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Quadruple Helix as a Way to Bridge the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: The Case of an Innovation System Project in the Baltic Sea Region

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Quadruple Helix as a Way to Bridge the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: The Case of an Innovation System Project in the Baltic Sea Region

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In most developed economies there exist a clear gap between men and women in terms of prevalence of entrepreneurial activity. The gender gap can be traced back to the general perceptions of gender in society, where entrepreneurial venturing is culturally defined as a masculine activity. In this paper, we analyse how such gendered norms are brought into Triple Helix innovation system models, and identify roles and challenges of NGOs in the alternative conceptualization of Quadruple Helix. Based on an exploratory case study of a Quadruple Helix innovation system project in the tourism industry, we find that NGOs may fill four roles in bridging the gender gap: (1) collaborative platforms for women-led SMEs, (2) legitimating and linking women-led SMEs to governmental and academic actors, (3) developing competences and process innovations related to entrepreneurial venturing outside traditional Triple Helix constellations and (4) carrying individual and societal aspects of entrepreneuring.
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... 3. The concepts of the "triple helix" and "quintuple helix" of innovation Carayannis et al. (2012Carayannis et al. ( , 2019, Carayannis and Campbell (2014), Lindberg et al. (2014), Farinha et al. (2016), and based on the initial idea by Etzkowitz (2008). Carayannis et al. (2012Carayannis et al. ( , 2019. ...
... Circulation of knowledge in the "Quintuple Helix of Innovation". Source:Lindberg et al. (2014). ...
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In order to identify the most crucial and promising strategies to enhance public information for better renewable energy sources (RS) implementation in an Eastern European country (here: Ukraine), two dozen expert interviews were performed with stakeholders from the so-called “quintuple helix of innovation”: Research & University, Civil Society & NGOs, Industry & Enterprises, Governance & Administration, and Media. A gap analysis was performed based on the analyses expressed by the Ukrainian interview partners, and a suggestion for the structural improvement of a public RES-oriented website wss provided. It was suggested to use the structure of the main obstacles perceived and to build onto this structure how to solve these key obstacles for further RES increases, namely: • Financial, e.g. how to obtain suitable and cheap credits • Administrative, e.g. how to master the complex application process • Technological, e.g. types of RES installations and how to choose them • Social, e.g. energy cooperatives • Fact-based information on RES. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keywords: Awareness, Renewable Energy Sources, RES, benefits, needs, information, promote RES implementation, assessment, availability of information, public sphere, barriers for RES, five stakeholder groups, quintuple helix, triple helix, innovation, general population
... It arises as a consequence of the fact that the triple helix is not a sufficient condition for innovative long-term growth and that civil society must play an active role in knowledge creation and sustainable growth (Macgregor, Marques-Gou, & Simon-Villar, 2010). Quadruple helix initiatives have recently materialized in several projects in which civil society organizations are intentionally involved in the organization of innovation systems (Lindberg, Lindgren, & Packendorff, 2014). The quadruple helix model focuses on the users of innovation and favors the development of innovations that are suitable for the users (civil society) (E. ...
... G. Carayannis et al., 2012); (Schoonmaker & Carayannis, 2013); (Björk, 2014); (Carayannis & Rakhmatullin, 2014); (Carayannis & Grigoroudis, 2016); ; ; (Del Vecchio et al., 2017); (Mahr, 2017); ; (Charalabidis et al., 2019); (Schütz et al., 2019); (Hasche et al., 2020); (Kang & Jiang, 2020); (Roman et al., 2020); (Terstriep et al., 2020) Media and Cultural Perspective (Salter & Salter, 2010); (Carayannis & Campbell, 2011); (Carayannis et al., 2012); (Casaramona et al., 2015); (Parente et al., 2015); (Distefano et al., 2016); (Carayannis & Grigoroudis, 2016); (van Waart et al., 2016); (Galvão et al., 2017); (E. G. ; (Iqbal et al., 2018); (Galvao et al., 2019); (Carayannis et al., 2019); (Hasche et al., 2020) The perspective of independent not-for-profit organizations (Lindberg et al., 2012); (Klenk & Hickey, 2013); (Lindberg et al., 2014); (Nordberg, 2015); (Dameri et al., 2016); (Kolehmainen et al., 2016); (Aryati, 2017 (Yang & Holgaard, 2012); (Schoonmaker & Carayannis, 2013); (Kimatu, 2015); (Nordberg, 2015); (Parveen et al., 2015); (Kolehmainen et al., 2016); (Ponchek, 2016); (Aryati, 2017); (Van Horne & Dutot, 2017); (Iqbal et al., 2018); (Malva et al., 2018) Conclusions This paper has reviewed the literature on helix relationships and their role in them by civil society. The research has been carried out in two phases. ...
