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Aphrodisiac properties of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf extract

Authors:
  • Liaqat National Hospital
  • Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research

Abstract and Figures

Objective Polygonatum verticillatum is the main ingredient of Astavarga. Astavarga is the important ingredient of various classical Ayurvedic formulations like Chavyanprash. Astavarga has been assigned various medicinal properties by ancient Materia Medica dealing with Ayurveda. As per Ayurveda the main property of this plant is in the treatment of vata, pitta, general weakness, aphrodisiac etc. Aim of the study. In the present study, we examined the effect of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract possess aphrodisiac property.Methods The aphrodisiac activity of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract was investigated in male rats. The extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day) and L-dopa (100 mg/kg body weight/day) were administered orally by gavages for 28 days. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and postejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28.ResultsThe Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (P < 0.05, P< 0.01, P < 0.001). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats.Conclusions Present findings provide experimental evidence that the Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract possesses aphrodisiac property.
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Document heading doi: 襃 2012 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. All rights reserved.
Aphrodisiac properties of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf extract
Imran Kazmi1, Muhammad Afzal1, Mahfoozur Rahman2, Gaurav Gupta1*, Firoz Anwar1**
1Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India
2Dreamz College of Pharmacy, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S841-S845
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/apjtd
*Corresponding author: Assistant Professor, Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy,
Dobachi, Near IT Park, Dehra Dun-248001, Uttarakhand, India
Tel.: +91-9917079006;
Fax: +91 135-2607784
1. Introduction
Polygonatum verticillatum All. (Nooreallam) is a member
of the genus Polygonatum (King Solomons-seal, Solomons
seal) of about 57 species belonging to the family Liliaceae
or Convallariaceae [1, 2]. Polygonatum verticillatum are
considered members of Ashta-verga and are referred to
as Meda and Mahameda, respectively, in the Ayurvedic
system of medicine. In the traditional system of treatment,
It has been used for thousands of years. Ethnobotanical
uses of the plant include as emollient, aphrodisiac,
vitiated condition of pitta and vata, appetizer and tonic,
galactagogue (increases milk release), weakness [3]. In the
area of Northwest Himalaya, tubers/leaves are baked with
ghee, dried and powder and taken with milk for increase
sexual potency [4]. In Western Himalayan, roots locally
known as Salam mishri used traditionally among the tribal
communities in treatment of spermatorrhaea and piles [5].
Polygonatum verticillatum is one of the eight medicinal
plants of Astavarga. These plants are considered as a very
good Rasayana with rejuvenating and health-promoting
properties, and are known to strengthen the immune system
and have immense cell regeneration capacity. Astavarga
is useful in promoting body fat, healing fractures, seminal
weakness, fever, abnormal thirst, diabetic conditions and as
a cure for vata, pitta, rakta doshas. Due to high medicinal
value, Astavarga plants are used in different forms, e.g.
Taila (oil), Ghritam (medicated clarified butter), Churana
(powder) and formulations in the traditional medical system
(TMS) including Chyavanprasha, a health-promotive and
disease-preventive tonic. Some of these formulations
are available in Indian markets as pharmaceutical
products, e.g. Chyavanprasha and the commonly used
medicine Sudarshana Churna are available in almost every
primary healthcare unit in rural areas of India. It is the
most economically important medicinal plant of Indian
Himalayan region [4].
