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Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: A perspective of pre-service teachers from a Turkish context

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As teaching is a nation-building profession, the career motivations of pre-service teachers are worth exploring. This study examines the career motivations of 283 Turkish pre-service teachers who have chosen teaching as a career. Accordingly, they were asked questions about deciding to teach, career perceptions, and major expectations. A profile of the participants was then developed by analyzing their responses in quantitative and qualitative ways as being descriptive, statistical, and inductive steps. It is seen that extrinsic, altruistic, and intrinsic motivations all play a role when individuals choose teaching as a career. In addition, although altruistic motives are very dominant for females, mercenary-based extrinsic motives are dominant for males. Associatively, teaching is further desired as a first profession by females. In light of the findings, we give suggestions for teacher training institutions and policy makers.
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Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: a perspective
of pre-service teachers from a Turkish context
Kemal Yu
¨ce Esin Y. S¸ ahin O
¨mer Koc¸er
Fatih Kana
Received: 27 December 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published online: 9 April 2013
The Author(s) 2013. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Abstract As teaching is a nation-building profession, the
career motivations of pre-service teachers are worth
exploring. This study examines the career motivations of
283 Turkish pre-service teachers who have chosen teaching
as a career. Accordingly, they were asked questions about
deciding to teach, career perceptions, and major expecta-
tions. A profile of the participants was then developed by
analyzing their responses in quantitative and qualitative
ways as being descriptive, statistical, and inductive steps. It
is seen that extrinsic, altruistic, and intrinsic motivations all
play a role when individuals choose teaching as a career. In
addition, although altruistic motives are very dominant for
females, mercenary-based extrinsic motives are dominant
for males. Associatively, teaching is further desired as a
first profession by females. In light of the findings, we give
suggestions for teacher training institutions and policy
makers.
Keywords Altruistic motivation Extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation Pre-service teachers
Introduction
What are the reasons motivating young people to choose
teaching as a career? Over the last three decades, the rea-
sons for choosing teaching as a career have been a research
topic, and it is likely to be an ongoing issue for scholars as
long as efforts continue to be made for the recruiting and
retaining of teachers.
Within the teacher education literature, numerous posi-
tive and negative factors have been noted as influencing
young people’s decision to pursue a career in teaching.
However, as the Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development (2005), of which Turkey is a member,
noted, teachers’ daily work ‘‘has become more complex
and demanding in addressing increasingly diverse student
populations, higher social expectations of schools,
expanding fields of knowledge, and new types of respon-
sibilities’’ (OECD 2005, cited in Watt et al. 2012, p. 1).
There is also global recognition that the success of any
educational reform strongly depends on the quality and
performance of the teachers (Ingersoll and Smith 2004;
Kennedy 2008; Tatto 2007). However, due to the
demanding workload mentioned above, teachers’ perfor-
mance is likely to be adversely affected. Teaching is a
profession that requires a high degree of responsibility and
altruism. Consequently, it seems such difficult task moti-
vating young people for teaching profession. Moreover,
given that ‘‘teaching appears to be an occupation consid-
ered central to a country’s development and well-being’’
(Watt et al. 2012, p. 1), there is an understandable concern
for the next generation with respect to the mission of
nation-building (Manuel and Hughes 2006; Moran et al.
2001; Skilbeck and Connell 2003; Taylor 2006).
There are two underlying factors to be investigated
concerning teaching as a career (Ko
¨nig and Rothland
2012). First, motivation is described as a mandatory attri-
bute of professional teachers. The modeling and empirical
analysis of teacher competence therefore involves moti-
vational components, including career choice motivation
(Blo
¨meke et al. 2012; Kunter et al. 2008). Secondly, in
recent years, worldwide teacher shortages have given rise
to studies of the motivation for choosing teaching as a
career, which are particularly important when explaining
K. Yu
¨ce E. Y. S¸ ahin O
¨. Koc¸er (&)F. Kana
C¸ anakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Education,
Canakkale, Turkey
e-mail: omerkocer@comu.edu.tr
123
Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. (2013) 14:295–306
DOI 10.1007/s12564-013-9258-9
why teacher education graduates do not enter the profes-
sion or drop out after a short period of time (Rots et al.
2010; Thomson et al. 2012; Watt and Richardson 2008).
Australia, the U.S., Germany, Norway, the U.K., and sev-
eral European countries, among others, have reported dif-
ficulty recruiting and retaining teachers (Johnson and
Birkeland 2003; Krecic and Grmek 2005; Kyriacou et al.
1999; Liu et al. 2000; Moran et al. 2001; Newson 1993;
Ramsay 2000; Richardson and Watt 2010; Sinclair 2008;
Spear et al. 2000). These difficulties in recruiting and
retaining teachers are linked to teacher workload, salary,
disruptive pupils, and the low status of the profession
(Kyriacou et al. 2003, p. 256).
Concerning the issue in Turkey, due to the decline in the
income of public employees from the 1980s until today, the
teaching profession has lost prestige when compared to the
first years of the republican era, and thus, the social status
of the profession has gradually diminished (Erden 1998).
The decline of teachers’ incomes, their rising cost of living,
an abundant increase in the number of teachers, and the
appointment of unqualified teachers have all reduced the
quality of teaching and the prestige of teachers in the eyes
of the public (Erden, Eskicumalı2002). Today, the teach-
ing profession is being cited among the less desirable
professions in Turkey. In such a context, it is considered as
a profession that anyone can do by quoting a statement that
is widely stated in Turkish society: ‘‘If you are unfit for
anything else, be a teacher!’’ (O
¨zsoy et al. 2010, p. 912).
However, a completely different kind of statement was
made centuries ago by Hz. Ali, a scholar from the Islamic
world, who said ‘‘I will be the slave to the one who has
taught me even a letter.’’ Hz. Ali’s comment reminds us
that teaching is a divine profession that cannot be disre-
garded. Historically, the statement of Hz. Ali had a moti-
vating value with regard to the teaching profession
(So
¨nmez 2009). Furthermore, the statement of Atatu
¨rk on
August 25, 1924 at the congress of teachers in Ankara
underlies the importance of the teaching profession:
‘Teachers! The new republican generation will be your
heritage.’’ The divineness of the teaching profession can
also be clarified by the statement of the glorious philoso-
pher Socrates: ‘‘Everything in the world can be assessed
but the heritage of a teacher.’’ That is to say, the teaching
profession deserves to be defined as the highest profession
of all (Is¸ık et al. 2010).
As seen above, choosing teaching as a career has been
extensively investigated as a research topic throughout the
world including Turkey but not so much with respect to
some teaching professions such as mathematics, English,
biology, chemistry, pre-school, etc. (Aksu et al. 2010;
Bulut 2009;C¸ apri and C¸ elikkaleli 2008;C¸ ermik et al.
2010; Derman et al. 2008;Gu
¨rbu
¨z and Su
¨lu
¨n2004;Is¸ık
et al. 2010; Kabadayı2008;Kılınc¸ and Mahirog
˘lu 2009;
O
¨zsoy et al. 2010; Saban 2003; Tatarog
˘lu et al. 2011;
Temizkan 2008; Yazıcı2009; Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun
2012). These types of research in varied teaching branches
show us the significance of the issue.
