mbrekobenum, Lentinus squarrosulus, Lentinus tuber-regium, Lentinus velutinus, Nigroporus stipitatus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes palisotii (Boa 2004, Ihayere et al. 2010, Eyi-Ndong et al. 2011, Osemwegie et al. 2014, Yorou et al. 2014, Boni & Yorou 2015. These reports were based on field observations and no fungarium material is available for taxonomic revision of some of these species such as G. applanatum and G. lucidum which do not occur in Africa according to recent studies (Cao et al. 2012, Wang et al. 2012). The first mycological investigations in Benin with a focus on basidiomycetes wood-inhabiting polypores started in 2017. ...
... Distribution: Cosmopolitan species but as the interpretation of the name is very variable, the distribution also is quite variable. Thus, the type species is restricted to Europe and part of China (Cao et al. 2012). While the distribution of the species reported here is still unknown. ...
Article
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Wood-inhabiting fungi (WIF), such as polypores, are extremely species-rich and play vital roles in the functioning of forest ecosystems as decomposers. Despite the importance of polypores, our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of these fungi is still poor in general and especially for West Africa. To advance our knowledge we here summarise results from field collections between 2017 and 2021 and present (i) a taxonomic overview, (ii) phylogenetic placements and (iii) an illustrated catalogue of wood-inhabiting polypore fungi with colour pictures. During the field sampling campaigns, we collected 647 specimens. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular barcode data, 76 polypore species belonging to six orders, 15 families and 39 genera were identified. Of the 76 species, 30 are new to the West Africa, 69 new to Benin, and two new combinations Fuscoporia beninensis and Megasporia minuta are proposed. With this summary, we provide new data for further research.
... To date, four wholegenome sequencing projects for Ganoderma lucidum have been published and registered in the BioProject section of the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which contains available coding gene sequences and genome sequence information but lacks available genome annotation information 22-25 . Recently, the Ganoderma lingzhi species was identified as a new species distributed in East Asia, and it has been incorrectly considered to be another species, G. lucidum, which is distributed in Europe, for many years by morphological studies and analysis of rDNA internally transcribed spacer sequences and additional gene fragments 26 . However, no report about the assembly of a high-quality genome of G. lingzhi is available. ...
... Ganoderma strain SCIM 1006 (NO. CGMCC 18819) was selected for genome sequencing and was assigned to G. lingzhi 26 . The culture was maintained on artificial medium with shaking at 160 rpm in the dark. ...
Article
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Ganoderic acids (GAs) are well recognized as important pharmacological components of the medicinal species belonging to the basidiomycete genus Ganoderma . However, transcription factors directly regulating the expression of GA biosynthesis genes remain poorly understood. Here, the genome of Ganoderma lingzhi is de novo sequenced. Using DNA affinity purification sequencing, we identify putative targets of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), including the genes of triterpenoid synthesis and lipid metabolism. Interactions between SREBP and the targets are verified by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay. RNA-seq shows that SREBP targets, mevalonate kinase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthetase in mevalonate pathway, sterol isomerase and lanosterol 14-demethylase in ergosterol biosynthesis, are significantly upregulated in the SREBP overexpression (OE::SREBP) strain. In addition, 3 targets involved in glycerophospholipid/glycerolipid metabolism are upregulated. Then, the contents of mevalonic acid, lanosterol, ergosterol and 13 different GAs as well as a variety of lipids are significantly increased in this strain. Furthermore, the effects of SREBP overexpression on triterpenoid and lipid metabolisms are recovered when OE::SREBP strain are treated with exogenous fatostatin, a specific inhibitor of SREBP. Taken together, our genome-wide study clarify the role of SREBP in triterpenoid and lipid metabolisms of G. lingzhi .
... First and foremost, it has no toxicity or side effects; second, it is not restricted to any one organ; and third, its use improves the effects on regulating organ activities (Zhou et al., 2012). It is the most widely cultivated medicinal mushroom throughout the world, especially in China, Europe, Finland, Ghana, India, Japan, Kenya, Korea, South East Asia, (206 BC-8 AD) written by Hong Ching Tao in the Han Dynasty, followed by Ben Cao Gang Mu (1590 AD) by Li Shi-Zhen in the Ming Dynasty, as well as listed in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and Therapeutic Compendium (Zhou et al., 2012;Karuppiah & Ji, 2020;Wang et al., 2012;Cao et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2021). Ganoderma, often known as "red bracket," has the ability to protect humans against a variety of diseases. ...
... Moreover, according to the Bencao Gangmu, a sixteenth-century Chinese herbal compendium, a range of Ganoderma-like mushrooms were categorized according to their colour and utilized for a variety of reasons. Researchers have determined that the species G. lingzhi is most likely to be the red reishi found in Chinese herbal stores nowadays, despite the fact that no specific modern species can be linked to these ancient Ganoderma species (Cao et al., 2012). Mostly, depending on the fruiting body, it is classified into a laccate pileus with a shiny surface or a non-laccate pileus with a dull surface. ...
Chapter
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Ganoderma species are a large and diverse genus of wood-rotting fungi that are found worldwide. It is made up of species that cause white rot on a wide variety of tree species. It has a long history of use as a medicinal mushroom in Asia and contains a variety of pharmacological properties associated with immunomodulatory action. It grows on decaying wood, and different components of the mushroom, including mycelia, spores, and the basidiocarps, are taken and marketed in a variety of forms, including powder, capsules, and beverages. Recent years have seen the rapid expansion of the Ganoderma enterprise, which has been aided by several efforts by academia and business. Numerous commercial products have used the bioactive components and their pharmacological activities. Thus, demand for Ganoderma mushroom as a therapeutic material is projected to increase in the near future. This is due to consumers who use dietary supplements and nutraceuticals to maintain their health and immunity. This chapter summarizes the significance, current perspectives, methodology for mushroom growth and production, and products in order to ascertain the current market status of Ganoderma mushroom products. These include strain characteristics, culture, and product processing, among others. It will serve as a significant information source for both research and commercial production.
... Ganoderma is a group of Polyporus fungi with hundreds of species widely distributed in the North Hemisphere [1,2]. There are 460 records of Ganoderma on the website Index Fungorum (http://www.indexfungorum.org, ...
... Similarly, (R)-PGME amide derivative 1b was prepared from 1 (0.5 mg) and (R)-PGME (5.0 mg) in the same conditions. NMR assignments of the protons for (S)and (R)-PGME of 1 were achieved by analysis of their 1 Hz, H-2′ of PGME), 7.300 (3H, overlapped, phenyl protons of PGME), 7.139 (2H, overlapped, phenyl protons of PGME), 3.701 (3H, s, OCH3). HRMS(ESI) m/z M + H + Calcd for C39H44O8N 654.30669, found 654.30615. ...
Article
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Two triterpenes, ganoaustralins A (1) and B (2), featuring unprecedented 6/6/6/5/6 scaffolds were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Ganoderma australe. The structures were determined by extensive NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of the C-25 in ganoaustralin A was assigned by the phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) method. The relative and absolute configurations of the polycyclic backbones were determined by NMR and ECD calculations, respectively. The plausible biosynthetic pathways of ganoaustralins A and B were proposed. Ganoaustralin B showed weak inhibition against β-secretase 1.
... The G. lingzhi species is a mushroom that has been renowned in China, which has been incorrectly considered to be another species, G. lucidum, which is distributed in Europe, for many years. The most striking characteristics which differentiate G. lingzhi from G. lucidum are the presence of melanoid bands in the context, a yellow pore surface and thick dissepiments at maturity by morphological studies, rDNA nuc-ITS sequences, and additional gene fragments analysis [2]. The attractive characteristic of Ganoderma is its immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities, which are mainly attributed to the major active components, ganoderic acids (GAs), a type of triterpenoids [3]. ...
... The Ganoderma lingzhi strain SCIM 1006 (No. CGMCC 18819) kindly provided by Prof. Yu-Cheng Dai was selected for characteristics of the whole genome information, identification of ganoderic acids (GAs), and RNA-Seq [2]. The G. lingzhi strain was cultured at 27 °C with shaking at 160 rpm in the dark on an artificial medium (glucose, 44.0; corn flour, 0.5; peptone, 6.5; KH2PO4, 0.75; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.45; vitamin B1, 0.01; in g/L) [10]. ...
Article
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Ganoderma (Ganodermaceae) is a genus of edible and medicinal mushrooms that create a diverse set of bioactive compounds. Ganoderma lingzhi has been famous in China for more than 2000 years for its medicinal properties. However, the genome information of G. lingzhi has not been characterized. Here, we characterized its 49.15-Mb genome, encoding 13,125 predicted genes which were sequenced by the Illumina and PacBio platform. A wide spectrum of carbohydrate-active enzymes, with a total number of 519 CAZymes were identified in G. lingzhi. Then, the genes involved in sexual recognition and ganoderic acid (GA, key bioactive metabolite) biosynthesis were characterized. In addition, we identified and deduced the possible structures of 20 main GA constituents by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, including a new special ganochlearic acid A. Furthermore, 3996 novel transcripts were discovered, and 9276 genes were predicted to have the possibility of alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data. The alternative splicing genes were enriched for functional categories involved in protein processing, endocytosis, and metabolic activities by KEGG. These genomic, transcriptomic, and GA constituents’ resources would enrich the toolbox for biological, genetic, and secondary metabolic pathways studies in G. lingzhi.
... This mushroom which is popularly known as Reishi in Asia or Lingzhi is red-coloured and has remained useful in traditional medicine in Asia, especially China for centuries Chang at al., 1986. It is known as the mushroom of immortality (Cao et al., 2012). In the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, the mushroom is reported to have been used for over two millennia (Wu et al., 2013;Luangharn et al., 2021). ...