Although, Polygonatum verticillatum is a constituent of
number of herbal formulations that are known for improving
sexual performance, there is no scientific report on
Polygonatum verticillatum substantiating its usage as sexual
ART ICLE IN FO ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received 20 July 2012
Received in revised from 27 July 2012
Accepted 28 September 2012
Available online 28 December 2012
Keywords:
Polygonatum verticillatum
Aphrodisiac properties
Leaf extract
Objective: Polygonatum verticillatum is the main ingredient of Astavarga. Astavarga is the
important ingredient of various classical Ayurvedic formulations like Chavyanprash. Astavarga
has been assigned various medicinal properties by ancient Materia Medica dealing with
Ayurveda. As per Ayurveda the main property of this plant is in the treatment of vata, pitta,
general weakness, aphrodisiac etc.Aim of the study: In the present study, we examined the
effect of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract upon the expression of male rat sexual
behavior, in order to know whether Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract possess
aphrodisiac property. Methods: The aphrodisiac activity of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract was investigated in male rats. The extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day) and L-dopa
(100 mg/kg body weight/day) were administered orally by gavages for 28 days. Mount latency
(ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission
frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and postejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters
observed before and during the sexual behavior study at day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Results: The
Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (P <
0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001). The extract also increased significantly MF, IF and EF (P < 0.05, P< 0.01,
P < 0.001). These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats. Conclusions:
Present findings provide experimental evidence that the Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous
extract possesses aphrodisiac property.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Imran Kazmi et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S841-S845
S842
tonic or stimulant. Keeping in view the growing popularity
and market interest for the drug, present studies were
undertaken to provide scientific support for its purported
folkloric usage.
2. Materials and methods
Plant material
Leaves of Polygonatum verticillatum All were collected
from Garhwal region, Uttarakhand in the month of October
2010, and were authenticated by Dr. S.B.Singh, Scientist
NISCAIR, NewDelhi. A voucher specimen no. NISCAIR/
RHMD/consult/-26-02-11/1450/263 is deposited in the
herbarium of NISCAIR, India.
Preparation of extracts
The dried leaves were grinded into small particles and
soaked in distilled water (dH2O) in the ratio of 1:20 (w/
v) and left for 24 h. Then, the mixtures were filtered using
cloth filter, cotton wool and Whatman No. 1 filter paper to
obtain the supernatant, which was subjected to freeze drying
process. The extraction processes was repeated three times
up to 72 h using the same residue. This method was carried
out according to Zakaria et al. with slight modifications [6].
Drugs
L-dopa, Progesterone and Oestradiol benzoate were
purchased from Sigma chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA).
Animal
Albino wistar rats (age-90 days) of either sex weighing
between 150 to 200 gms were procured form registered
breeders (LAR, CPCSEA No-196, IVRI, Barelly). The animals
were housed under standard conditions of temperature
(25 20C) and relative humidity (30-70%) with a 12:12 light-
dark cycle. The animals were fed with standard pellet diet
(VRK Nutrition, Pune) and water ad libitum. All the studies
conducted were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical
Committee (1435/PO/a/11/CPCSEA) of Siddhartha institute of
Pharmacy, Dehradun, India.
Male rats (n = 5/group) were trained for sexual experience.
To provide sexual experience, each male rat was allowed
30min exposure to a female rat in behavioral estrous,
several days before testing for copulatory performance in
a transparent arena. The animals were tested three times
over a 10-day period for copulatory behavior and divided
into active and inactive groups [7]. Sexually active animals
were divided into control, L-dopa-treated (100 mg/kg
body weight) and PVAE -treated (500mg/kg body weight)
groups. The animals that did not show any sexual interest
during training were considered the inactive group that was
administered PVAE (500mg/kg body weight). Female rats
were ovariectamised using a standard procedure [8]. They
were allowed to recover from the surgery for 10 days. They
were brought into estrous by the administration of a single
subcutaneous dose of 2g/kg body wt. of estrogen benzoate
and 500g/kg body wt. progesterone 48 and 6 h before the
copulatory study.
Toxicity studies
The toxicity study of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract (PVAE) was performed in a single dose
administration of 2000 mg/kg (p.o.). Rats were fasted for 24
h before the administration of PVAE. A group that received
dH2O represented the control group. The toxicity signs
and symptoms or any abnormalities were observed at 0,
30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after PVAE administration. The
observation was continued once a day for the next 14 days.
The number of rats that survived was recorded at the end of
the study period.
Sexual behavior study
The following guidelines were followed in the study [9, 10]:
a) males were kept individually but females were kept in
groups (3);
b) training of each male for 15 min at a time was performed
until sexual behavior was elicited and when the behavior
was noticed, males were exposed to receptive females (1
male with 5 females);
c) repeated training to overcome the lack of sexual response
in the presence of observers;
d) the study was conducted in a silent room under dim red
light;
e) any jerking movement of the mating area was avoided to
enable the rats to chase
each other; and
g) cleaning of the mating area was performed after each
trial, since the urine trails left by one
rat might alter the sexual behavior of the next rat.
