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Preliminary screening of Cuscuta reflexa stems for Anti inflammatory and cytotoxic activity

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Abstract

Objective Evaluation of preliminary antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities of a parasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa.Methods Human red blood stabilizing activity was used for the evaluation of in vitro antiinflammatory activity and Brine shrimp lethality assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of extract of stems of Cuscuta reflexa.ResultsMethanolic extract and Ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR & EAMECR resp.) were found to have significant antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration IC50% values 277.83 μg/ml & 214.94 μg/ml in HRBC stabitlity assay[table 01], and lethal concentration LC50% 257.73 μg/ml 184.86 μg/ml in BSLA respectively[table 02].Conclusions Amongst various extracts evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activities, methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (MECR) and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction (EAMECR) show significant cytotoxic as well as antiinflammatory activities which may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols and flavonoids.

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... The Ethanol and chloroform extracts of C. reflexa have shown significant anti-tumor activity and increased tumor-bearing mice's life span against EAC cells. The reduction in tumour volume and improvement in hematological parameters were also observed in the host (91,92). ...
... The drug has several pharmacological active constituents, and several studies have been done to validate its uses in various literature, including USM. Its antioxidant (100), anticancer (91,92,90), antiproliferative (81,93), anticonvulsant (94), anti-HIV activities (43) have been proved by various pharmacological studies and showed promising results. The results support its importance and usefulness in the treatment of diseases like cancer. ...
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Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Fam. Convolvulaceae) is commonly known as aftimoon, amarbel, akashbel, or dodder in the alternative medicine system. It is widely used in the Unani system of medicine (USM) for its useful therapeutic effects due to its active constituents. It is used to cure various diseases through anti-tumor activity, anti-arthritis, hypotensive and bradycardia effects. Various phytoconstituents were isolated from it, like protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, dulcitol, luteolin, quercetin. The kaempferol and quercetin, a major active constituent in it, have various therapeutic activities apart from antidiabetic activity. In USM, Cuscuta reflexa is used to treat hepatitis, melancholia, chronic splenitis, and cancer. Many pharmacological studies have been carried out to explore its hypotensive, anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant activities. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of Cuscuta reflexa with special reference to Unani medicine and validate its various effects by pharmacological studies done so far.
... Extracts of dodders include various flavonoid compounds, a range of polysaccharides, a number of different alkaloids and various other chemicals [8,9]. Seeds extracts of C. reflexa have antimitotic and anticancer activities [10] and one study suggest that C. chinensis water extract induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice [11]. Nigella sativa L. seeds extracts were toxic on root number and length and reduced the mitotic index of meristem cells of onion roots [12]. ...
... Extracts of dodders include various flavonoid compounds and different alkaloids [8,9]. Seeds extracts of C. reflexa have antimitotic and anticancer activities [10] and one study suggest that C. chinensis water extract induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice [11]. N. sativa L. seeds extracts were toxic on root number and length and reduced the mitotic index of meristem cells of onion roots [12]. ...
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Some natural compounds of plants including phenols and alkaloids induce mitosis depressive that are blocked cell division. Field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) and eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) are the most widespread obligatory parasitic species. In the present study, end of summer 2015, field dodder and eastern dodder are collected from Alhagi maurorum Medik. host and Vine (Vitis sylvestris C.C.Gmel.) host respectively from Markazi province of Iran and identified by department of botany of the Islamic Azad University of Saveh. The aerial parts of dodders were used for aqueous extract. Dodders alkaloid and polyphenol were visualized by TLC and Dragendorff (for alkaloid) and ferric salt (for polyphenol) reagents. Total phenols and alkaloids were measured by using the calibration and spectrophotometry methods. Root length and roots tip meristem model of onion bulbs and barley seedlings were utilized to allelopathy and antimitotic effects of dodders aqueous extracts. Standard cytotoxic 8-Hydroxyquinoline served as controls. The bulbs and barley seedlings were treated at various concentrations: 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg ml-1 (dw) of an aqueous extract of dodders and 8-Hydroxyquinoline for 6 and 12 h. The inhibitory effect of dodders extract was evaluated on the growth and mitotic activity (Mitotic index) of barley seedlings and onion root meristems and the effect was compared with standard 8-Hydroxyquinoline. The One Way ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The polyphenols of field dodder were condensed tannins (include flavonoids) but for eastern dodder hydrolyzable tannins. Like 8-Hydroxyquinoline, both field and eastern dodders extract significantly inhibited the growth of roots and mitotic activity in incubation time and dose-dependent manner. However, C. campestris extract was more allelopathy and antimitotic potent in this regard and produced root decay and mitosis arrest. The extract of dodders had an inhibitory and mitosis depressive effect on root tip meristem cells. In the present study, we found, the dodder's aqueous extracts can be used to produce desirable effects as it pertains to chromosome condensation and spread, and though the roles of these chemicals in spindle fiber inhibition have been elucidated, as 8-Hydroxyquinoline.
