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Since molecular analyses have demonstrated that Sarcostemma R. Br. is deeply nested in the predominantly Madagascan stem-succulent clade of Cynanchum L., the genus has been treated as a synonym of Cynanchum. Some of the former Sarcostemma species have been transferred to Cynanchum in the course of various Flora treatments, and some new species belonging to this radiation have been described under Cynanchum. The present contribution serves to complete the formal transfer of Sarcostemma taxa to Cynanchum, in which a total of nine species are concerned: Cynanchum arabicum, C. areysianum, C. brevipedicellatum, C. daltonii, C. forskaolianum, C. mulanjense, C. pearsonianum (a substitute name for Cynanchum pearsonii), C. sarcomedium (a substitute name for C. intermedium), and C. socotranum. In addition, six subspecies of Cynanchum viminale are newly combined: C. viminale subsp. australe, C. viminale subsp. brunonianum, C. viminale subsp. orangeanum, C. viminale subsp. stocksii, C. viminale subsp. thunbergii and C. viminale subsp. welwitschii. Finally, notes on recent introductions from southern Yemen are made, and illustrations of Cynanchum areysianum are provided.
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Taxonomic dissolution of Sarcostemma (Apocynaceae:
Ulrich Meve
& Sigrid Liede-Schumann
Summary. Since molecular analyses have demonstrated that Sarcostemma R. Br. is deeply nested in the predomi-
nantly Madagascan stem-succulent clade of Cynanchum L., the genus has been treated as a synonym of Cynanchum.
Some of the former Sarcostemma species have been transferred to Cynanchum in the course of various Flora treat-
ments, and some new species belonging to this radiation have been described under Cynanchum. The present
contribution serves to complete the formal transfer of Sarcostemma taxa to Cynanchum, in which a total of nine
species are concerned: Cynanchum arabicum, C. areysianum, C. brevipedicellatum, C. daltonii, C. forskaolianum,
C. mulanjense, C. pearsonianum (a substitute name for Cynanchum pearsonii), C. sarcomedium (a substitute name for
C. intermedium), and C. socotranum. In addition, six subspecies of Cynanchum viminale are newly combined: C. viminale
subsp. australe, C. viminale subsp. brunonianum, C. viminale subsp. orangeanum, C. viminale subsp. stocksii, C. viminale
subsp. thunbergii and C. viminale subsp. welwitschii. Finally, notes on recent introductions from southern Yemen are
made, and illustrations of Cynanchum areysianum are provided.
Key Words. Cynanchum,Cynanchum areysianum, new combinations, Old World, taxonomy.
The palaeotropical genus Sarcostemma R. Br. has long
been considered as a difcult group in Apocynaceae-
Asclepiadoideae-Asclepiadeae. In consequence deviat-
ing perceptions are widespread in the taxonomic
literature (Liede & Meve 1992; Meve & Liede 1996;
Bruyns 2003,2011; Goyder 2008). In the last 20 years,
the generic delimitation within Asclepiadeae saw
much phylogenetic enlightenment. Molecular studies
using cpDNA markers have convincingly refuted the
enlarged concept of Sarcostemma introduced by Holm
(1950), which was based mainly on morphological
similarities of corona structure. It has been shown that
neither Oxystelma R. Br., nor the American genera
Funastrum E. Fourn., Pentacyphus Schltr. and Philibertia
Kunth are congeneric with core Sarcostemma (Liede &
Täuber 2000). All these taxa constitute well circum-
scribed genera in their own right, occupying widely
divergent positions in the Asclepiadeae, so that their
corona similarities have to be interpreted as conver-
gences (Meve & Liede 1999).
Both cpDNA and (nuclear) ITS data have shown
that Sarcostemma s.s., a group that accommodated
smooth, non-warty and non-striate succulents spread
over the Old World tropics, characterised by a double
corona of an outer ring and inner staminal corona
parts (as opposed to the simplering-shaped corona of
typical Cynanchum), is deeply nested in Cynanchum L.,
which would be paraphyletic if Sarcostemma was consid-
ered an independent genus (Liede & Kunze 2002;
Liede & Täuber 2002). Sarcostemma was demonstrated
to constitute a subclade of the large clade formed by all
Madagascan stem succulent Cynanchinae, including
the small genera Folotsia Costantin & Bois, Karimbolea
Desc. and Platykeleba N. E. Br. This clade, again,
constitutes the top clade of a Cynanchum clade consist-
ing exclusively of Madagascan species. Meve & Liede
(2002) concluded that the African mainland must have
been originally colonised by Madagascan precursors of
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) L. It is, however, still unclear,
whether other regions of the distribution areas of
Sarcostemma taxa, e.g. India, have been reached via
mainland Africa (and Arabia), or independently and
directly from Madagascar by long distance dispersal,
and whether redistributions from these secondary areas
back to Madagascar have taken place as well.