PVAE (500mg/kg body weight) and L-dopa (100 mg/kg body
weight) in distilled water were administered for 28 days
orally by gavage. L-dopa served as standard [11-14]. The
control group received 1 ml saline. Each group consisted of
six animals (1 male and 5 female). The following parameters
of the copulatory behavior were recorded
(1)Mount latency (ML): the time from introduction of the
female until the first mount;
(2)Intromission latency (IL): the time from introduction of the
female until the first intromission (vaginal penetration);
(3)Ejaculation latency (EL ): the time from the first
intromission to ejaculation;
(4)Mount frequency (MF): the number of mounts preceding
ejaculation;
(5)Intromission frequency (IF): the number of intromission
preceding ejaculation; and
Imran Kazmi et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S841-S845 S843
(6)Post-ejaculatory interval (PEI): the time between the
occurrence of ejaculation and the resumption of sexual
activity, as indicated by next intromission.
Statistical analysis
Results were expressed as mean依SEM, (n=6). Statistical
analysis was performed with one way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) followed by Tukeys test using Prism 5 Graphpad
Software. Mean differences were considered statistically
significant if P<0.05.
3. Results
Toxicity studies
No mortality and changes in the behavior were observed
in all the treated and control groups of mice up to a dose of
2000mg/kg.
Sexual behavior study
The observation of the sexual behavior study is presented
in Table 1. PVAE reduced ML, IL, EL and PEI significantly
in both active and inactive male rats (Figure-1, 2, 3 and
4). PVAE also increased MF, IF and EF significantly in
both active and inactive male rats (Figure-5, 6and7). All
these effects were observed on the 21st and 28th day but
some effects were also observed on 14th day of the study.
The MF was significantly altered in PVAE-treated active
and inactive rats (14th day), whereas L-dopa did not this
parameter on the 14th day. The EF was significantly altered
in PVAE-treated inactive rats (14th day), whereas L-dopa
and PVAE-treated active rats did not alter this parameter on
14th day. The EL and IF were significantly altered in PVAE-
treated and L-dopa treated active rats (14th day), whereas
PVAE-treated inactive rats did not alter these parameters on
14th day. The ML was significantly altered in PVAE-treated
active rats (14th day), whereas the PVAE-treated inactive rats
and L-dopa treated active rats did not alter this parameter
on 14th day. PVAE for both active and inactive male rats and
L-dopa did not alter any of all these parameters on the 7th
day.
Table 1
Sexual behavior study of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract
Group Sexual BehaviorParameters Mean依SEM
0 day 7th day 14th day 21st day 28th day
Active ML 70.990.64 67.360.86 70.362.61 69.410.67 65.102.32
(control)IL 167.61.28 172.52.02 170.00.90 162.51.28 164.21.03
EL 7.470.18 7.940.04 6.730.20 6.920.31 7.520.11
MF 26.230.63 24.711.25 25.760.52 25.231.12 22.651.16
IF 6.310.18 6.330.27 6.670.33 6.380.41 6.780.06
EF 2.190.09 2.040.24 1.940.02 2.060.02 2.040.06
PEI 9.340.25 9.040.12 10.410.46 8.710.23 8.550.28
Active ML 68.410.39 66.750.49 63.440.97b39.521.10c32.370.68c
(L-dopa IL 192.61.93 186.93.20 173.40.97c136.02.58c100.50.59c
100mg/ EL 10.410.21 10.020.42 9.090.10b6.230.15c6.070.10c
kg Body MF 23.960.32 25.000.19 25.260.27 29.800.89c32.940.53c
weight) IF 7.310.15 7.590.35 8.450.13b10.480.10c12.250.15c
EF 1.690.10 1.740.08 1.700.11 2.430.16b2.720.15c
PEI 7.530.24 7.070.06 5.150.17c3.520.14c3.310.08c
Active ML 69.820.51 69.780.27 66.721.26 30.360.11c21.430.86c
(PVAE IL 182.10.71 179.80.25 164.21.69c99.900.51c89.012.75c
500mg/ EL 8.790.09 8.290.15 7.980.02b5.370.15c4.590.20c
kg body MF 31.150.46 30.760.35 32.440.19a37.420.20c38.870.18c
weight) IF 12.420.18 11.930.05 9.660.18c8.530.12c7.890.02c
EF 1.540.10 1.750.10 1.620.01 2.410.16c2.970.02c
PEI 8.890.30 8.150.19 5.460.15c3.610.19c3.050.04c
Inactive ML 157.11.22 153.21.52 150.90.58a92.280.86c76.651.70c
(PVAE IL 297.91.21 290.31.21 224.71.68c187.12.30c156.62.79c
500mg/ EL 5.430.19 5.620.36 5.400.68 3.390.24b2.810.19c
kg body MF 20.720.65 21.400.32 27.000.57c32.210.76c35.020.33c
weight) IF 7.790.32 8.140.19 8.160.07 11.610.44c13.510.11c
EF 1.100.04 1.190.02 1.650.16a2.411.16c2.960.02c
