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Sugarcane By-Products Based Industries in India

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Abstract

Sugarcane is one of the best converter of solar energy into biomass and sugar. The biomass which contains fiber, lignin, pentosans and pith can be converted into value added products by application of suitable chemical, biochemical and microbial technologies. The processing of sugarcane generates bagasse, molasses and press mud which has great economic value. Besides these main by-products, there are other residues which are produced from sugarcane and have less commercial value such as trash, green tops, wax, fly ash and spent wash. Indian sugar industry has been processing these by-products to generate bioethanol, bio-electricity and many value added products in Sugar-Agro-industrial Complexes.

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... & Availability of human resource: Because of the large population of India [1], there is a huge workforce available in this country. Besides, the livelihood of workers of sugar industries along with 50 million rural population, including farmers and their families, depends on the Indian sugar industries, which are the primary producers of ethanol in India [146,147]. So the Indian ethanol sector has enough human resource in its entire value chain. ...
... Lignocellulosic farm residues are primarily consumed by the paper manufacturing industry in India [147]. Besides, these residues are also used in roof thatching, fodder for cattle, household fuel and heating. ...
... Again, there are numerous other uses of potential feedstock like sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. [147]. Hence, there is a substantial cost involved with the procurement of agricultural residues [101], which is not commercially viable in the present situation [134]. ...
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The Government of India has recognized the use of ethanol to be beneficial for the country's environment and energy security. So, ethanol blending has been mandated in India to harvest the benefits of using it as fuel. However, the ethanol blending target can never be fulfilled as the average ethanol production (2068.5 Million Liters) for the last 10 years (2010–19) is far less than the average consumption (3370 Million Liters), and the demand for ethanol is even higher than the present consumption. Hence, the import of ethanol is increasing. This indicates the necessity of improvement of the Indian ethanol sector to meet the desired targets. So, it is required to develop proper strategies based on the sector's extensive assessment for its improvement. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive overview of the ethanol sector in India, including the production, consumption, feedstocks, trades, and policy for ethanol in India. Further, a social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) analysis of the Indian ethanol sector has been performed to identify the important factors associated with the growth of this sector. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis is also carried out in this paper to categorize the STEEP factors into barriers and drivers associated with this sector. Finally, strategies have been formulated and recommended based on the SWOT factors to mitigate the barriers with the help of the drivers. These strategies are expected to help policymakers improve the overall scenario of the Indian ethanol sector.
... The bagasse, which is the residue that remains after the sugarcane milling, is produced in a proportion of 0.30-0.34 tons per 1 ton of sugar cane processed [3] and has a high content of cellulose (23%-45%), hemicellulose (12%-28%), and lignin (10%-20%) [3,4]. It is also composed of sugar (5%) and minerals (1%) [3]. ...
... The bagasse, which is the residue that remains after the sugarcane milling, is produced in a proportion of 0.30-0.34 tons per 1 ton of sugar cane processed [3] and has a high content of cellulose (23%-45%), hemicellulose (12%-28%), and lignin (10%-20%) [3,4]. It is also composed of sugar (5%) and minerals (1%) [3]. ...
... tons per 1 ton of sugar cane processed [3] and has a high content of cellulose (23%-45%), hemicellulose (12%-28%), and lignin (10%-20%) [3,4]. It is also composed of sugar (5%) and minerals (1%) [3]. Owing to its calorific power, bagasse is mostly used in energy cogeneration in the sugar mills, although a broad range of uses has been proposed for this material; however, most of them have not been commercially exploited [5]. ...
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The effluents of the sugar and bio-ethanol industry, mainly vinasse as well as lignocellulosic waste, are produced in high volumes. Therefore, their treatment and valorization would reduce the environmental impact and make this industry more productive and competitive. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential use of press mud (lignocellulosic waste), vinasse powder, and vinasse sludge from an extraction process with ethanol, as raw materials for conventional pyrolysis evaluating the physicochemical characteristics that affect this thermochemical process, such as calorific power, density, ash content, volatile material, moisture and nitrogen, sulfur, carbon and hydrogen content, thermogravimetric profile, and quantification of lignin cellulose and hemicellulose. The batch pyrolysis experiments showed that all three wastes could be converted successfully into more valuable products. The powder vinasse led to the formation of the lowest content of bio-char (42.7%), the highest production of volatiles (61.6 wt.%), and the lowest ash content (20.5 wt.%). Besides, it showed the high heating value of 15.63 MJ/kg. Meanwhile, the extraction sludge presented the highest liquid yield (32%) with the lowest gas formation (18.2 wt.%) and the lowest heating value of 8.57 MJ/kg. Thus, the sludge could be a good feedstock for production of bio-oil and bio-char.
... Hence, vinasse high heating value decreases notably with the increase in moisture content, which must be considered when a thermochemical route is used for energy recovery [52]. As showed in Table 4, sugarcane Filter-cake have around 17 MJ·kg −1 of high heating value, which is proximate to the results reported for straw and bagasse in Tables 1 and 2. This indicates a high energy potential in filter cake, which could be related to a high content of proteins, sugar and fibers, giving a possibility to use this by-product for energy as with other sugarcane and woody biomasses which is normally used for thermochemical processes [56,57]. ...
... The high Carbon and Oxygen content verify residual sugars and acids from the sugarcane process. On the other hand, sulfur content can be explained by the presence of SO 2 residue from sulphitation in cane juice treatment [57]. ...
... In addition, as an important part of the filter cake is obtained in the sulfite and clarification processes, a high sulfur content may result when compared to other sugar cane residues. Although the presence of Nitrogen and Sulfur in most of the residues studied is low, when compared to other biomasses, they are undesirable because they can reduce Table 5. the calorific value, at the same time as they decrease combustion efficiency by promoting the formation of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) [51,57]. It is also important to take into account that the chemical composition of sugarcane residues depends on the locality, cane variety, land conditions, nutrients applied to the field, milling efficiency and method of clarification [54,57]. ...
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According to the US Department of Agriculture, sugarcane global production for marketing year (MY) 2020/21 will forecast up 22 million tons in comparison with 2019/2020 MY, reaching 188 million tons (raw value), due to higher production in Brazil, India and Thailand. These countries alternate sugarcane uses for obtaining sugar, ethanol and other products, generating near to 152 million tons of residues. In a circular economy context, the reuse of the sugarcane industry by-products is desired. Nowadays, bagasse and, sometimes, straw are used for energy recovery through combustion, while filter cake and vinasse are commonly used for soil fertilization. However, while bagasse and straw present potential for energy recovery through the thermochemical route, vinasse and filter cake are better applied in anaerobic digestion processes to produce biogas and biofertilizer. These treatments, when correctly employed, can improve the performance of sugarcane industry by diversifying its energy sources and products. For this, the correct design of equipment and processes is essential, which requires the knowledge of physical and chemical properties of sugarcane industry’s by-products. In this context, the chapter goal is to present an updated literature review for these properties, considering their use in energy recovery processes.
... anaman tebu merupakan salah satu tanaman yang memiliki banyak fungsi dan mendukung sektor industri dan ekonomi. Selain sebagai tanaman utama penghasil gula, tebu juga dapat menghasilkan biomassa seperti serat, lignin, dan pentosan yang melalui berbagai proses kimiawi dengan penambahan bahan kimia tertentu serta biologi dengan memanfaatkan mikroba dapat dikonversikan menjadi produk yang memiliki nilai tambah (Solomon, 2011). Pada proses pembuatan gula, tebu juga dapat menghasilkan by-product seperti bagas dan molase yang dapat diproses menjadi bioenergy, bioelectricity, dan bioethanol (Solomon, 2011). ...
... Selain sebagai tanaman utama penghasil gula, tebu juga dapat menghasilkan biomassa seperti serat, lignin, dan pentosan yang melalui berbagai proses kimiawi dengan penambahan bahan kimia tertentu serta biologi dengan memanfaatkan mikroba dapat dikonversikan menjadi produk yang memiliki nilai tambah (Solomon, 2011). Pada proses pembuatan gula, tebu juga dapat menghasilkan by-product seperti bagas dan molase yang dapat diproses menjadi bioenergy, bioelectricity, dan bioethanol (Solomon, 2011). Oleh karenanya tebu dibudidayakan di 101 negara dengan luas areal pertanaman lebih dari 26 juta hektar dan produktivitasnya dapat mencapai 1.83 miliar ton (Que et al., 2014). ...