Following these results, the other small succulent
genera have been merged with Cynanchum and their
species have been transferred formally to Cynanchum
by Liede & Meve (2001). However, for Sarcostemma,
only those species needed for Flora treatments have
hitherto been transferred to Cynanchum (Madagascar,
Liede & Meve (2001); tropical Africa, Goyder 2008).
A wide variety of commonly used molecular
markers has hitherto failed to produce any differences
between morphologically well distinguishable units in
Sarcostemma (Liede-Schumann, unpubl. results), lead-
ing to the conclusion that the genetic distances
Accepted for publication February 2012. Published online 6 September 2012
Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany. e-mail:
KEW BULLETIN VOL. 67: 751 758 (2012) ISSN: 0075-5974 (print)
ISSN: 1874-933X (electronic)
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
between the different Sarcostemma taxa are extraordi-
narily low. For this reason, the traditional taxonomic
concept using morphological and karyological charac-
ters for taxon delimitation is followed to the present
day (cf. Liede & Meve 1989,1992,1993,1995; Meve &
Liede 1996,1997) and will also be applied here. Our
taxonomic work in Sarcostemma is based on the
concept that species are characterised by differences
in oral structure, whereas subspecies are character-
ised by differences at least in habit (Liede & Meve
1993). Following this concept, a number of circum-
scribable entities have been described as new taxa, the
last by Liede-Schumann & Meve (2005). The many
subspecies of Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. typically
represent discernable natural groupswhich are often
identical with a specicgeotype, e.g., a distinct
regional representative of the C. viminale complex
(cf. Liede & Meve 1993; Meve & Liede 1996; Liede-
Schumann & Meve 2005). However, this concept is still
somewhat vague since recognition of the different
subspecic taxa needs some experience in that group.
Also, it is not possible to allocate a subspecictaxon
name to every collection of C. viminale s.l. Specimens
from western and central Africa are especially poor in
specic characters that would allow classication be-
yond attribution to C. viminale s.l. With the new
combinations proposed in the following, the genus
Sarcostemma ceases to exist as an accepted taxon.
New combinations
Cynanchum arabicum (Bruyns & P. I. Forst.)Meve &
Liede,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma arabicum Bruyns & P. I. Forst., Edinburgh J.
Bot. 48: 333 (Bruyns & Forster 1991). Type: Saudi
Arabia, Hijila, 15 km E of Abha, Nasher IH 137
(holotype E).
Cynanchum areysianum (Bruyns)Meve & Liede,comb.
Sarcostemma areysianum Bruyns, S. African J. Bot. 77: 802
(2011). Type: Yemen, Abyan Governorate, Jabal
Areys, 1,400 1,700 m alt., Jan. 2007, Bruyns 10287
(holotype B; isotype E).
NOTES. First counts of the chromosome number of
Cynanchum areysianum are here provided: 2n = 22.
Vouchers: YEMEN. Tawr al-Bahah, 13°11'N 44°18'E,
c. 250 m alt., 21 Nov. 2000, Lavranos, Mies & McCoy
31335 (UBT); above Khadifut in the mountains of Ras
Fartaq, 15°39'N, 52°12'E, c. 150 m alt., 15 Nov. 2000,
Lavranos, Mies & McCoy 31313 (UBT).
For further remarks see below Notes on novelties
from southern Yemen.
Cynanchum brevipedicellatum (P. I. Forst.)Liede &
Meve,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma brevipedicellatum P. I. Forst., Austral. Syst. Bot.
5: 59 (Forster 1992). Type: Australia, Queensland,
Gregory North Distr., Toko Tange, Glenormiston
Stn., Dec. 1982, Forster 1420 (holotype BRI; isotypes
Cynanchum daltonii (Decne. ex Webb)Liede & Meve,
comb. nov.
Sarcostemma daltonii Decne. ex Webb, in Hook., Niger
Flora: 149, t. 14. (Hooker 1849). Type: Cape Verde
Islands, J. D. Hooker 1843 (lectotype K!, designated
NOTES. This endemic of the Cape Verde Islands has
been placed as a synonym of Sarcostemma viminale
subsp. thunbergii (G. Don) Liede & Meve, a decision
inuenced by the tetraploid genomes found for both
taxa (Liede & Meve 1993). However, we have since
investigated more material of the complex and realised
that S. daltonii should be separated from Cynanchum
viminale based on the unique character composition of
a non-twining, trailing to arching habit, long and short
laterals (peduncles; cf. Gonçalves 2002), and a chro-
mosome number of 2n = 44. Regarding oral charac-
ters, C. daltonii is morphologically most close to C.
viminale subsp. viminale, though the follicles are much
stouter. Also, subsp. viminale always possesses a diploid
genome with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Liede & Meve
1995; Malla et al. 1978, Meve, unpubl. data).