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The literature has shown the importance of incorporating civil society into the regional innovation system to favor companies’ long-term growth. This research aims to carry out a systematic review on the definition and classification of society in the innovation model based on the contexts that relate to the university, business, and government. The results show that the concept of civil society has been approached in the literature from four perspectives: demand-side, media and culture, independent non-profit, and intermediary organizations. These results may help clarify the concept of civil society, having significant implications for academics and companies, and regional innovation agencies that promote the participation of civil society in their innovation systems. © Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Facultad de Economía y Negocios.
... Interaction in the Triple Helix ModelSource:Lindberg, Packendorff, and Lindgren (2014). ...
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Public policy is failing to engage with the freelance work and informal micro businesses, typified by the creative and cultural sector, that drive much innovation and job creation in the 21st century global economy, South and North. Desk research, combined with interviews, surveys, video and practical observation across ten mainly urban locations in the Global South demonstrated the need for new definitions that encompass both formal and informal work and business practices and improve access to finance, skills and social protection. This would enhance the creative and cultural sector’s capacity to drive growth that also contributes to the SDGs. Three key recommendations • Trusted intermediary organisations are the best way for public policy to engage with the rapid changes in informal business practice driven by digital technology, new cultural practice and urban growth. • New definitions of work and business are needed to improve social protection for informal workers and to improve access to finance and skills for marginalised workers. • Better data and definitions would enable simpler, transparent and appropriate forms of business registration that would encourage formalisation, protect traditional work practices and enable the creative energy of the informal sector to benefit the formal economy.
... Another key question remains whether there are other ways of transmitting empirical evidence like ours on the positive effects of increased women's participation in economic life outside of policy or regulatory requirements. In this context, the finding that nongovernmental organizations can play particular roles in bridging the gender gap may be interesting (Lindberg et al., 2014). ...
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Consumer satisfaction is a widespread measure of company success, and it shows positive interdependence with several key performance indicators of an enterprise. Although many researchers emphasize that women directors have a positive influence on the economic success of a firm, little research has focused on the impact that females on a board of directors have on customer satisfaction. This paper resumes previous insights on determinants of customer satisfaction and shows that a more balanced gender representation in corporate governance bodies can positively affect customer satisfaction with a company.
... [162][163]. Yet, helix models are crucial, since they understand innovations as complex processes embedded in the nexus of institutional agents and cultural aspects [138] (p. 5), thus making proximity an important precondition for both knowledge generation, exchange and transfer [139] (pp. ...
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Sustainable tourism is one of the key sectors in the South Baltic Sea Region (SBSR), which belongs to the role model for sustainability—the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). In this context, resilience, recovery and sustainability become key common threads calling for new approaches mitigating negative impacts, upscaling resilience capacity and boosting recovery in the post-pandemic era. The present work aims at revealing conceptual and practical pathways for policy makers and businesses in revitalizing sustainable tourism in the region by emphasizing cultural and creative industries (CCIs) as strong contributors to sustainable development and economic ecosystems, such as tourism. Tourism is also one of the key thematic areas of the smart specialization strategies (S3) in the SBSR. However, there is almost no link between CCIs’ potential for sustainable and resilient tourism and their contribution to the co-design and co-creation of S3. CCIs are rather absent agents in quadruple helix networks supporting S3 policy implementation. The literature on this topic is still premature, and represents a clear gap in knowledge. By virtue of these circumstances, the present research investigates how CCIs contribute and reveal new linkages between local assets, potential markets and societal challenges by engaging them as proven sustainable innovation and transition brokers in transnational quadruple helix partnerships following S3 policies in accordance with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), thus supporting sustainable and resilient tourism. Moreover, this paper aims at advocating for development of rural and peripheral regions, thus reducing the so-called “rural marginalization”. In addition, this paper also supports ongoing recent discussions on related vs. unrelated diversification policy within the S3 realm.