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p> Penyakit luka api merupakan salah satu penyakit utama pada tanaman tebu. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Sporisorium scitamineum yang menginfeksi tanaman melalui mata tunas. Tanaman yang terinfeksi memiliki gejala yang sangat khas yakni terbentuknya cambuk pada bagian ujung tanaman. Cambuk ini terdiri atas teliospora jamur yang berperan sebagai sumber inokulum yang ditularkan melalui angin. Penyakit luka api akan berkembang dengan baik pada kondisi panas dan kering. Saat ini penyakit luka api telah menyebar di hampir seluruh pertanaman tebu di Indonesia. Varietas tebu yang tadinya diklaim tahan terhadap penyakit luka api, saat ini dilaporkan banyak yang terinfeksi juga. Pengetahuan tentang jamur S. scitamineum dan infeksinya pada tanaman tebu yang menyebabkan gejala penyakit luka api ini sangat penting untuk dapat menentukan metode pengendalian yang tepat. Review ini bertujuan membahas peluang teknik pengendalian luka api pada tebu yang dapat diterapkan pada agroekosistem tebu di Indonesia. Oleh karenanya dalam review ini akan memaparkan informasi tentang morfologi dan biologi jamur, mekanisme infeksi penyakit, mekanisme ketahanan tebu terhadap patogen, penyebarannya di Indonesia dan dunia, serta strategi pengendalian dan peluang pengembangannya di Indonesia. The Opportunity to Develop Control Methods of Smut Disease on Sugarcane in Indonesia Abstract Smut disease caused by a basidiomycete fungus, Sporisorium scitamineum , is one of important diseases on sugarcane. The fungus infects the cane through the buds. The infected cane has a very distinctive symptom i.e. the emergence of whip-like structure at the top of the plant. This structure consists of fungal teliospores covered by a thin layer of plant tissue. These teliospores play a significant role as a source of primary inoculum which can be transmitted by wind assistance. The disease was favored by dry warm climates. Currently, the sugarcane smut disease has been widely spread to almost all of sugarcane plantations in Indonesia. In addition, sugarcane variety, which was previously known as a resistant variety, it becomes susceptible. It is important to understand the behavior of the pathogen, mechanism of infection and factors affecting disease development to determine a proper control method for the disease. This review aims to discuss the opportunity of strategy for the control of smut disease on sugarcane which can be applied on sugarcane agroecosystem in Indonesia. Therefore, the review will elaborate the characteristics of the pathogen including its morphology and biology, mechanism of infection, resistance mechanisms of the host to pathogen infection, distribution of the disease in Indonesia and across the world, factors affecting disease development, and management of disease control for the smut disease and its opportunity to be developed in Indonesia. </p
... Bagasse is a fibrous residue that remains in large quantities upon the extraction of sugar juices from sugarcane. For every ton of sugarcane crushed 0.3 tons of bagasse is retrieved (Solomon, 2011). Bagasse is still considered a waste byproduct of sugarcane since it is not adequately used by majority of the sugar factories in Kenya (Rabah, 2000). ...
... However, the paper making process requires depithing (removal of the cellulose non-fibrous pith from bagasse) (Singh et al., 2007). The pith can also be used to make bagasse-briquettes (Solomon, 2011). Bagasse pith is cellulose but not fibrous material, which must be removed from bagasse in order to make good quality pulp, from which to make paper. ...
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Tobacco production involve curing process which results to continued harvest of indigenous vegetation leading to depletion of forests resources and loss of biodiversity, which have long term negative effects on food security and livelihood of the communiti The continued use of unsustainable practices contributes towards increased environmental degradation leading to increased levels of pollution, fertilization and siltation of Lake Victoria and surrounding water bodies. using bagasse objective of this study was to find out the economic gains and vegetation cover saved using bagasse interviewing farmers exposed to briquettes made from bagasse (a sugarcane byproduct) as an alternative source of energy to cure tobacco, to deter wood and non the calorific value of bagasse saw dust briquettes, saw dust, county council waste briquettes, coffee husks briquettes, split wood (eucalyptus), and non equivalent quantity of split wood and non the cost of using bagasse to cure tobacco; quantified woody vegetation cover saved in briquettes. A bomb of energy. A survey methodology was used to find out the source, cost and quantity fuel materials used to cure one kilogram of tobacco leaves. A cross cut analysis was us vegetation cover of different places within the tobacco growing areas in the Lake Victoria basin in terms of tons per hectares. The woody vegetation cover and quantity of leaves cured using bagasse briquettes was used to calculate the found out that; calorific value of bagasse energy. However, the quantity of bagasse significantly lower than split wood and non was lower than an equivalent quantity of split wood and non of curing one kilogram of tobacco leaves is contributing to depletion of woody vegetation cover and loss of biodiversity. The use of bagasse briquette to cure tobacco was economically and environmentally profitable as opposed to use of fuel. The information from this study is of significance to environment practitioners, farmers to improve their profits, policy makers and tobacco processing companies and stakeholders.
... Sugarcane is one of the colossal crops produced widely across the world. The sugar industries use the sugarcane to extract the sugarcane juice and the residue is being left over and that is landfilled [128]. Therefore, a desideratum arises to manage the bagasse residues in an eco-friendly approach. ...
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Globally, the annual generation of industrial and agricultural by-products is exceeding a thousand million tons and forecasted to tremendously inflate in the future. The by-products are usually either landfilled or incinerated causing environmental impacts. Many waste products are effectively utilized in the development of eco-friendly concrete. This study targets the adoption of generated by-products as an alternative to cement in the production of self-compacting concrete (SCC) based on the existing literature. SCC is majorly composed of high cement content, aggregates, chemical admixtures, and water. On the other hand, the cement production emits high levels of carbon dioxide causing environmental hazards and could be reduced to a certain extent by implementing these by-products as cement blends. The by-products are examined for its suitability by the material characterization, physical and chemical properties to match the pozzolanic behavior. This paper reviews comprehensively on the effect of utilizing industrial and agricultural by-products on the workability, strength, permeability, and microstructural performance when blended with SCC. This study summarizes the advantages of utilizing by-products towards the production methodology of a more sustainable and environmentally friendly SCC.
... hybrids) is a multifunctional crop plant. In addition to sucrose, its by-products generate impact in different sectors of the economy being used as food, fiber, fodder, plastic, and environmentally friendly fuel (Solomon, 2011). Sugarcane smut is a fungal disease that reduces productivity worldwide. ...
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The plant cell wall is known to be the first barrier against plant pathogens. Detailed information about sugarcane cell wall-associated defense responses to infection by the causal agent of smut, Sporisorium scitamineum, is scarce. Herein, (immuno)histochemical analysis of two smut resistant and two susceptible sugarcane cultivars was conducted to understand host cell wall structural and compositional modifications in response to fungal infection. Results showed that the fungus grew on the surface and infected the outermost bud scale of both susceptible and resistant cultivars. The present findings also supported the existence of early (24 h after inoculation) and later (72–96 h after inoculation) inducible histopathological responses related to the cell wall modification in resistant cultivars. Lignin and phenolic compounds accumulated during early stages of infection. Later infection response was characterized by the formation of a protective barrier layer with lignin, cellulose and arabinoxylan in the cell walls. Overall, the results suggest possible induction of cell wall-modified responses in smut resistant cultivars to prevent initial entry of the fungus into the meristematic tissues.
... These wastes are normally revalorized and used as animal food, fertilizers, cellulosic industry, and energy recovery or conversion to fuel. The sugar cane bagasse accounts up to the 30-34% by mass of collected sugar cane [18]. According to this, almost 600 million of tonnes of sugar cane waste are obtained. ...