Career motivation theories
The motivating factors in choosing teaching as a career
vary from individual to individual. In general, in the tea-
cher education literature, three types of motivation are
stressed in regard to choosing teaching as a career (Bastick
2000; Boz and Boz 2008;Ko
¨nig and Rothland 2012; Ky-
riacou and Coulthard 2000; Kyriacou et al. 2003; Moran
et al. 2001; Papanastasiou and Papanastasiou 1998; Saban
2003; Sinclair 2008; Young 1995). These are (1) extrinsic
motives: job guarantee, money, holidays, social security,
appointment, and ease; (2) intrinsic motives: interest, per-
sonal satisfaction, and desire and love of profession; and
(3) altruistic motives: being in the service of people,
society, and country (OECD, 2005).
Starting from 1950s, as well as stemming from the
theories within the context of investigation motivations,
many theories related to career choice have been argued, of
which self-concept is considered as an important theory
developed by Super (1953). This theory investigates ‘‘who
am I’’; the self-perception of the person plays a crucial role
in career choice (Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun 2012). Hol-
land (1959) also quotes this theory as self-knowledge
theory. He claims that an appropriate career choice
depends on having sufficient vocational knowledge as well
as self-knowledge. Another theory of career choice has
been proposed by Gottfredson (1981), which heavily
depends on sex-type rating and prestige level of occupa-
tion. According to this theory, while choosing an occupa-
tion, people consider its appropriateness to their gender as
well as the prestige level of the occupation in the eyes of
the public (Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun). For example, in
the first years of the republican era of Turkey, the teaching
profession was quite well paid and had a higher prestige
level and social status than many other professions (O
¨zsoy
et al. 2010). As for sex-type rating, it was claimed that the
teaching profession has been perceived as being intrinsic to
women (Foster and Newman 2005; Johnston et al. 1999;
Saban 2003; Smedley 2007). Concerning this, several
scholars have expressed concern over the low numbers of
males involved in teaching and the decline in the per-
centage of males entering teacher education programs
(Armitage 1999; Smith 2000). It can then be stated that the
profession has been gradually feminizing (C¸ ermik et al.
2010). According to a research carried out in Ontario
Province of Canada, it was found that male teachers make
up less than one-tenth of all primary teachers, and the
number is gradually declining (Parr et al. 2008). Similarly,
296 K. Yu
¨ce et al.
123
in a research carried out in Malaysia, it was found that the
teaching profession in that country has increasingly
become female dominated in the last decade (Azman
2012). That is, according to the theory of Gottfredson,
males behave timidly while choosing a feminized profes-
sion. Hayes (1990) found that in a cohort of American
students, entering teaching with altruistic motives such as
making a positive difference in the lives of children was
more significant (cited in Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun
2012, p. 127). In another study, carried out by Kyriacou
et al. (1999), it was discovered that English and Norwegian
pre-service teachers have been choosing the teaching pro-
fession with such altruistic motives as enjoying teaching to
children. In addition, Sinclair (2008) has found that novice
teachers in their first years have been choosing the pro-
fession with altruistic and intrinsic motives but have been
gradually motivated by extrinsic motives in the ongoing
years.
Given the goal of making a comparison of motives in
choosing teaching as a career around the world, it would be
relevant to consider the OECD report of 2005. According
to this report, there are many researches in Australia,
Belgium, Canada, France, the Netherlands, Slovakia, and
the U.K. telling that working with children and adults,
desire for intellectual development, and making social
contribution are the most cited reasons for entering the
teaching profession. Contrary to this, in many different
contexts, with regard to sociocultural varieties such as
Brunei, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, and Jamaica, scholars
found that salary, job security, and career status entitled
with extrinsic motives are more important (Abangma 1981;
Bastick 1999; Chivore 1988; Yong 1995).
When the issue of choosing teaching as a career has
been evaluated with respect to Turkey, it has seen that a
research gap remains despite several studies (C¸ ermik et al.
2010). Evaluating these studies generally, Saban (2003) has
found that primary pre-service teachers were motivated to
teach by such altruistic motives as thinking of others and
such extrinsic motives as having a job with regular income.
In another study, Boz and Boz (2008) explored the
hypothesis that chemistry and mathematics pre-service
teachers were motivated to the profession through intrinsic
and extrinsic motives, and O
¨zbek (2007) also stated that
the intrinsic motivations of pre-service teachers were more
dominant than extrinsic motivations. In brief, when the
national and international teacher education literature is
evaluated overall, it seems difficult to make a common
generalization about which motivation types of pre-service
teachers are more drawn than others to choose teaching as a
career. However, it is possible to make a generalization as
regards to socioeconomic development of a country. That
is, according to Bastick (2000), pre-service teachers in
developed societies choose teaching as a career with
altruistic and intrinsic motives, but in developing or
undeveloped societies, they choose teaching as a career
with extrinsic or mercenary-based extrinsic motives.
How does one become a teacher in Turkey?
The first teacher training institutions in Turkey were
founded in 1848. Since then, serious steps regarding the
teacher training system have been taken, as it was during
the republican era. Debates over the teacher training model
in Turkey continued because the model was continuously
changing. However, the teacher training model in Fig. 1
has been accepted in Turkey. To clearly present the paths
to becoming a teacher in Turkey, this figure is given as
follows.
There are five types of high schools in Turkey for stu-
dents graduating from a compulsory 8 years of primary
education. Directed by state or private funding, these col-
leges are within the ministry of the national education of
Turkey. These schools are composed of science, Anatolian,
social sciences, teacher training, and vocational high
schools. Students desiring to become teachers within the
social sciences branches enroll in colleges for which the
curriculum is composed of verbal skills. Students desiring
to become teachers within the positive sciences branches
enroll in colleges where the curriculum is composed of
quantitative skills. After graduating from college, students
take a bachelor’s examination (LYS) within the scope of
state. The students who earn enough points on the exam
have the right to study in their branches in a private or state
faculty of education for 4 years. Then, they receive
diplomas of teaching in their respective branches. Deci-
sions regarding appropriate study field and profession are
made after the bachelor’s examination (LYS). Accord-
ingly, the students who did not earn enough points for
faculties of education enroll in state or private faculties of
arts and sciences for 4 years. Then, they take pedagogic
certificate courses for 1 year in order to become teachers in
their study fields. Graduated novice teachers take a teacher
appointment examination called KPSS for assignment to
any vacant position in any school on the condition that they
have enough assignment points from the exam (MEB,
2006/26098-7/1).