...  Antibacterial activity [34]  Anti-cancer activity [35]  Anticonvulsant activity [29]  Anti-HIV activity [32]  Anti-inflammatory activity [26]  Antioxidant activity [33]  Antipyretic activity [27,30]  Anxiolytic activity [31]  Cholenergic action [2]  Cytotoxic activity [26]  Diuretic activity [36]  Hair growth promoting activity [30]  Hepatoprotective activity [28]  Hypoglycaemic activity [37]  Relaxant and spasmolytic action [32] CONCLUSION: ...
...  Antibacterial activity [34]  Anti-cancer activity [35]  Anticonvulsant activity [29]  Anti-HIV activity [32]  Anti-inflammatory activity [26]  Antioxidant activity [33]  Antipyretic activity [27,30]  Anxiolytic activity [31]  Cholenergic action [2]  Cytotoxic activity [26]  Diuretic activity [36]  Hair growth promoting activity [30]  Hepatoprotective activity [28]  Hypoglycaemic activity [37]  Relaxant and spasmolytic action [32] CONCLUSION: ...
... Pharmacological analysis of various Cuscuta species unveiled their antitumor, antimicrobial (28)(29)(30)(31), hepatoprotective (32)(33), anticonvulsant (34), immunostimulatory, antioxidant (14,(35)(36)(37), α-glucosidase inhibition (38), psychopharmacological (39), hair-growth promoting (40)(41), anti-steroidogenic (42), anti-inflammatory (43)(44), diuretic (45), analgesic (46), antipyretic (47)(48), anti-HIV (49), antidiabetic (50), neuroprotective (51), antiulcer (52), antispasmodic, heamodynamic, bradycardia1, antihypertensive, cardiotonic, and muscle relaxant activities (53). ...
... Inflammation was induced by various chemicals like histamine and lipopolysaccharide. It was observed that extracts inhibited inflammatory responses that can be related to the presence of flavonoids, phenols, and polyphenols in this plant (43)(44)253). C. reflexa significantly suppressed inflammation by reducing edema volume up to 80 % in rats as compared to standard 96.36 % (254). C. campestris markedly inhibited carrageenaninduced edema in rats by oral pretreatment with 100 mg/kg extract (47). ...
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Cuscuta, commonly known as dodder, is a genus of family convolvolaceace. Approximately 170 species of Cuscuta are extensively distributed in temperate and subtropical areas of the world. Species of this genus are widely used as essential constituents in functional foods and traditional medicinal systems. Various parts of many members of Cuscuta have been found efficacious against a variety of diseases. Phytochemical investigations have confirmed presence of biologically active moieties such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignans, saponines, phenolics, tannins, and fatty acids. Pharmacological studies and traditional uses of these plants have proved that they are effective antibacterial, antioxidant, antiostioporotic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antipyretic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti hair fall, and antisteriogenic agents.
... This plant species has been used for various medication viz. as a purgative in the treatment of liver disorders, cough and itching and for its carminative and anthelmintic actions (Udavant, Satyanarayana, & Upasani, 2012). The whole plant and stem are generally used for curing diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, dysentery, loss of appetite, anti-microbial, hair strengthening, urinary disorders and for strengthening the body (Shikha & Amrinder 2013). ...
... The whole plant and stem are generally used for curing diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, dysentery, loss of appetite, anti-microbial, hair strengthening, urinary disorders and for strengthening the body (Shikha & Amrinder 2013). Furthermore, C. reflexa has antibacterial, antiviral and anti-proliferative properties and contains compounds like phenolics and flavonoids (Udavant et al., 2012). ...
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Invasive Alien Species (IAS) have been emerging as the second biggest threat to global biodiversity after habitat destruction. They intervene in environmental services offered by ecosystems and negatively impact flood control, water supply, water assimilation, nutrient recycling, conservation and regeneration of soils. Due to these threats better IAS management is needed for a biodiversity rich nation like India. To date very few examples of successful eradications of IAS exist. However, some studies have pointed out several economic benefits rendered by IAS which include fodder, food, manure, bio-fuels and medication values which make them interesting from a commercial point of view which could led to an increase in demand for these IAS species by certain industries (pharmaceutical, botanical sectors) in the future driving IAS to the verge of extinction in the wild this way. This review presents an overview of IAS existing in India and their possible medicinal potential which could, if proven useful, lead to an alternative way of controlling the proliferation of IAS and to conserve nature diversity.