Article
The increasing urban development, led by concrete, requires a higher availability of materials and energy, and it will be responsible for a high waste generation. To face the exploitation of natural resources, the use of fossil fuels and the reduction of waste disposal, new environmental-friendly strategies emerge accomplishing the circular economy principles. In this research, the use of poor reactive agro-industrial ashes as sand replacement in cement-based materials is investigated. Poor reactive sugar cane bagasse ashes (fly and bottom ash -SCB FA and SCB BA, respectively) from a power plant in Dominican Republic have been used in substitution rates of 10%, 20% and 30% of weight of sand. Physico-chemical characteristics of ashes are investigated and correlated to the performance of the bio-concretes. SCB FA showed being an enhancer of durability-related properties of the concrete even with high content of silica in form of quartz, due to the capability of modifying the microstructure of the concrete and an additional binding capacity of chlorides ions. Durability-related tests (open porosity test, electrical resistivity test, capillary absorption test and chloride migration test) have been conducted at 28, 60, 90 and 240days. Direct correlations exist when compared chloride migration resistance against porosity and electrical resistivity in concretes with SCB FA, not so for capillary absorption. This demonstrates the inadequacy of establishing conclusions about durability performance of bio-concretes based on durability tests when run independently. The use of agro-industrial ashes as substitutes of natural aggregates not only reduces the consumption of natural sand but can deliver bio-concretes with potential benefits in terms of compressive strength and durability.
... Syrups from sugar industry (thick juice, run-off syrup/green syrup) and molasses are used for other industrial purposes, mainly as fermentation processes (citric, lactic, oxalic or glutamic acid, lysine), particle binding, bio-ethanol or gasohol production (Solomon, 2011;Krajnc and Glavič, 2009). After sterilization they have to cool down at low temperatures for their storage. ...
Article
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The viscosity of food fluids is one of the most important parameters required in the design of technological processes in food industries.The rheology of thick juice and two green syrups was studied using anAR 2000ex rheometer. The syrups were studied at 4°C, 8°C and 12°C and the viscosity, the rate index and the hysteresis area were determined under forced flow conditions. Obtained data were fitted by the power law model. Viscosity and shear stress values varied with temperature, decreasing with the rise of the syrups temperature. The thixotropy was recorded for all the analyzed samples, but with small hysteresis aria values.The flow process and the recovery of studied syrups structure had maximum values at atemperature of 4 °C. The thick juice behaved as a non-Newtonian fluid and the green syrups behaved as a complex fluid with a viscous component that induced a predominant Newtonian flow at high shear rates. The apparent viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and shear rate, implying that the studied syrupsbehaved as shear thinning materials. © 2018, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.
... p (Cheah et al., 2015). after the syrup has been extracted (Pay a et al., 2018); after extraction of the sugarcane syrup, between 30 and 35% of the wet fibrous bagasse is left over as residue (Solomon, 2011), and this residue is then transformed into ash through combustion. During combustion, 1e4 weight-% of bagasse is converted into SCBA, and considering the production of sugarcane, between 18 and 72 million tons of SBA may be produced annually . ...
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Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are alternative binders that can be used instead of Portland cement in construction. One of the main drivers in their utilization is that AAMs can be designed to have lower CO2 emissions using industrial residues. The main component of AAMs is aluminosilicate precursor, which is frequently waste based. However, the sustainable profile and cost-efficiency of AAMs are greatly affected by the selection of the alkali activator. Commonly used activators include bulk chemicals, such as sodium hydroxide or silicates, which have a relatively high carbon footprint and cost that can inhibit AAM applicability for large-scale construction applications. Consequently, several locally available, but underutilized, agricultural and industrial by-products or wastes have been investigated as alternative alkali activators. Globally, millions of tons of these residues are produced annually, and currently, they are mostly landfilled. Utilization of these residues as alternative alkali activators not only solves the residues-management issue, but also has noteworthy economic and environmental benefits. Utilization and properties of these waste-based activators in AAMs are comprehensively reviewed in this manuscript. Various studies showed the formation of alkali silicates from amorphous silica residues, alkali hydroxides, carbonates, and aluminates sourced from biomass and industrial residues. The resulting binder exhibited similar reactivity to commercial activators and considerable binder strength. However, the durability, shrinkage, and workability properties were not investigated in most of the reviewed studies.
... Recently, it was recognized as an important energy crop due to large-scale molasses-based ethanol production ( Fig. 7.2). Furthermore, it is the most efficient biofuel feedstock for the generation of bio-butanol, diesel, and many other valuable by-products (Yadav and Solomon 2006;Solomon 2011;Abdel-Halim 2014). The other important by-products are paper, acetic acid, plywood, and industrial enzymes (Arencibia et al. 1998) (Fig. 7.2). ...
Chapter
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Currently, the cultivated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the major commercial cash crop grown in tropics and subtropics worldwide. It is cultivated nowadays for sugar, jaggery, ethanol, juices, livestock fodder, and biofuels globally. During the last few decades, multiple countries have witnessed multiple disease epidemics. The total damage during epidemics depends upon the disease severity, disease incidence, climate conditions, and cultivated variety genotype. Furthermore, vegetative reproduction in sugarcane favors the spread of diseases. In the past, the classical breeders have developed many such disease-resistant varieties; however, these varieties were ineffective due to sudden breakdown of resistance to a new virulent strain or pathovars. As a result, there are many diseases widespread including rust, wilt, red rot, pokkah boeng, and smut which seriously affect the sugarcane production, yield, and profitability. As result, multiple diseases-resistant varieties are high in demand by the sugarcane farmers as the cultivation of such elite varieties increases both direct and indirect profits. In order to enhance the disease resistance, the sugarcane breeding programs have shifted the focus toward techniques like marker-assisted breeding, genetic engineering, etc. This book chapter summarizes about the sugarcane productivity, diseases, and various approaches employed for enhancing disease resistance.
... In recent construction practice, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and natural aggregates need to be replaced partially or completely to overcome the problem stated (Ganesan et al. 2007;Solomon 2011). OPC can be replaced with mineral admixtures (Cordeiro et al. 2008). ...
Article
The main focus of researchers in construction sector is to check suitability of ecofriendly alternative materials. Sugarcane bagasse ash (BA) and steel slag (SS) is one among such ecofriendly alternative materials. BA and SS has potential to utilize as binder and coarse aggregate, respectively, in concrete production. In the present investigation, BA and SS were utilized in alkali-activated slag/bagasse ash concrete (AASBC) mixture production. Full factorial experimental design was considered with two input variables, i.e., BA (0, 25, and 50%) and SS (0, 50, and 100%) as replacement to ground granulated blast furnace slag and natural coarse aggregate, respectively. Effect of elevated temperatures on BA and SS-based AASBC mixture were examined. Field emission scanning electron microscope study were carried out to check the morphological changes in ambient and elevated temperature condition. In order to rank different BA and SS-based AASBC mixture performance multi-criteria optimization techniques like, grey relational analysis, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution , and desirability function approach were utilized. AASBC mixture with 25% BA content and 100% SS content found to be most suitable AASBC mixture based on multi-criteria optimization technique under elevated temperature conditions.
... However, the overall process typically involves the delignification of RSB, followed by the removal of hemicellulosic components. Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, have reported RSB as an essential feedstock for pulp and paper industries in India [132]. ...
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The Indian sugar industry’s growth and residual lignocellulosic sugarcane bagasse (RSB) generation rate are complementary to each other. It is estimated that over 75–90 million tonnes of wet RSB are produced annually from 600 operational sugar mills in India. Therefore, the efficient utilization of residual bagasse needs immediate attention from sugar industries and the scientific community worldwide. Albeit recently developed technologies have shown promising prospects for the sustainable conversion of RSB into fuels and value-added chemicals, there is an apparent lack of consensus among the scientific community on technical understanding and commercial applicability of current RSB conversion technologies. This review discusses applications of RSB in Indian industries for electricity generation, concrete manufacturing from RSB ash, nanocomposite production, as well as pulp and paper, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, bioethanol, and value-added chemical production. Besides, the conversion of RSB major component lignin to fuel and high-value specialty chemicals has been discussed. Moreover, the government of India policies and subsequent revisions in 2018 to promote biomass and RSB conversion technologies has been presented. Subsequently, major challenges associated with the implementation of different conversion technologies have been explored. Overall, it is observed that there is a huge opportunity in India to utilize the RSB for value-added chemicals production, pulp, and paper production, electricity generation, and other applications. Nevertheless, the Government of India current policies directed towards promoting the RSB uses primarily for electricity production via cogenerations. Graphical abstract
... It is estimated that straw can be burned alongside bagasse in highefficiency boilers to produce bioelectricity [3]. For every 100 tons of Sugarcane crushed, a sugar factory produces nearly 30 tons of wet Bagasse [45], which is used as a primary fuel source for Sugar Mills [46]. It produces sufficient heat and electrical energy to supply all the needs for typical Sugar mill, with energy to spare. ...