Research questions
Though there is an abundance of literature in the world on
the reasons why young people choose teaching as a career
or why they do not, a deep literature review on teacher
education reveals few studies regarding the motives influ-
encing the decision to teach in Turkey. As such, this study
is designed to explore the career motivations of pre-service
teachers of the Turkish language. So, determining the
Motivations for choosing teaching as a career 297
123
reasons for choosing to teach, career perceptions, and
major expectations of pre-service teachers will show the
current situation of Turkey compared to the rest of the
world on career motivations of pre-service teachers, as well
as present a cross section of Turkish pre-service teachers in
Turkey. Accordingly, the research questions of the study
are mentioned below:
1. What factors influenced Turkish pre-service teachers’
decision to teach?
2. Is there any difference between choosing teaching as a
career and gender of pre-service teachers?
3. What are major expectations of Turkish pre-service
teachers from teaching?
Method
Research design
In this study, mixed methodology both quantitative and
qualitative was adopted for exploring research questions.
For this, a general survey model was conducted within
descriptive research. The aim of descriptive researches is to
deeply describe the issue being studied, namely, to deter-
mine the existing profile of the issue (Borg et al. 1993).
According to Kaptan (1993), descriptive research is defined
as describing the events, objects, institutions, and groups.
In addition, a general survey model allows universal gen-
eralization based on a selected sampling group. In this
model, variables are determined according to type and
quantity and described in a causative or non-causative way.
This process can be restricted to past or present as well as
longitudinal in a period of time (Cohen et al. 2007; Karasar
1991; Muijs 2004).
Sample
The participants of the study are 283 Turkish pre-service
teachers, including 106 males and 177 females whose age
varies between 18 and 26 (X¼22:3; SD =2.1). The
sampling group consists of first- and second-grade pre-
service teachers studying the Turkish language in one of
the faculties of education in Turkey. The mission of
Turkish language teachers in Turkey is to develop primary
school students’ varied skills such as critical, analytical,
and creative thinking; communication; problem solving;
use of informatics technologies; and literacy in the mother
language (MEB 2006: 2–5).
To facilitate deep description of the existing case, no
alteration in sampling group and environment was made in
this study; simple random sampling was used. Simple
random sampling gives the opportunity of being selected to
each sampling unit in the universe (C¸ ıngı1994). Accord-
ingly, simple random sampling of this study consists of
first- and second-grade pre-service teachers studying in
Turkish language departments.
Data collecting
The data were gathered using a questionnaire form pre-
pared by the researchers. After preparing it, three scholars
gave their opinions on the face validity of the question-
naire. The validity percentage index of the questionnaire
was deemed by the independent scholars to be 90 %. The
questionnaire was administered in the Turkish language on
a voluntary basis to first- and second-grade pre-service
teachers of the Turkish language. The participants com-
pleted the questionnaire in about 30 min and did not need
external assistance for completing them. First question was
answered by participants by choosing boxes below the
question. Second question was both answered by choosing
one of the two boxes (yes/no) below the question and by
writing its reason in an open-ended way. Finally, third
question was answered by writing in an open-ended way.
The following questions were asked of the participants
in the questionnaire form:
1. What factors influenced your decision to teach? You
can choose the reasons from the boxes below.
Fig. 1 Paths to becoming a
teacher in Turkey
298 K. Yu
¨ce et al.
123
2. Was teaching your first career choice? Yes/No.
Explain the reason in detail.
3. What are your major expectations from the teaching
profession as a Turkish pre-service teacher? Explain.
Given the number of participants, analyzing of 283
participants’ written responses to the open-ended questions
in a qualitative way was very difficult process for the
researchers. Even so, this type of analysis is crucial in order
to deeply identify their opinions and not restrict them.
Data analysis
In this study, three types of data analyzing techniques were
used: (1) descriptive statistics for a multiple-choice question,
(2) ttest and descriptive statistics for a close-ended question,
and (3) inductive content analysis for open-ended questions.
Analysis for the first and second techniques was conducted
using SPSS 17.0 software, while that for the third technique
was completed using QSR NVivo 8 software.
Experts in the field define content analysis as the process
of analyzing repeated statements, and compressing them into
fewer and more specific content categories using coding, in
order to objectively and systematically identify the charac-
teristics of the statements in a flowing style (Denzin and
Lincoln 1998; Miles and Huberman 1994; Silverman 2000).
Firstly, repeated statements of the participants were exam-
ined and combined. Then, 548 statements were executed
from first open-ended question, and 391 statements from
second open-ended question. Next, each statement to which
questions were applied was encoded. The statements were
combined using specific codes and classified with respect to
the participants’ choice of teaching into four main themes:
altruistic, intrinsic, mercenary-based extrinsic, and influ-
ence-based extrinsic motives.
The reliability of content analysis depends heavily on
the coding process (Bu
¨yu
¨ko
¨ztu
¨rk et al. 2012). The reason
for coding is related to reliability of researchers and coding
categories. Coding, in turn, depends on the reliability of the
researchers and the coding categories. A coder is said to be
reliable when she/he codes a particular text in a manner
such that she/he reaches the same conclusion as indepen-
dent coders for the same text (Bilgin 2006). Accordingly,
each researcher in this study coded the data independently.
The following formula was used to determine the reliability
of each independent coder: Reliability =Agreement/
Agreement ?Disagreement 9100 (Miles and Huberman
1994). The percentage agreement index of coding among
the researchers was found to be 94 %. ‘‘Since this value
was greater than 75 %’’ (Miles and Huberman), reliability
in the qualitative analysis of participants’ responses to
open-ended questions was considered to have been
maintained.
Findings
Research Question 1 What factors influenced Turkish
pre-service teachers’ decision to teach?
The aim of the study is to investigate the career moti-
vations of pre-service teachers who have chosen teaching
as a career. The findings related to the first research
question are given in Tables 1,2,3, and 4. Tables 1,2, and
3show that extrinsic (36.75 %), altruistic (33.23 %), and
intrinsic (30.02 %) motives, respectively, play a prepon-
derant role in choosing teaching as a career. In addition,
altruistic (23.39 %) motives are more dominant for
females, and mercenary-based extrinsic (13.95 %) motives
for males. Table 1shows intrinsic motives influencing the
decision to teach.
As can be seen in Table 1, the intrinsic (19.31 %)
motivation of females is more dominant compared to males
(10.71 %) when choosing teaching as a career. Table 2
shows extrinsic motives influencing the decision to teach.
Table 2clearly shows that male participants choose
teaching as a career with mercenary-based extrinsic
motives (13.95 %) in mind, while female participants
choose it with influence-based extrinsic motives (10.53 %)
in mind. Table 3shows altruistic motives influencing the
decision to teach.
In Table 3, it can be seen that the altruistic motivation of
female (23.39 %) participants is more dominant than those
of males (9.84 %).
The participants were also asked whether teaching was
their first choice of profession and the reasons for the same.
Through this question, written expressions were obtained
from pre-service teachers so as to reach in-depth reasons
highlighting their preference. Table 4lists these qualitative
responses after conducting an inductive content analysis.