Cynanchum forskaolianum (Schult.) Meve & Liede,
comb. nov.
Sarcostemma forskaolianum (as forskålianum) Schult. in
Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. (ed. 15) 6: 117 (Schultes
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
1820). Type: Saudi Arabia, between Mudhaylif and
Mahayl on the Jeddah-Gizan road, 500 ft., Collenette
1977 (neotype K!, designated by Meve & Liede
Cynanchum mulanjense (Liede & Meve)Liede & Meve,
stat. nov.
Sarcostemma mulanjense Liede & Meve, Novon 2: 223
(1992). Type: Malawi, Mulanje (Mt), outer slopes at
the Chitakale stream, west branch, Chapman &
Chapman 6892 (holotype MO!).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. mulanjense (Liede &
Meve) Goyder (2008: 417).
NOTES.Goyder(2008) considered Cynanchum mulan-
jense a subspecies of C. viminale. Applying the concept of
species and subspecies as outlined above, namely, using
variation in oral morphology as a criterion of species
delimitation, C. mulanjense deserves specicstatus.Itis
characterised by nodding owers, narrow, slightly
twisted creamy petals and an elongated gynostegium,
although the latter character breaks down in central
and northern Malawi (cf. Goyder 2008). With this
character combination, C. mulanjense seems to be more
closely related to C. oresbium (Bruyns) Goyder than to C.
viminale. These two species share both oral similarities
and a preference for similar habitats, rocky outcrops in
Malawi and Mozambique, respectively.
Cynanchum pearsonianum Liede & Meve,nom. nov.
Sarcostemma pearsonii N. E. Br., Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew
1913: 301 (Brown 1913), non Cynanchum pearsonii
N. E. Br. (Brown 1914: 18). Type: Namibia, Great
Karasberg, on stony plains SW of Krai Kloof,
1,600 m alt., 19 Jan. 1913, Pearson 8460 (holotype
K!; isotype BOL!).
NOTES.Sarcostemma pearsonii, a species that is conned
to very dry and stony habitats in Namibia and NW
South Africa, was neglected for a long time, although its
erect, shrubby habit and the small and twisted corolla
lobes make it one of the most easiest species to identify
(Liede & Meve 1989). Brown (1914) assigned the name
Cynanchum pearsonii to a shrubby species with small
leaves, which is nowadays treated as a synonym of
Cynanchum meyeri (Decne.) Schltr. (Liede 1993).
The necessary nomen novum proposed here,
tries to resemble as much as possible that of the
name Sarcostemma pearsonii, under which this species
has started to become a well-known taxon within the
last 20 years.
Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede,nom. nov.
Sarcostemma intermedium Decne., in DC., Prodr. 8: 538
(Decaisne 1844), non Cynanchum intermedium N. E.
Br. (Brown 1908: 747). Type: India ([Peninsula
Ind. orientalis]), Herb. Wight 1556 (holotype P, not
traced; isotype G-DC! (2 sheets)).
NOTES.Medium-thick stems, small and acute corona
lobes and an elongated style-head make this species
readily distinguished from the other representatives of
the Cynanchum viminale relationship in India. But since
N. E. Brown (1908)usedthenameCynanchum
intermedium for a leafy South African twiner (of an
uncertain status), a replacement name for Sarcostemma
intermedium in Cynanchum became necesssary, and the
name Cynanchum sarcomedium is proposed here.
Cynanchum socotranum (Lavranos)Meve & Liede,
comb. nov.
Sarcostemma socotranum Lavranos, Natl. Cact. Succ. J.27
(2): 37 (1972). Type: Yemen, Socotra, Hama-di-roh,
on vertical limestone faces, c. 350 m alt., April 1967,
Smith & Lavranos 309 (holotype K!).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. (Linnaeus 1771: 392)
subsp. viminale
NOTES.TheprotologueofCynanchum viminale refers to
an illustration of a plant from Egypt (Felfel Tavil) as the
type and states explicitly Habitat in Africae maritimis.
However, Indian taxa such as Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.)
Voigt and S. brevistigma Wight & Arn. were synonymised
under S. viminale subsp. viminale by Ali (1983), based on
material from Pakistan. Later, this synonymy has been
adopted by Jagtap & Singh (1999)forIndia.Other
regional Floras, such as the Flora of China and the Flora of
Nepal (
recognised S. acidum and S. brevistigma as separate
species. The present authors follow the view of Ali
(1983) and consider these two species as synoynyms of C.
viminale subsp. viminale, thus extending the area of the
latter from West Africa and Egypt to India.
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. australe (R. Br.)
