Comparisons of spot vs 24-h urine samples for estimating population salt intake: Validation study in two independent samples of adults in Britain and Italy

University of Warwick, W.H.O. Collaborating Centre for Nutrition, Warwick Medical School, Division of Mental Health & Wellbeing, Coventry, UK.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD (Impact Factor: 3.32). 10/2013; 24(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.06.011
Source: PubMed


To assess the reliability and reproducibility of estimations of group mean 24-h urinary sodium (Na) excretion through timed spot urines compared to 24 h urinary Na output in two independent cross-sectional population samples including men and women and different ethnic groups.
Study 1 was carried out in Britain and included 915 untreated 40-59 yrs male and female participants (297 white, 326 of black African origin and 292 South Asian). Study 2 was carried out in Italy and included 148 white men (mean age 58.3 yrs). All participants provided both a 24-h urine collection and a timed urine sample as part of population surveys. Na, creatinine (Cr) and volume (V) were measured in all samples. Age, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. We compared the daily Na excretion through 24-h urine (gold standard) with its estimate from timed urine samples with two methods: Tanaka's predictions and Arithmetic extrapolations, and assessed them with correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plot, prediction of quintile position and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Areas Under the Curve (AUC) for a cut-off of <100 mmol of Na/day. In Study 1 (discovery study) with the Tanaka method there were poor correlations between predicted and measured 24-h Na excretions in different ethnic groups and genders (rSpearman from 0.055 [R(2) = 0.003] in black women to 0.330 [R(2) = 0.11] in white women). The Bland-Altman plots indicated consistent bias with overestimate for low and underestimate for high intakes. ROC AUCs varied from 0.521 to 0.652 with good sensitivity (95-100%) but very poor specificity (0-9%). With the Arithmetic extrapolations correlations varied from 0.116 [R(2) = 0.01] to 0.367 [R(2) = 0.13]. Bias was detected with both Bland-Altman plots and through quintile analyses (underestimate at low levels and overestimate at high levels). Finally, ROC AUCs varied from 0.514 to 0.640 with moderate sensitivity (64-70%) but low specificity (20-53%). In Study 2 (validation study) results were consistent with the discovery phase in white men.
Based on these results, 24-h urinary collection for the measurement of Na excretion remains the preferred tool for assessing salt intake when compared with reported methods based on timed spot urine samples.

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Available from: Francesco Cappuccio, Dec 21, 2014
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    • "The 24-h urine collection method which is considered the 'gold standard' is burdensome and potentially limited by under-collection [7]. Several methods have also been used to predict 24- h urinary sodium from spot urine samples, including arithmetic extrapolation [8] the INTERSALT formula [9] and the application of predictive formulae based on spot sodium to creatinine ratios as a means of controlling for urinary concentration, including those of Tanaka [10] and Kawasaki [11]. While the latter spot urine methods may be adequate for population level monitoring where the focus is on estimation of mean sodium intake at the group level, their use in analytical epidemiological research, as in recent studies suggesting potential harms from low intakes of dietary sodium [11] [12], remains controversial. "
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    ABSTRACT: To validate diet and urinary excretion derived estimates of sodium intake against those derived from 24-h urine collections in an Irish manufacturing workplace sample. We have compared daily sodium (Na) excretion from PABA validated 24-h urine collections with estimated daily sodium excretion derived from the following methods: a standard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a modified 24-h dietary recall method, arithmetic extrapolations from morning and evening spot urine samples, predicted sodium excretion from morning and evening spot urine samples using Tanaka's, Kawasaki's and the INTERSALT formula. All were assessed using mean differences (SD), Bland-Altman plots, correlation coefficients and ROC Area under the Curve (AUC) for a cut off of ≥100 mmol of Na/day. The Food Choice at Work study recruited 802 participants aged 18-64 years, 50 of whom formed the validation sample. The mean measured 24-h urinary sodium (gold standard) was 138 mmol/day (8.1 g salt). At the group level, mean differences were small for both dietary methods and for the arithmetic extrapolations from morning urine samples. The Tanaka, Kawasaki and INTERSALT methods provided biased estimates of 24-h urinary sodium. R(2) values for all methods ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 and AUC findings from 0.57 to 0.76. Neither dietary nor spot urine sample methods provide adequate validity in the estimation of 24-h urinary sodium at the individual level. However, group mean errors from dietary methods are small and random and compare favourably with those from spot urine samples in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
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    • "Ji C, et al. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005683. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005683"
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008–2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000–2001. Setting Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. Participants 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19–64 years. Primary outcome measures Participants’ dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary. Bayesian geo-additive models used to assess spatial and socioeconomic patterns of sodium intake accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioural confounders. Results Dietary sodium intake varied significantly across socioeconomic groups, even when adjusting for geographical variations. There was higher dietary sodium intake in people with the lowest educational attainment (coefficient: 0.252 (90% credible intervals 0.003, 0.486)) and in low levels of occupation (coefficient: 0.109 (−0.069, 0.288)). Those with no qualification had, on average, a 5.7% (0.1%, 11.1%) higher dietary sodium intake than the reference group. Compared to 2000-2001 the gradient of dietary sodium intake from south to north was attenuated after adjustments for confounders. Estimated dietary sodium consumption from food sources (not accounting for discretionary sources) was reduced by 366 mg of sodium (∼0.9 g of salt) per day during the 10-year period, likely the effect of national salt reduction initiatives. Conclusions Social inequalities in salt intake have not seen a reduction following the national salt reduction programme and still explain more than 5% of salt intake between more and less affluent groups. Understanding the socioeconomic pattern of salt intake is crucial to reduce inequalities. Efforts are needed to minimise the gap between socioeconomic groups for an equitable delivery of cardiovascular prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMJ Open
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