In Table 4, the results indicated that there is a strong
resonance between participants choosing teaching as a first
career and the motivational factors influencing their decision
to teach (see Tables 1,2,3). That is, Table 4shows that, by
order, extrinsic (f=118), altruistic (f=92), and intrinsic
Table 1 Intrinsic motives influencing the decision to teach
Intrinsic motives Male Female Total
f%f%f%
Idealized profession 52 4.80 80 7.39 132 12.19
Interest to educational
environment
29 2.68 65 6.01 94 8.69
Esteem to Turkish
language
26 2.40 46 4.25 72 6.65
Teaching is appropriate
for my personality
9 0.83 18 1.66 27 2.49
Total 116 10.71 209 19.31 325 30.02
Motivations for choosing teaching as a career 299
123
(f=78) motives were responsible for participants’ choice of
teaching as a first career. On the other hand, mercenary-
based and influence-based extrinsic motives have been stated
for not choosing teaching as a first career choice.
As seen in Table 5, intrinsic (X¼1:79), altruistic
(X¼1:80), and influence-based extrinsic (X ¼1:87)
motives are more frequently cited by female participants,
while mercenary-based extrinsic motives (X¼1:85) are
more predominantly attributed to male participants. Also,
the ttest results in Table 5support the results of Tables 1,
2, and 3with respect to types of motivation by gender.
Research Question 2 Is there any difference between
choosing teaching as a first career and the gender of the
pre-service teachers?
The quantitative responses given in Table 6reveal the
rate of Turkish pre-service teachers, by their gender, who
have (not) chosen teaching as a first career preference.
As seen clearly in Table 6, 58.65 % of the participants
chose teaching as a first career, while 41.35 % of them did
not choose it as a first career. An important point to be
noted here is the percentage of females (64.4 %) who have
chosen teaching as a first career preference. Accordingly,
chi-square value (v
2
=6.442; p\.05) shows that there is
significant relationship between teaching as a first career
and gender of participants.
Table 2 Extrinsic motives influencing the decision to teach
Extrinsic motives Male Female Total
f%f%f%
Mercenary-based extrinsic motives
High social status and
prestige of teaching
profession
44 4.07 29 2.68 73 6.75
Working conditions 46 4.25 21 1.94 67 6.19
Holidays 38 3.51 22 2.03 60 5.54
Opinion of appointment 11 1.01 10 0.92 21 1.93
Salary 12 1.11 7 0.64 19 1.75
Total 151 13.95 89 8.21 240 22.16
Influence-based extrinsic motives
Previously idolized
Turkish teacher at school
19 1.75 67 6.19 86 7.94
Family support 12 1.11 38 3.51 50 4.62
Family pressure 13 1.20 9 0.83 22 2.03
Total 44 4.06 114 10.53 158 14.59
General total 195 18.01 203 18.74 398 36.75
Table 3 Altruistic motives influencing the decision to teach
Altruistic motives Male Female Total
f%f%f%
Loving Turkish language
and wanting to teach it to
others
32 2.96 98 9.06 130 12.02
Being in service of people 31 3.02 70 6.47 101 9.47
Teaching is sacred 26 2.40 53 4.90 79 7.30
Loving children 16 1.48 32 2.96 48 4.44
Total 105 9.84 253 23.39 358 33.23
Table 4 Teaching as a first career choice (why/why not?)
Yes–first choice–reason fNo–not first choice–
reason
f
Altruistic motives
Loving Turkish language
and desiring to teach it
to others
35 Dream for other jobs 30
Help others to learn 30 Much more money idea
in other jobs
23
Working with young
people
27 Desire for high quality
career than teaching
17
Intrinsic motives
Dream to be a teacher 40
Esteem to Turkish
Language
38 Teaching is uncool in
Turkey
13
Mercenary-based extrinsic motives
Working conditions 25 Getting harder of
appointment in Turkey
10
Social status 24 Having a family member
as teacher facing many
troubles
10
Job guarantee 19
Influence-based extrinsic motives
Previously idolized
Turkish teacher at
school
32
Family support 18
Total 288* 103*
* Some participants gave more than one reason and some did not
Table 5 Types of motivation and gender
Types of motivation Gender XSD tvalue (df =210)
Intrinsic Male
Female
1.75
1.79
.27
.25
2.720*
Mercenary-based extrinsic Male
Female
1.85
1.81
.20
.23
2.523*
Influence-based extrinsic Male
Female
1.77
1.87
.23
.19
3.679*
Altruistic Male
Female
1.71
1.80
.17
.12
2.687*
*p\.05
300 K. Yu
¨ce et al.
123
Table 7provides quantitative ttest data regarding the
difference between gender and teaching as a first career. In
agreement with Table 6,ttest results in Table 7show that
there is a meaningful difference between teaching as a first
career choice and gender among pre-service teachers
(X¼1:50; SD =0.50).
Research Question 3 What are major expectations of pre-
service teachers from teaching?
Giving two contrary quotations from participants can
highlight expectations of Turkish pre-service teacher from
teaching. These quotations are as follows:
I decided to become a teacher because I think there
will be so many children near me waiting for my
guidance. I think it will be enjoyable working with
them in school. As a pre-service Turkish language
teacher I am sure teaching them would satisfy me
very much. This is the biggest heritage of a teacher.
Therefore, I love teaching and desire to work as a
teacher as long as I live. (One of the female
participants)
I came to this department by chance. I always wanted
to study law. Unfortunately, the conditions of Turkey
are uncool and teaching is not so well paying. Choice
was not given to me. My career was chosen by my
family and I came here. It was just one of those
things. (One of the male participants)
The quotations that were given above by the participants
may be interpreted as indicators of an already existing
commitment or non-commitment to the teaching profes-
sion, namely intrinsic-, extrinsic-, and altruistic-type
motivations for choosing teaching as a career.
As a result of content analysis of 548 statements
obtained from participants, major expectations were
extracted. Table 8shows participants’ major expectations
according to the frequency of qualitative responses.
As can seen in Table 8, with respect to motivational
factors, the first three expectations listed such as chal-
lenging, long-term, and fulfilling careers reflect subjects’
high level of motivation to carry on a teaching career. In
addition, the last three expectations reflect participants’
low level of motivation for a teaching career.
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to investigate the career
motivations of pre-service teachers in Turkey who have
chosen teaching as a career. To contextualize the notion of
career motivation, the participants were asked about their
reasons for deciding to teach, career perceptions, and major
expectations from teaching.
The first research question aimed at determining the
reasons influencing a pre-service teacher’s decision to
teach. The results demonstrate that without gender dis-
crimination, the decision to enter the teaching profession is
influenced by extrinsic, altruistic, and intrinsic motives.
The findings of the inductive content analysis also support
the results presented in the first three tables.
In the literature about teacher education in western
countries, it is stated that altruistic and intrinsic motives
have been the very reasons in choosing teaching as a career
(Ewing and Manuel 2005; Goh and Atputhasamy 2001;
Hayes 1990; Kyriacou and Coulthard 2000; Kyriacou et al.