... Distribution GL has a global distribution but mainly grows and is found in subtropical and moderate weather regions, particularly in the Asia (China, Korea, and Japan), Europe (Sweden, Denmark, and Poland), Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Ghana) and America (North and South America) (Pilotti, 2005;Cao et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2012;Cao and Yuan, 2013;Siwulski et al., 2015). GL grows in the areas around Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China and its range extends as far north as Canada and south into Argentina (Tiqiang and Kaiben, 2004). ...
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Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal mushroom that has been used for the prevention and treatment of different ailments to enhance longevity and health specifically in China, Japan, and Korea. It was known as “God’s herb” in ancient China as it was believed to prolong life, enhance the youthful spirit and sustain/preserve vitality. G. lucidum is seldom collected from nature and is substantially cultivated on wood logs and sawdust in plastic bags or bottles to meet the international market demand. Both in vitro and in vivo studies on the copious metabolic activities of G. lucidum have been carried out. Varied groups of chemical compounds including triterpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, nucleosides, alkaloids, steroids, lactones, lectins, fatty acids, and enzymes with potent pharmacological activities have been isolated from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. Several researchers have reported the abundance and diversification of its biological actions triggered by these chemical compounds. Triterpenoids and polysaccharides of G. lucidum have been reported to possess cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic effects, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic antiallergic, neuroprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities. Various formulations have been developed, patented, and utilized as nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals from G. lucidum extracts and active compounds. Thus, this review presents current updates on emerging infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with a particular focus on Ganoderma lucidum, an unutilized natural medicine as a promising future solution to emerging diseases in Africa. However, details such as the chemical compound and mode of action of each bioactive against different emerging diseases were not discussed in this study.
... Compared to morphology, molecular methods have turned out to be more effective in resolving intraspecific relationships with Ganoderma (Yamashita and Hirose 2016, Fryssouli et al. 2020, Gunnels et al. 2020, Shen et al. 2021. Phylogenetic markers, such as IGS, nrSSU, ITS, nrLSU, mtSSU, β-TUB, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF1-α sequences, were independently or conjointly used to infer intraspecific relationships within Ganoderma (Cao et al. 2012, Zhou et al. 2015, Xing et al. 2018, Hapuarachchi et al. 2019a, Ye et al. 2019. In particular, the multilocus phylogeny incorporating sequences from ITS, nrLSU, TEF1-α and RPB2 was applied to give a phylogenetic framework for species delimitation in this genus (Xing et al. 2018, Ye et al. 2019, Tchotet-Tchoumi et al. 2019, Wu et al. 2020. ...
... Ganoderma was first reported from China by Teng (1934), with four species including G. lucidum and one variety. More than 80 species have been introduced so far and several extensive studies have been carried out to investigate Ganoderma diversity in China, with new species being introduced (Zhao and Zhang 2000, Wu et al. 2004, Dai et al. 2009, Cao et al. 2012, Hapuarachchi et al. 2015, Hapuarachchi et al. 2018c). However, the majority of Ganoderma species reported from China have not been subjected to systematic studies (Wang 2012, Hapuarachchi et al. 2016b, Hapuarachchi et al. 2018a. ...
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Ganoderma is a white-rot fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution and includes several economically important species. This genus has been extensively researched due to its beneficial medicinal properties and chemical constituents with potential nutritional and therapeutic values. Traditionally, species of Ganoderma were identified solely based on morphology; however, recent molecular studies revealed that many morphology-based species are conspecific. Furthermore, some type species are in poor condition, which hinders us from re-examining their taxonomic characteristics and obtaining their molecular data. Therefore, new species and fresh collections with multigene sequences are needed to fill the loopholes and to understand the biological classification system of Ganoderma . In a survey of Ganoderma in Guizhou Province, southwest China, we found a new species growing on soil and, herein, it was identified by both morphology and phylogenetic evidence. Hence, we propose a new species, Ganoderma ovisporum sp. nov. This species is characterised by an annual, stipitate, laccate basidiome, with a red–brown to brownish-black pileus surface and pale white pores, duplex context, clavate pileipellis terminal cells, trimitic hyphal system, ellipsoid basidiospores with dark brown eusporium bearing coarse echinulae and an obtuse turgid appendix. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the novel species sisters to G. sandunense with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the RPB2 sequence of G. sandunense is supplied for the first time. Notably, we re-examined the type specimen of G. sandunense and provide a more precise description of the duplex context, pileipellis terminal cells and basidia. All species collected are described and illustrated with coloured photographs. Moreover, we present an updated phylogeny for Ganoderma , based on nLSU, ITS, RPB2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data and species relationships and classification are discussed.
... use the name Antrodia camphorata instead of Taiwanofungus camphoratus or use the name Lentinus edodes instead of Lentinula edodes (Wu et al. 2018;Menolli Jr. et al. 2022); (4) use a name which published validly, but represent a different species, e.g. use the name Ganoderma lucidum for Lingzhi or Phellinus linteus for Sanghuang mushroom (Cao et al. 2012;Zhou et al. 2016;Dai et al. 2017). The latter misinterpretation causes the most difficulties; in addition to nomenclatural confusion, it hinders or significantly complicates orientation in scientific literatures due to the uncertainty of the examined species. ...
... In recent years, the scientific names of many cultivated and well-known medicinal fungal species have been changed, due to the use of molecular genetic methods. These integrative taxonomic works have shown that several well-known and widely cultivated medicinal mushroom species in East Asia, e.g. in Auricularia, Flammulina, Ganoderma, etc. are not identical to the species introduced from Europe or North America (Cao et al. 2012;Wu et al. 2014;Wang et al. 2018Wang et al. , 2021. Recently, the "Fuling" mushroom was also studied by Wu et al. (2020) for this purpose. ...
Article
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In recent years, the scientific names of many cultivated and well-known medicinal fungal species have been changed. However, the results of taxonomic and nomenclature works on these economically important fungi are often overlooked or ignored in applied researches. The incorrect use of scientific names may cause uncertainty in research and in the global medicinal mushroom market. In this paper, we briefly review the current taxonomy and nomenclature of “Fuling” medicinal mushroom and make a proposal for biochemists, pharmacists and businessmen on the correct use of scientific names related to this species. Based on the recent taxonomic results and nomenclatural proposals, the use of the names Wolfiporia extensa, W. cocos and especially Poria cocos for the “Fuling” mushroom are incorrect and misleading; therefore, the acceptance of the names Pachyma hoelen or Wolfiporia hoelen is recommended.
... causes a basal stem rot (BSR) on oil palm trees [2,3], while G. lucidum and G. australe have been used for degradation of environmental pollutants [4,5]. As medicines, Ganoderma fruiting bodies have been used over the last 2000 years to produce drugs used for improving immunity, and in anti-aging and anti-cancer treatments in humans [6][7][8]. For example, spore powder or basidiocarp slices of G. lingzhi Sheng H. Wu, Y. Cao, and Y.C. Dai and G. tsugae Murrill are used in Asian traditional medicine to improve health. ...
... Indeed, this species displayed inconsistence between the two available strains, suggesting a misidentification of G. lucidum G.260125-1 strain which was purchased from a company. According to our study, this strain may pertain to the G. lingzhi which is widely cultivated for its medicinal usage in China [7]. This phylogeny also indicated that Ganoderma sp. ...
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The Ganoderma species in Polyporales are ecologically and economically relevant wood decayers used in traditional medicine, but their genomic traits are still poorly documented. In the present study, we carried out a phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses to better understand the genetic blueprint of this fungal lineage. We investigated seven Ganoderma genomes, including three new genomes, G. australe, G. leucocontextum, and G. lingzhi. The size of the newly sequenced genomes ranged from 60.34 to 84.27 Mb and they encoded 15,007 to 20,460 genes. A total of 58 species, including 40 white-rot fungi, 11 brown-rot fungi, four ectomycorrhizal fungi, one endophyte fungus, and two pathogens in Basidiomycota, were used for phylogenomic analyses based on 143 single-copy genes. It confirmed that Ganoderma species belong to the core polyporoid clade. Comparing to the other selected species, the genomes of the Ganoderma species encoded a larger set of genes involved in terpene metabolism and coding for secreted proteins (CAZymes, lipases, proteases and SSPs). Of note, G. australe has the largest genome size with no obvious genome wide duplication, but showed transposable elements (TEs) expansion and the largest set of terpene gene clusters, suggesting a high ability to produce terpenoids for medicinal treatment. G. australe also encoded the largest set of proteins containing domains for cytochrome P450s, heterokaryon incompatibility and major facilitator families. Besides, the size of G. australe secretome is the largest, including CAZymes (AA9, GH18, A01A), proteases G01, and lipases GGGX, which may enhance the catabolism of cell wall carbohydrates, proteins, and fats during hosts colonization. The current genomic resource will be used to develop further biotechnology and medicinal applications, together with ecological studies of the Ganoderma species.
... Ganoderma species are morphologically characterized by the formation of sessile to stipitate basidiomata, with a glossy reddish laccate to opaque non-laccate cover, ellipsoid to ovoid double-walled basidiospores with truncated apex and endosporium with columnar ornamentations [12]. This cosmopolitan genus is comprised of parasitic and saprophytic species that decay the wood of plants from temperate and tropical areas around the world [6,13,14]. These fungi are described as white rot decayers that play a critical role in the dynamics of wood decomposition in tropical forests [15]. ...
... (= G. lipsiense (Batsch) G.F. Atk.), G. sessile Murrill, G. lucidum P. Karst. and G. resinaceum Boud were distributed out of the southern Neotropics [14,35,36], while others as G. lorenzianum (Kalchbr.) Pat., G. nitens (Fr.) ...
