ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called “aphrodisiac”. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria, Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.
S131
Document heading
Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current
scientific literature
Patel DK, Kumar R, Prasad SK, Hemalatha S*
Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
journal homepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/apjtb
*Corresponding author: Patel DK, Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department
of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005,
India.
Tel: +91 9415256481
E-mail: shemalatha.phe@itbhu.ac.in
Foundation Project: This work was financially supported by University Grant
Commision New Delhi India (grant No. IT/DEV/08-09/3252/L).
1. Introduction
Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal
sexual intercourse including premature ejaculation,
retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile
dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive
sexual behaviour, orgasmic disorder and failure of
detumescence. It is increasing world wide due to etiological
factors and aging. Several type of treatment is claimed in the
modern medicine but due to serious side effects and higher
cost, search of natural supplement from medicinal plants as
an aphrodisiac substance is significantly increased[1]. The
term aphrodisiac originated from the Greek word Aphrodite
which is related to love and romance, but in modern time
substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction
or having sexual activity enhancing power called
aphrodisiac[2]. Sexual desire is controlled and regulated
by the central nervous system which integrates tactile,
olfactory, auditory, and mental stimuli. The aphrodisiac
drugs act by altering the level of specific neurotransmitters
or specific sex hormone into the body. Mostly act through
alteration in testosterone concentration in the body but
other effective in both sexes[3,4].
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an inability to attain or
maintain penile erection sufficiently while engaging in
sexual intercourse[5]. Androgens are sex hormones that
play an essential role in male reproductive function. It
is known to act both centrally and peripherally for the
initiation and maintenance of sexual functions. Various
stimuli such as anabolic steroids (testosterone) are known
to either upregulate or downregulate androgen response[6].
Sexual dysfunction is a serious medical and social
symptom that occurs in 10%-52% of men and 25%-63% of
women. Of men aged 40-70 years, an estimated 34.8% have
moderate to complete erectile dysfunction. Treatment of
ED usually involves a psychotherapeutic approach; on
the other hand, pharmacotherapy involves drugs such as
papaverin, alprostadil, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil,
central stimulants like apomorphine and herbal drugs with
aphrodisiac activity are also used for the treatment of ED. A
variety of botanicals such as Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris),
Aframomum melegueta, Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia),
Cnidium monnieri, Ferula harmonis, Mucuna pruriens (M.
pruriens), Lepidium meyenii (L. meyenii), Passiflora incarnate
and some compounds like yohimbine were reported to have
ART ICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received 15 April 2011
Received in revised form 27 April 2011
Accepted 28 June 2011
Available online 28 June 2011
Keywords:
Aphrodisiac
Mount frequency
Intromission frequency
Ejaculation frequency
Mounts latency
Intromission latency
Ejaculation latency
Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and
satisfaction in humans and animals are called aphrodisiac. Uses of plant material to treat
sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced
by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like
China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific
data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,
Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans,
Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo
and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance,
there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human
being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its
aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in
human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview
about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of
plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138
S132
a potential effect on the sexual functions, supporting older
claims and offering new hope[7]. This review mainly focuses
on the plants which were scientifically tested and validated,
either in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical
trials, and proved as a potential aphrodisiac agents. A brief
calculation about the percentage of the study in the last
eighteen year duration on aphrodisiac activity of the plant
material was done on the basis of CAB database (Figure 1).
Moreover botanical name, family and uses or application of
some plant which have been tested for aphrodisiac activity
is shown in the Table 1.
No of study
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
NO of aphrodisiac study (1994-2011)
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Duration (year)
Figure 1. The number of aphrodisiac study verses year of the study.
2. Parameter used in assessing aphrodisiac properties
For the determination of the aphrodisiac activity many
in vivo or in vitro model have been used. Methods that are
used in aphrodisiac study can be categorized into physical
methods including mating behaviour test [mount latency
(ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL),
mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF),
ejaculation frequency (EF), post-ejaculatory interval, index
of libido, computed male sexual behaviour parameters],
test for libido, test for potency, penile microcirculation
study, intracavernous pressure (ICP) study, and biochemical
methods including determination of testicular and serum
cholesterol, hormonal determination, assay for neuronal
nitric oxide synthase and androgen receptor protein. MF is
defined as the climbing of one animal by another usually
from the posterior end with the intention of introducing
one organ into another. IF is the introduction of one organ
or parts into another. ML is defined as the time interval
between the introduction of the female and the first
mount by the male. IL is the time interval from the time of
introduction of the female to the first intromission by the
male. EL is defined as the time interval between the first
intromission and ejaculation and ejaculation frequency[1].