... The influence of gender in management positions has been the subject of study by scientific communities (Atwater et al., 2004;Salvaj & Kuschel, 2020). Research in this area has been increasing, as it is a topic that affects several areas of knowledge (Cook & Glass, 2018;Davey, 2004;Henry et al., 2015;Karoui & Feki, 2018;Lindberg et al., 2014;Miller, 2004). Several studies claim that the position of manager/leader has been essentially occupied by male human resources (Balgiu, 2013;Ruiz Castro, 2012), evidencing the need to understand the reasons associated with the low involvement of women in top organizational positions. ...
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Gender inequality is still a very expressive phenomenon nowadays. This reality is reflected in several areas, namely, in the opportunities/barriers placed on women who aspire to perform top management functions. This study aims to analyze the workers’ perceptions of women’s organizational leadership. A questionnaire was given to 186 employees that work in different hierarchical positions in organizations that supply sports services. Two dimensions were analyzed related to (i) the identification of the stereotypes that label women in the performance of domestic work, family, or professional issues, and (ii) the evaluation of their roles and skills as managers/leaders. Through a multivariate analysis, three factors were identified in each dimension. Significant differences were found between the gender variable and in the different factors except in the factor about women and family life. Despite the several policy interventions in the field of gender equity, the results of this study suggest a preference for male managers. Thus, study gives relevant contributions showing different gender perceptions in the organizational context, contributing to the analysis of the problem around gender discrimination.
... This article's target is to identify the key obstacles for higher RES percentages as perceived by population, according to a consensus-oriented view of development (Ahamer & Kumpfmüller 2013, Ahamer 2013b). The single chapters present the results of a series of interviews, and deduct from them the key options for improvements via enhanced public information Author According to the "grounded theory" and Etzkowitz (2008), expert interviews were performed with stakeholders from the so-called triple helix of innovation (0) enlarged to a "quintuple helix of innovation" (0; Carayannis et al. 2012, Lindberg et al. 2014, Farinha et al. 2016): ...
... Unlike the clear focus of the Triple Helix model on the interactions between university, industry and government, a consistent understanding of what represents the fourth helix is missing. The fourth helix has been variously understood as consumers (Ivanova 2014), users (Arnkil et al. 2010;Miller et al. 2018), non-governmental organisations (Lindberg et al. 2014) and community (Doh 2018). Even in the work of Carayannis and Campbell (2012), the fourth helix has four synonyms-'public', 'media-based and culture-based public', 'arts, artistic research and arts-based innovation' and 'civil society'. ...
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While the Triple Helix and Quadruple Helix models are popular in innovation studies, the relations between them have not been addressed extensively in the literature. There are diverse interpretations of helix models in empirical studies that apply them, but these sometimes deviate from the original theses of the models. Such a situation can confuse newcomers to the field in terms of which helix model to apply in their empirical research. We discern that the cause of this research challenge is a lack of systematic comparison of the two models. To bridge the research gap, this paper compares the models from the perspectives of how they were introduced and discussed in the literature and improved and how useful they are in addressing the innovation processes in contemporary society. Our major findings are as follows: First, reviewing the extant literature applying the two helix models for identifying research gaps, we discover that these studies were influenced by three views on the relations between the two models that were located on a continuum between two extreme ends—namely, isolation versus integration of the two models. Second, we provide a systematic comparison of both the advantages and weaknesses of the two models, and this may help researchers choose suitable helix models as conceptual/analytical tools in their empirical innovation studies. Third, our comparison of the two models shows that they are largely supplementary to each other when analysing innovation processes in contemporary society, providing a ground for potential synergy building between the two helix models.
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I min avhandling vill jag utvidga den kunskapsutvecklande arenan kring samverkansnätverk för innovation genom att gestalta några av de aktörer och verksamhetsområden som har marginaliserats. Genom att problematisera de normer som råder för kategorisering och värdering av innovationssystem och kluster analyserar jag hur kön ”görs” i innovationsforskning och innovationspolitik. Därmed kan min avhandling ses som en interaktiv och genusvetenskaplig utmaning av denna politik och forskning. Det som utmärker min avhandling är att den har utvecklats med en interaktiv forskningsansats där gemensam kunskapsutveckling mellan forskare och aktörer utanför akademin eftersträvas. I och med att min avhandlingsprocess har sin upprinnelse i några av de insatser som har gjorts för att främja kvinnors företagande och innovation i Sverige har den präglats av problembilder som anses vara relevanta även utanför akademin.
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Co-Financed by European Regional Development Fund Made possible by the INTERREG IVC Programme The content reflects the authors views and the INTERREG IVC in not liable for any use that may be made of the information.
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