... XRF analysis reveals that PM contains significant amounts of calcium oxide and silica. Moreover, Yadav and Solomon (2006) and Solomon (2011) stated that calcined PM from carbonation mills can be used as building lime due to its high CaO content. PM, therefore, can supply additional calcium ions to increase electrolyte concentration and ion exchange, thereby further reducing plasticity achieved by lime. ...
Article
This study attempted to investigate the potential of sugarcane press mud (PM) as a secondary additive in conjunction with lime for the stabilization of an expansive soil. The physico-mechanical properties of an expansive soil, such as plasticity, shrink-swell behavior, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), mineralogical and microstructural characteristics were investigated. The expansive soil was stabilized at its optimum lime content (7%) for producing maximum strength, and was modified with four different quantities of PM in small dosages (0.25%–2%). Cylindrical soil samples, 38 mm in diameter and 76 mm in height, were cast and cured for varying periods to evaluate the strength of the amended soil. The spent samples after strength tests were further used for determination of other properties. The test results revealed that PM modification led to a substantial improvement in 7-d strength and noticeable increase in 28-d strength of the lime-stabilized soil (LSS). The addition of PM does not cause any detrimental changes to the shrink–swell properties as well as plasticity nature of the stabilized soil, despite being a material of organic origin. Mineralogical investigation revealed that the formation of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) minerals, similar to that of pure lime stabilization with only the type of mineral varying due to the modification of PM addition, does not significantly alter the microstructure of the LSS except for superficial changes being noticed. Keywords: Expansive soil, Lime stabilization, Press mud (PM), Strength, Shrink-swell, Mineralogy, Microstructure
... Cane lignin is identified to be a precious molecule in pharmacology as a carrier in delivery of drugs such as methrotrexate, an antimetabolite used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (Vinardell and Mitjans, 2017). Dried filter cakes of sugarcane along with dried stalks and tops are a sensible fodder for cattle (Solomon, 2011). Sugarcane wax made from peels and pressmud can be used as a replacement for carnauba wax that intakes high production cost (Inarkar and Lele, 2012). ...
... Citric acid is used by the food processing, cosmetics and detergent industries that was primarily produced (4,000 tons/annum) by Citurgia Biochemical Ltd, Surat) using molasses as substrate (Solomon, 2011). ...
... Among the unconventional feed, sugarcane press mud (SPM) is one of them. It is available to the tune of 8-10 million tons annually in India 5 . SPM can be used in the formulation of livestock feed because it has good crude protein content than molasses and also more soluble calcium, which is an important constituent of animal feed 6 . ...
... India accounts for 18.72% of world sugarcane production, coming second only to Brazil (41.29%) (Government of India, 2018). Together, sugar and its allied industries provide employment to 7.5% of the rural populace and account for 1% of Indian GDP (Solomon, 2011). As a result of its socio-economic importance, sugarcane has become a mainstay of Indian agriculture; however, the occurrence of salinity results in 20-40% losses in cane yield (Brindha et al., 2019). ...
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Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a globally-cultivated cash crop whose yield is negatively affected by soil salinity. In the present study, we have investigated the molecular basis of inducible salt tolerance in M4209, a sugarcane mutant generated through radiation-induced mutagenesis. Under salt-contaminated field conditions, M4209 exhibited 32% higher cane yield as compared with its salt-sensitive parent Co86032. In continuation, M4209 displayed significantly higher leaf biomass in post-sprouting phenotyping, as compared with Co86032, under both 50 and 200 mM NaCl. This was concomitant with 1.9- (50 mM) and 1.6- (200 mM) fold higher K+/Na+ ratio and 4- (50 mM) and 40- (200 mM) fold higher glutathione reductase activity in M4209 as compared with that in Co86032, suggesting better ionic and redox homeostasis. RNAseq based transcriptome profiling in M4209 indicated an extensive reprograming of stress responsive modules associated with photosynthesis, transmembrane transport and metabolic processes under 50 mM NaCl stress. Using ranking analysis, we identified PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase), ATL (Acyl-transferase like gene) and SATA (Salt-activated transcriptional activator) as top-ranked genes associated with M4209's salt tolerance. Additionally, M4209 exhibited 3-4-fold higher photosynthetic rate, as compared with Co86032 under NaCl stress conditions. Taken together, our study highlights the significance of transcriptional reprogramming coupled with photosynthetic efficiency for regulating salt tolerance in sugarcane.
... Nearly 85% of the sugarcane grown in Colombia is cultivated in the upper basin of the Cauca River, within the region known as Valle del Cauca (Procaña, 2017). Economic sectors directly linked to the sugarcane monoculture include industrial production of biofuels, food ingredients for domestic and export supply, and paper and textiles from bagasse (Solomon, 2011;Moncada et al., 2013). However, the systematic expansion of the sugarcane plantations in the Valle del Cauca region has turned this territory into a green desert. ...
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El Tiple is one of many marginalized Afrodescendant communities confined within a green desert located in the southwest region of Colombia. This green desert is most widely known as the second-largest sugarcane monoculture field in the Americas. Herein, we describe a transdisciplinary and participatory effort to understand agroindustrial expansion in the region through the lens of the El Tiple community. Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, we characterized the socioenvironmental context of El Tiple in terms of ethnography, autoethnography, social cartography, and ethnobotany. We implemented a participatory approach to codevelop a technology-assisted strategy for strengthening the community's small-scale farming activities. Our contextual analysis results show systemic food dispossession, which arises from several factors, including dramatic land transformation, rapid depletion and contamination of natural assets, and biodiversity loss. All these factors are associated with the presence of bordering sugarcane plantations. In collaboration with community members, we designed, constructed, and analyzed a greenhouse hydroponic cultivation system as an actionable means to gradually restore local production of food and medicinal plants for the community. Our transdisciplinary and participatory approach demonstrates how academics can partner with vulnerable communities in the coproduction of knowledge and solutions to pressing social needs.
... (bagasse) and sugar [28]. Bagasse can also be used to generate secondary biofuels like ethanol and n-butanol [29]. ...
Article
Jaggery is a traditional concentrated product of sugarcane juice which is easily and cheaply available to the Indian rural population. Several value added jaggery based products are also very popular in large section of population throughout the country. Jaggery is a good source of minerals and nutritiants and also has various medicinal values. With the increasing demand of this nutritive sweetener, efforts are being made to develop a standard manufacturing package that will increase its productivity besides quality improvement in terms of hygiene, standardization of shape, size, and storability. The thermal and overall efficiencies of jaggery making plants are very low due to loss of thermal energy through flue gasses and un-designed constructional parameters of plant. The storage of jaggery is also a major problem. Since, it is much influenced by the contents of invert sugars and mineral salts that are hygroscopic …
... After crushing the sugarcane stem to obtain the juice for sugar and first-generation ethanol production, several by-products are generated, that can be bioconverted into value-added products of commercial interest. By-products with high economic value include SCB, molasses and filter cake (press mud) (Solomon 2011). ...
Article
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Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is a major by-product of the sugarcane industry and one of the most common renewable and sustainable cellulosic materials for various industrial applications. As the world moves toward bioeconomy and green chemistry for sustainable growth, SCB is seen as a valuable bioresource. The cellulose component of SCB at 40–50% serves as a precursor for producing value-added products such as cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibers and microcrystalline cellulose. Some applications of cellulosic materials from SCB, emerging markets and future prospects in the nanocellulose industry are discussed. Most studies on cellulose from SCB focused only on the extraction and isolation of micro and nanomaterials. This presents opportunity for researchers and industry players to invest efforts and capital into further applications of cellulosic materials from SCB, as a renewable and sustainable product source. Graphic abstract
... Press-mud or filter cake can be utilized as ingredients in fish feed due to its moderate protein (10-15%) and rich mineral (15-30%) profiles (Tran, 2015). Estimated annual availability of pressmud is around 8-10 million tonnes in India (Soloman, 2011). ...