3. Medicinal plant having aphrodisiac properties
Medicinal plants can be used in different therapeutic
purposes or used as precursors for synthesis of useful drugs
containing different type of phytochemicals. Plants are
extensively used to treat sexual dysfunction. For example
Ginseng (Panax ginsengs) is an essential constituent
in traditional Chinese medicine, and at least 6 million
Americans use the root of this plant. Maca (L. meyenii),
has traditionally been used by Peruvian inhabitants as a
nutrient, energizer, aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing
agent[1]. Fadogia agrestis (F. agrestis)stem is another
example. Botanical name, family and uses/application of the
herbs having aphrodisiac activity have been shown in Table
1.
4. Pharmacologically active aphrodisiac plants in
experimental models
In our country with the advent of the Ayurvedists some of
the medicinal plants have proven to possess a traditional as
well as scientifically-proven aphrodisiac that can enhance
passion, increase libido, enhance sexual performance,
and help to increase the intensity of lovemaking. A brief
summary of the plants have been tested for aphrodisiac
activity are documented.
4.1. Allium sativum (Alliaceae)
Aphrodisiac effect of Allium sativum (A. sativum) extracts
at 0.57, 1.13 and 2.25 mL/kg, p.o. for 28 days on male mice
was investigated and it was found that it increased sexual
behaviour in dose dependent manner[8].
4.2. Allium tuberosum (Alliaceae)
The aphrodisiac activity of n-butanol extract of Allium
tuberosum (A. tuberosum) seeds was investigated in male
rats at 500 mg/kg, p.o. for 40 days, and it was found that the
extract significantly reduced ML, IL, EL and increased MF,
IF, EF[9].
4.3. Alpinia calcarata (Zingiberaceae)
Hot water extract of Alpinia calcarata (A. calcarata) at 150,
250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. in rats was found to prolong the EL.
Moreover, the EL and IL were reduced, indicating a strong
aphrodisiac action. At 500 mg/kg, p.o., it elevates the serum
testosterone level and was found nontoxic[10].
4.4. Anacyclus pyrethrum (Compositae)
Effect of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum
(A. pyrethrum) at dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, p.o. in
male rats showed more receptive and oriented towards
female rats and increased precopulatory activities like
licking and sniffing of female anogenitals. The penile
erection index was significantly increased with reduction in
ML and IL period[11].
4.5. Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae)
Aqueous root extract of Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus)
treatment had showed enhancement of body weight and
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138 S133
Table 1
Pharmacologically active aphrodisiac plant.
Botanical name Family Uses/activity
A. tuberosum Alliaceae Impotence, nocturnal emissions, food
A. calcarata Zingiberaceae Antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antinociceptive, antioxidant
A. pyrethrum Compositae Tonic, rejuvenator, aphrodisiac, sexual stimulant
A. racemosus Asparagaceae Dyspepsia, lactogogue, antidiarrhoeal, antiseptic, diuretic, nutritive tonic, demulcent, aphrodiasic,
antispasmodic, liver and kidney diseases
B. edulis Acanthaceae Wounds, ulcers, hemorrhages, asthma, throat inflammation, purgative, liver and spleen disorders, diuretic,
urinary discharges, dysmenorrhoea, diuretic, aphrodisiac, expectorant, deobstruent, conjunctivitis
Butea frondonsa Papillionaceae Antistress, hepatoprotective, antiestrogenic, ocular anti-inflammatory, antihelminthic
C. benthamiana Fabaceae Erectile dysfunction, antibacterial
C. sinensis Theaceae Diuretic, urinary inconsistency, common cold, anxiety, skin problem
C. edulis celastraceae Stimulant, sympathomimetic
C. borivilianum Liliaceae Immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, impotency, sterility, potency, alertness, mental ability
C. sativus Iridaceae Anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor activities
C. orchioides Hypoxidaceae Tonic, demulcent, diuretic, piles, asthma, jaundice, diarrhoea, colic, gonorrhea
Derris scandens Leguminosae Expectorant, antitussive, diuretic, antidysentery muscle aches, antimicrobial, immunostimulating
activities