Article
Ganoderma is a cosmopolitan genus that includes a great diversity of species. Many of them have been historically described based only on morphological characteristics; however, due to their morphological plasticity, there is no complete understanding about their relationship and taxonomic status. Commonly applied names, particularly in the southern Neotropics, come from species of North Hemisphere distribution (e.g. G. lucidum, G. resinaceum and G. applanatum). The objective of the present work was to perform a survey of Ganoderma species thriving in Uruguay. We aimed to identify and characterize them through molecular, morphological and ecological analysis. The results confirm the presence of four reddish laccate species first registered for Uruguay (G. dorsale, G. platense, G. martinicense and G. mexicanum), and one non-laccate species (G. australe s.l.) composed of two clades. The species are morphologically differentiated mainly by its stipe, pilear surface, context, pores, basidiospores and cutis cells. Regarding the ecological data, the species present differences in substrate preferences. In addition, a taxonomic discussion regarding phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of Uruguayan Ganoderma species is presented.
... "Lingzhi" is a mushroom that has been renowned in China for more than 2000 years because of its claimed medicinal properties and symbolic fortune, which translates as 'Ganodermataceae' in a broad sense, and in a narrow sense it represents the highly prized medicinal Ganoderma species distributed in East Asia [1]. Its medicinal properties include anti-aging, lowering blood pressure, improving immunity, and preventing and treating various cancers, chronic bronchitis, gastric ulcers, hepatitis, neurasthenia and thrombosis [2][3][4]. ...
... There are many traditional appellations of Ganoderma species, such as "Ling-zhi-cao", "Rui-cao", "Xian-cao" or "Wan-nian-rong" in China and "Rei-shi" in Japan, because of their effectiveness. In 2012, Cao et al., proposed that the East Asian Ganoderma species could be a new fungal taxon different from the European species and was given the name Ganoderma lucidum, also known as "Lingzhi" (Cao et al., 2012). ...
Article
Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki is a rare medicinal mushroom that has been reported to play a role in scavenging free radicals, protecting the liver, and inhibiting tumor cell activity. In this study, crude extracts were prepared, and 47 triterpenoids were identified by Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS). Then, the crude extracts were subjected to column chromatography for the first time to obtain six fractions (Fr. (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f)). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory active tracking assays of all fractions found that Fr. (c) exhibited the strongest bioactivity. Subsequently, the chemical composition of Fr. (c) was clarified, and eight triterpenoids were determined in combination with the standard substances. In addition, this study demonstrated that Fr. (c) reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Further studies showed that Fr. (c) could down-regulate the expression level of proteins associated of NF-κB signaling pathway, and upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 protein level. In conclusion, our study showed that Fr. (c) inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory response and oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and inactivating the NF-κB pathway. In the future, with the clearing of its composition and activity mechanism, Fr. (c) of G. neo-japonicum are expected to become a functional food for health and longevity.
... Â 4.7 lm) (Wang et al., 2009), with minute inter-walled pillars, heterogeneous context (clay buff to fulvous) with melanoid bands, and concentric growth zones on basidiomata. Enlarged bulbous hyphal ends were observed by Cao et al. (2012) in G. multipileum, but not observed in the specimens of this study. Following Chang (1983), the features of stalked basidiomata and pilei growing together of G. multipileum are not observed in G. multistipitatum sp. ...
Article
Background Ganoderma species are in state of flux in Pakistan as well as in the world. This wood-inhabiting basidiomycete diversity in Pakistan is still poorly known. A few species have been introduced from this country; even this country is rich with many Ganoderma species, which still need identification. Methods Ganoderma multistipitatum sp. nov. is described from Lahore, Punjab Pakistan by using the morpho-anatomical (via naked eye and compound microscope) characters and molecular data from the ITS regions of DNA. The specimens used in this study collected from the Botanical Garden of Government College University Lahore. The G. multistipitatum sp. nov. is, to date, only known from Lahore on Chir pine tree. Results Morphologically, this species is characterized by laccate orange, brown basidiomata, maroon, brown multi stipitate, and anatomically by ellipsoid basidiospores (10.24–11.2 × 5.3–5.4 µm) and trimitic hyphal system. The G. multistipitatum sp. nov. is the 21st species from the genus Ganoderma known from Pakistan. This new species is also described with photographs, line drawings and compared with nearby taxa of the phylogenetic tree constructed by software MEGA10. This species resembled with typical G. lucidum, but the ITS DNA sequences of this species were much far away from G. multistipitatum sp. nov. ones. Conclusion The phylogeny based on ITS sequences supported this as a new distinct species, which finally compared with closely matrixed G. multipileum and related allies. The aim of this study was to introduce the new species from genus Ganoderma, which is a major contribution in biodiversity of the world.
... /fmicb. . used as traditional medicine for anti-cancer treatment, for lowering blood pressure, and for improving immunity (Wang et al., 1993;Dai et al., 2009;Cao et al., 2012;Chan et al., 2013;Jiao et al., 2013;Li et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2015;Fung et al., 2017;Xiao et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2019). As white-rot fungi, some species like G. australe, G. lingzhi, G. lucidum, and A. rugosum can secrete a series of carbohydrate hydrolase, peroxidase enzymes, and laccases to degrade the organic matters in forests, and this performance has been widely used as biofuel, for industrial applications and pollution abatement (Jong et al., 2017;Si et al., 2019Si et al., , 2021Wang et al., 2021). ...
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Sanguinoderma is distributed in tropical and subtropical areas as a member of Amauroderma s. lat., and the economic values of Sanguinoderma led to high attention in the taxonomic studies. Previously, 16 species have been developed into Sanguinoderma. In this study, the taxonomic system of Sanguinoderma was reconducted based on morphological and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses, especially making a distinction for Sanguinoderma rugosum complex. Morphological analysis was based on the notes of macro- and micro morphological observations. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses were used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses inferred from combined dataset of ITS, nLSU, rpb2, tef1, mtSSU, and nSSU. Combined with morphological characters and phylogenetic evidence, the results demonstrated that S. rugosum complex consists of five taxa, in which Sanguinoderma leucomarginatum was described as a new species, and it is characterized by the orbicular pilei with white to buff margin when fresh and clavate apical cells of pileipellis with septa. In addition, Amauroderma preussii was transferred to Sanguinoderma as a new combination due to its blood-red color-changed pore surface; it is characterized by the funnel-shaped, greyish brown, and glabrous pilei with strongly incurved margin. Detailed descriptions and photographs of the two species were provided. With the extension of this study, 18 species were accepted in Sanguinoderma, and 12 species among them were distributed in China. A key to accepted species of Sanguinoderma was also provided.
... Ganoderma lucidum (GL, commonly known as 'Lingzhi' in Chinese or 'Reishi' in Japanese) is a traditional medicinal mushroom, which has been consumed for a long time for its high nutritive and medicinal properties (Cao et al., 2012). GL and its byproducts have multiple biological functions, including melanin synthesis inhibition and gut microbiota regulation, and possess anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties (Bishop et al., 2015;Chang et al., 2015). ...
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Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is a well-known medicinal mushroom that has been extensively cultivated. Our previous study has shown that abundant Trichoderma colonies grow on the casing soil surface, posing cultivation obstacles for GL. However, an understanding of species-level characteristics of Trichoderma strains and their adverse effects on GL growth is limited. This study aimed to investigate the diversity and potential effects of Trichoderma from GL-cultivated soils. Over 700 Trichoderma isolates were collected from two trails in Longquan Country, southeast China. Eight Trichoderma species, including T. atrioviride, T. guizhouense, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningiopsis, T. pleuroticola, T. sp. irale, and T. virens, were identified based on the combination alignment of tef-1α and rpb2 sequences. The number of Trichoderma colonies increased dramatically during GL cultivation, with an increase of 9.2-fold in the Lanju trail. T. virens accounted for the most colonies (33.33 and 32.50% in Lanju and Chengbei, respectively) at the end of GL cultivation. The Trichoderma species growth varied but was satisfactory under different temperature or pH conditions. Moreover, Trichoderma species showed different adverse effects on GL growth. The non-volatile metabolites from T. virens and volatile metabolites from T. atroviride displayed the strongest antagonistic activity. Furthermore, the volatile 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6-PP) showed a significant inhibitory effect on GL growth with an 8.79 μl mL−1 headspace of 50% effective concentration. The different Trichoderma spp. produced different amounts of 6-PP. The most efficient 6-PP producer was T. atroviride. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the abundance of competitive Trichoderma species associated with GL cultivation. Our results would contribute to.
... In some wood decay fungi, it is common to treat the geographical distribution as an important indicator to distinguish species. Asian Ganoderma lucidum was proposed to Ganoderma lingzhi (Cao et al., 2012) and the cosmopolitan polypore Laetiporus sulphureus was separated into several species by continents (Vasaitis et al., 2009;Song et al., 2018). ...
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Phylogenetic and morphological analyses on samples of Fistulina from East Asia and North America were carried out, and two new species were described, namely, Fistulina americana and Fistulina orientalis, both previously known as Fistulina hepatica. The former is characterized by lateral stipitate basidiocarps, relatively small pores (7-8 per mm), a monomitic hyphal system with both clamp connections and simple septa, and ellipsoid basidiospores of 4-4.8 × 3-3.3 µm, and the species has been found on Quercus in NorthEast USA. F. orientalis is characterized by lateral stipitate basidiocarps, very small pores (11-12 per mm) with pruinose dissepiments, a monomitic hyphal system with both clamp connections and simple septa, and ovoid to subglobose basidiospores of 3-4 × 2.7-3 µm, and the species has been found on Castanopsis in East Asia. Phylogenetically, samples of F. americana and F. orientalis form two new lineages nested in the Fistulina clade.
... lucidum) has been used as an herbal medicine and functional food for more than 2000 years in China [1]. The medicinal value of G. lucidum was reported as early as 100 BC in Shennong's Canon of Materia Medica [2]. Chinese folklore regarded the fruit body of G. lucidum as a panacea that could cure many diseases [3]. ...