... 80 Methanolic extracthave shown cytotoxicity in Brine Shrimp lethality assay, may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols, and flavonoids. 81 Colocasia esculenta (Araceae): Plant extract had effect on colon cancer. 82 Water-soluble extracts showed effect in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. ...
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According to WHO, cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. More significant improvements have been made in the management and treatment of cancer, still there remains scope for the betterment of treatment procedures. Mostsynthetic anticancer drugs are known to develop resistance, show cytotoxicity against normal cells due to their non-selective nature, and cause tremendous side effects. Medicinal plants are significantly feasible sources of organic compounds, for their better availability, cheaper price, fewer side effects, and sometimes better therapeutic efficacy, which may benefit the world commercially or act as an important starting point for identifying lead compounds to develop modified derivatives. This article describes the ethnobotanical properties of 15 available medicinal plants of Bangladesh having anti-cancer properties.
... Formaldehyde-provoked arthritis has been documented to be the most reliable in vivo model for anti-arthritic potential screening due to resemblance with human arthritis (Udavant et al., 2012). Formaldehyde instigates arthritis via protein denaturation at injection site thus provokes an inflammatory response against denatured proteins (Ben et al., 2016). ...
... It also decrease levels of lipid peroxidases and hydroperoxidases, free radical producing agents, and help facilitate the recovery of a powerful antioxidant in the liver needed to prevent oxidative damage (Chakraborti et al., 1974). The Ethanol and chloroform extract of Cuscuta reflexa have shown significant antitumor activity and increased the life span of tumor bearing mice (Udavant et al., 2012;Chatterjeeet al., 2011). The aqueous extract of Cuscuta reflexa has shown anti-HIV activity and methanol extract shows anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activity (Mahmood et al., 1997). ...
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Cancer is one of the leading cause of mortality in India as well as worldwide. The management of cancer by conventional therapy has shown life threatening adverse effects. The researchers are now exploring the natural way of treatment. Unani system of medicine have rich literature for cancer and many compound formulations have been described in this system. Unani system of medicine is based on holistic approach and treat human being as a unit with natural herbs , mineral and animal origin An important compound Unani formulation (CUF) from the literature has been chosen to explore the Unani claim of its anticancer activity. The phytochemical constituents were assessed using standard phytochemical screening method. Antioxidant property of this formulation was assessed by DPPH assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out by colorimetric method and ascorbic acid was taken as a positive control. Three different extracts of CUF on different conc entrations were used to screening on human breast cancer (BCC) MCF 7 cell line. For the estimation of in vitro cytotoxic potency of the investigated extracts was assessed on MTT assay by using trypan blue method and paclitaxel was used as the standard. Hyd ro ethanolic (HE) extract showed highest free radical scavenging activity among all extracts. DPPH Assay showed substantial antioxidant activity of these extracts in hydro ethanol extract at 1µg concentration of CUF. The CUF showed antioxidant and anticanc er activity. The claim made by Unani physician has been proved.
... The crude extract has also been evaluated for antiepileptic and α-glucosidase inhibition [28]. Moreover, this plant inhibits the erythrocyte damage due to hypotonicity which is anti-inflammatory effect [29]. Additionally, the plant has been quarantined for antitumor and antiproliferative activities using different animal models [25]. ...
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Frostbite is caused due to extreme vulnerability to cold, resulting in damage of deeper and superficial tissues alike. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of aqueous methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (Cs.Cr) against contact frostbite. Thirty rats were divided into five groups including three treatment groups with increasing doses of Cs.Cr, a standard drug group receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and a metal bar-induced frostbite group. Frostbite injury was induced by a 3 × 3.5 cm metal bar frozen up to -79°C on shaved skin for continuous 3 minutes. Wounded area percentages were recorded to measure the healing rate in response to Cs.Cr administration. Haematological parameters and malondialdehyde content were also noted. On treatment with Cs.Cr, the healing rate is drastically increased and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results were compared with frostbite and ASA (standard drug group). These results indicate that Cs.Cr possesses excellent wound-healing properties against frostbite injury and can prove to be a prospective compound in such conditions.
... Cuscuta reflexa (Giant dodder) in cell lines [5], Swiss albino mice [6], human red blood cells [7] and human cancer cell lines [8]. Ashwagandha or Indian ginseng Withania somnifera has immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) expresses promising antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-cancer effects [15,16]. ...
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UNANI MEDICINE AND CANCER Christer Sundqvist. Prepublished article, 2020 Petrafoundation, Helsinki, Finland https://www.petrafoundation.com/en/foundation Unani medicine is an alternative medical system originating in ancient Greece almost 2500 years back. It is now practiced primarily in India. Herbal remedies, dietary practices and alternative therapies characterize Unani medicine. Let us study what it can offer for a cancer patient.