D. zibethinus Bombacaceae Fertility enhancing activity
E. longifolia Simaroubaceae Fevers, aches, sexual insuficiency, hypertensive, tuberculosis, vermifuge, health supplement
H. zeylanica Ophioglossaceae Aperiant, febrifuge, intoxicant, anodyne, sciatica, boils, ulcers, malaria, snake bites, jaundice, aphrodisiac
H. sabdariffa Malvaceae Diuretics, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, astringent, digestive, tonic, sedative, laxative, antimicrobial
K. parviflora Zingiberaceae Inflammation, diarrhea, vertigo, heart diseases, reproductive disorder
L. meyenii* Brassicaceae Improving sexuality and fertility, aphrodisiac
L. barbarum Solanaceae Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, hepatitis, hypo-immunity function, thrombosis, male infertility
M. acuminata Rubiaceae Eye drops, oral hygeine, aphrodisiac, anticancer
M. keayana Pandaceae erectile dysfunction, hypotensive, vasorelaxing properties,
M. whitei Periplocacea Aphrodisiacs, urinary tract infection, jaundice, headaches, diarrhea, treatment of impotence and fertility
men
M. tomentosa Asteraceae Postpartum bleeding, antipregnancy, reproductive impairments, induction of labor, regulation of fertility
M. pruriens Papilionaceae Improving fertility, aphrodisiac agent, sexual disorder
M. fragrans Myristicaceae Aphrodisiac, stomachic, carminative, tonic, nervous stimulant, aromatic, narcotic, astringent,
hypolipidemic, antithrombotic, antifungal, antidysentric, anti inflammatory
O. gratissimum Labiatae Antibacterial, antifungal, hypoglycemic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic
P. incarnata Passifloraceae Anxiolytic, sedative, anti-convulsant, analgesic, adaptogenic, nervine, anti-stress, post-menopausal
Psoralea corylifolia Leguminosae Aphrodisiac agent, bone fracture, osteomalacia, osteoporosis
S. aromaticum Myrtaceae Dental disorders, respiratory disorders, headache, soar throa, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-
inflammatory, cytotoxic, anesthetic
T. terrestris* Zygophyllaceae Urinary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal disorders
T. zeylanicus Trichopodaceae Hepatoprotection, anti-ulcer activity, immunomodulation
T. diffusa Turneraceae Muscle and nerve weakness, aphrodisiac, tonic, catarrhal and bladder inflammations
V. tessellata Orchidaceaae Inflammatory conditions, otitis, fever, rheumatism, nervous, problems, bronchitis, dyspepsia, fever,
hiccough, piles, boils
* Tested clinically in humans
reproductive organs, penile erection, mount frequency in
rats, and indicates an improvement in sexual behavior[12].
4.6. Bidens frondosa (Asteraceae)
The aphrodisiac activity of Bidens frondosa (B. frondosa)
bark at 400 mg/kg, p.o. for 28 days showed significant
reduced ML, IL, EL, post ejaculatory interval (PEI) and
increased MF, IF and EF[13].
4.7. Blepharis edulis (Acanthaceae)
Ethanolic extract of Blepharis edulis (B. edulis) Linn at
100, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. in male albino mice reveals
significant and sustain increase in hormonal levels of
testosterone without any adverse effects and it was found to
be most effective at the dose level of 500 mg/kg[14].
4.8. Caesalpinia benthamiana (Fabaceae)
Aqueous extract of Caesalpinia benthamiana (C.
benthamiana) at 50 mg/kg, p.o. in male rats is found to
have significant sex power stimulatory activity, due to its
vasorelaxant properties. Further upto 2 g/kg, p.o. it is safe
and showed no toxicity[5].
4.9. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae)
Ethanolic extract of Chenopodium album (C. album) at
100, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. in male albino mice showed
significant increase in the MF, IF, IL, Erections as well as
aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138
S134
in the ML and post ejaculatory interval. Moreover 500 mg/kg,
p.o. was found to be most active[15].
4.10. Chlorophytum borivilianum (Liliaceae)
Lyophilized aqueous root extracts of Chlorophytum
borivilianum (C. borivilianum) at 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed
significant enhancement of body weight and reproductive
organs, penile erection, MF, whereas significant variation in
reduction of ML, EL, IL, reduced hesitation time indicates an
improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals[2].