Article
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) has attracted increasing attention owing to its multiple pharmacological effects. However, the establishment of a structure-bioactivity relationship is possible only if highly purified and accurately characterized GLP is used. In this study, a combined technique based on asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4), ultrafiltration, and the Sevag method was developed to improve the purification process of GLP. Deionized water was used throughout this study which avoids the dialysis desalting process. Furthermore, the molecular weight (Mw) and radius of gyration (Rg) of the purified GLP were characterized by AF4 coupled online ultraviolet–visible (UV), multiangle light scattering (MALS), and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors (AF4-UV-MALS-dRI). The results demonstrated that after removal of the larger size proteins, one highly purified GLP fraction (polysaccharide content of 108.37 ± 0.45%) and its structural information (i.e., Mw, Rg, and apparent density) were obtained in a single run owing to a combination of mechanisms of ultrafiltration and AF4 separation. The results suggested that the method developed in this study for separation, purification, and characterization of GLP is highly efficient, which could help to better understand its structure-function relationships.
... Ganoderma lingzhi, a traditional medicinal mushroom, has been used in Asia for thousands of years to treat various human diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, chronic hepatitis, heart disease, and hypertension [4][5][6][7]. These activities are due to a critical bioactive compound, G. lingzhi polysaccharide (GL-PS). ...
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Polysaccharides have attracted much attention in the food industry due to their diverse biological activities. To date, research on the mechanism of polysaccharide synthesis has mainly focused on the role of crucial enzymes in the polysaccharide synthesis pathway, but other genes that regulate polysaccharide synthesis have not been well explored. In this study, the GlPP2C1 gene, encoding a phosphoprotein type 2C phosphatase, was cloned, and PP2C-silenced strains (PP2C1i-1 and PP2C1i-3) were screened. Measurements of the polysaccharide content and cell wall tolerance revealed that GlPP2C1 silencing increased the polysaccharide content and enhanced cell wall resistance in Ganoderma lingzhi. The contents of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS), extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and β-1,3-D-glucan in PP2C-silenced strains were increased by 25%, 33% and 36%, respectively, compared with those in the WT strains and strains transformed with an empty vector. Further mechanistic studies showed that GlPP2C1 silencing increased the content of Ganoderma lingzhi polysaccharides (GL-PS) through Slt2. In summary, this study revealed the mechanism through which protein phosphatase regulates GL-PS biosynthesis for the first time.
... However, the limited and overlapped morphological features led to confusion in the accurate classification of Ganoderma species [5,19]. The phenomenon of synonyms and homonyms is very prevalent in cultivation and product development of Ganoderma species, which limits the large-scale development and utilization of this important medicinal fungus [20,21]. The mitogenome is an effective tool to understand the phylogenetic relationship of species [89][90][91]. ...
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Ganoderma species are widely distributed in the world with high diversity. Some species are considered to be pathogenic fungi while others are used as traditional medicine in Asia. In this study, we sequenced and assembled four Ganoderma complete mitogenomes, including G. subamboinense s118, G. lucidum s37, G. lingzhi s62, and G. lingzhi s74. The sizes of the four mitogenomes ranged from 50,603 to 73,416 bp. All Ganoderma specimens had a full set of core protein-coding genes (PCGs), and the rps3 gene of Ganoderma species was detected to be under positive or relaxed selection. We found that the non-conserved PCGs, which encode RNA polymerases, DNA polymerases, homing endonucleases, and unknown functional proteins, are dynamic within and between Ganoderma species. Introns were thought to be the main contributing factor in Ganoderma mitogenome size variation (p < 0.01). Frequent intron loss/gain events were detected within and between Ganoderma species. The mitogenome of G. lucidum s26 gained intron P637 in the cox3 gene compared with the other two G. lucidum mitogenomes. In addition, some rare introns in Ganoderma were detected in distinct Basidiomycetes, indicating potential gene transfer events. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed that gene arrangements also varied within and between Ganoderma mitogenomes. Using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods with a combined mitochondrial gene dataset, phylogenetic analyses generated identical, well-supported tree topologies for 71 Agaricomycetes species. This study reveals intraspecific and interspecific variations of the Ganoderma mitogenomes, which promotes the understanding of the origin, evolution, and genetic diversity of Ganoderma species.
... Total DNA was extracted from dried specimens with a rapid plant genome extraction kit (Aidlab Biotechnologies Co., Ltd, Beijing, China), modified following Cao et al. (2012) and Zhao and Cui (2013). The internal transcribed spacers (ITS), large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA), partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit one gene (rpb1) and subunit two gene (rpb2), and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1α) were amplified with primer pairs ITS 4 (5 -TCC TCC GCT TAT TGATAT GC-3 ) and ITS 5 (5 -GGA AGT AAA AGT CGT AAC AAG G-3 ; White et al., 1990), LR0R (5 -ACC CGC TGA ACT TAA GC-3 ) and LR7 (5 -TAC TAC CAC CAA GAT CT-3 ), RPB1-Af (5 -GAR TGY CCD GGD CAY TTY GG-3 ) and RPB1-Cf (5 -CCN GCD ATN TCR TTR TCC ATR TA-3 ; Amylocorticium cebennense HHB 2808 ...
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Species of Onnia are important tree pathogens and play a crucial role in forest ecosystems. The species diversity and distribution of Onnia have been studied, however, its evolutionary history is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Onnia using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence data. Molecular clock analyses developed the divergence times of Onnia based on a dataset (ITS + LSU rDNA + rpb1 + rpb2 + tef1α). Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) was used to reconstruct the historical biogeography for the genus Onnia with a Dispersal Extinction Cladogenesis (DEC) model. Here, we provide a robust phylogeny of Onnia, with a description of a new species, Onnia himalayana from Yunnan Province, China. Molecular clock analyses suggested that the common ancestor of Onnia and Porodaedalea emerged in the Paleogene period with full support and a mean stem age of 56.9 Mya (95% highest posterior density of 35.9-81.6 Mya), and most species occurred in the Neogene period. Biogeographic studies suggest that Asia, especially in the Hengduan-Himalayan region, is probably the ancestral area. Five dispersals and two vicariances indicate that species of Onnia were rapidly diversified. Speciation occurred in the Old World and New World due to geographic separation. This study is the first inference of the divergence times, biogeography, and speciation of the genus Onnia.
... [3,4]. Ganoderma sichuanense, described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum, an oriental fungus, has a long history in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for promoting health and longevity [5,6]. The mushroom is famous for its pharmacological effects [7,8] and is widely cultivated in northeastern China. ...
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Edible and medicinal mushrooms are extensively cultivated and commercially consumed around the world. However, green mold disease (causal agent, Trichoderma spp.) has resulted in severe crop losses on mushroom farms worldwide in recent years and has become an obstacle to the development of the Ganoderma industry in China. In this study, a new species and a new fungal pathogen on Ganoderma sichuanense fruitbodies were identified based on the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of two genes, the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) and the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. The new species, Trichoderma ganodermatigerum sp. nov., belongs to the Harzianum clade, and the new fungal pathogen was identified as Trichoderma koningiopsis. Furthermore, in order to better understand the interaction between Trichoderma and mushrooms, as well as the potential biocontrol value of pathogenic Trichoderma, we summarized the Trichoderma species and their mushroom hosts as best as possible, and the phylogenetic relationships within mushroom pathogenic Trichoderma species were discussed.
... Ganoderma multipileum is recognized morphologically based on three features: basidiomes with pilei or with some stipes and pilei growing together, mostly regular clavate crustohymeniderm cells, and truncated ellipsoid basidiospores with free fine pillars (Wang & al. 2009, Zhou & al. 2015. According to Cao & al. (2012) G. multipileum inhabits fabaceous hosts and is distinguished from G. sichuanense (as G. lingzhi Sheng H. Wu & al.) by its "distinct concentric growth zones in context at maturity, and finely echinulate basidiospores. " These primary diagnostic features are also seen in the Pakistani specimens of G. multipileum (Fig. 2). ...
Article
New records of Ganoderma multipileum and Tomophagus cattienensis collected from Changa Manga Forest and Lahore, Pakistan, are presented based on morphological and nuclear rDNA ITS sequence data from fresh basidiomata. Specimens previously treated as G. lucidum from Pakistan were reviewed and found to represent different species, among them G. multipileum . Specimens of T. cattienensis determined for the first time from Pakistan presented morphological features similar to T. colossus but corresponded molecularly to T. cattienensis; the morphological description for T. cattienensis is expanded accordingly.
... However, the taxonomy of the G. lucidum species complex is problematic and species concepts in this group lack consensus in morphology. For example, the evidence has emerged that one of the most widely used medicinal species G. lucidum is, in fact, a different species and was recently described as G. lingzhi (Cao et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroom species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region. Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition.The aim of this chapter is to introduce the main problems in the study of wild growing medicinal mushroom species by presenting the research from the period 2005–2020, with special emphasis on autochthonous species of Serbia and the Balkan region.Four major problems have been discussed regarding identification of the species, their biodiversity, chemical characterization, and environmental contamination, since they represent a great source of bioactive compounds with various activities: antioxidative, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anti-AChE inhibition. A proper taxonomic identification is the first step in the further research. The identification is difficult due to similarity of morphological characteristics, especially within species complexes such as Pleurotus and Ganoderma . Molecular identification through multi-gene phylogenetic analysis helped to resolve some of these issues while full genome sequencing enabled annotation of genes, as it was done with Schizophyllum commune and Hericium erinaceus .Chemical characterization of the secondary bioactive compounds mostly confirmed the existence of terpenoids, phenols, and sterols, while polysaccharides and immunomodulatory proteins including polysaccharide-peptide complexes have been identified recently. Although wild fungal strains represent powerful sources of medicinal substances, they can also pose a potential risk to human health through (hyper) accumulation of toxic elements (e.g. Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, 238U, and 137Cs) from different substrates, not only in the polluted urban environments, but also in protected natural areas. Their use should be well reasoned and controlled along with their conservation and protection.KeywordsAntioxidantsCosmeceuticalsDiversityMolecular identificationToxic elements
... Introduction G. lucidum is a medicinal mushroom widely known in eastern Asia as "Lingzhi" or "Reishi". It has been used in China for many thousand years as a medicinal fungus (Cao et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2017). Currently, it serves in the field of modern medicine, traditional medicine and cosmeceuticals due to its diverse biological activities in various human diseases (Bulam et al., 2019;Ahmad, 2013a). ...