... The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. 23 .  The anticancer potential of Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant extract), was evaluated by testing its in vitro cytotoxicity and induction of cell death by apoptosis. ...
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Cancer is one of the fastest growing diseases, with an estimated worldwide incidence of 10 million new cases per year. Mortality is high, with >7 million deaths per year. In the last two decades, great advances have been made in cancer therapy; however, the success rates still remain unsatisfactory. Current conventional anticancer therapies are associated with adverse effects, drug resistance, and cancer recurrence. In Unani system of medicine, Cancer is known as Sartān, an Arabic word which means "crab". In the classical Unani literature, Sartān (Cancer) has been mentioned with great description, causes, origin, expansion, metastasis and all of clinical presentations. Renowned physicians like Buqrat, Jalinoos, Razi, Ibn Sina, Tabri and Jurjani gave the details of Sartān and its management. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the strength of Unani medicine in Sartān.
... Formaldehyde-provoked arthritis has been documented to be the most reliable in vivo model for anti-arthritic potential screening due to resemblance with human arthritis (Udavant et al., 2012). Formaldehyde instigates arthritis via protein denaturation at injection site thus provokes an inflammatory response against denatured proteins (Ben et al., 2016). ...
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... Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay has been suggested as a valid method of evaluation of cytotoxicity and it can be extrapolated for cell lines toxicity and tumor activity [14]. A previous study has used BSLA for preliminary screening to find the cytotoxic activity of Markhamia tomentosa before cytotoxicity test using cell lines [15]. ...
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... Phenolics and flavonoids have been reported as the phytochemicals found in the rhizome of C. aeruginosa (Nurcholis et al. 2016a). A study has demonstrated that phenolics and flavonoids possess biological activities such as antioxidant (Al-Farsi et al. 2018), antimicrobial (Pandey et al. 2018), anticancer (Alaklabi et al. 2018), antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activity (Udavant et al. 2012). These properties make them particularly helpful for traditional medicine applications of C. aeruginosa rhizome. ...
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... (Convolvulaceae) have antiaging, anticancer, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, immunostimulant, and memory enhancing activities. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Although the phytochemical content of Cuscuta sp. differs according to plant variation, to date, flavonoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids, and lignans have been isolated from different Cuscuta sp. 14 However, there appears to be no phytochemical or biological activity studies reported on Cuscuta arvensis Beyr. ...
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Article
Cuscuta arvensis Beyr. is a parasitic plant, and commonly known as "dodder" in Europe, in the United States, and "tu si zi shu" in China. It is one of the preferred spices used in sweet and savory dishes. Also, it is used as a folk medicine for the treatment particularly of liver problems, knee pains, and physiological hepatitis, which occur notably in newborns and their mothers in the southeastern part of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects and antioxidant activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. arvensis Beyr. on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. The results were supported by subsequent histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective activity of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts at an oral dose of 125 and 250 mg/kg was investigated by observing the reduction levels or the activity of alkaline phosphatase, alkaline transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urine nitrogen, and total bilirubin content. In vivo antioxidant activity was determined by analyzing the serum superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, glutathione, and catalase levels. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate biologically active compounds from the extract, and spectroscopic methods were used for structure elucidation. Both the methanolic and aqueous extracts exerted noticable hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects supporting the folkloric usage of dodder. One of the bioactive compounds was kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, isolated and identified from the methanolic extract.
... Antisteroidogenic properties of methanolic extract of C. reflexa have been reported [2]. Methanolic extract of C. reflexa and its ethyl acetate soluble fraction show significant cytotoxic as well as anti-inflammatory activities which may be due to the presence of phenols, polyphenols and flavonoids [3]. However, the chemical constituents of Cuscuta plant depends on the type of host. ...
... Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema is a widely used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity and constitutes a simple and regular animal model without any injury to the paw of animal. Animal paw edema used to investigate new anti-inflammatory drugs along with mechanisms involved in inflammatory process (Udavant et al., 2012). As a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema shows biphasic mechanism in which mediators activate in sequence to induce the inflammation. ...
... Hence, stabilization of red blood cell membrane obviates the liberation of inflammatory intermediaries, which diminishes cell rupture and tissue injury (Alamgeer et al., 2015). Some NSAIDS and glucocorticoids stabilize lysosomes in tissue cells and thereby preclude the discharge of lysosomal enzymes into cytoplasm of cells, thus avoiding deterioration (Udavant et al., 2012). E. gerardiana and its fractions notably repressed hypotonicity induced human red blood cell hemolysis in concentration dependent manner, compared with diclofenac sodium. ...