PEI 7.430.11 7.270.12 6.590.22b4.360.14c3.340.13c
ML,mount latency; IL, intromission latency; EL, ejaculation latency;MF, mount frequency; IF, intromission frequency; EF, ejaculation frequency;
PEI, post-ejaculatory interval.
* Significance level: *P < 0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
Imran Kazmi et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S841-S845
S844
200
150
100
50
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
ML
Figure 1: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Mount Latency (ML) of male rats. Values are effects
of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas *P < 0.05,
**P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
400
300
200
100
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
ML
Figure 2: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Intromission Lat++++ency (IL) of male rats. Values
are effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas
***P<0.001
15
10
5
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
EL
Figure 3: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Ejaculation Latency (EL) of male rats. Values
are effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas
**P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
15
10
5
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
PEI
Figure 4: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Post-Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) of male rats. Values
are effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas
**P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
50
45
30
20
10
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
MF
Figure 5: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Mount Frequency (MF) of male rats. Values are
effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas *P<0.05
and ***P<0.001
15
10
5
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
IF
Figure 6: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Intromission Frequency (IF) of male rats. Values
are effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas
**P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
4
3
2
1
0
MINUTES
0 days 7 days 14 days 21 days 28 days
A
ctive
(
control
)
A
ctive
(
L
-dopa,
100
mg/kg
)
A
ctive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
I
nactive
(
PVAE
500
mg/kg
)
EF
Figure 7: Effect of administration of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf
aqueous extract on Ejaculation Frequency (EF) of male rats. Values
are effects of various groups on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day. Whereas *P
< 0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001
4. Discussion
The present study provides evidence for the ability of the
crude extract of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf, to enhance
male sexual behavior expression in sexually active rats and
to promote sexual activity in sexually inactive male animals.
The data obtained reveal that when orally administered the
aqueous extract of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf (500mg/
kg, body weight), effectively facilitates several aspects of
copulatory behavior. The results of present investigations
show that the PVAE significantly increased the Mounting
Frequency (MF) and Intromission Frequency (IF) in both
Imran Kazmi et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S841-S845 S845
sexually active and inactive male rats as compared to
control. The MF and IF are considered the indices of both
libido and potency. Thus, the increase in the MF and IF,
indicates the PVAE, along with increasing libido, probably
also increases the potency. The significant increase in the
Ejaculatory Latency (EL) suggests that the extract prolonged
the duration of coitus. The significant decrease in the Post
Ejaculatory Interval (PEI), suggests that the PVAE intensified
sexual activity in sustained manner. The PVAE also caused
a significant reduction in the Mounting Latency (ML) and
Intromission Latency (IL) as compared to control animals.
This also provides an evidence for aphrodisiac effect of the
PVAE. These finding provide experimental support to the
traditional use of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf as a sexual
stimulant for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Generally
sexual behavior is enhanced by elevated testosterone levels.