Meve & Liede,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma australe R. Br., Prodr.: 463 (Brown 1810).
Type: Australia, South Australia, Bird Island, Petral
Bay, Isle St. Francis, 3 Feb. 1802, R. Brown (Iter
Australiense 2872) (lectotype BM!, designated by
Forster (1992)).
Sarcostemma viminale subsp. australe (R. Br.) P. I. Forst.,
Austral. Syst. Bot. 5: 64 (Forster 1992).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L.subsp.brunonianum
(Wight & Arn.) Meve & Liede,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma brunonianum Wight & Arn., in Wight,
Contr. Bot. India:59(1834). Type: India, [Peninsula
Ind. orientalis], Cody Cally, village of Autcherroc-
cum, Herb. Wight 1557 (lectotype G-DC! (No.
G00301010), designated here; isolectotypes E, G-
DC! (No. G00136527)).
Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. subsp. brunonianum
(Wight & Arn.) P. I. Forst. (Forster 1992: 63).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. orangeanum (Liede
& Meve)Liede & Meve,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma viminale subsp. orangeanum Liede & Meve,
Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 112: 70 (1993). Type: South Africa,
Northern Cape, 11.4 km E Kuruman, Liede & Meve
579 (holotype K!; isotype MSUN!).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. stocksii (Hook. f.)
Meve & Liede,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma stocksii Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 27 (Hooker
1883). Type: Pakistan, Sind, Stocks 509 (holotype K!).
Sarcostemma viminale subsp. stocksii (Hook. f.) Ali (1983:
NOTES.This subspecies seems to be indistinguish-
able from Cynanchum viminale subsp. viminale except
for the stouter follicles that are much more divari-
cate and taper only insignicantly towards base and
apex. The seeds are also thicker, and wingless, dark
brown and rugulose (cf. Liede 2002:235).Avery
good illustration of the type of Sarcostemma stocksii is
available: Hooker (1852, plate 861), published
under S. brachystigma,anerroneousnameforS.
brevistigma, now a synonym of C. viminale subsp.
viminale (
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. thunbergii (G. Don)
Liede & Meve,comb. nov.
Sarcostemma thunbergii G. Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 156
(1838). Type: South Africa, Cape Province,
Worcester, Karoo Botanic Garden, Bayer 68 (neo-
type NBG!, designated by Liede & Meve (1993).
Sarcostemma viminale subsp. thunbergii (G. Don) Liede
& Meve (1993: 10).
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L. subsp. welwitschii (Hiern)
Liede & Meve,comb. et stat. nov.
Sarcostemma welwitschii Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 1: 689 (1898).
Type: Angola, Huilla, base of Morro de Lopollo,
Welwitsch 4261 (holotype BM!; isotypes BR!, C).
NOTES.This element described from southern
Angola is still quite poorly known, though, un-
doubtedly, it is a member of the Cynanchum
viminale complex that extends into Namibia. It is a
remarkably glabrous, vigorously tangling scrambler
and climber, which can produce voluminous plants.
The inorescences are mostly lateral and sessile,
rarely on short laterals (peduncles) or terminal. The
most conspicuous character seems to be the rather
low number (two to ve) of owers per inorescence.
C. viminale subsp. welwitschii is a tetraploid with a
chromosome number of 2n = 44, as the single count
available suggests, obtained from material from
northernmost Namibia (Voucher: Ruacana, Albers et
al. 3617, UBT). With its polyploidy, subsp. welwitschii
is distinguished from C. viminale subsp. stipitaceum
(Forssk.) Meve & Liede and subsp. viminale,thetaxa
otherwise having most similarities with subsp. welwitschii.
From the other tetraploid taxon of southern Africa, C.
viminale subsp. thunbergii,C. viminale subsp. welwit-
schii differs in habit, and in stems that are thinner,
softer and green instead of grey-green.
Figueiredo & Smith (2009) included two taxa in
theirlistofsucculentsofAngola;Sarcostemma welwitschii
Hiern and S. viminale subsp. viminale. These authors
neither mention the second Angolan taxon described
by Hiern, S. andongense Hiern, nor S. viminale subsp.
stipitaceum into which Liede-Schumann & Meve (2005)
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
have sunk S. andongense. More material, especially living
plants, from Angola and adjacent regions need to be
studied before a nal taxonomic conclusion can be
Notes on novelties from southern Yemen
Aoristic inventory by J. Lavranos, T. McCoy and B.