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The present study determines the anti-arthritic potential of Ephedra gerardiana ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions adopting in vitro and in vivo tests. In vitro tests included thermally induced bovine serum albumin denaturation and egg albumin denaturation, also membrane stabilizing assay at concentration of 50-6400 µg/mL, whereas in vivo study comprised formaldehyde-induced arthritis at 50, 100 and 200 mg/ kg doses. The crude extract and fractions inhibited protein denaturation and stabilized red blood cells membrane in concentration-dependent fashion, with maximal effect achieved at 6,400 µg/mL (p<0.001). Similarly, in formaldehyde model, the extract and fractions dose-dependently reduced injected paw volume and diameter, with maximum reduction at 200 mg/kg (p<0.001). However, results of aqueous fraction were on a par with hydroalcoholic extract in each test. These results suggest that E. gerardiana provides protection against arthritis that might be owing to the existence of phytoconstituents thus, supporting folkloric claim.
... It is known that it contains phenolics and flavonoids compound. Due to presence of such organic compounds it acts as Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties (Udavant et al. 2012). Fungi, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses are probably the first things that come to mind in the current list of parasites available in nature. ...
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Cuscuta reflexa (Roxb.) belonging to the family Convolvulaceae and popularly known as dodder, is a parasitic plant with claims of antibacterial, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in literature. HPTLCanalysis and investigation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta reflexa extracts, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract, and aqueous extract of Cuscuta reflexa (PECR, MECR, and AECR respectively) at three dose levels of 50, 200 & 300 mg/kg body weight of an animal by oral route were used for biological activities. The analgesic activity of was determined using hot plate analgesia, acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using models like carrageenan, serotonin and histamine-induced paw edema models along with cotton pellet induced granuloma. Probable mechanism involved in the antiinflammatory effect of methanol and aqueous extracts was evaluated with various tests like ulcerogenicity test; acetic acid induced vascular permeability test and leukocyte migration test using a single dose of 300 mg/kg orally. Acute oral toxicity test revealed the LD50 of >2 g/kg. PECR, MECR and AECR (200 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly (P< 0.05) increased latency against thermal stimulus, decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and licking times of the second phase in the formalin test. Moreover, MECR and AECR (200 and 300 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiinflammatory effect against carrageenan and mediator-induced paw edema. The most promising fraction of methanol extract was found to be quercetin, which could be responsible for the biological activity. Results suggest significant analgesic and antiinflammatory effects produced by MECR and AECR.
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Context: Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae) has been used traditionally for treating sore knees and kidney problems, but its efficacy has not been scientifically examined in treating arthritis and nephrotoxicity. Objective: Present study determines antiarthritic and nephroprotective potential of the aqueous methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa (AMECR). Materials and methods: Antiarthritic activity of Cuscuta reflexa in formaldehyde and turpentine oil-induced rat arthritis models was appraised at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses for 10 days and 6 h period, respectively, and in vitro protein denaturation (bovine serum albumin, egg albumin) inhibition was studied at 25–800 μg/mL concentration. The nephroprotective effect involved gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses. Results: Plant extract at 600 mg/kg significantly reduced paw oedema and joint swelling with maximal inhibition of 71.22% at the 6th hour for turpentine oil and 76.74% on 10th day for formaldehyde. Likewise, in vitro results corroborated significant concentration-dependent increase in percentage protection at 800 μg/mL against both bovine serum albumin (89.30%) and egg albumin (93.51%) denaturation. Similarly, 600 mg/kg dose showed maximum nephroprotection by reducing serum urea (41.400 ± 0.510 mg/dL), uric acid (0.740 ± 0.032 mg/dL), blood urea nitrogen (18.370 ± 0.328), creatinine (3.267 ± 0.076) and minimizing kidney weight gain (0.586 ± 0.005) and histopathological alterations on 8th day. Furthermore, phytochemical and HPLC analysis revealed the presence of important phytoconstituents. Discussion and conclusions: These results suggest that AMECR provides protection against arthritis and nephrotoxicity that might be due to the existence of phytoconstituents, thus supporting folkloric claim.
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To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf exacts of Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. G. vulgaris Nees of the family Apocynaceae is a medium sized tree grown in semishade or no shade and is common in the Ernad and Nilambur taluks of Kerala.Various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, sores, inflammation, dyspepsia, healing of wounds, etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedima. Both the methods showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.
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Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of phytochemicals has grown as a promising technique in recent years. MAE method was developed for extraction of Lupeol from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. growing on different hosts. An open vessel modified microwave system has been used for extraction of Lupeol. Various critical parameters such as use of solvent, solvent volume, power and time of irradiation were optimized. Methanol was selected as an extraction solvent based on its high dielectric constant value and maximum solubility of Lupeol. The solvent volume, microwave power and irradiation time were optimized to 10 mL, 160 Watts and 3 min respectively. The developed method is a good alternative to time consuming conventional extraction techniques.