Article
The development of a cost effective feed is a necessity for profitable operation of fish farms. One approach towards the reduction of feed cost is the utilization of locally available non-conventional agroindustrial byproducts. In order to assess the potential of sugar industry by-products (press mud and cane molasses) as ingredients in the feed for Labeo rohita (Rohu), a 60 day feeding trial was conducted with 180 fingerlings (2.26±0.05g) which were randomly distributed into six treatment groups with triplicates. Six iso-nitrogenous (30.18±0.24) diets incorporated with or without by-products, namely control (without pressmud and molasses), PM5 (5% press mud), PM10 (10% press mud), CM5 (5% cane molasses), CM10 (10% cane molasses), and PC (5% press mud and 5% cane molasses) were fed to the respective treatments at 5% body weight per day. The results revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) between control, PM5 and CM5. There was no significant effect on whole body composition except ether extract and total carbohydrates. The specific activitiy of α-amylase displayed a significant affect (P<0.05) with elevated level in fish fed PM5. The fish fed CM5 and CM 10 exibited lower amylase activity and were non significant. Protease activity was unaffected by the dietary treatments (P>0.05) with higher activity was recorded in control. The higher activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was observed in PC followed by PM10 and CM10. LDH activity in PM5 displayed non significant with control. The lower activity of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was observed in control which was non significant with PC. The higher activity was found to be in CM5 and showed significant with other groups (P<0.05). The result concluded that molasses and pressmud can be included at 5% level in the diet of Labeo rohita fingerlings.
... In this perspective, sugarcane press mud (SPM), also known as sugarcane filter cake, a by-product of cane sugar manufacturing could be utilised as a diet component owing to its moderate protein (10-15%) and rich mineral (15-30%) profiles (Tran 2015). It is a soft, spongy and amorphous dark brown residue obtained during filtration of sugarcane juice in sugar factories (Dotaniya et al. 2016) and there is an estimated annual availability to the magnitude of 8-10 million tonnes in India (Soloman 2011). The SPM has been investigated as a feed ingredient for ruminants (Gupta and Ahuja 1998;Mohamed and El-Saidy 2003;Suresh et al. 2006;Saha et al. 2015;Malapure 2015), swine (Sahu et al. 2014) and poultry (Suma et al. 2007(Suma et al. , 2015Suresh and Reddy 2011), besides its use as an ensiling agent (Tran 2015). ...
Article
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Sugarcane press mud (SPM) is one of the potential agro-industrial by-products available in India and research exploring its utilisation in small ruminant nutrition is scanty. In this direction, the present study evaluated the feasibility of dietary incorporation of SPM at different levels in a feeding trial lasting 180 days. A total of 21Muzaffarnagari ram lambs were randomly distributed into three groups of seven each based on comparable body weight (11.70 ± 0.29 kg) and age (3–5 months) following a completely randomised design. The three dietary treatments were (1) SP0 (control), concentrate mixture without SPM; (2) SP10, concentrate mixture comprising 10% SPM and (3) SP20, concentrate mixture comprising 20% SPM on air-dry basis. The experimental lambs were offered weighed quantity of designated isonitrogenous (crude protein = 20.6%) and isoenergetic (metabolisable energy = 12.1MJ/kg) concentratemixture (coarse mash) and along with ad libitum wheat straw (threshed to 1–2-cm length) and a 9-day metabolism trial was conducted. Results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) differences in intake and digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen balance, nutritive value of diets, average daily gain, as well as feed conversion ratio among three groups. The serum concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine did not differ due to treatments. Likewise, wool yield and its quality, measured in terms of fibre diameter, medullation percentage and staple length were also comparable irrespective of dietary variation. Furthermore, the cost of concentrate mixture (Rs/day) was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in SP20 followed by SP10 as compared to group SP0. These findings suggested that SPM could be safely fed up to 20% level in the concentrate mixture for lambs substituting expensive traditional feed ingredients without negatively inflicting the performance of growing lambs.
... One such solid waste generated from sugar industry is sugarcane press mud (PM). PM from carbonation mills is rich in calcium content with as much as 40-45% comprising of calcium oxide on a dry basis [4,5]. In fact, PM can be utilized in the manufacture of cement [6]. ...
Article
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The present investigation delved into the performance of cement stabilized soil amended with sugarcane press mud (PM), an organic waste residue from the sugar industry. An expansive soil was stabilized using 3% and 8% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and modified with 1%, 3% and 5% PM. Cylindrical samples of dimensions 38 mm diameter and 76 mm height were cast and cured for 7, 14 and 21 days for all combinations considered. After the designated curing periods, the specimens were strained axially until failure to determine the strength of the samples. Samples were also subjected to alternate cycles of wetting and drying and the resistance to loss in weight was determined. The results of the investigation revealed that PM can be considered as a strength accelerator due to enhancement in early strength of the samples at 7 days of curing but beneficial strength gain could not be sustained over extended curing periods considered. However, 1% and 3% PM modified specimens were more resistant to weight loss when compared to pure cement stabilized specimens. Based on the results of the investigation, PM can be considered as a potential auxiliary additive to cement stabilized soil for improving the durability performance of the soil.
... Sugarcane is one of the most important crops worldwide for sugar production and a myriad of useful by-products, such as food, fiber, wax, and biofuel [1]. This crop often suffers from sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, leading to a serious loss of sugarcane yield. ...
Article
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Sugarcane smut caused by the basidiomycetes fungus Sporisorium scitamineum is a devastating disease for the sugarcane industry worldwide. As the initial step, the smut teliospores germinate on sugarcane buds, and subsequently, the mycelium infects the bud tissues. However, chemical signals that induce spore germination are still unknown. By comparison of the behavior of the teliospores on the buds of both resistant and susceptible varieties, we found that spore germination rates were significantly lower on the buds of resistant cultivars ZZ1, ZZ6, and ZZ9 than on the susceptible varieties GT42 and ROC22. It was found that the levels of hexacosanol and octacosanol were higher on the buds of smut-susceptible varieties than on the smut-resistant varieties. These observations were extended to the smut-resistant and smut-susceptible sub-genetic populations derived from the cross of ROC25 and YZ89-7. In artificial surface assays, we found that hexacosanol and octacosanol promoted smut teliospore germination. Transcriptome analysis of smut teliospores under the induction by octacosanol revealed that genes in the MAPK signaling pathway and fatty acid metabolism were significantly differentially expressed. Overall, our results provide evidence that alkanol plays important roles in smut teliospore germination and thus could be used as a potential marker for smut resistance in sugarcane breeding programs.
... Sugarcane is an important sugar and biofuel crop in the world [35,36]. However, various stresses, such as pathogens, low temperatures, and drought, seriously restrict the healthy development of the sugarcane industry [37]. ...
Article
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Background The coronatine insensitive 1 (COI1) gene is the core member of jasmonate signaling pathway, which is closely related to plant biotic and abiotic resistance. However, there have been no reports on COI1 in sugarcane (Sacharum spp.). Hence, systematically investigating the characteristics of the COI1 multigene family in sugarcane can provide a means to study and manipulate the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Results A total of 156 COI1 proteins were obtained from the genomes of 19 land plants, while none were obtained from five algae species. A phylogenetic tree demonstrated that these COI1 proteins were classified into four groups, while 31 proteins of SsCOI1 from Saccharum spontaneum, SbCOI1 from Sorghum bicolor, and ShCOI1 from Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar R570 clustered into three groups. Synteny analysis and duplication patterns revealed that COI1 genes expanded through various genome replication events and could have experienced strong purifying selective pressure during evolution in S. spontaneum, S. bicolor, and R570. An investigation of cis-acting elements suggests that COI1 genes may be involved in plant growth and development and response to various stresses. Expression analysis implied that 21 SsCOI1 genes were constitutively expressed, and had positive responses to drought, cold, and Sporisorium scitamineum stresses with different expression patterns. Among them, seven SsCOI1 haplotype genes may play different roles in response to methyl jasmonate. Furthermore, the ShCOI1–4, ShCOI1–5, and ShCOI1–6 genes were cloned from Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar ROC22. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that these three ShCOI1 genes had divergent expression profiles in response to salicylic acid, abscisic acid, polyethylene glycol, cold, and S. scitamineum. Conclusions These results suggest that COI1 genes may act in sugarcane growth, development, and response to various stresses via different regulatory mechanisms, which laying a foundation for the functional identification of the sugarcane COI1 gene.