Mies in southern Yemen in November 2000 yielded
some additional morphological variants of stem-succu-
lent Cynanchum of the Sarcostemma subgroup. Four
living cuttings taken during this excursion were
transferred into cultivation in the greenhouse of the
Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayr-
euth. All four accessions owered in the following
years. One accession from near Lawdar (Lavranos,
McCoy & Mies 31372, UBT) was found to represent a
rose- to white-owered form of Cynanchum viminale
subsp. stipitaceum (Fig. 1A), another one from Ras
Fartaq (Lavranos, McCoy & Mies 31363, UBT) is
vegetatively similar to subsp. stipitaceum,orally a
mixture of this subspecies and C. areysianum or
C. arabicum (Fig. 1B),but possesses a reddish to red-
coloured corolla. It could represent a natural hybrid.
Hybrids, however, are rare in Cynanchum, and molec-
ular analysis to support this assumption has yet to be
done. Finally, two accessions, one from Tawr al-Bahah
(Lavranos, Mies & McCoy 31335, UBT), and one from
above Khadifut in the mountains of RasFartaq
(Lavranos, Mies & McCoy 31313, UBT), are vegetatively
comparable to C. arabicum, but orally similar to the
Socotran endemic C. socotranum (Figs 1B E, 2). For
this element we therefore prepared a new species
description but later had to recall it from the
manuscript when Bruyns (2011) described Sarcostemma
areysianum, which exactly matches our new species.In
addition to the brief differential diagnosis given by
Bruyns (2011) we made further observations on the
status of the three closely related taxa C. arabicum, C.
areysianum and C. socotranum: Vegetatively, C. areysianum
Fig. 1. ACynanchum viminale subsp. stipitaceum, Yemen; BCynanchum areysianum (left) together with Cynanchum arabicum,
Yemen (right); CCynanchum areysianum;Dshoots of Cynanchum areysianum,C. socotranum and C. arabicum (from left to right);
ECynanchum socotranum. Afrom Lavranos et al. 31372; Bfrom Lavranos et al. 31313 (left), Radcliffe-Smith &Henchie 4624
(right); Cfrom Lavranos et al. 31335; Dfrom Lavranos et al. 31335 (left), Mies et al. 1503 (middle), Radcliffe-Smith &Henchie
4624 (right); Efrom Mies et al. 1503 (all in UBT). PHOTOS: ULRICH MEVE.
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
cannot be directly distinguished from C. arabicum,
with its erect to arching (non-twining), thick (usually
67 mm diam.), greyish green and stout stems
(Fig. 1D). Usually the stems and especially the nodes
of C. areysianum are even thicker than in C. arabicum
and additionally equipped with a corky ring; the
internodes are mostly shorter (cf. Fig. 1D). C. areysia-
num therefore is really a stout plant totally different in
habit from the delicate C. socotranum, whose stems are
around 2.5 3.5 (4) mm thick and often constricted
at the nodes (Fig. 1D, central shoot). Flowers in C.
areysianum appear terminally or on short lateral
peduncles (Fig. 1B,top,1C),ascanbeseeninmost
plants of C. arabicum,whereastheowers in C.
socotranum normally appear laterally in a (sub)sessile
manner (Fig. 1E). With C. socotranum, however, C.
areysianum shares the rather small owers with mem-
braneous, oblong, suberect to erect corolla lobes,
although the owers are a bit larger and the corolla
lobes are much more twisted as in C. socotranum,and
also creamish brown to rose instead of greenish yellow.
Other shared features include the thickish, rounded
Fig. 2. Cynanchum areysianum.Aower bud; Bower in lateral view, with two petals removed; Cgynostegium and corona, with
parts of corona removed; Dpollinarium; Estyle-head, with one pollinarium in natural position. All from Lavranos, Mies &McCoy
© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2012
and more or less erect staminal corona lobes. However,
in contrast to C. socotranum the corona lobes are
inated, uneven and much surpassing the style-head
(Fig. 2C). All three species lack a complete outer
coronal ring formed by interstaminal and (outer)
staminal parts as found in most other Sarcostemma
taxa. Instead, the ringis not continuous and broken
into ve plus veseparated fringes or scales. Very
signicant for C. areysianum, one mostly lobular and
emarginate scale is fused to the basal back of each
staminal corona lobe (cf. Fig. 2B). This corona
structureisuniqueinCynanchum. In addition, the
staminal corona lobes are of very delicate tissue and
inated. They are also larger, as in the two related
species, and of an uneven surface and irregular outline.