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Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, antisteroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa.
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The medical plant Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. was selected for analysis and Characterization of its medicinal value based on phytochemical studies. Phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, fixed oil and fats, proteins, phenolic compounds, tannis and saponins of ethanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. were analyzed qualitatively using UV-Vis and FT-IR. Our investigation suggests that Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. might be a source of large amount of metabolites such as phenolics. Therefore, this result may suggest that Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. extracts posses’ compounds with antihelmithetic, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties which can be used as phytochemical agents in new drugs for therapy of microbial and other diseases in human.
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Methanol extract of whole plant of Enicostemma axillare (Family: Gentianaceae) was assessed for its anti-inflammatory activity by invitro methods. Invitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay, proteinase inhibitory activity, membrane stabilization, and anti-lipoxygenase activity at different concentrations. Aspirin, Diclofenac sodium, Indomethacin were used as standard drugs. The results showed that Enicostemma axillare Methanol Extract (EAME) at a concentration range of 100-500µg/ml significantly (p<0.01) protects the heat induced protein denaturation. At the concentration of 400 and 500 µg/ml, EAME showed significant (p<0.01) inhibition of 42 and 53% of proteinase inhibitory action, but at the concentration of 100 and 200 µg/ml did not show significant (p>0.05) activity. Heat induced haemolysis of erythrocyte was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited at the concentration of 400 and 500µg/ml. Hypotonicity induced haemolysis and lipoxygenase activity were significantly (p<0.01) inhibited at the concentration range of 200-500µg/ml and 400, 500µg/ml respectively. The results obtained in the present study indicate that methanol extracts of Enicostemma axillare can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents.
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To validate traditional claims of usefulness of the Indian plants in management of poisonous snakebite and evaluate the antivenom properties displayed by the alcoholic extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), Crateva magna (C. magna), Gloriosa superba (G. superba) and Hydrocotyle javanica (H. javanica). These plants were collected, identified and the extracts were prepared by using conventional Soxhlet ethanol extraction technique. The venom neutralization activity was accessed in mice (20-25g) and number of mortalities was observed against clinically important snake (Naja nigricollis) venom. Present study also deals with in vitro membrane stabilizing activity of these plants against hyposaline induced human red blood corpuscles (HRBC). Extracts of H. javanica and G. superba gave 80 % and 90 % protection to mice treated with minimum lethal dose of venom (LD(99)). These two plants showed significant neutralization effect against the venoms of Naja nigricollis venom. H. javanica and G. superba (25-100 mg/mL) produced significant changes of membrane stabilization of human red blood cells (HRBC) exposed to hyposaline-induced haemolysis. We conclude that probably due to presence of various phytochemicals plays an important role in the anti-venom potential of these Indian medicinal plants against Naja nigricollis venom. The above observations confirmed that A. paniculata, C. magna, G. superba and H. javanica plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could potentially be used as an adjuvants for antivenin therapy in case of snakebite envenomation, especially against the local effects of cobra venoms.
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The chronic inflammatory environment of tumors is a target for novel antitumor therapeutic strategies. Besides cholesterol lowering effects, statins have been studied for their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. These pleiotropic effects result mainly from the altered post-translational modification of GTP-binding proteins which regulate many intracellular pathways involved in cell growth and survival. Although pre-clinical studies suggest that statins may be effective anticancer agents required doses that are 100 to 500 fold higher than those needed to lower cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in view of their wide-ranging effects on cellular metabolism, target site-specific delivery is preferred.
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A new microplate assay for cytotoxicity testing using A. salina has been developed and shown to give results comparable to a previously published test-tube method. The assay reliably detected all of the compounds toxic to KB cells in a series of 21 pharmacologically active agents, except for two which require metabolic activation in man. Four quassinoids with cytotoxic and antiplasmodial activity were also toxic to the brine shrimp while quassin itself was inactive in all three systems. It is proposed that this assay provides a convenient means by which the presence of cytotoxic quassinoids may be detected during the fractionation of plant extracts.
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Because olives represent an important component of the Mediterranean diet, it is necessary to establish unequivocal identification and quantitation of the major potential antioxidant phenolic compounds they contain. The major phenolic antioxidants in two types of brined olives were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis was conducted using UV spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In particular, completely assigned 1H and 13C NMR data are presented and errors in literature data are corrected. The data show that tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (dihydrocaffeic acid), dihydro-p-coumaric acid (phloretic acid), the phenylpropanoid glucosides acteoside (verbascoside) and isoacteoside, along with the flavonoids luteolin and apigenin are major components of the phenolic fraction of brined black olives. Brined green olives contain only hydroxytyrosol and traces of other minor phenolics. Brined olives contain even higher concentrations of phenolic antioxidants than olive oil and may, therefore, be more important modulators of cancer chemopreventive activity.