... When applied in the wet form, MM is 75% water. Its nutrient content is up to 30% raw sugars and crude protein, with appreciable amounts of Si, Ca, P 2 O 5 , MgO, Fe and Mn (Solomon 2011). For this reason, MM can be used as an OA for enhancing soil fertility (Barry et al. 1998;Qureshi et al. 2001;Dotaniya et al. 2016) with cane yield improvement identified after MM application (Chapman 1996;Kingston 1999;Gilbert et al. 2008). ...
... The Indian sugar industry has been processing these by-products to manufacture bioethanol, bioelectricity, and a number of other products with added value. [52] There is a lot of opportunity for bagasse-based factories to set up plants to manufacture market pulp, newsprint, writing and printing papers, particle board, MDF, cattle feed, and chemicals like furfural, since there is a lot of demand for all of these goods in the world. The molasses-based products made in India can favorably compete in the international market with the products produced in other countries, due to the fact, that the price of molasses in India is quite reasonable. ...
Article
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There is a pressing need for global agriculture to shift its focus to secondary agriculture in order to produce jobs as the world's population increases. The method of generating agricultural produce is biological in nature, making it a primary agriculture operation; but, when the raw produce is refined, it receives additional benefit, making it a secondary agriculture activity. Any farm related activity that uses the land or labor beyond the Kharif and Rabi seasons would qualify for a ‘Secondary Agriculture’ activity. India's scope for diversified agriculture is vast because of extensive arable land, multiple agro-climatic zones and a rich cafeteria of soils. However, India's reputation as a global agricultural powerhouse is ironically at odds with its farmers' low average wages. The road to higher agricultural Gross Value Added and farmers' income rests in efficient management of the post-production segment, comprising agri-logistics, processing and marketing. Agriculture generates raw materials that meet basic human requirements, and is considered as a primary economic activity. Of course, there are certain alternative agriculture activities like beekeeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, etc., which fall under the ambit of secondary agriculture. Secondary agriculture helps in using all parts of an agricultural produce, processing to enhance shelf-life, increasing total factor productivity, and generating additional jobs and income for farmers. It, thus, encompasses both food and non-food processing, and represents agro-processing. Income generation activities such as paddy straw fodder blocks, duck farming, honeybee keeping, mushroom cultivation, backyard poultry, among others, that do not compete with the time that is required for various inter-cultivation activities of primary agriculture production, qualify to be defined as a secondary agriculture. These Small-scale activities utilizes rural manpower, skills and locally available inputs efficiently. These enterprises can interact in space and/or time to achieve benefits through a synergistic resource transfer among enterprises, working closely such that waste from one part becomes a supply for another component of the system known as Integrated Farming System (IFS). Not only this but waste management is also one the important issue tackled with the help of secondary agriculture like leftover cane can be processed to produce by products of sugarcane. Thus, secondary agriculture realizes better productivity, profitability and sustainable production systems that would help to solve the fuel, feed and energy crisis, create more employment avenues, ensure regular income and encourage agriculture-oriented industry.
... The rare feature of sorghum is the ability to accumulate sucrose in the stem which makes this plant a useful source for ruminant feeding and bioethanol production (Li et al., 2013;Ahmad Dar et al., 2018). Sugar extraction from sorghum forage results in a solid cellulosic residue (bagasse) constituting 30-35% of the fresh plant (Solomon, 2011). After pressing sorghum stalks, approximately 50% of water-soluble carbohydrates and 100% of water-insoluble structural carbohydrates remain in the bagasse (Godin et al., 2013). ...
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Lactobacillus buchneri is a heterofermentative bacteria recommended to be applied to forages more susceptible to spoilage and aerobic instability such as small grain or high moisture silages. It may affect rumen fermentation since the heterofermentation products (acetic acid, CO2) are used by methanogenic microorganisms as substrates for the biomethane synthesis in the rumen. In consequences these may lead to increase in gross energy losses from diet and aggravate negative influence of ruminant production on the environment. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of L. buchneri on rumen methanogenesis and fermentation profile of sorghum whole crop cereal and bagasse ensiled without additive (SWCC0, SB0) and with bacterial inoculant (SWCC1, SB1). During in vitro rumen fermentation gas production, methanogenesis and volatile fatty acids (VFA) profile of ruminal fluid were measured. The addition of L. buchneri decreased the acetate concentration after 8h of in vitro rumen fermentation SWCC and SB silages. The material affects the acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate and valerate concentration after 8h of in vitro rumen fermentation. Moreover, material affects the propionate, isobutyrate and butyrate concentration after 24h of fermentation. L. buchneri increased the level of methane after 8h fermentation of SWCC and SB. However, after 24h of fermentation L. buchneri decreased the concentration of methane in SWCC silage. The fermentation profile (24h) of SB silages was characterized by higher levels of methane compared to SWCC silages.
... Sugarcane is one of the most important crops, and the production of sugarcane generates a huge quantity of by-products and waste that may constitute a substantial extraction of useful compounds. Several products can be produced from it, as following: (1) sucrose, syrups and jaggery (as a source of food); (2) cellulose (as a source of fiber); (3) bagasse, alcohol and molasses (as a source of fuel and chemicals) (4) green leaves and sugarcane tops (as a source of fodder); (5) pressing mud and washing (as a source of fertilizer); (6) bagasse extract was utilized as natural source of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antimicrobial agents (Solomon, 2011).Sugarcane bagasse is known to be one of the by-products from the sugar industry and commercial products and also being the most abundant agro-industrial by-products, with a global output of over 540 million tons per year (Bezerra & Ragauskas, 2016). Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous debris and also the product of grinding sugarcane. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the extraction of total phenolic compounds of sugarcane bagasse using various solvents. In addition, the Sugarcane Bagasse Water Extract (SBWE) was used in refrigerated fresh meat as natural preservative. The fresh meat was dipped into water solutions containing various phenolic compounds concentrations (T1:125, T2:250 and T3:500 ppm). During 10 days of storage at 4 °C for all the treated samples were compared with untreated one. The results revealed that SBWE showed relevant values of total phenolic compounds (17.90 mg/g) and total flavonoids content (4.50 mg/g), as well as 45.90% of antioxidant content. On the other hand, microbiological examination and sensory evaluation have turned out to be the best treatment for T3:500 ppm. The SBWE showed an antibacterial impact on Staphylococcus sp. and a reduction in the Total Plate Count and in the group of Psychrotrophs. The shelf-life of refrigerated fresh meat treated with SBWE by dipping it into water solutions was also extended to more than 10 days.
... hybrids) is one of the important crops in the world as it can produce valuable products in different economic sectors, such as food, health, agriculture (fertilizer, fodder, compost), bioplastic, etc. Sugarcane is mainly grown for sugar production. However its by-products (bagasse, molasses and press mud) can be further processed into greater economic values such as bioenergy, bioethanol and bioelectricity [1]. ...