Article
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) main attractive pharmacological characteristics are antitumor and immunomodulatory activities which are chiefly associated with its two principal bioactive compounds, those are polysaccharides and triterpenoids. Ganoderic acids (GAs) are one of the most discovered triterpenoids of G. lucidum among various triterpenoids. The prominent medicinal mushroom G. lucidum possesses GAs as essential bioactive constituents that are highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids. GAs exhibit diverse potential action against numerous diseases such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, cardioprotective, antiallergic, antihepatotoxic, neuroprotective and antinociceptive properties. GAs act through different mechanisms that include cytotoxic, apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest, inhibition of topoisomerases, antiproliferation, anti-invasion, inhibition of NF-kB AP1/uPA, farnesyl protein transferase and JAK-STAT3 pathway. The miraculous effects of GAs fascinate the researchers for their production. Various environmental factors such as biochemical signals, nutritional and physical that influence the biosynthesis of GA. However, the scarcities of pure compounds or accurately characterized extracts are the main problem of clinical studies. Substantial steps are required for characterized extracts of active compounds. This review contributes a thorough insight into the mode of actions of GAs and their possible reinforcements to overcome various diseases.
... complex. With expansion of molecular methods, the phylogenetic analyses became beneficial for assessing taxonomic complexity of this genus [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Authors use multilocus phylogeny which generated robust species identification and differentiation in the last decade. ...
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Ganoderma P. Karst. is a genus of wood decaying fungi with complicated taxonomy due to morphological variability of their basidiomata. Although a wide range of host plants is assumed for the genus as a whole, there is a need for revision of the host specificity of individual species. Based on revision of mycological collections across the Czech Republic we analyzed the ecological trends of six European species, including host preferences and propensity to parasitism. Individual Ganoderma species were sampled differentially along vegetation categories, with G. adspersum (Schulzer) Donk prevailing in habitats with high anthropogenic factors and G. applanatum (Pers.) Pat. in natural vegetation with limited anthropogenic influence, differing also in average altitude of sampling. The number of host species of individual Ganoderma spp. did not reach an asymptote, suggesting an open host plasticity and great potential for finding new host associations in future. Very distinct host compositions were found for individual Ganoderma species, at the genus level, with G. applanatum being the least host specific. Individual Ganoderma species differ also in their tendency to parasitic life strategy. The proportion of parasites increases with decreasing vegetation category and it is therefore higher in urban than natural environment, especially on hardwood trees.
... The health benefits of the various Ganoderma species and their compounds responsible for beneficial effects are intensely studied worldwide [23][24][25][26]. The most studied Ganoderma species, which has been described in traditional Asian medicine under several popular names (such as "Lingzhi" in China or "Reishi" in Japan) is taxonomically identical with G. lingzhi [27][28][29]. However, G. lingzhi is commercially sold under the name of G. lucidum [30] and this scientific binomial has widely been used incorrectly for the commercially cultivated East Asian medicinal mushroom [31]. ...
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Probiotic L. acidophilus La-14 cells were co-encapsulated with Ganoderma lingzhi extract to prolong the viability of the cells under simulated gastrointestinal (SGI) condition and to protect the active ingredients of Reishi mushroom during the storage period. Combinations of distinctive reagents (sodium alginate, chitosan, maltose, Hydroxyethyl-cellulose (HEC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and calcium lactate) were tested. Optimal double layer Ca-alginate hydrogel beads were fabricated with significantly improved characteristics. The incorporation of maltose significantly decreases the release rate of mushrooms' phenolics, antioxidants, and β-glucan during the storage time. Significant improvement in probiotic cells viability under SGI condition has been found and confirmed by confocal laser microscopy in maltose containing double layer coated calcium alginate beads variants. The encapsulation of newly formulated prebiotic Reishi extract and probiotic L. acidophilus is creating a new potential food application for such medicinal mushrooms and natural products with unpleasant taste upon oral consumption.
... In traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma lucidum occupies an important place and is also known as the 'elixir of life' and the 'mushroom of immortality' (Fang and Zhong, 2002). G. lucidum also contains 400 bioactive compounds with copious levels of triterpenes and polysaccharides that are known to possess antitumour, antiinflammatory, antioxidant hepato-protective, antimicrobial, hypotensive, antidiabetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities (Cao et al., 2012;Darija Cor et al., 2018). The medicinal attributes of G.lucidum has been used for centuries and led to the fast growth of mushroom nutraceuticals in the market. ...
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Aim: The present study was formulated with an aim to evaluate different locally available residues from trees such as mixed saw dust, saw dust of coconut wood log, coconut leaf stalks/petiole, coconut coir waste, saw dust of areca nut wood log for cultivation of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Methodology: Locally available agro residues viz., mixed saw dust, saw dust of coconut wood log, chopped coconut leaf stalks/petiole, coconut coir waste, saw dust of areca nut wood log were mixed with 20% wheat bran as supplement and packed in bags at 175 g/bag, autoclaved and aseptically inoculated with grain spawn of G. lucidum and provided with different temperature and humidity conditions for production of fruiting bodies. Results: Among the substrates, coconut wood log saw dust supported early spawn run within 46.5 days and early pinhead production on day 54 followed by pinhead expansion in 62.3 days and first harvest within 70.5 days. The average number of fruiting bodies were also higher (5.75 numbers/bag) with an average weight of 13.5 g/fruiting body that gave significantly higher yield of 77.5 g/175 g substrate with bioefficiency of 44.3% in a cropping cycle of 100.5 days compared to other substrates. Interpretation: The results show that coconut wood log saw dust substrate offers great scope for artificial cultivation of G. lucidum with a significant bioefficiency of 44.3 %.
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Ganoderma multipileum was initially discovered in Taiwan as a wood decay fungus on many host plants. However, the detailed taxonomy of this genus has suffered from a lack of in-depth investigation. In this study, the classification of these fungi was described based on their morphology, the phylogeny of three regions (ITS, RPB2, and TEF1 sequences), and the assessment of scanning electron microscope photographs of basidiospores. In addition, the similarities and differences in the characteristics of this mushroom in comparison to related species were analyzed and discussed from morphological and phylogenetic perspectives. The results indicate that G. multipileum was newly recorded in Vietnam, and its relation to ornamental plant die-back is noted.
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Research progress of active compounds and biological activities of medicinal mushroom-Ganoderma spp., Hericium spp., Phellinus spp., and Cordyceps spp. were summarized systematically. The main active compounds of medicinal mushrooms included are polysaccharides, proteins, triterpenes, meroterpenoids, polyphenols and nitrogen-containing compounds. The biological activities of the compounds cover immunomodulatory activity, antitumor activity, hypoglycemic activity, hepatoprotective activity, and activity of regulation of intellectual flora.
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This study aimed to investigate the impact of the replanting of basswood Ganoderma lingzhi on the soil bacterial community and reveal the obstacle phenomenon of replanting basswood G. lingzhi. In this study, the soil bacterial community of wild 20 cm (N0a) and 40 cm deep soil (N0b), cultivated once (N1a, N1b) and twice (N2a, N2b), were investigated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The predominant bacterial phyla at the phylum classification level were Ac-idobacteria, Chloracidobacteria, Nitrospira, Spartobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria-6. Still, only the relative abundance of Chloracidobacteria and Acidobacteriia increased after two years of replanting of basswood G. lingzhi. At the genus level, the dominant genus included many unclassified bacteria. Among the known genera, the best genus was DA101, which showed a decreasing trend after two years of replanting. Network analysis showed that more connections of bacterial communities were observed in soil samples of the group “a,” indicating that the replanting of basswood G. lingzhi can affect the relationship between soil bacterial communities at depths. The phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis showed that the gene metabolism function of soil bacteria was quite different after one year of replanting basswood G. lingzhi. The replanting of basswood G. lingzhi changed the composition and function of the soil bacterial community, and also affected the bacterial community diversity in the soil at different depths.