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Three medicinal plants namely Trigonellafoenum-graecum, Glycinemax and Sesamumindicum were evaluated for invitro acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity. These plants have been selected based on their use as memory enhancing as well as their nutrient value. These plants have been consumed as nutritious food and are believed to play an important role in health-promoting. The results were expressed as IC50 and the percent of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity. Diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) assay and beta-carotene bleaching method were used for antioxidant studies and brine shrimp lethality test (BSL) was used for cytotoxicity assay. The obtained results showed that the G.max extract has inhibited AChE activity strongly in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 4.69 mg/mL). The most inhibition of AChE activity was due to G.max extract (68.4%). This extract was also able to scavenge DPPH radical with IC50 = 454.3 μg/mL. The G.max extract has shown the least cytotoxicity (IC50 value of 1112.6 μg/mL) in BSL assay. T.foenum-graecum and S.indicum also exhibited noticeable AchE inhibition.
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The volatile oil of the wood of Cedrus deodara (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of compound 48/80 and nystatin-induced rat paw edema. It also inhibited heat- as well as hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of the oil could be due to its membrane stabilizing action.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Lantana camara, Linn and its fractions was investigated using stabilization of red blood cell membrane lysing technique. Phytochemically, whole plant extract (WPE) and ethanol fraction (EF) gave positive reactions for the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) gave reactions for the presence of flavonoids while butanol fraction (BF) gave positive test for the presence of saponins. The percentage membrane stability exhibited by the extract and various fractions was concentration dependent and compared favorably with those of standard drugs (Ibuprofen and Indomethacin). The results revealed that both ethanol and ethyl acetate fractions contained principles that protected the erythrocyte membranes effectively. Moreover, ethyl acetate fraction provided highest protection against induced lyses and exhibited both monophasic and biphasic responses at all the concentrations assayed. The possible mechanism of action of the extract and fractions is described and discussed.
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The effect of advances in the fields of ubiquitous computing, wireless communications and embedded system design has seen a corresponding rapid improvement of wireless sensor technology. Sensor networks have emerged as a platform for deployment and sustenance of critical applications that require real-time sensing and data acquisition for decision-making purposes. A significant number of malicious attacks against the security of such networks have been identified in recent times. Considering the untrusted environments of operations of such networks, the threat of distributed attacks against constrained sensory resources i.e. sensor power, computation and communication capabilities cannot be overlooked. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy logic-based approach towards achieving demarkation in the values of specific parameters of an attack detection scheme for detecting distributed node-exhaustion attacks in wireless sensor networks. Using the Unified And-Or (UAO) aggregation operator, we model and formulate a mechanism to achieve a tradeoff between frequent attack detection and sensor node energy utilization. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of our approach in addressing the issue of computing the optimal parameter values for achieving a reasonable tradeoff between attack detection rate and sensor node energy utilization rate.
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The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agent. In this work the methanolic extract of Basella alba (M.E.B.A.) and aqueous extract of Basella alba (A.E.B.A.) were studied for its in-vitro antiinflammatory activities. The potency of the extracts was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (50 and 100 @g/ml). The aqueous extract showed the most significant membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane.
Article
To determine anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-inflammatory activity of the water extract was analysed in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory reactions in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The expression of COX-2 and TNF-α genes involved in inflammation was analysed by SQ RT-PCR. EMSA was conducted to analyse the influence of the extract on NF-κB signalling. Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin.
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Several experimental and epidemiological evidence indicate that, irrespective of the trigger for the development (chronic infection/inflammation or genetic alteration), a "smouldering" inflammation is associated with the most of, if not all, tumours and supports their progression. Several evidence have highlighted that tumours promote a constant influx of myelomonocytic cells that express inflammatory mediators supporting pro-tumoral functions. Myelomonocytic cells are key orchestrators of cancer-related inflammation associated with proliferation and survival of malignant cells, subversion of adaptive immune response, angiogenesis, stroma remodelling and metastasis formation. Although the connection between inflammation and cancer is unequivocal the mechanistic basis of such association are largely unknown. Recent advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways involved in cancer-related inflammation as well as their potential relevance as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets are herein discussed.
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Cancer can be defined by six hallmarks, including uncontrollable growth, immortality and the ability to invade other tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that a seventh feature should make this list - inflammation.