2003; Ling Low et al. 2011; Manuel 2003; Priyadharshini
and Robinson-Pant 2003; Reid and Caudwell 1997; Spear
et al. 2000; Yong 1995). According to Bastick (2000), pre-
service teachers in developed societies choose teaching
with altruistic and intrinsic motives, but in underdeveloped
and developing societies, most teachers choose it based on
extrinsic motives. However, Sinclair (2008) stated that
young people are motivated to teach not by only one
Table 6 Teaching choice by gender
Response Male Female Total v
2
f%f%f% 6,442*
Yes 52 49.05 114 64.4 166 58.65
No 54 50.95 63 35.6 117 41.35
Total 106 100 177 100 283 100
*p\.05
Table 7 Comparison of gender and teaching choice
Gender Yes (2)/No (1) tvalue (df =210)
NXSD
Male 106 1.35 .50 1.558
Female 177 1.50 .48 2.529*
*p\.05
Table 8 Major expectations of teaching as a career
Expectation f%
A challenging career 133 24.2
A long-term career 120 21.8
A fulfilling career 103 18.9
A difficult career 80 14.8
A short-term career 75 13.6
Other 37 6.7
Total 548* 100
*Some participants gave more than one expectation and some did not
Motivations for choosing teaching as a career 301
123
motive but by many reasons such as working conditions,
being in service to people, appropriateness to personality,
salary, social status and prestige, appointment, etc. It can,
then, be said that pre-service teachers could choose
teaching by being motivated by many different reasons to
some extent according to the socioeconomic well-being of
their societies. As seen from the findings, it is less likely to
generalize over only one motive because of the closeness
of the statistical data of the three motivation types for
career choice. It can, then, be said that Turkish pre-service
teachers have chosen teaching as a career by being moti-
vated, to a certain extent, by extrinsic, altruistic, and
intrinsic motives. This case supports the view of Sinclair.
However, percentages for extrinsic and altruistic motives
are higher than those for intrinsic motives. This result
supports the view of Bastick (2000). In many studies car-
ried out in developing countries, Bastick found that
extrinsic and altruistic motivations of pre-service teachers
were more dominant than intrinsic motivation to choose
teaching as a career. The current findings also support the
findings of many related studies in developing countries
(C¸ ermik et al. 2010; Yaakob 1988), that is, these studies
demonstrated that pre-service teachers generally chose
teaching generally with extrinsic and altruistic motives. For
instance, C¸ ermik et al. (2010) found that pre-service
classroom teachers in Turkey chose the profession with
extrinsic motives. It can, then, be stated that pre-service
teachers in developing societies choose teaching as a career
with altruistic motives with reference to the divinity of
teaching in itself, but they also take into account the
prestige and social status of the profession in their societies
such as high level of income, good working conditions, etc.
The current findings show that Turkish pre-service teachers
are motivated to teach with altruistic motives, such as
loving the Turkish language, wanting to teach it to others,
and being in service to people, and extrinsic motives, such
as working conditions and the social status of the profes-
sion in Turkey.
Current research differs from findings of earlier studies,
particularly in western communities (Bastick 2000; Reid
and Caudwell 1997; Hayes 1990; Kyriacou et al. 2003;
Papanastasiou and Papanastasiou 1998; Watt et al. 2012;
Watt and Richardson 2007). These studies have revealed
that intrinsic and altruistic motivations have a preponderant
role in choosing teaching as a career. For instance, Ky-
riacou et al. (2003) observed that English and Norwegian
pre-service teachers chose teaching as a career, since it best
suited to their personalities. In another study, Hayes (1990)
stated that American pre-service teachers chose teaching
only with altruistic motives. Watt and Richardson (2007)
used a comprehensive scale in their research with pre-
service teachers studying in Australian universities and
found that teaching skills, the intrinsic value of teaching,
and the desire to make a social contribution were the
highest rated reasons (cited in Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun
2012, p. 127). As we have presented, the motives to choose
teaching as a career may be varied according to the con-
texts. It is here the views of Bastick must be underlined.
That is, with respect to gradually developing Turkey, the
career motivations of pre-service teachers heavily depend
on extrinsic and altruistic and, afterward, intrinsic motives.
With respect to gender and motivation types, females
selected teaching as a career mainly based on altruistic,
intrinsic, and influence-based extrinsic motives, but males
chose a teaching career based on extrinsic and mercenary
motives. On the whole, studies concerning the effect of
pre-service teachers’ gender on choosing teaching as a
career present consistent findings (Johnston et al. 1999;
Reid and Caudwell 1997). Although both males and
females emphasize intrinsic reasons for choosing teaching
as a career, females attribute greater stress on altruistic and
intrinsic reasons. Johnston, Mckeown, and Mcewen (1999)
surveyed over 1030 pre-service teachers in Ireland and
demanded them to range motivating factors that may be
important when choosing teaching as a career. Gender
differences indicated that males placed greater significance
on mercenary-based extrinsic motives such as money and
social status of profession. In contrast, females placed
greater weight on perceived job satisfaction, mental stim-
ulation, and the ability to help others learn. As such, the
present findings support the study of Johnston et al. In
another study, Saban (2003) showed that female pre-ser-
vice teachers in Turkey chose teaching for more altruistic
and intrinsic motives than did males. Similarly, Johnston
et al. showed that in England, female pre-service teachers
decided to pursue a teaching career for altruistic and
intrinsic reasons. But males chose to pursue a teaching
career based only on mercenary motives. In particular,
meaningful differences arose between males and females
with respect to ‘‘accompanying children,’’ ‘‘appropriate-
ness of the profession to personality,’’ and ‘‘salary.’’ In
another study, Zehir-Topkaya and Uztosun (2012) showed
that female pre-service English teachers in Turkey chose
teaching based on intrinsic and altruistic motives more than
males did. The dominance of influence-based extrinsic
motives among female participants compared to male
participants supports numerous extant studies. For instance,
Manuel (2003) and Reid and Caudwell (1997) found that
female pre-service teachers chose teaching as a career due
to more influence-based extrinsic motives than males; that
is, female pre-service teachers were influenced by previous
teachers and their family’s support in choosing teaching as
a career. Overall, when deciding to pursue teaching as a
career, female pre-service teacher considers serving others
and pursuing their own intrinsic desires to be more
important factors, but male pre-service teachers emphasize
302 K. Yu
¨ce et al.
123
mercenary motives. In this way, the findings of this study
support the studies described above.
The research offers insight into the motivations for not
choosing teaching as a first career. These reasons include
wanting to pursue other jobs, the potential of greater
income in other careers, and a perception that there are
limited opportunities in the teaching profession in Turkey.
Research has shown that, since the 1980s, declining teacher
salaries, rising costs of living, an oversupply of teachers,
and the appointments of unqualified teachers have all
contributed to reducing the quality and prestige of teaching
and teachers in the eyes of the public (Erden 1998; Eski-
cumalı2002). These perspectives were echoed in our
research on the factors dissuading pre-service teachers
from choosing teaching as a first career. These factors seem
to be less of an issue in Western countries. A study carried
out in Finland on the teacher training model there found
that the teaching profession was associated with scholarly
research and cited among the professions having the
highest levels of income and prestige. Therefore, the most
successful students in Finland competed to become teach-
ers (Ekinci and O
¨ter 2010). However, the teaching pro-
fession in Turkey is considered as a safety net among
young people (C¸ ermik et al. 2010).