Furthermore, they cover and greatly exceed the
conspicuously large, massive and strictly conical style-
head (Fig. 2E). Details of the gynostegium look very
similar to those found in C. socotranum, although it is
larger: the gynostegium is clearly higher than broad
(but as high and as broad as in C. arabicum,cf.Bruyns&
Forster 1991:Fig.1E), the guide rails are strictly pointed
(not forming a mouthas in C. arabicum), and the
eshy base of the gynostegium leaves considerable
open space beneath the guide rail entrance (whereas
the mouth/base of each guide rail is directly fused to
the gynostegium without leaving an open space be-
neath in C. arabicum). In contrast to both species, the
anther appendages are much longer than wide, trian-
gular-lanceolate and rather acute, while they are
triangular-deltate and more or less as long as wide in
C. socotranum and C. arabicum. Finally, the style-head
(Fig. 2E) is larger and higher than in the two related
species, whereas the style itself is elongated up to
0.8 mm in length (not shown in Fig. 2), and reminiscent
of C. socotranum.InC. arabicum the style is considerably
shorter. C. areysianum indeed shares a number of
signicant features, especially of the owers, with C.
socotranum, which is therefore clearly identied as its
We are very grateful to John J. Lavranos and Dr Bruno
Mies, who provided us with living plant material from
southern Yemen, and to G for scanning type speci-
mens of C. Wright.
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& S. I. Ali (eds), Flora of Pakistan, pp. 1 65.
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____ (1913). Diagnoses Africanae IV.: Sarcostemma
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... Este último grupo fue confirmado como polifilético con base en análisis filogenéticos tanto para caracteres morfológicos (Liede 1996) como moleculares del cloroplasto (Liede & Täuber 2000) que apoyan la delimitación de Funastrum como género endémico de América. Meve & Liede-Schumann (2012) publicaron la disolución del género Sarcostemma, transfiriendo sus especies al género Cynanchum. ...
... Revisión taxonómica. Realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica intensiva de estudios sistemáticos relacionados con el género (Brown 1810, Kunth 1819, Decaisne 1844, Kunze 1847, Bentham 1876, Fournier 1882, Schumann 1895, Vail 1897, Brown 1908, Malme 1905, Schlechter 1914, Woodson 1941, Holm 1950, Bullock 1956, Liede 1996, Liede & Täuber 2000, Goyder 2008, Meve & Liede-Schumann 2012. Revisamos ejemplares de los herbarios: CIIDIR, ENCB, FCME, HUAA, MEXU, QMEX, SERO, TEX, UAMIZ, US, XAL y digitalmente las colecciones de: ARIZ, ASU, BCMX, COLO, DES, HCIB, K, MO, UCR, UNM, URV, USF, SLPM. ...
... ,Meve & Liede-Schumann 2012). Trabajos más recientes como la primera evaluación del número de especies de Apocynaceae mexicanas(Juárez-Jaimes et al. 2007) y el catálogo de plantas vasculares nativas de México (Villaseñor 2016) reportan la presencia de 11 especies del género para el territorio. ...
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Antecedentes: Las especies de Funastrum están ampliamente distribuidas en México y 70 % de sus especies se localizan en el territorio nacional. La información sistemática del género se encuentra dispersa o desactualizada, así como el conocimiento de su distribución geográfica y estado de conservación. Preguntas: ¿Cuántas especies de Funastrum hay en México y cómo se distribuyen? ¿Cuál es el estado de conservación de las especies en el país? Especies de estudio: Funastrum. Sitio y años de estudio: México, 2018-2021. Métodos: Revisión de herbarios nacionales e internacionales, bases de datos (Trópicos, JSTOR, Naturalista, etc.) y búsqueda intensiva de literatura, evaluación de estado de conservación siguiendo los criterios de la IUCN y análisis de riqueza usando el paquete MonographaR en R. Resultados: Funastrum cuenta con 14 especies en México, siete de las cuales se encuentran en alguna categoría de riesgo. Se proporciona una clave de identificación de especies y descripciones para cada uno de los taxones, así como mapas de distribución y un mapa de riqueza. Conclusiones: México es reconocido un centro de diversidad para el género, donde 14 de las 20 especies están en el territorio. Para siete taxones se sugiere su inclusión en alguna categoría de riesgo. Translate stop
... In Saudi Arabia, Cynanchum includes three species,which were formerly under genus Sarcostemma (C. forskaolianum, C. viminale and C. arabicum) that grow in dry habitats of southwestern regions (Meve & Liede, 1996;Bruyns, 2005;Meve & Liede-Schumann, 2012). C. forskaolianum (Schult.) ...
... In the course of studying Cynanchum and its relatives for several floristic treatments around the globe, difficulties in defining a clear-cut morphological concept for Cynanchum triggered to study phylogenetic relationships of the genus (Liede & Kunze, 1993). Since molecular analyses have demonstrated that Sarcostemma R.Br. is deeply nested in the predominantly Madagascan stem-succulent clade of Cynanchum L., the genus has been treated as a synonym of Cynanchum as a result of formal transfer of Sarcostemma genus into the genus Cynanchum (Meve & Liede, 2012). ...