Thesis
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Le ganoderme luisant est considéré, en Asie, dès les dynasties mythiques puis impériales chinoises comme une panacée, d’une part à cause de sa rareté, mais aussi grâce à ses nombreuses vertus décrites dans les anciens ouvrages. L’identification et les recherches sur ce champignon ont été longtemps difficiles à cause de sa rareté dans la nature. Cependant, les nouvelles méthodes de culture découvertes au XXe siècle ont permis aux chercheurs d’approfondir les recherches sur ce champignon. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, nous étudions ce champignon des points de vue de la médecine chinoise traditionnelle et de la médecine moderne chinoise. En effet, en médecine chinoise traditionnelle, ce champignon est apprécié pour ses nombreuses vertus en accord avec la théorie des cinq éléments, qui permettent de cibler plusieurs maladies. Pour conforter l’utilisation du ganoderme en médecine moderne chinoise, des études récentes ont permis de mettre en évidence plusieurs propriétés intéressantes comme les activités immunomodulatrices, antitumorales, anti-oxydantes et antiinflammatoires. Le défi majeur, à ce jour, pour les chercheurs, consisterait à prouver l’efficacité de ce champignon grâce à de nouveaux outils comme le Q-Marker afin de lui donner enfin une véritable place dans l’arsenal thérapeutique et en particulier dans le domaine de l’oncologie. _______ Mots clés : Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi), médecine chinoise traditionnelle, théorie des cinq éléments, taxonomie, polypores, triterpènes, polysaccharides, activités thérapeutiques, complément alimentaire
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Ganodermataceae is one of the main families of macrofungi since species in the family are both ecologically and economically important. The double-walled basidiospores with ornamented endospore walls are the characteristic features of Ganodermataceae . It is a large and complex family; although many studies have focused on Ganodermataceae , the global diversity, geographic distribution, taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of Ganodermataceae still remained incompletely understood. In this work, taxonomic and phylogenetic studies on worldwide species of Ganodermataceae were carried out by morphological examination and molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from six gene loci including the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU), the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene ( rpb2 ), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene ( tef1 ), the small subunit mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU) and the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nSSU). A total of 1 382 sequences were used in the phylogenetic analyses, of which 817 were newly generated, including 132 sequences of ITS, 139 sequences of nLSU, 83 sequences of rpb2 , 124 sequences of tef1 , 150 sequences of mtSSU and 189 sequences of nSSU. The combined six-gene dataset included sequences from 391 specimens representing 146 taxa from Ganodermataceae . Based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses, 14 genera were confirmed in Ganodermataceae : Amauroderma , Amaurodermellus , Cristataspora , Foraminispora , Furtadoella , Ganoderma , Haddowia , Humphreya , Magoderna , Neoganoderma , Sanguinoderma , Sinoganoderma , Tomophagus and Trachydermella . Among these genera, Neoganoderma gen. nov. is proposed for Ganoderma neurosporum ; Sinoganoderma gen. nov. is proposed for Ganoderma shandongense ; Furtadoella gen. nov. is proposed to include taxa previously belonging to Furtadoa since Furtadoa is a homonym of a plant genus in the Araceae ; Trachydermella gen. nov. is proposed to include Trachyderma tsunodae since Trachyderma is a homonym of a lichen genus in the Pannariaceae . Twenty-three new species, viz., Ganoderma acaciicola , G. acontextum , G. alpinum , G. bubalinomarginatum , G. castaneum , G. chuxiongense , G. cocoicola , G. fallax , G. guangxiense , G. puerense , G. subangustisporum , G. subellipsoideum , G. subflexipes , G. sublobatum , G. tongshanense , G. yunlingense , Haddowia macropora , Sanguinoderma guangdongense , Sa. infundibulare , Sa. longistipitum , Sa. melanocarpum , Sa. microsporum and Sa. tricolor are described. In addition, another 33 known species are also described in detail for comparison. Scanning electron micrographs of basidiospores of 10 genera in Ganodermataceae are provided. A key to the accepted genera of Ganodermataceae and keys to the accepted species of Ganoderma , Haddowia , Humphreya , Magoderna , Sanguinoderma and Tomophagus are also provided. In total, 278 species are accepted as members of Ganodermataceae including 59 species distributed in China.
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Ganoderic acids (GAs) and lucidenic acids (LAs) are the two specific triterpene compositions of Ganoderma lucidum. The HPLC fingerprint profile of GAs has been well‐established, but the reports for LAs were rare. In this study, six new lucidenic acids: H2 (1), H3 (2), I2 (3), I3 (4), K (5), L (6) and nine known compounds: lucidenic acids A (7), B (8), C (9), D2 (10), E2 (11), F (12), N (13), P (14), Q (15), were isolated from a strain of G. lucidum fruiting body (YK‐02). A specific fingerprint of the lucidenic acid type (LA‐type) HPLC spectrum comprised of these triterpenes was revealed for the first time. The HPLC spectra of four strains of G. lucidum were investigated and showed identical profiles with the typical ganoderic acid type (GA‐type, strains YK‐01 and BCRC36065) and lucidenic acid type spectra (strains YK‐02 and BCRC36090). The fingerprint profiles can be used in both species and strain identification of G. lucidum. Quantitation of lucidenic acid A by using HPLC was also validated. Fifteen lucidenic acids were isolated fromGanoderma lucidum and used as marker compounds in HPLC analysis. Two types of triterpenoid HPLC spectral patterns, the lucidenic acids (left, BCRC36090) and the ganoderic acids types (right, BCRC36065), were explored for G. lucidum.
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Actualmente, se ha incrementado la producción de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos como una estrategia para disminuir y prevenir enfermedades. En este contexto, los hongos son valorados por su aporte nutrimental a la dieta humana y propiedades funcionales. G. lucidum, hongo no comestible funcional contiene compuestos bioactivos como terpenoides, polisacáridos y proteínas que muestran efectos positivos a la salud. La ingesta de extractos de G. lucidum ha mostrado efectos hipocolesterolemiantes, hipoglucémicos y prebióticos que disminuyen el riesgo de padecer diversas patologías. En México, no se han realizado trabajos acerca de la toxicidad de los extractos mexicanos de G. lucidum (cepa CP-145), además, la escasa información existente que hay a nivel internacional es de especies extranjeras y no puede extrapolarse a las especies mexicanas debido a las diferentes condiciones de crecimiento que modifican las propiedades y contenido del extracto. Por tanto, en el presente estudio se evaluó la toxicidad aguda del extracto de G. lucidum en ratas Wistar acorde al protocolo 423 de la OECD/OCDE. Se formaron 5 grupos experimentales con 6 ratas (3 hembras y 3 machos) cada uno. Se utilizaron dosis orales crecientes del extracto de G. lucidum (300, 1000, 2000 y 5000 mg/kg de peso corporal). Se llevó un registro de la ingesta, peso y comportamiento durante 14 días. Se analizaron parámetros bioquímicos en sangre y orina complementándose con un examen histopatológico de las secciones hepáticas y renales. No se observaron cambios en el comportamiento, ingesta y peso corporal de las ratas. Las concentraciones de glucosa y perfil lipídico en plasma se mantuvieron estables. Los parámetros relacionados con daño hepático (transaminasas) e inflamación (proteína C reactiva) no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos experimentales. Asimismo, en los valores asociados a daño renal (albúmina, creatinina, urea, glucosa en orina y nitrógeno uréico) obtenidos no se observaron cambios significativos que indiquen una lesión o inflamación renal en las ratas. Las histopatologías mostraron citoarquitectura normal, sin daños en los tejidos. Por lo que, la ingesta aguda del extracto de G. lucidum no causó muerte, toxicidad y daño en la función hepática y renal en las ratas en ninguna de las dosis empleadas.
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Based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence, a new species of ganodermatoid fungi is recorded and described from the Brazilian Cerrado. After the species was placed in Furtadoa, this genus name was declared an illegitimate homonym by the Index Fungorum and MycoBank databases, according to Art. 53.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, thus requiring the need to replace Furtadoa. Therefore, Furtadomyces is proposed as the new name for the genus. The new species Furtadomyces sumptuosus is characterized by the combination of large basidiomata, multiple pilei, presence of radial striae on the pilear surface, an involute margin exposing the pore surface, and large, subglobose to ellipsoid (7.2–) 9.1–11.2 (–13.3) × (6.6–) 7.1–8.8 (–10.4) μm, double-walled basidiospores. It is closely related to Furtadoa biseptata, evidenced morphologically by the presence of two different septa in the generative hyphae of the context. Phylogeny, morphological description, illustrations, and comments for F. sumptuosus are presented, as well as two new combinations in Furtadomyces: F. biseptatus and F. brasiliensis.
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Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of medicinal uses in the Far East countries of more than 2000 years due to its healing properties. Recently, G. lucidum has come under scientific scrutiny to evaluate its content of bioactive components that affect human physiology, and has been exploited for potent components in the pharmacology, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics industries. For instance, evidence is accumulating on the potential of this mushroom species as a promising antiviral medicine for treating many viral diseases, such as dengue virus, enterovirus 71, and recently coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Still, more research studies on the biotherapeutic components of G. lucidum are needed to ensure the safety and efficiency of G. lucidum and promote the development of commercial functional foods. This paper provides an extensive overview of the nutraceutical value of Ganoderma lucidum and the development of commercial functional food. Moreover, the geo-origin tracing strategies of this mushroom and its products are discussed, a highly important parameter to ensure product quality and safety. The discussed features will open new avenues and reveal more secrets to widely utilizing this mushroom in many industrial fields; i.e., pharmaceutical and nutritional ones, which will positively reflect the global economy.
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Over the past decades, Ganoderma lingzhi spores have received considerable attention as a great potential pharmaceutical resource. However, the genetic regulation of sporulation is not well understood. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the low-sporing HZ203 and high-sporing YW-1 was performed to characterize the mechanism underlying sporulation. 917 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in HZ203 and 1450 DEGs in YW-1. DEGs involved in sporulation were identified, which included HOP1, Mek1, MSH4, MSH5, and Spo5 in meiosis. Positive regulatory pathways of sporulation were proposed as two transcriptional factors had high connectivity with MSH4 and Spo5. Furthermore, we found that the pathways associated with energy production were enriched in the high-sporing genotype, such as the glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism. Finally, we performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and found that the hub genes of the module which exhibit strong positive relationship with the high-sporing phase purportedly participate in signal transduction, carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The dissection of DEGs during sporulation extends our knowledge about the genetic and molecular networks mediating spore morphogenesis and sheds light on the importance of energy source during sporulation.
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Fungi are eukaryotes that play essential roles in ecosystems. Among fungi, Basidiomycota is one of the major phyla with more than 40,000 described species. We review species diversity of Basidiomycota from five groups with different lifestyles or habitats: saprobic in grass/forest litter, wood-decaying, yeast-like, ectomycorrhizal, and plant parasitic. Case studies of Agaricus, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Gyroporus, Russula, Tricholoma, and groups of lichenicolous yeast-like fungi, rust fungi, and smut fungi are used to determine trends in discovery of biodiversity. In each case study, the number of new species published during 2009–2020 is analysed to determine the rate of discovery. Publication rates differ between taxa and reflect different states of progress for species discovery in different genera. The results showed that lichenicolous yeast-like taxa had the highest publication rate for new species in the past two decades, and it is likely this trend will continue in the next decade. The species discovery rate of plant parasitic basidiomycetes was low in the past ten years, and remained constant in the past 50 years. We also found that the establishment of comprehensive and robust taxonomic systems based on a joint global initiative by mycologists could promote and standardize the recognition of taxa. We estimated that more than 54,000 species of Basidiomycota will be discovered by 2030, and estimate a total of 1.4–4.2 million species of Basidiomycota globally. These numbers illustrate a huge gap between the described and yet unknown diversity in Basidiomycota.