4.11. Camellia sinensis (Theaceae)
Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) tea at 84, 167 and 501 mg/
mL, p.o. dose level in rats were found to possess marked
aphrodisiac activity in terms of prolongation of latency of
ejaculation shortening of ML, IL and elevation of serum
testosterone level[16].
4.12. Crocus sativus (Iridaceae)
Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus (C. sativus)
stigma (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg, i.p.), crocin (100, 200 and 400
mg/kg, i.p.), safranal (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mL/kg, i.p.), on male
rats were investigated. Crocin and extract increased MF, IF
and erection frequency behaviors and reduced ML, IL and
EL, whereas safranal did not show any aphrodisiac effects[7].
4.13. Catha edulis (Celastraceae)
Administration of leaf extract of Catha edulis (C. edulis) at
dose of 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg, p.o. for 6 weeks were found to
increase plasma testosterone levels in more than 2 folds in
the male Sprague-Dawley rats[17].
4.14. Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae)
Aqueous extract of the seeds of Casimiroa edulis (C. edulis)
at 250 mg/kg, p.o. on male rats for seven days exhibited
a significant increase in MF, IF, and first and second EL,
whereas ML, IL and the post ejaculatory interval showed a
significant reduction when compare to control group[18].
4.15. Curculigo orchioides (Hypoxidaceae)
Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides (C.
orchioides) at 100 mg/kg, p.o. in rats was found to be change
significantly the sexual behaviour such as penile erection,
mating performance, MF, ML, and increase of penile erection
index and weight of reproductive organs[19].
4.16. Durio zibethinus
Aphrodisiac activity of petroleum ether extract and
isolated compound 3- beta -hydroxy-21-normethyl-19-
vinylidenylursane of Durio zibethinus (D. zibenthinus) were
screened for different dose level and it was found that 400
mg/kg, p.o. was most active in the mice and have better
aphrodisiac activity than all other treated dose[20].
4.17. Diodia scandens (Fabaceae)
Ethanol extract of Diodia scandens (D. scandens) on
pregnant guinea-pig uterus was investigated and found
to induce concentration-dependent increase in the force
of contraction and tonus. D. scandens was shown to acting
via muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine (ACh) was 2.5
10(5) times more potent. It also induced vasodilatation in the
rat hindquarters and depressed the blood pressure in the
anaesthetized cat[21].
4.18. Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae)
Root extracts of Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) at
repeated does of 0.5 g/kg, p.o. in sexually sluggish old adult
male rats showed that E. longifolia exerted stimulation
of copulatory behaviour in non-copulator male rats with
high level of maintenance of both intromissions and
ejaculations[22]. Chloroform, methanol, water or n-butanol
fractions from E. longifolia at 500 mg/kg, p.o. on sexually
naive male mice showed aphrodisiac properties as indicated
by the slow and transient reduction in hesitation time[23].
Butanol, methanol, aqueous and chloroform root extracts
of E. longifolia at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. produced a
dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the
episodes of penile reflexes, as shown by increases in quick
flips, long flips and erection of the treated mice[24]. Effect
of E. longifolia on sexual behavior of sexually sluggish and
impotent male rats at 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg, p.o. were
investigated in different model and found that it significantly
reduced ejaculation latencies and increased the percentage
of mounting and ejaculating of animals. Testosterone
serum levels were also increased[25]. Various fractions of
E. longifolia roots, on the sexual qualities of middle-aged
male rats at 0.5 g/kg, p.o. were found to enhance the sexual
qualities by decreasing their hesitation time[26]. Effects of
200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. of butanol, methanol, water and
chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack were studied on
the levator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-
stimulated castrated intact male rats. 800 mg/kg of butanol,
methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia
Jack significantly increases the levator ani muscle and body
weight[27]. The effects of root extracts of E. longifolia at
200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o. on the orientation activities of
sexually experienced male rats showed significantly more
frequent and vigorous mounting, licking and anogenital
sniffing towards the receptive females, increased grooming
of the genitals compared with the controls[28]. Different
fractions of E. longifolia roots (chloroform, methanol, water
or butanol) were screened for aphrodisiac properties in
sexually naive male mice using dose of 0.5 g/kg, p.o. daily
and it resulted in an enhancement of the sexual motivation
of animals after 3 days. The effect was more prominent after
8 days[29].