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The present study evaluates the chromosome count as well as the karyomorphological analysis of two species of Cynanchum L. (Apocynaceae) viz., C. viminale and C. sarcomedium. In order to investigate cytogenetic variation in Cynanchum species, mitotic squash preparation method was employed. Image analysis system and micro-measure software (AutoCad) were used to provide cytogenetic parameter measurements of karyotypes. The two plant species possess the same diploid (2n = 22) and haploid (n = 11) chromosome numbers and they are differentiated by their karyotype formula and quantitative parameters of the karyotypes. The karyotypic formula of C. viminale and C. sarcomedium are 22 nm and 16 nm + 6 nsm (-) respectively. Various karyomorphometric parameters or indices revealed the evolutionary status of the two species as primitive.
... It is a remarkably glabrous, vigorously tangling scrambler and climber, which can produce voluminous plants. The inflorescences are mostly lateral and sessile, rarely on short laterals (peduncles) or terminal [7]. The root is used to cure snake bite and taken as an infusion in dog bite cases in Thar Desert [8]. ...
Objective: Sarcostemma viminale (L.) R. Br. is one of the important endangered medicinal plants belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the possible bioactive phytochemicals from stem of S. viminale (L.) R. Br. using methanol, chloroform, and hexane as solvents.Methods: Plant material was collected from typical conditions of Indian Thar Desert in the month of July-September, 2016. This plant always grows in association with the congeneric plant, Euphorbia caducifolia. The phytochemical compounds were investigated using Perkin-Elmer gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology library.Results: Maximum % area is found for Lup-20-(29)-en-3-yl acetate is present maximum amount (40.85%) with reaction time (RT)=43.787 minutes, followed by 4, 4, 6A, 6B, 8A, 11, 11, 14B-octamethyl-1, 4, 4A, 5, 6, 6A, 6B, 7, 8, 8A, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 14, 14A, 14B-octadecahydro-2H-picen-3- one$$olean-12-en-3-one# (13.74%) with RT=44.420 minutes in the methanolic extract; acetic acid 4, 4, 6A, 8A, 11, 12, 14B-octamethyl-1, 2, 3, 4, 4A, 5, 6, 6A, 6B, 7, 8, 8A, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 14, 14A, 14B-eicosahydro-picen-3-yl ester $$ urs-12-en-3-yl acetate is present maximum amount (44.98%) with RT=48.265 minutes, followed by. beta.-amyrin (18.51%) with RT=40.580 minutes in the chloroform extract; acetic acid 4, 4, 6A, 8A, 11, 12, 14B-octamethyl-1, 2, 3, 4, 4A, 5, 6, 6A, 6B, 7, 8, 8A, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12A, 14, 14A, 14B-eicosahydro-picen-3-yl ester $$ urs-12-en-3-yl acetate is present maximum amount (45.47%) with RT=48.514 minutes, followed by. beta.-amyrin (19.21%) with RT=40.555 minutes in the hexane extract of stem of S. viminale (L.) R. Br.Conclusion: Medicinal plants contain one or more substances that can be used for therapeutic purpose; they are used by the world population for their basic health needs. The importance of the study is to investigate the pinpoint biological activity of some of these compounds so that they can be used by pharma or some other drug designing industry to find a novel drug.
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Changes over the past five decades in the scientific names of some potentially poisonous plants and toxigenic fungi in South Africa are briefly reviewed. Some of the reasons why taxonomists change names are highlighted. In recent years, DNA sequencing data have contributed considerably towards establishing phylogenetic relationships among plants, often resulting in changes in generic circumscription and, consequently, the names of species. Philosophical differences between the phylogenetic and the evolutionary schools of plant classification are briefly explained as these may manifest as different classifications for the same group of plants. Although choice of classification remains the prerogative of the end-user of plant names, in this review, the classifications for plants currently adopted by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) in its online database, Plants of Southern Africa (POSA), were followed. Noteworthy generic changes include Pachystigma to Vangueria, Homeria to Moraea, and Urginia to Drimia. Following much controversy, the species native to southern Africa that were formerly treated as Acacia are now classified in either Vachellia or Senegalia, with the genus name Acacia being retained for the mainly Australian members of the group, the latter commonly known as wattles. Former southern African members of Acacia implicated in poisoning include Vachellia erioloba(camel thorn), Vachellia sieberiana var. woodii (paperbark thorn), and Senegalia caffra (common hook thorn).
Studies on the molecular systematics concluded the dissolution of the genus Sarcostemma Brown (1810: 463) (Meve & Liede-Schumann 2012), where it should be congeneric with Cynanchum Linnaeus (1753: 212). Consequently, several authors made new nomenclatorial combinations to transfer Sarcostemma to Cynanchum. However, in the Philippines, Sarcostemma malampayae Kloppenb., Cajano, & Hadsall (Kloppenburg 2015) is yet to be formally published of its new combination. Here I propose the new combination of the species under the genus Cynanchum.