Drug-induced changes in neurotransmitter levels or their
action in the cells could also change sexual behavior. The
brain area most associated with sexual behavior is the
limbic system. Research with various animal and human
models indicates a relationship between brain dopamine,
5HT and sexual behavior [8, 15]. Both dopamine and 5HT are
implicated in depression. The relationship of dopamine
to human sexual behavior is supported by reports of
persexuality behavior induced by L-dopa in parkinsonian
patients. Stimulants and antidepressants are known to affect
libido, erection, ejaculation and orgasm. In this connection
the PVAE was also subjected to a toxicity testing and it was
tested upto a high concentration of 2000mg/kg, orally (four
times more than the aphrodisiac dose, evaluated in the
present study). Even at this dose the extract did not produce
signs of toxicity or treatment related adverse effects in the
tests for aphrodisiac activity. This study clearly suggests
that Polygonatum verticillatum leaf is a potent sex stimulant
in rats. The chemical constituents and mechanism of action
responsible for this activity are not known. However, this
plant is rich in alkaloids, phenols and steroidal saponins [16-
18].
Further studies are suggested to isolate the active principle
of Polygonatum verticillatum leaf and to determine whether
the alkaloids or steroidal saponins or phenols contribute
towards the sex stimulant activity of this plant.
Sexual behavior was studied in sexually active and
inactive rats to further understand the role of Polygonatum
verticillatum leaf as an aphrodisiac. There was an
overall increase in the sexual behavior parameters in the
Polygonatum verticillatum leaf aqueous extract treated
groups of rats as reflected in MF, IF and EF, and reduction
in ML, IL, EL and PEI. These results were statistically
significant. It is concluded that Polygonatum verticillatum
leaf aqueous extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thanks Mr. Durga Verma,
President, Mr. R.R. Agarwal, Director of Siddhartha College
of Pharmacy, Dehradun (U.K) for providing the facilities for
the work and for their encouragement.
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multiflorum [L.] All and Polygonatum verticillatum [L.] All. Ukr
Biokhim Zhl. 1993; 65(1):41-48.
... The efficiency of some of such plants has been scientifically proved in animal models. For example, Allium tuberosum (Guohua et al., 2009), Polygonatum verticillatum (Kazmi, Afzal, Rahman, Gupta, & Anwar, 2012), Salvia haematodes (Bansode et al., 2015), Carpolobia alba (Kenmogne et al., 2016), Zanthoxylum leprieurii and Piper guineense (Kpomah, Uwakwe, & Abbey, 2012), have been reported to improve sexual activity in male rats. In Cameroon, Rauvolfia vomitoria belonging to the family Apocynaceae is one of the plants successfully used in folk medicine to treat male sexual disorders. ...
... Nigella sativa (Parandin, Yousofvand, & Ghorbani, 2012) Rauvolfia vomitoria has been reported by several ethnobotanical reviews of being a potent aphrodisiac plant used in folk medicine to treat erectile dysfunction (Singh et al., 2010(Singh et al., , 2012 Kazmi et al., 2012). Our study also showed a marked decrease of the PEI in treated animals. ...
... Similar effects were observed in animals treated with sildenafil citrate. ML and IL are reported to be indicators of sexual arousal (JianFeng et al., 2012), while MF and IF usually indicate both libido and potency (JianFeng et al., 2012;Kazmi et al., 2012). Then, one can say that R. vomtoria ethanolic extract could be an alternative in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ...
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Plants and plant‐derived products have a long history in the treatment of sexual disorders. Rauvolfia vomitoria is one of such plant used traditionally for the enhancement of male sexual and reproductive activity. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential activity of R. vomitoria ethanolic extract on sexual behaviour and male reproductive function. Twenty‐five male rats were assigned to five groups and orally treated with distilled water (control), sildenafil citrate (standard) and R. vomitoria ethanolic extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW) for 22 days. Sexual behaviour parameters such as mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (IF) and post‐ejaculatory interval (PEI) were recorded at day 0, 1, 8, 15 and 22. The reproductive function including reproductive organ weights, testicular histology and sperm parameters was also assessed. Results showed enhancement in sexual behaviour through significant reduction (p < .01) in ML, IL and PEI and significant increase (p < .01) in EL, MF IF and EF. The extract also caused an increase in sperm count, motility and transit. Present findings demonstrate the ability of R. vomitoria ethanolic extract to improve male sexual behaviour and reproductive activity in rats.