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Ganoderma has long been regarded as one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, particularly in China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula for millennia to enhance longevity and health. Ganoderma and its allied products are a multi-billion-dollar worth industry worldwide. Ganoderma, which is considered an important non-timber forest product (NTFP) in Nepal, has entered the industrial market only a decade ago. Besides the global market, the domestic market has grown dramatically in recent years. Ganoderma is collected in large quantities (about 4-10 tons per year) from Nepalese forests to meet its rising demand and is mostly sold to China in crude form. Since the authority has poor knowledge of the Ganoderma market it is transported with minimal royalty of US$ 0.043/kg under the heading entitled “sadharan chyau”. Almost all of Nepal's Ganoderma comes from natural stands, with the bulk coming from the Karnali (46%) and Far West (50%) provinces. With the great potential for the Ganoderma business, most of the other areas of the country have yet to be fully explored. By establishing processing units and offering locally priced micro-enterprise technologies, there are several opportunities for value addition. However, it looks that sustaining a steady supply of this highly sought mushroom will be tough. Concerns have been expressed about overexploitation of wild Ganoderma obtained in an unsustainable way or at an early stage. For the long-term management of Ganoderma and its habitat protection, a solid local resource monitoring system and scientific intervention for artificial cultivation are required. This study attempts to summarize the trade dynamics and development of the Ganoderma industry in Nepal with reference to the global Ganoderma industry.
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Ganoderma has long been regarded as one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, particularly in China, Japan, and the Korean Peninsula for millennia to enhance longevity and health. Ganoderma and its allied products are a multi-billion-dollar worth industry worldwide. Ganoderma, which is considered an important non-timber forest product (NTFP) in Nepal, has entered the industrial market only a decade ago. Besides the global market, the domestic market has grown dramatically in recent years. Ganoderma is collected in large quantities (about 4-10 tons per year) from Nepalese forests to meet its rising demand and is mostly sold to China in crude form. Since the authority has poor knowledge of the Ganoderma market it is transported with minimal royalty of US$ 0.043/kg under the heading entitled “sadharan chyau”. Almost all of Nepal's Ganoderma comes from natural stands, with the bulk coming from the Karnali (46%) and Far West (50%) provinces. With the great potential for the Ganoderma business, most of the other areas of the country have yet to be fully explored. By establishing processing units and offering locally priced micro-enterprise technologies, there are several opportunities for value addition. However, it looks that sustaining a steady supply of this highly sought mushroom will be tough. Concerns have been expressed about overexploitation of wild Ganoderma obtained in an unsustainable way or at an early stage. For the long-term management of Ganoderma and its habitat protection, a solid local resource monitoring system and scientific intervention for artificial cultivation are required. This study attempts to summarize the trade dynamics and development of the Ganoderma industry in Nepal with reference to the global Ganoderma industry. Keywords – Fungi – Lingzhi – MAPs – Mushroom – NTFPs – Nutraceutical – Trade
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Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the primary active ingredient in G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, it is rarely reported in the prevention and control of plant diseases. In this study, we found that the GLP can increase the germination rates and seedling heights of maize and wheat. We also found that the combination of GLP and chemical fungicides as a seed coating chemical compound has a control effect of more than 75% on the primary soil-borne diseases of the wheat and maize growing areas in both greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, the combination of GLP and chemical fungicides prolongs the lasting period and reduces the application dosage of the chemical fungicides by half. In addition, GLP seed dressing could increase the resistance-related gene expression of the TPS and WRKY53 in maize and WMS533, NbPR1a, and RS33 in wheat. The combination of GLP and low-dose chemical fungicides proved to be an effective way to effectively prevent wheat sharp eyespot, root rot, and maize stalk rot in the wheat and maize continuous cropping areas in the North China Plain and to reduce pesticide use and increase crop yield.
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Ganoderma lingzhi is widely recognized as a medicinal basidiomycetes. Triterpene acids (TAs) are the key bioactive medicinal components of G. lingzhi. Our previous studies have shown that phospholipid acid (PA) produced by phospholipase D (PLD) plays a regulatory role in TA synthesis. In order to further elucidate the molecular mechanism how PA regulates TA synthesis in G. lingzhi, PA beads enrichment combined with LC-MS/MS technology was used to identify PA interacting proteins in G. lingzhi. A total of 19 PA interacting proteins were identified, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (GL22084), specific protein kinase MAPK (GL23765), catalase and cell surface hydrophobicity-associated protein. GST tagged GL22084 and GL23765 proteins were obtained through gene cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The interactions between GL22084/GL23765 and PA were verified by GST pull down assay. The identification of PA interacting proteins provides a basis for further understanding the molecular mechanism how PLD-mediated PA signaling molecules regulates the TA synthesis in G. lingzhi. Moreover, the PA interacting proteins identified in this study can also provide clues for the research of PLD/PA signaling pathway in other species.
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Ganoderma leucocontextum, a newly discovered species of Ganodermataceae in China, has diverse pharmacological activities. G. leucocontextum was widely cultivated in southwest China, but the systematic genetic study has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Herein, we present the first whole-genome assembly of G. leucocontextum based on the Illumina and Nanopore platform from high-quality DNA extracted from a monokaryon strain (DH-8). The generated genome was 50.05 Mb in size with a N50 scaffold size of 3.06 Mb, 78,206 coding sequences and 13,390 putative genes. Genome completeness was assessed using the Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) tool, which identified 96.55% of the 280 Fungi BUSCO genes. Furthermore, differences in functional genes of secondary metabolites (terpenoids) were analyzed between G. leucocontextum and G. lucidum. G. leucocontextum has more genes related to terpenoids synthesis compared to G. lucidum, which may be one of the reasons why they exhibit different biological activities. This is the first genome assembly and annotation for G. leucocontextum, which would enrich the toolbox for biological and genetic studies in G. leucocontextum.
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Characteristics and structures of mt SSU rDNA were investigated for the phylogenetic study of Ganoderma. Phylogenetic information was concentrated mostly in the V1, V4, V5, V6 and V9 variable domains, but informative sites in conserved domains also significantly contributed in resolving phylogenetic relationships between Ganoderma groups. Secondary structure information of variable domains was found to be a useful marker in delineation of phylogenetic groups. Strains of Ganoderma species used in this study were divided into six monophyletic groups. Ganoderma colossus made a distinct basal lineage from other Ganoderma species and Tomophagus, created for G. colosuss, appeared to be a valid genus. Ganoderma applanatum and G. lobatum classified in subgenus Elfvingia made a monophyletic group. Ganoderma tsugae from North America and G. valesiacum from Europe, both living on conifers, were closely related. Ganoderma oregonense and strains labeled G. lucidum from Europe and Canada were grouped with G. tsugae and G. valesiacum. Strains labeled G. lucidum living on hardwoods from the United States and Taiwan were grouped with G. resinaceum, G. pfeifferi and G. subamboinense var. laevisporum, and they all produced chlamydospores. Two strains labeled G. lucidum and three strains labeled G. resinaceum from America were concluded to be conspecific. Strains labeled G. lucidum from Korea and Japan were monophyletic and were distinguished from strains labeled G. lucidum from Europe and North America. Host relationships and the presence of chlamydospores in culture proved to be important characteristics in the systematics as well as the phylogenetic relationships of Ganoderma.
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The investigation and utilization of medicinal fungi in China has received considerable attention in recent years. However, information on medicinal fungi is scattered throughout the literature, and many nomenclatural inconsistencies have been found in the Chinese reports. The publications on Chinese medicinal fungi have been critically checked; as a result, 540 medicinal mushrooms and fungi from China were enumerated in the present checklist. All names have been checked or revised in accordance with contemporary taxonomy and the latest version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). The "out-of-date" names, illegitimate names, nonexistent names, and misapplied names in previous reports were revised. The common synonyms are listed after their valid names. The main medicinal functions of each species, together with the original or important references, are provided. The 540 species belonging to 10 classes, 26 orders, 76 families, and 199 genera of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have been recorded with medicinal values. Most are the higher Basidiomycetes (482 species), which comprise approximately 89% of all the Chinese medicinal species. In total, 126 medicinal functions are thought to be provided by Chinese medicinal fungi, and 331 (61% of the total medicinal fungi) can be used as antitumor agents. Other common functions are hemostasis, antibacterial, improving immunity, detoxication, and anti-inflammatory. Fifteen species, including Ganoderma lucidum, are the most important or commonly used medicinal fungi, and 26 species, including Agaricus bisporus, are commonly cultivated in China as food or for medicinal products.
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Fungal Diversity, 55 (1), 1-35 (2012). Medicinal mushrooms have been valued as natural sources of bioactive compounds since times immemorial and have been recognized as potential immunomodulating and anti-cancer agents. Their consumption has consistently been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Cancer is a generic term for several types of diseases that can be chronic and are responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide. Although there has been considerable progress in modern cancer therapy research, difficulties in understanding the molecular behavior of various types of cancers and the numerous side effects experienced by patients from treatments means that this whole subject area is still problematic. Thus, biological immunotherapy using natural bioactive compounds as supportive treatments in conventional cancer therapies has become in vogue. Bioactive metabolites isolated from medicinal mushrooms have shown potential successes in cancer treatment as biological immunotherapeutic agents that stimulate the immune system against cancer cells. They also act as an effective source of anti-cancer agents, capable of interfering with cellular signal transduction pathways linked to cancer development and progression. In this review we compile available data on the characteristics of medicinal mushrooms that appear to be particularly effective as biological immunotherapeutic agents. Major consideration is given to biological constituents and the putative mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds act on the human body. Consideration is also given to the benefits that have been claimed for the use of mushrooms in treating cancer and the future prospects of using medicinal mushrooms as potent supportive candidate bioagents for treatment of cancers is discussed.