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A SET of 58 characters was recorded comparatively for a sample of 76 species belonging to 31genera of the Asclepiadaceae R.Br. The characters cover variation among the species in gross vegetative morphology, floral features and structure of the pollination apparatus. The data-matrix was analyzed using a combination of the Jaccard measure of dissimilarity and Ward's method of clustering in the PC-ORD version 5. Two major groups are recognized in this treatment, the first comprises representative genera of the Asclepiadoideae, while the second is split into two subordinate groups corresponding to the Periplocoideae and the Secamonoideae. Tacazzia seems better removed from the Periplocoideae and placed in the Asclepiadoideae. The generic concept in the family is taxonomically sound; only representative species of Cynanchum were divided between two closely related low-level groups. The currently accepted tribes and subtribes in Schumann's classification are in need of thorough revision; only the Secamonoideae-Secamoneae emerged intact.
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Cynanchum constitutes one of the very few Asclepiadoid genera that are distributed both in the Old and the New World. The present study of more than 100 species, based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analysis of five chloroplast and four nuclear markers, resolves nine clades. No unambiguous morphological characters are associated with any particular clade or a combination of several clades, so that a wide concept of Cynanchum seems the most appropriate taxonomic solution for the group. For this reason, several hitherto independent genera, Glossonema, Graphistemma, Holostemma, Metalepis, Metaplexis, Odontanthera, Pentarrhinum, Raphistemma and Seshagiria are included in Cynanchum. In addition, Adelostemma and Sichuania are subsumed under Cynanchum for morphological reasons. The necessary new combinations are made, resulting in twelve new species combinations, two new subspecies combinations, and two new names.
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Chromosome numbers of seventeen species belonging to Ascopholis, Carex, Courtoisia, Cyperus, Lipocarpha, Mariscus, Pycreus, Queenslandiella, Rhynchospora and Schoenoplectus of the family Cyperaceae from South India are given.
Sarcostemma pearsonii N.E.Br. is a little known species endemic to the northern Cape Province and Namibia. Its morphological and biological features are described in detail and compared with those found in the far more widespread members of the S. viminale complex.
Changes in succulent Cynanchum L. species are needed for the Flora of Somalia account of Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae. The following changes are proposed within the tribe Asclepiadeae, subtribe Cynanchinae. Cynanchum viminale subsp. crassicaule, another subspecific taxon in the C. viminale complex, is described as new, based on morphological, ecological, and molecular evidence. Its chromosome number is specified with 2n = 22. The new combination Cynanchum viminale subsp. stipitaceum is proposed, and Sarcostemma andongense Hiern is recognized as a new synonym of C. viminale subsp. stipitaceum.
It is probably impossible to define what constitutes a succulent plant — at least in view of the several competing definitions. For the purpose of this handbook, a pragmatic approach has been selected, and apart from the multitude of unambiguous succulents, many borderline cases are included as well, especially if the species in question are encountered in cultivation together with other succulents, and if they are native to more or less semi-arid regions and consequently show some degree of xerophytic adaptation. This, then, includes most of the caudex and pachycaul plants now popular in cultivation.
Analysis of the trnT-trnL spacer, the trnL intron and the trnL-trnF spacer of 65 species of Cynanchum, 33 members of the Metastelminae, and seven representatives of other Asclepiadeae shows that Cynanchum in its present circumscription is polyphyletic. Both the genus Cynanchum and the subtribe Metastelminae s.l. split along the Old World - New World geographic division. The only exception to this division is Cynanchum subgenus Mellichampia, which belongs to Cynanchum s. str. For the Old World Cynanchum relatives, the subtribe Cynanchinae is re-established. The remaining New World sections of Cynanchum are not monophyletic. The South American members of section Cynanchum join the morphologically aberrant Grisebachiella hieronymi. Section Macbridea is associated with Funastrum. In the Old World, the succulent genera Folotsia, Karimbolea, Platykeleba, and Sarcostemma are monophyletic with stem-succulent Cynanchum and nested within a clade of exclusively Malagasy Cynanchum species.
Three new species of Apocynaceae - Asdepiadoideae are described. They are Ceropegia namaquensis and Ceropegia leptophylla of the tribe Ceropegieae from South Africa and Sarcostemma oresbium from Mozambique of the tribe Asclepiadeae.
All names in Sarcostemma sensu Bullock (Asclepiadaceae, Asclepiadeae, Cynanchinae) are listed and their current status evaluated. Chromosome numbers are given for most taxa. The typification of S. viminale is clarified. A new subspecies of S. viminale is described from the Orange Free State, South Africa, and relationships of the Namaqualand/Namibia populations are discussed.