The second issue addressed in the research was the
difference between gender and choosing teaching as a
career. The findings indicated that the teaching profession
was chosen as a first career by 58.65 % of participants.
However, among female participants, 64.4 % chose
teaching as their first career, while only 49 % of male
participants had chosen teaching as their first career. This
suggests a positive difference between gender and choosing
teaching as a first career. These findings are similar to those
of several other studies in the teacher education literature
in Turkey (Saban 2003;S¸ahin, et al. 2008) and elsewhere
(Allison 2008; Foster and Newman 2005; Johnston et al.
1999; Parr et al. 2008; Smedley 2007). This phenomenon
has been described as ‘‘feminizing’’ of the teaching pro-
fession. In a trend explained by the career motivation
theory of Gottfredson (1981), it appears that the perception
of male pre-service teachers that they are entering a fem-
inized field becomes a sociopsychological reality.
According to Gottfredson, there are two variables influ-
encing an individual’s choice of teaching as a career. One
of them is gender compromise, namely perceptions of the
teaching profession’s appropriateness to his/her gender in
the society in which he/she exists. When interpreting the
issue in any society in which nine out of ten women and
one out of ten men choose teaching as a career, it would
appear unrealistic to expect an equal gender rating.
The third issue addressed by the study was the expec-
tations that pre-service teachers had of teaching. The
findings show that in rank order, pre-service teachers
wanted a challenging, long-term, and fulfilling career,
which can be interpreted as being highly motivated and
committed to teaching. Other career expectations from
teaching are a difficult and/or short-term teaching career.
This illustrates how they perceive the teaching profession
in a real-life context as they are yet to start teaching,
namely they consider teaching as a safety net. As men-
tioned at the beginning of the study, the perception of ‘If I
am unfit for anything else, I will be a teacher!’(O
¨zsoy
et al. 2010, p. 912) that is widely stated in Turkish society
makes itself evident in the expectations of a difficult and/or
short-term career of pre-service teachers. This attitude
actually derives from the negative shift of the status of
teaching from the beginnings of the 1980s (Erden 1998;
Eskicumalı2002). This is highlighted by the career moti-
vation theory of Gottfredson (1981). In this theory, a var-
iable shaping people’s career choices is the perception of
the prestige level of the profession. Accordingly, in the
present findings, the major career expectations of pre-ser-
vice teachers can be explained by the status and prestige
level of the teaching profession. That is to say, pre-service
teachers’ perceiving teaching as a higher status shows their
major expectations toward a long-term, challenging, and
fulfilling career. Otherwise, short-term and difficult career
expectations come to light. In other words, when a better
opportunity emerges, teachers in service leave the profes-
sion. Concerning this, a number of studies have explored
the reasons given by teachers who leave the profession
(Newson 1993; Spear et al. 2000). Four reasons appear to
be particularly frequent: workload, salary, disruptive
pupils, and low status. As seen, pre-service teachers’ short-
term and difficult career expectations come from those
underlying four factors. The view of Kyriacou et al. (2003)
supports this statement. According to them, altruistic,
intrinsic, and extrinsic reasons that motivate young people
for entering teaching as a career are related to their
expectations of what this profession will be like in practice.
Accordingly, it can be stated that expectations play an
important role for choosing teaching as a career or not. As
such, this situation has a critical importance in explaining
why some new teachers leave the teaching profession
within the first few years.
Conclusions and recommendations
Due to the number of countries experiencing difficulty in
recruiting teachers and suffering from a low teacher
retention rate, it is becoming increasingly important to
determine what motivates the aspiring youth to become
teachers. To better understand this question, the career
motivations of pre-service teachers were examined and
concluded that extrinsic, altruistic, and intrinsic forms of
Motivations for choosing teaching as a career 303
123
motivations had a preponderant influence on Turkish pre-
service teachers when choosing teaching as a career.
More specifically, female pre-service teachers chose
teaching as a profession due to intrinsic, altruistic, and
influence-based extrinsic forms of motivation. The teach-
ing profession has also been gradually becoming more
feminine by the year in Turkey and other countries. Males,
on the other hand, mostly became teachers due to merce-
nary-based extrinsic motivation. Both genders, as it was
discovered, had long-term, challenging, and rewarding
career expectations from choosing teaching as a career.
Understanding why pre-service teachers choose teaching
as a career is crucial for teacher training programs within
the faculties of education in Turkey and for identifying the
vocational attitudes of pre-teachers. Moreover, the present
results are vital to determine where Turkey stands in the
international community in respect to the career motiva-
tions of pre-service teachers.
Based on the conclusions from this study, some rec-
ommendations were formulated for policy makers and
teacher training institutions. However, these suggestions
are not restricted to policy makers and teacher training
institutions in Turkey since the conclusions of this study
concur also with other studies concerning the career
motivation of pre-service teachers. The results of this study
also come at a time when politicians and teacher training
institutions around the world are addressing the issues of
ameliorating recruitment and retention of teachers, struc-
turing their works, improving teacher training system, and
trying to develop effectiveness of teaching. In summary,
the most important recommendations of this study are lis-
ted below:
Policy makers should consider the vocational duty of
teaching and attempt to increase the social status of
teachers.
Policy makers around the world should take measures
to avoid the feminization of the teaching profession.
Teacher training institutions should concentrate on
trying to ameliorate the attitudes of pre-service
teachers.
Teacher training institutions should make an effort to
inform pre-service teachers that teaching is about
altruism and self-devotion.
Authorities in underdeveloped and developing coun-
tries should investigate teacher training models, and
teacher recruiting and retaining strategies of developed
countries so as to ameliorate the current case of their
countries.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the career
motivations of pre-service teachers in Turkey who have
chosen teaching as a career. Accordingly, we tried to make
a useful contribution to the teacher education literature.
Although many studies have been carried out on the
motivation of pre-service teachers, this study can make an
important contribution to the field in two ways. Firstly, it is
hoped to add to the rather sparse Turkish literature in this
field. Secondly, it is hoped that the argument that extrinsic/
mercenary motives may be stronger in less economically
developed countries can be especially pertinent at a time of
global recession. In terms of the contribution to under-
standing of motivation in terms of gender, the study is
hoped to reinforce previous findings with regard to femi-
nizing of the profession.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, dis-
tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author(s) and the source are credited.
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... In a survey of pre-service early childhood and elementary education students at another Nigerian state institution, intrinsic motives such as passion for teaching and love for teaching were placed highest (Abulon, 2011). Similarly, in Western countries, altruistic and intrinsic motivations have been the most prevalent reasons for choosing teaching as a vocation (Yuce, Sahin, Kocer and Kana, 2013). ...
... The results of this study, on the other hand, do not fully support the concept that most teachers in undeveloped and developing cultures select teaching as a career primarily on extrinsic motivations (Bastick, 2000 as cited by Yuce, Sahin, Kocer and Kana, 2013). ...