... (Saccharum officinarum) merupakan tanaman tahunan yang dikenal luas sebagai bahan baku pembuatan gula (Cheavegatti-Gianotto et al. 2011;Nofu et al. 2014;Arif et al. 2019) dan bahan dasar pembuatan makanan dan minuman (Cheavegatti-Gianotto et al. 2011;Nofu et al. 2014). Pada industri gula, bagas tebu merupakan salah satu produk samping yang tersisa setelah batang tebu diekstrak untuk menghasilkan gula (Chandel et al. 2011;Solomon 2011). Bagas tebu yang dihasilkan sekitar 35-40% dari setiap tebu yang diproses (Yusuf et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Sugarcane bagasse is an agricultural waste containing lignocellulose and has the potential to be processed into high-value chemicals such as vanillin. The degradation of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulose can be carried out biologically by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. This study aims to obtain optimal extraction conditions in the form of ethyl acetate solvent volume and extraction time, using the response surface method (RSM). Two optimized factors were the volume of ethyl acetate (71.72; 80; 100; 120; and 128.28 mL) and the extraction time (35.16; 60; 120; 180; 204.84 minutes). The response variables were the concentration (%) and yield of vanillin (µg g-1). The research on the optimization of the response of vanillin levels and vanillin yield was carried out at 14 days incubation with the highest average total soluble phenol (TSP) value of 0.101 mg g-1. The optimal condition of ethyl acetate volume of 109.730 mL with an extraction time of 137.302 minutes was predicted to produce vanillin levels and yields of 0.0078% and 8.9089 g g-1 , respectively, with an accuracy value of 93.4%. Based on the verification results, the optimal vanillin concentration and yield were 0.0077% and 8.9805 g g-1 , respectively. ABSTRAK Bagas tebu merupakan limbah pertanian yang mengandung lignoselulosa dan berpotensi diolah menjadi bahan kimia bernilai tinggi seperti vanillin. Degradasi lignoselulosa bagas tebu dapat dilakukan secara biologis oleh jamur pelapuk putih Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan kondisi ekstraksi optimal berupa volume pelarut etil asetat dan lama waktu ekstraksi, menggunakan response surface method (RSM). Dua faktor yang dioptimasi adalah volume etil asetat (71,72; 80; 100; 120; dan 128,28 mL) dan lama waktu ekstraksi (35,16; 60; 120; 180; 204,84 menit). Variabel respons adalah kadar (%) dan yield vanillin (µg g-1). Penelitian optimasi respons kadar vanillin dan yield vanillin dilakukan pada inkubasi 14 hari dengan nilai total soluble phenol (TSP) rata-rata tertinggi 0,101 mg g-1. Kondisi optimal volume etil asetat 109,730 mL dengan waktu ekstraksi 137,302 menit diprediksi menghasilkan kadar dan yield vanillin sebesar 0,0078% dan 8,9089 µg g-1 dengan nilai ketepatan 93,4%. Berdasar hasil verifikasi, konsentrasi dan yield vanillin yang optimal masing-masing adalah 0,0077% dan 8,9805 µg g-1. Kata Kunci: bagas tebu, kadar vanillin, optimasi dengan RSM, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, yield vanillin
... Sugarcane juice is a popular drink as it contains high amount of sugar, proteins, minerals and flavonoids (Kalpana et al. 2013), which are important antioxidants that prevent several diseases (Li et al. 2015). Sugarcane industry has great agro-industrial and economic value in terms of food, health, agricultural fertilisers and chemical industry (Solomon 2011). However, sugarcane crop is susceptible to the attack of many insects like Pyrilla, scale insect, termite, whitefly, mealybugs and white grub. ...
Article
Metribuzin is a systemic herbicide having translaminar flow in the plant. Therefore, there are chances of movement in the leaves, immature cane and juice. Work has been done on the residues of metribuzin in soil but no literature is available on the residues in immature cane. Therefore, present work is undertaken to check the dissipation pattern in immature cane, juice and soil. A two-year trial was conducted to study the residues of metribuzin after application @ 1400 and 2800 g a.i. ha−1. In immature cane, the initial residues were 11.73 and 20.89 mg kg−1 during 1st year and 12.78 and 26.09 mg kg−1 during 2nd year which declined below the limit of quantification of 0.05 mg kg−1 in 15 days at single and double dose, respectively. In soil, initial residues were 0.87 and 2.56 mg kg−1 during 1st year and 0.94 and 2.83 mg kg−1 during 2nd year at single and double dose, respectively, which decreased below the limit of quantification after 10 and 15 days of application during both years @ 1400 and 2800 g a.i. ha−1, respectively. The total residues followed kinetics of first order with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.98 and 0.99. Sugarcane juice did not show the residues of metribuzin at harvest time. No residues were found in sugarcane, its juice and soil at harvest time; therefore, it can be concluded that the application of metribuzin @ 1400 and 2800 g a.i. ha−1 is safe from consumption point of view and environment point of view.
Article
The present study examines the use of residual sugar from sugarcane bagasse for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a class of biodegradable microbial polymers. To achieve this, 26 bacterial isolates were screened for PHA production. From the strains isolated, ART_MKT2E was found to produce PHA and was selected to discover its capability to use a bagasse‐based medium (BGM). To date, the lignocellulosic component of bagasse has been used as a substrate by treating bagasse with acids. This study demonstrates the use of residual sugar from bagasse as a substrate for PHA production. The concentration of bagasse filtrate was found to be optimum at 60%, along with yeast extract and additional salts (pH 7.0 ± 0.5). The maximum PHA production (w/w) was 55%. These results indicate the successful use of non‐lignocellulosic BGM. The remaining lignocellulosic component of bagasse could be fed as a substrate for another production process, promoting a sustainable, biobased economy. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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Over the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues, there has been increasing research interest for conversion of agro-industrial wastes to commercially valuable products in full correspondence with the green extraction concept. Wastes and by-products generated during the sugar production process constitute a great source of different high value-added products, which have the potential to be used as food additives and/or as nutraceuticals. Green extraction processes are one of the most critical steps in recovering these compounds from waste-based sugar processing side streams from an environmental and economical point of view. Although well-established, growing demand has subjected definite insufficiencies of the mainstream bioactive components extraction method, notably yield and product consistency, thus infusing research interest towards improving the traditional procedures by an adoption of a number of green pre-treatments. The present review will describe and summarize the latest works concerning green extraction technologies for various classes of value compounds from sugar processing by-products and residuals with special emphasis on eight pre-treatments including pulsed electric field, high voltage electrical discharges, enzyme-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave treatment, subcritical water, supercritical carbon dioxide, and high-pressure processing. These eight technologies have shown promising extraction efficacy with reduced usage of extraction solvents, thus saving time and cost in industrial-scales processes. Graphical AbstractGreen technologies to extract value-added compounds from sugar processing by-products
Chapter
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This chapter is a description of the main applications of saccharides in industry for obtaining energetic and nonenergetic products by means of the biorefinery concept allied to green chemistry principles. A biorefinery seeks to use the entire biomass completely, exploiting polysaccharides, proteins, and lignin in various manufacturing processes, to obtain food, pharmaceutical products, biomaterials, bioproducts, and biopolymers, in addition to energetic products, in a sustainable manner. After analyzing demand aspects, costs, transformation technology to be used, and possibilities for the molecule to be a source for many technological applications, the most promising saccharide applications are succinic acid, bioethanol, and 3-HP (3-hydroxypropionic acid).
Book
Sugarcane enjoys a prominent position among agro-industrial crops and is commercially grown in 115 tropical and subtropical countries around the world. However, fluctuations in sugar prices have forced the sugarcane industry worldwide to broaden its revenue base by moving from single-commodity manufacturing to a range of value-added products. Utilizing the by-products in an innovative manner to create value-added products is the new course of action for sugar-producing countries. For many years sugarcane was regarded as a single-product crop, i.e., only useful for producing sugar. Its actual potential is now increasingly being recognised by the industry and there is a growing trend toward the manufacturing of allied products from sugarcane. Therefore, the focus is now on the establishment of sugar-agro-industry complexes, processing not just sugar but a range of other products. This book provides a comprehensive overview of sugarcane not only as a source of sweetening agents but also for many other uses, including as a source of bio-energy. It also explores the trend of sugar consumption and suggests practices to curb the consumption of sugar products in order to tackle obesity and reduce public health costs. The book underscores the need to diversify sugarcane and highlights means of doing so, while also addressing various innovations and technologies being developed in connection with sugar, sugar derivatives, and sugar industry by-products for sustainable utilization in the sugar-agro industry. Accordingly, it offers a valuable resource for professionals and R&D units in the sugar industry, and for students of agronomy and related fields.