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A proposal was recently made (Redhead & al. in Taxon 55. 2006) to conserve the name Boletus applanatus Pers., and a neotype was selected for it. However, two externally almost indistinguishable species occur in Europe: Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. as commonly understood, and G. adspersum (Schulzer) Donk. In this paper we examine the selected neotype of Boletus applanatus and determine that it conforms to the current European concept of G. applanatum rather than to the superficially similar G. adspersum.
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Using a combination of morphological and molecular data, the genus Micropsalliota is shown to represent a monophyletic lineage in the Agaricaceae sister to Hymenagaricus. Features that distinguish the genus from Agaricus and allied genera include usually small, gracile basidiomes with a membranous partial veil, dextrinoid basidiospores with an apically thickened endosporium and lack of a germ pore, capitate or subcapitate, conspicuous cheilocystidia, and incrusted pileipellis hyphae that turn green in ammonia solution. We provide a monographic treatment of 23 taxa of Micropsalliota from Northern Thailand, of which 13 taxa represent new distribution reports for Thailand and 10 represent new taxa, including M. allantoidea, M. bifida, M. furfuracea, M. lateritia var. vinaceipes, M. megarubescens, M. megaspora, M. pusillissima, M. rubrobrunnescens var. rubrobrunnescens, M. rubrobrunnescens var. tibiicystis, and M. suthepensis. Included in this monograph are comprehensive descriptions, illustrations of micromorphological features, photographs of basidiomes, comparisons with allied species, phylogenetic trees inferring relationships amongst Thai species based on nrITS and nrLSU sequence datasets, and a key to aid in diagnosis. KeywordsAgaricaceae- Agaricus - Hymenagaricus -Phylogenetic analyses-Taxonomy-Tropics
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Fruiting bodies of some wild and cultivatable mushrooms contain medicinal compounds which are being used in traditional medicines and cosmetics. There are numerous potential medicinal products from mushrooms that could be used in cosmeceuticals (products applied topically, such as creams, lotions, and ointments) or nutricosmetics (products that are ingested orally). This paper provides a review of the fungi presently used in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics with some examples of cosmetic types and products. Species presently used, or patented to be used, in cosmeceuticals and nutricosmetics include Agaricus subrufescens (= A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) Choiromyces maeandriformis Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hypsizygus ulmarium, Inonotus obliquus, Lentinula edodes, Polyporus spp., Trametes versicolor, Tremella fuciformis, Tuber spp., Schizophyllum commune and many other lesser used taxa. Cosmetics incorporating fungi include those for skin care such as anti-aging, anti-oxidants, skin revitalizing, skin whitening and hair products. The mushrooms presently used are traditionally known to produce medicinal compounds and thus were the first to be incorporated in cosmetic applications. There are, however, numerous other mushroom species that are untested, undescribed or not yet cultivatable and that have huge potential for use in the cosmetic industry. Some fungi are also used in biotransformation and the products such as lactic acid and ceramides could potentially be used in cosmetics. KeywordsAnti-aging-Anti-oxidants-Cosmeceuticals-Medicinal fungi-Nutricosmetics-Skin whitening
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Species of the genus Macrolepiota (Agaricaceae) in China were investigated on the basis of morphology and DNA sequences data. Six species, i.e., M. detersa, M. dolichaula, M. mastoidea, M. orientiexcoriata, M. procera, and M. velosa are recognized, of which M. detersa and M. orientiexcoriata are new species. All of them are described and illustrated with line drawings, and a key is provided to those recognized species. The taxonomic uncertainty of M. crustosa, originally described from China, is also discussed. ITS sequences were used to support the new species delimitations and to test the conspecificity between the Chinese specimens and their relatives from other continents. Phylogenetic analyses identify three clades within Macrolepiota: /macrolepiota, /macrosporae, and /volvatae clade. /macrolepiota clade and /macrosporae clade respectively correspond to section Macrolepiota and section Macrosporae in Bon’s infrageneric classification. Section Volvatae is proposed to accommodate species with a volva but without clamp connections within Macrolepiota. KeywordsAgaricales-Chlorophyllum-Morphology-Systematics-Taxonomy
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Previous studies of the Ganodermataceae in Taiwan are reviewed. A checklist of the species along with their current taxonomic status is given. Totally 31 names are included, with 26 treated in Ganoderma, three in Amauroderma, and one each in Magoderna and Tomophagus. Among them, 13 species and a variety of Ganoderma, two species of Amauroderma, one species of Magoderna and one species of Tomophagus are recognized. Ganoderma australe is accepted as a species complex. Two names are excluded from the Ganodermataceae, and 11 are currently regarded as synonyms.
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25 species originally described in the Polyporaceae by M. Beeli have been examined. 4 species are accepted in the Polyporaceae, 17 species are reduced to synonymy, 3 species have previously been transferred to the Boletaceae by Heinemann. One name is a nomen nudum. The following new combinations are proposed: Microporellus collybiiformis (Beeli) Ryv. (Polyporus collybiiformis Beeli), Amauroderma kwiluensis (Beeli) Ryv. (Polystictus kwiluensis Beeli).
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— We studied sequence variation in 16S rDNA in 204 individuals from 37 populations of the land snail Candidula unifasciata (Poiret 1801) across the core species range in France, Switzerland, and Germany. Phylogeographic, nested clade, and coalescence analyses were used to elucidate the species evolutionary history. The study revealed the presence of two major evolutionary lineages that evolved in separate refuges in southeast France as result of previous fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Applying a recent extension of the nested clade analysis (Templeton 2001), we inferred that range expansions along river valleys in independent corridors to the north led eventually to a secondary contact zone of the major clades around the Geneva Basin. There is evidence supporting the idea that the formation of the secondary contact zone and the colonization of Germany might be postglacial events. The phylogeographic history inferred for C. unifasciata differs from general biogeographic patterns of postglacial colonization previously identified for other taxa, and it might represent a common model for species with restricted dispersal.
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The taxonomy and phylogeny of Hymenochaete and its allied genera in Hymenochaetaceae in China are studied based on morphological characters and molecular analysis. The morphology of more than 1200 specimens were studied and 123 ITS sequences (including 104 new sequences) of 71 taxa and 94 nLSU rDNA sequences (including 51 new sequences) of 78 taxa of Hymenochaetaceae were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Three new species, Hymenochaete huangshanensis, H. minor and H. tropica are introduced. The genus Pseudochaete is supported by the data presented here, with inclusion of an additional seven species transferred herein from Hymenochaete, Hydnochaete and Cyclomyces. Three species of Hydnochaete and two species of Cyclomyces studied nested within the Hymenochaete clade, and combinations of five species from the two former genera to Hymenochaete are proposed. According to our results, Hymenochaete is a morphologically variable genus composed of taxa with corticioid, hydnoid, lamellate and poroid hymenophores, and this would be the same for Pseudochaete with more taxa included. Fifty species of Hymenochaete and eight species of Pseudochaete have so far been found in China, and identification keys to the two genera are provided.
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Ganoderma mutabile is described as new from Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Morphologically, G. mutabile is characterized by the sessile basidiocarps, laccate and reddish brown pileus, white pore surface, cinnamon to fulvous context, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores (9.7–11.2 × 7–7.8 μm) with coarse echinulae, and the strongly irregular diverticulated cuticle hyphae of diverse shapes. Phylogenetic analysis of nuc-ITS sequences shows that G. mutabile is closely related to the G. applanatum complex.
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An account of the Chinese species of Hymenochaetaceae based on most recent phylogenetic analysis is presented. One hundred and seventy species from 23 genera are recognized; descriptions are provided based on the Chinese collections. Keys to genera and species are given. Phellinopsis gen. nov. is introduced. Coltricia abieticola sp. nov., Coltricia crassa sp. nov., Coltricia macropora sp. nov., Coltricia spina sp. nov., Coltriciella subglobosa sp. nov., Fuscoporia yunnanensis sp. nov. and Inonotus magnisetus sp. nov. are described here as new. Eighteen new combinations, Fulvifomes cesatii, F. chinensis, F. collinus, F. glaucescens, F. inermis, F. johnsonianus, F. kanehirae, F. macgregorii, F. minisporus, F. pullus, F. umbrinellus, Fuscoporia setifera, Inonotus lonicericola, I. tricolor, Phellinopsis conchata, P. occidentalis, Porodaedalea himalayensis and P. yamanoi are proposed. The taxonomy of all species is discussed. Spore dimensions given in this study derive from at least 30 spores of each species, and 10 386 spores were measured from 347 specimens. Two thousand specimens were examined, and they are listed after each species. Colour photos for 140 species are supplied.This report provides a modern treatment of the Hymenochaetaceae of China. To further support the results of morphology, nuclear large subunit (nuc-LSU) sequences from some typical species were selected to reconstruct their phylogeny.
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Ganoderma, a genus of approximately 214 described species has been deemed to be in taxonomic chaos. The difficulties stem from the large numbers of synonymies, widespread misuse of names, typification problems and a paucity of reliable morphological characters. In Australia, all of these problems are represented and the genus is in need of revision. In this study six species of Ganoderma were identified among several collections. A new species, G. steyaertanum sp. nov., is described from Australian and Indonesian material. This species has been commonly mistaken for G. lucidum, a species which is probably restricted to Europe and from which G. steyaertanum is genetically distinct. The remaining species were determined to be G. boninense, G. cupreum, G. incrassatum (a name which has not recently featured in literature), G. australe and G. weberianum. All were verified against type material except G. australe, which is in need of neotypification as the type is lost. G. tornatum, a widely accepted synonym, may take precedence; however, we have been unable to examine the type for verification. Based on morphology, G. polymorphum was identified as a synonym of G. cupreum. On the basis of morphology and previously published rDNA sequence studies, G. microsporum was considered a synonym of G. weberianum. A seventh species, G. colossum, has also been reported from Australia; however the specimen was not available for verification in this study.