... In the diosgenin treated group the body weight was found to be significantly (p<0.001) increased as compared to the DMBA control group (13)(14)(15)(16). For DMBA induced rats, the tumor size has been found to increase with time. ...
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... Patel and others (2005) listed over 456 Indian plants and fungi with claimed aphrodisiac effects. Some of the species reported in recent literature include Asteracanta longifolia, Polygonatum verticillatum, Abelmoschus manihot, [13][14][15][16] Anacyclus pyrethrum and Argyreia nervosa. ...
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Background : Ocimum fimbriatum is used traditionally in Zambia for its aphrodisiac effect, but there is no scientific evidence to support this use. Therefore this study aimed to validate the aphrodisiac effects of the plant's root extract in rats. Study Design : This was an experimental study in which sixty Wisteria rats (30 males and 30 females) were separated into 5 groups of 12 rats and treated with different doses of the extract. ...
... Patel and others (2005) listed over 456 Indian plants and fungi with claimed aphrodisiac effects. Some of the species reported in recent literature include Asteracanta longifolia, Polygonatum verticillatum, Abelmoschus manihot, [13][14][15][16] Anacyclus pyrethrum and Argyreia nervosa. ...
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Background: Ocimum fimbriatum Briq. var. fimbriatum is used traditionally in Zambia for its aphrodisiac effect, but there is no scientific evidence to support this use. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the aphrodisiac effects of the plant’s root extract in rats. Study Design: This was an experimental study in which sixty Wister rats (30 males and 30 females) were separated into 5 groups of 12 rats and treated with different doses of the extract. Methods: The root extracts were administered at single oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg to 30 male rats. Distilled water and sildenafil served as controls. Female rats were treated with 0.1 mg/kg diethylstilbesterol and paired to the male rats. Mounting frequency, intromission, ejaculation, and latency periods were monitored using recording cameras. Recordings were analyzed visually and expressed as mean ± standard error. Results: The root extract produced significant dose-dependent increases in mounting, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies and latency periods, compared to negative controls. The 400 mg/kg dose produced highest number of mounts (31.33 ± 0.49, p= 0.001), intromissions (24.17 ± 0.60, p= 0.001) and ejaculations (7.67 ± 0.33, p= 0.001) compared to negative controls. At this dose, latency periods for mounting (3.00 ± 0.37min, p= 0.001) and intromission (2.1 ± 0.32 min, p= 0.001) were shortest, while the latency periods for ejaculation (6.33 ± 0.56 min, p=0.001) were longest. Conclusion: Root extract of Ocimum fimbriatum exerted significant aphrodisiac effects in rats and justifies traditional use of the plant. Further studies are required to elucidate the active principles and mechanisms involved in this effect.
... Compared to these findings, wogonin suppresses oxidative stress and inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis in earlier reported studies. Some medicines have enhanced neuronal damage after epilepsy by improving the body's antioxidant function Nrf2/ARE pathway Kazmi, Afzal, Rahman, Gupta, & Anwar, 2012). The level of plasma MDA increased in the TLE group relative to the control group in this study, the level of plasma GSH decreased, and the expression of Nrf-2 ...
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... The rhizome extract of P. verticillatum is used as tonic and energizer. It has also been studied for antimalarial and antioxidant, metal accumulating, insecticidal, antibacterial, antipyretic, tracheorelaxant and antiinflammatory, antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac [199,235,[238][239][240][241][242]. Lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, anti tyrosinase activity of the aerial parts of the P. verticillatum was also observed which were attributed to the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and terpenoids in considerable amount [243][244][245]. ...
... The rhizome extract of P. verticillatum is used as tonic and energizer. It has also been studied for antimalarial and antioxidant, metal accumulating, insecticidal, antibacterial, antipyretic, tracheorelaxant and antiinflammatory, antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, aphrodisiac [199,235,[238][239][240][241][242]. Lipoxygenase, urease inhibition, anti tyrosinase activity of the aerial parts of the P. verticillatum was also observed which were attributed to the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and terpenoids in considerable amount [243][244][245]. ...
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