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This study investigated the underlying factors that influence potential TVET teachers' decision to pursue a teaching career in order to recruit more teachers. The motivation of pre-service TVET graduates obtaining a postgraduate diploma in technical education was therefore investigated using the QUAN-QUAL approach to collect quantitative data via a researcher-created, self-administered questionnaire and qualitative data via written essays and narratives using the triangulation mixed method design. Participants were selected from two cohorts (N=78) of students enrolled in the various departments for the Postgraduate Diploma in Technical Education (PGDTE) program of the University of Nigeria. According to the quantitative analysis, excellent role models from previous teachers, the demanding nature of the job role, a willingness to impart relevant knowledge and skills, a willingness to assist financially disadvantaged students in gaining marketable job skills, and the country's presumed demand for TVET teachers were the primary motivators for pre-service teachers. The qualitative analysis found seven (7) themes, three of which were motivational: desire to assist students and community/sharing expertise; personal dream/calling/passion to teach; and the desire to financially aid students who are incapacitated. However, the gender aspect revealed that male and female pre-service TVET teachers showed significant differences in their altruistic and intrinsic impulses. Following that, the two sets of data were compared and investigated. The ramifications of the findings were then examined, as well as their significance in enhancing hiring measures through setting of standards for tech-voc education programs to improve on the status of TVET teachers to attract quality graduates of technical education programs who can teach as TVET teachers before and after completing their programs.
... The results also revealed that without gender discrimination these individuals opt to teach because they find it rewarding and fulfilling to serve other people. However, the results also showed difference when participants were categorized according to gender, whereas male participants in particular were influenced and encouraged generally by mercenary-based extrinsic motivation and altruistic motives resulted to be prevailing among females pre-service teachers (Yüce et al., 2013). ...
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The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to describe the views of identified straight men about the teaching profession and the challenges they faced. There were five straight men teachers identified by the screening committee who participated in this study. The five cases of this study revealed that there is a vital need for straight men teachers because of their perceived edge of male over female and gay teachers. They also viewed the motivating concerns for teaching and the deterring issues in teaching. Challenges faced by straight men includes insecurities in early teaching years handling of heterogeneous students interpersonal relations with colleagues and stringent adherence to policies. The five straight men see themselves as a role model and father figure to both male and female students who do not have a real father at home and are deprived of the love and care of a father. They considered their role as a firm decision maker that bears a firm leadership. All participants have marked difference and uniqueness across the case.
... En China y Hong Kong, los candidatos a docentes se incorporaron a la enseñanza principalmente debido a razones extrínsecas, como exenciones de matrícula, de obligaciones de servicio a su país y el estatus social del profesorado (Gao y Trent, 2009;Liu, 2010). En Sudáfrica (Mwamwenda, 2010) y Turquía (Yüce et al., 2013), el salario, los ingresos adicionales, las perspectivas de promoción y las condiciones de trabajo tuvieron una influencia considerable. Por el contrario, en Indonesia, la remuneración no tuvo una influencia significativa en la elección de enseñar (Afrianto, 2014). ...
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The vast majority of previous research about emotions in scientific education primarily focuses on students, teaching quality, or classroom environment. Therefore, less attention is paid to the motives and affective experiences of teachers. This study has the purpose to analyze the relationship between emotions, such as enjoyment, anger, and anxiety and variables associated with science teaching in Chilean in-service teachers. The studied variables are: motivation for teaching career (intrinsic career value, value of working with students, and previous teaching and learning experience); professional attitudes towards science teaching (relevance and difficulty of science teaching); teacher self-efficacy (self-efficacy in teaching strategies, self-efficacy in classroom management and self-efficacy in the students' engagement), and satisfaction with career choice. Following a quantitative approach with a correlational design, an analysis is carried out based on information collected through a self- report questionnaire from 430 Chilean teachers from three educational levels: preschool, primary, and secondary education. The data was analyzed by linear regressions. Among the conclusions, it is emphasized that the variables intrinsic career value and value of working with students (both associated with the reasons for choosing teaching as a career) are important predictors of enjoyment and protectors of negative emotions, such as anger and anxiety. The findings confirm the expectancy-value theory (EVT) (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000), as expectancies and values about motivation for the teaching career and expectancies of teacher's self-efficacy predict teacher’s emotions. These also confirm the reciprocal model of causes and effects proposed by Frenzel et al. (See Frenzel, 2014; Frenzel et al., 2009, Pekrun, Muis, Frenzel & Goetz, 2017), as teachers' emotions are related to self-efficacy, which - 20 - Influencia de las emociones en la enseñanza de las ciencias en profesorado en ejercicio manifests in three dimensions: self-efficacy in instructional strategies, self-efficacy in classroom management, and self-efficacy in students' engagement. These findings also partially confirmed previous research, as teachers who are motivated by the teaching career show more enjoyment, and less anger and anxiety. Moreover, teachers who felt that science teaching was relevant showed more enjoyment, and less anger and anxiety. Therefore, there is a positive correlation with enjoyment and a negative correlation with anger and anxiety with the perception of self-efficacy. It partially confirms a positive correlation with enjoyment and a negative correlation with anger and anxiety with satisfaction with the choice of teaching as a career. One of the main practical implications of the research is that it should improve the emotions of in-service teachers. In this sense, actions must be taken to protect teachers from negative emotions and encourage positive emotions, such as promote intrinsic value of teaching career, value of working with students, and teacher's self-efficacy. Hence, emphasize the different effects of some variables, such as intrinsic value of teaching career and value of working with students, which have a multiple effect by increasing teachers’ enjoyment and reducing their anger and anxiety. These actions must already start in the initial training and subsequently continue during in-service training of teachers. Consequently, teacher trainers and education institutions must promote teachers’ self-efficacy in science teaching. In any case, our knowledge about the factors that influence on teachers’ emotions as antecedents is still limited; therefore, more research is needed in this field.
... Зарубежные исследования по мотивации студентов педагогических учебных заведений имеют относительно широкую основу. Очень часто причины выбора педагогической деятельности группируются по трем общим мотивам: альтруистические, внешние и внутренние Kyriacou & Coulthard, 2000;Thomson, Turner & Nietfeld, 2012;Yüce et al., 2013;. Внешние мотивы включают в себя аспекты, не связанные непосредственно с деятельностью учителя: зарплата, особенности профессионального статуса и условия труда, разнообразные роли, которые может выполнять человек с педагогическим образованием, характер карьерного успеха. ...
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... Зарубежные исследования по мотивации студентов педагогических учебных заведений имеют относительно широкую основу. Очень часто причины выбора педагогической деятельности группируются по трем общим мотивам: альтруистические, внешние и внутренние Kyriacou & Coulthard, 2000;Thomson, Turner & Nietfeld, 2012;Yüce et al., 2013;. Внешние мотивы включают в себя аспекты, не связанные непосредственно с деятельностью учителя: зарплата, особенности профессионального статуса и условия труда, разнообразные роли, которые может выполнять человек с педагогическим образованием, характер карьерного успеха. ...