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L-adrenaline belongs to a group of the compounds known as catecholamines, which play an important role in the regulation of physiological process in living organisms. The antioxidant activity and antioxidant mechanism of L-adrenaline was clarified using various in vitro antioxidant assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(+)), and superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(-)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), total antioxidant activity, ferric ions (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. L-adrenaline inhibited 74.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 30 microg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol and trolox displayed 83.3, 82.1, 68.1 and 81.3% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol and trolox were used as reference antioxidants and radical scavenger compounds. Moreover, this study will bring an innovation for further studies related to antioxidant properties of L-adrenaline. According to present study, L-adrenaline had effective in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.
Article
A total of 22 ethanol extracts of seaweed species (13 brown, 6 green and 3 red) collected from the Karachi coast were investigated for brine shrimp cytotoxicity. Of all the species, only six namely Stoechospermum marginatum, Sargassum swartzii, S. binderi, Spatoglossum asperum, Stokeyia indica (brown) and Caulerpa racemosa (green) showed significant activity. n-Hexane-soluble fractions of the ethanol extract of S. marginatum and S. swartzii were found to be responsible for the activity, whereas the methanol-soluble fractions of S. asperum and S. binderi were most active. The water extract of S. indica and C. racemosa exhibited the most prominent activity (LC50 value below 70 micrograms/mL) when compared with the ethanol extracts and their fractions. Cytotoxic activity may be due to the compounds differing in polarity.
Article
The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of 11 plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay, sea urchin eggs assay, hemolysis assay and MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The extract of Oroxylum indicum showed the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines tested, with an IC(50) of 19.6 microg/ml for CEM, 14.2 microg/ml for HL-60, 17.2 microg/ml for B-16 and 32.5 microg/ml for HCT-8. On the sea urchin eggs, it inhibited the progression of cell cycle since the frist cleavage (IC(50)=13.5 microg/ml). The extract of Aegle marmelos exhibited toxicity on all used assays, but in a lower potency than Oroxylum indicum. In conclusion, among all tested extracts, only the extracts of Oroxylum indicum, Moringa oleifera and Aegles marmelos could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for chemical characterization of the active principles and more extensive biological evaluations.
Article
Bidens pilosa (L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil for treating conditions that can be related to cancer. Therefore the present study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of extracts obtained from the aerial parts of this plant species. The crude hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) (water:alcohol, 6:4) and solvent fractions (chloroform=CHCl3,ethyl acetate=EtOAc, methanol=MeOH) were assessed for cytotoxicity assay by the brine shrimp and hemolytic, MTT and NRU assays. The antiproliferative potential of the crude extract and fractions was investigated in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in isogenic Balb/c mice that were administered intraperitoneally 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight per day for nine days beginning 24 h after tumor inoculation. In in vitro cytotoxicity using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line assay CHCl3 extract proved to be more toxic than the crude HAE with an IC(50) of 97+/-7.2 and 83+/-5.2 microg/mL to NRU and MTT, respectively. Histomorphological evaluations indicated that the treatment with CHCl3 and HAE extracts significantly reduced (P<0.05) body weight, abdominal circumference, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, when compared to EAC control group. Furthermore, nonviable tumor cell count increased significantly (P<0.01) only under treatment with CHCl3 or HAE, and this was accompanied by a marked percentage increase in life span (54.2 and 41.7%, respectively). Biochemical assays revealed that CHCl3 and HAE extracts were also able to decrease serum LDH activity (39.5 and 30.6%) and GSH concentration (94.6 and 50.7%) in ascitic fluid, respectively. The chloroform fraction showed the best and methanolic the worst antitumor activity.
Popular Prakashan: Mumbai; 1994. (I) p
  • Km Nadkarni
  • Indian
  • Medica
Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakashan: Mumbai; 1994. (I) p.419-20.
Essentials of Anatomy and physiology, FA Davis company, Filadelphia 6th edition
  • Valerie C Scanlon
Valerie C. Scanlon, Tina Sanders, Essentials of Anatomy and physiology, FA Davis company, Filadelphia 6th edition; 2010, p.287.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S1303-S1307 S1307 Kumarasunderi. Antihaemolytic and snake venom neutralizing effect of some Indian medicinal plants
  • Chidambaram Kumarappan
  • Albert Jaswanth
Chidambaram Kumarappan, Albert Jaswanth, Karpagam Pavan Bhausaheb Udavant et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S1303-S1307 S1307 Kumarasunderi. Antihaemolytic and snake venom neutralizing effect of some Indian medicinal plants. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2011; 743-747.
Oxidative damage and pathogenesis
  • U Bandopadhyaya
  • Das D Banerjee
Bandopadhyaya, U, Das D, and Banerjee, RK.Oxidative damage and pathogenesis. Curr Sci 1999; 77(5): 658-666.