Article
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of biodegradable intracellular polyesters that a number of Eubacteria and Archaea can accumulate for energy and carbon storage. Most of the genetic modifications to the producing bacterial species have been accomplished to clarify basic biochemical, genetic, and metabolic aspects of PHA metabolism. However, due to its plastic‐like properties and complete biodegradability, this bio‐based polymer has attracted the attention of a variety of manufacturers. A number of genetic approaches have therefore been reported, aimed at improving the performance of the microorganisms with a potential for use in a production process. Indeed, genetic tools may find useful applications in all the phases of the PHA production chain, from the isolation and characterization of new microbial strains through all the production steps until they reach the downstream processes. The substrates generally used for PHA production are expensive, so the search for low‐cost feedstock is necessary. These materials, possibly deriving from agri‐food processes, are unfortunately not easily degraded or converted directly into PHAs. Thus, the development of engineered microbes is in progress to process waste streams and covert them to valuable polymers. This review will summarize the most relevant results obtained through genetic engineering tools for the production of PHAs from cheap carbon sources in view of possible industrial applications. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The study involved the characterization of five solid wastes viz. Phosphogypsum (PG), Ceramic Dust (CD), Press Mud (PM), Bagasse Ash (BA) and Coconut Shell Powder (CSP) in order to understand their suitability as additives to primary binders in soil stabilization. The materials were collected from their sources and were prepared in the laboratory for characterization. They were subjected to various tests including loss on ignition, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy tests. The results of the characterization were analysed using ASTM standard for natural pozzolans as well as literary evidence. Based on the investigation, it was found that only ceramic dust was able to achieve the minimum requirements for natural pozzolan in accordance with ASTM code C618. However, based on literary evidence it was found that CD, BA and PG were also capable of providing pozzolanic benefits.
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Sugarcane, a C4 crop, is an excellent source of biomass conversion of solar energy. In addition to sugar, sugarcane is a great source of fibre, fodder, fuel and many chemicals. Sugarcane could synthesize and store a vast number of useful compounds. The chemicals are sucrose, glucose, fructose, polysaccharides, acids, alcohols, wax, etc., which could be commercially obtained from this crop. In addition to the extraction of sucrose, the by-products, such as bagasse, molasses, press mud or filter cake, provide sufficient opportunities for value-added products such as bioenergy, chemicals, medicines, pesticides, etc., through microbial fermentation, extraction and physico-chemical transformation. The by-products (bagasse, molasses, press mud) obtained from sugarcane processing are rich source of several chemicals. Exploring these bio-based chemicals out of sugarcane by-products may not only convert the waste material into useful products but also generate employment opportunity, especially in rural areas, making sugarcane cultivation more profitable and sustainable. Sugarcane-derived bio-based chemicals have a huge potential and much needed by the society in the coming years. As a result, sugar mills are required to be converted into sustainable biorefineries that may fully exploit the potential of sugarcane.
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The rise in population is driving up the global food demand, which, in turn, influences the processing of foods that leads to the ample generation of waste material throughout the world. Molasses is one of the wastes generated from the sugarcane processing industry by repeated crystallization during sugar preparation. The yield varies from 2.2 to –3.7% per tons of sugarcane. Due to its composition and economic importance, it is the major choice (as a carbon source) for food, feed and fermentation industries in the fructification of ethyl alcohol, liquor (rum), dry yeast, acetone, butanol, certain organic acids, etc. However, the on-going scenario of global research, the largest quantity of molasses is being utilized for the manufacture of ethanol. Traditionally, this is used for the manufacture of hukas, tobacco and liquors. However, due to its improper management, such as storage, packaging and transportation, the entire production of molasses is not being commercially utilized. It possesses numerous health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-obese, anti-cancerous, antimicrobial, anti-anaemic, improves bone and hair health, used for the treatment of skin and anaemia. The present review is aimed to enlighten the composition, types of molasses, its respective utilization (traditional/conventional), health benefits and regulations.
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Abstract: Sugarcane is one of the most widely cultivated crops. The conventional and modified sugarcane crushers were compared for their performance evaluation in terms of juice yield, extraction capacity, and efficiency, at the farmer’s field. The conventional crusher has three rollers whereas the modified crusher has two rollers for the crushing of the sugarcane. In each juice extraction system, about 0.50 tonnes of cane samples (in ten replications) were crushed to extract the juice. For each sample, juice and bagasse collected were recorded and weighed. The bagasse was exposed to sun and oven drying to reduce moisture. The extraction capacity and juice yield of the modified crusher were also recorded higher than the conventional sugarcane crusher. Statistical results indicated that the modified sugarcane crusher performed better than the conventional crusher as the modified crusher recorded higher juice extraction efficiency (66%). The time taken to process 50 kg sugarcane was higher in conventional sugarcane crushers due to its improper roller alignment and complex structure. It can be concluded that modified sugarcane crushers are more efficient, safe to operate, and easy to maintain. The juice extracted from the modified crusher was also of good quality due to its covered structure and corrosion-free material. Keywords: Sugarcane Crusher, Juice Extraction Efficiency, Sugarcane Processing, Bagasse, Jaggery Industry.
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This chapter discusses the valuable bioactive compounds in different parts of sugarcane, their availability in sugar byproducts and wastes and the principles and technologies used to recover them. In sugarcane leaves, luteolin-8-C-(rhamnosylglucoside) was the most important compound with strong radical scavenging activity. These wastes could be considered as a source of natural antioxidants. The chapter also discusses the composition and functionality of molasses and of noncentrifuged cane sugar. Phenolic compounds from sugarcane molasses possess antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria. Some authors studied the isolation and structural determination of bioactive compounds present in sugarcane molasses. They isolated dehydrodiconiferylalcohol-9'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and isoorientin-7, 3'-O-dimethyl ether as antibacterial active compounds against cariogenic bacteria, and elucidated their structures using H-NMR, 13C-NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The extraction of policosanols from press mud by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been extensively studied. Recently, SFE has been applied to the extraction of valuable bioactive compounds from sugarcane crude wax.
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Sugarcane is grown in different countries since the middle of 19th century, primarily for the production of sugar. It was only after the Global Energy crisis of 1973, that the scientists' and technologists' realized the value of sugarcane, its byproducts and co-products. Today, sugarcane is considered as one of the best converter of solar energy into biomass and sugar. The biomass which contains fiber, lignin, pentosans and pith can be converted into value added products by application of suitable chemical, biochemical and microbial technologies. Sugarcane is a versatile crop being a rich source of food (sucrose, jaggery and syrups), fiber (cellulose), fodder (green leaves and tops of cane plant, bagasse, molasses and to some extent press mud),fuel and chemicals (bagasse, molasses and alcohol).Almost all the countries in the world which produce canesugar have realized that though the production of sugar from sugarcane is undoubtedly the most paying proposition, it is better to produce many value added products by diversification and utilizing the by-products of the sugar industry, instead of depending on just one product i.e. sugar(Paturau, 1982; Singh and Solomon, 1995; Godshall, 2004 ). The main by-products of the sugar industry which have greater economic value are: 1 Bagasse 2 Molasses 3 Filter Press Cake or Press Mud The sugar industry by-products are vast potential reserves for human and animal consumption as well as capable of providing energy as renewable source. The sugarcane and its by-products are useful raw material to over 25 industries; some important ones are shown in Table 1. Besides these byproducts, there are other products also which are of less commercial value, viz.,
Working of jiangmen sugar and chemical complex in China Paper presented at the Sugar Asia 2008: An international exclusive exhibition on sugar & down stream industries Sugarcane: agro-industrial alternatives
  • Manohar Rao
Manohar Rao, P.J. 2008. Working of jiangmen sugar and chemical complex in China. Paper presented at the Sugar Asia 2008: An international exclusive exhibition on sugar & down stream industries, July 25–26, New Delhi, India. Singh, G.B., and S. Solomon. 1995. Sugarcane: agro-industrial alternatives. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Sugarcane diversification: Recent developments and future prospects
  • S Solomon
  • G B Singh
Solomon, S., and G.B. Singh. 2005. Sugarcane diversification: Recent developments and future prospects. In Sugarcane: Agro-indus-trial alternatives, ed. G.B. Singh, and S. Solomon, 523–541.
Sugarcane: agro-industrial alternatives
  • G B Singh
  • S Solomon
  • GB Singh
Working of jiangmen sugar and chemical complex in China. Paper presented at the Sugar Asia 2008: An international exclusive exhibition on sugar & down stream industries
  • Manohar Rao