Article
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The negative consequences of an incorrectly chosen profession affect both the person himself/herself and his/her social environment. The right choice of profession helps to reduce staff turnover and increase labor productivity. This truth is directly related to the teaching profession. The problem of motivating a professional teaching career, as well as the problem of motivating human behavior and developed. There are practically no special studies that would trace the relationship between the motives for choosing a pedagogical career and the motivation for pedagogical activity among students at the initial stage of teacher education. The purpose of the study: to identify the career orientations preferences of first-year student teachers from various types of universities implementing teacher education programs: the capital’s pedagogical university, federal university, classical university, regional multidisciplinary university in the national region, regional pedagogical university and regional university of humanities and technology. E. Shein’s method of studying professional career motivation (adapted by V.E. Vinokurova and V.A. Chiker) was chosen as the research method. First year students of six Russian universities enrolled in the Pedagogical Education program participated in the study. The study presents the student teachers’ career orientations on the following scales: professional competence, management, autonomy, job stability, residence stability, service, challenge, lifestyle integration, entrepreneurship. Dispositions, value orientations and social attitudes of students that influence career orientations are also presented.
... Pre-and in-service teachers' reasons and motivations for the choice of teaching have been investigated from various perspectives over the years. Research conducted so far revealed main career motivations of teachers in numerous countries including Australia (e.g., Richardson & Watt, 2006), the USA (e.g., Watt, Richardson, & Wilkins, 2014), Turkey (e.g., Yüce, Şahin, Koçer, & Kana, 2013), the * Correspondency: fundaolmez@gmail.com; fundaolmezcaglar@akdeniz.edu.tr ...
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A wide range of factors impact the choice of teaching as a career and result in entry to the teaching profession. The notion that these career motivations may also be possible antecedents of teacher identity was the rationale behind this study. The present study aimed to determine pre-service English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ motivation for choosing teaching as a career and teacher identities, and to gauge to what extent career motivations predict their teacher identities. The study, therefore, adopted a correlational design, and more specifically, the multiple regression technique. Participants included 271 undergraduate students majoring in an EFL teacher education program of a state university in Turkey. The data collected through a set of scales were analysed statistically. Results obtained using the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) model showed that the three major self-reported career motives were altruistic-type social utility values called shaping future of children/adolescents and making social contribution as well as job transferability, a component of personal utility values. Teacher identity levels appeared to display a steady increase in each of the four grade levels from freshman to senior year. Multiple regression results indicated that career motivations accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in teacher identity. Among career motivations, ability, intrinsic career value and working with children/adolescents appeared to be the three strongest positive predictors of teacher identity, respectively. Following these, time for family and fallback career negatively predicted teacher identity. Based on the findings, educational implications were drawn and directions for future research were discussed.
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Teacher attrition is a global concern. Because motivation drives a teacher to persist in their teaching career and affects their effectiveness, persistence among pre-service teachers is important. This exploratory study (N = 55) of college of education students at a university in metropolitan Seoul, South Korea, using survey data, used (a) independent samples t-test to determine reasons for persisting and (b) correlation analysis among demographics and five persistence factors: Academic Integration, Social Integration, Supportive Service Satisfaction, Degree Commitment, and Academic Conscientiousness to understand persistence to a teaching career. The main motivation, job security, moderately correlated with two persistence factors while general interest in the subject and English proficiency positively associated with all persistence factors. The higher students assessed their English proficiency, the more they did not wish to become a teacher because of “salary.” More frequent and earlier teaching practicums and capitalizing on the Halo Effect are discussed for positive results.
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Kimya öğretmeni adaylarının öğretmenlik mesleğine yönelik tutumlarının; mezun olunan lise türü, anne-baba eğitim düzeyi, bölümü tercih sırası, akademik başarı ve yüksek lisans yapma isteği faktörlerine göre nasıl değiştiğinin incelendiği bu araştırma genel tarama modelindedir. Araştırmanın örneklemi 2005-2006 ve 2006-2007 öğretim yılında çeşitli üniversitelerin kimya öğretmenliği bölümünde okuyan 4. ve 5. sınıftaki 331 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma verilerinin toplanmasında “Öğretmenlik Mesleğine Yönelik Tutum” ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada veri çeşitlemesi sağlamak için nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden görüşme yöntemi ile kimya öğretmeni adaylarının öğretmenlik mesleği ile ilgili görüşleri alınmıştır. Tutum ölçeğiyle elde edilen verilerin analizinde Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi tekniği kullanılmıştır. Görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler nitel analiz yöntemlerinden içerik analiziyle çözümlenmiştir.
Thesis
In 1974, Institut de Pedagogie Appliquee a Vocation Rurale (I.P.A.R) Buea was set up to collect and collate information, carry out research, and prepare a report with proposals to the Cameroon Government suggesting what curricular and other related reforms should be introduced into the primary school system to give it a greater environmental and rural orientation. In 1977 I.P.A.R produced its Report on the Reform of Primary Education which called for some major and radical changes in curricular, structures, organisation, examination process, teaching methods, and other pedagogical practices of primary teachers. This study is concerned with the proposed reform and with the attitudes of primary school teachers towards some of the major and radical proposals in the report. Specifically an attempt is made to ascertain how favourable or negative primary teachers are to some of the proposals. A further objective is to improve the understanding of the sources of different attitudes by relating positive attitudes (or reform-mindedness) to a series of 'explanatory' variables which include a set of biographical background; characteristics of the teachers' pedagogical background; and aspects of the teachers' orientation towards their occupational role. A broad hypothesis was adopted that 'primary teachers' attitudes towards the different reform issues will be correlated to reflect a common attitudinal dimension of general reform-mindedness'. Statistical analysis confirmed this hypothesis. Other minor hypotheses which were adopted were either confirmed or rejected depending upon the 'explanatory' variable used to analyse the teachers' responses. The thesis is divided into five parts. The first part (Chapters One and Two) consists of the conceptualisation of the problem and analyses the framework within which the proposed reform has to operate. Part two (Chapters Three and Four) describes the primary school system, its curriculum, its historical genesis, its present nature and the pressure for change. Part three (Chapters Five and Six) outlines the major reform proposals, indicating items chosen for the questionnaire and describes the characteristics of the primary school teachers. In part four (Chapters Seven and Eight) the survey design is described and hypotheses adopted. The last, part five (Chapters Nine and Ten) analyses the results, discusses these results and considers some of the implications deriving from them leading to certain suggestions on the way future policy may evolve.
Book
This accessible and authoritative introduction is essential for education students and researchers needing to use quantitative methods for the first time. Using datasets from real-life educational research and avoiding the use of mathematical formulae, the author guides students through the essential techniques that they will need to know, explaining each procedure using the latest version of SPSS. The datasets can also be downloaded from the book's website, enabling students to practice the techniques for themselves. This revised and updated second edition now also includes more advanced methods such as log linear analysis, logistic regression, and canonical correlation. Written specifically for those with no prior experience of quantitative research, this book is ideal for education students and researchers in this field