4.19. Helminthostachys zeylanica (Ophioglossaceae)
Methanol extract of Helminthostachys zeylanica (H.
zeylanica) rhizome to male mice significantly stimulates the
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138 S135
sexual behaviour as evidenced by increase in the number
of mounts, mating and reproductive performance. The
pups fathered mice by the drug-treated were normal, with
reference to fetal growth, litter size and sex ratio[30].
4.20. Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae)
Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx
at 1.15, 2.30, 4.60 g/kg, p.o. for 12-week on the rat testes did
not show any significant change in the absolute and relative
testicular weights. However, it showed a significant decrease
in the epididymal sperm counts and induced testicular
toxicity in rats[31].
4.21. Kaempferia parviflora (Zingiberaceae)
The alcoholic, hexane and aqueous extracts of Kaempferia
parviflora (K. parviflora) showed no effect on the weights
of reproductive organ, fertility or sperm motility even in
5-week male rats. However, alcohol extract at a dose of 70
mg/kg, p.o. significantly decreases mount and ejaculatory
latencies and increases blood flow to the testis. Whereas,
hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual
behavior parameters[32].
4.22. Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae)
The clinical trial of L. meyenii for aphrodisiac activity was
done for 12 weeks in double-blind, placebo-controlled,
randomized, parallel trial with 1 500 mg/kg or 3 000 mg/kg,
p.o. doses in form of tablets on men aged between 21 and
56 years. It had no effect on serum levels of luteinizing
hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha
hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol[33].
4.23. Litsea chinensis (Lauraceae)
Ethanolic extract of the bark of Litsea chinensis (L.
chinensis) on male sexual behaviour in rats at 500 mg/kg, p.o.
produced a significant increase in penile erection index,
homosexual mounting and facilitated sexual behaviour
and orientational activity, as shown by increased mounting
performance, anogenital sniffing, intromission and
ejaculation frequencies[34].
4.24. Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae)
Effect of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) polysaccharides
(LBP) at 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o. per day on damaged
rat testis showed that LBP provides a protective effect
against the testicular tissue damage induced by heat
exposure. LBP significantly increases testis, epididymis
weights, superoxide dismutase activity and sexual hormone
levels in the damaged rat testis. LBP had a dose-dependent
protective effect against DNA oxidative damage of mouse
testicular cells induced by H2O2[35].
4.25. Microdesmis keayana J. Le´onard (Pandaceae)
Effects of aqueous extract of Microdesmis keayana (M.
keayana) root and major isolated alkaloids on sexual
behavior of male rats revealed that it stimulates sexual
parameters in rats, and it is safe at dose of upto 2 g/kg,
p.o.[4].
4.26. Montanoa tomentosa (Compositae)
Aqueous extract of Montanoa tomentosa (M. tomentosa) at
the dose of 38, 75 and 150 mg/kg, p.o. facilitates expression of
sexual behaviour in sexually active male rat and significantly
increases mounting behaviour in genitally anesthetized
animals and induces the expression of sexual behaviour in
noncopulating males. It also exerted a pro-ejaculatory effect
and produced an increase in the number of discharges in the
ejaculatory motor patterns in the spinal rats. The cihuapatli-
induced ejaculatory motor patterns were similar to the effect
that obtained after systemic oxytocin[3].
4.27. Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae)
Ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) showed
significantly increase in the MF, IF and EL, and decreased
the mounting latency, IL, post-ejaculatory interval and
inter-intromission interval at 150, 200, 250 mg/kg, p.o. dose
in Wister albino rats[36].
4.28. Mondia whitei (Asclepiadaceae)
Effect of aqueous extract of Mondia whitei (M. whitei) on
human spermatozoa in vitro has significantly enhanced
the total motility as well as progressive motility in a time-
dependent manner. This study signifies uses of M. whitei
especially in men affected with asthenozoospermia[37].
4.29. Massularia acuminata (Rubiaceae)
Androgenic potential of aqueous extract of Massularia
acuminata (M. acuminata) stem at 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/
kg, p.o. for 21 days in male rats was shown in significantly
increase in testes-body weight ratio, testicular protein,
glycogen, sialic acid, cholesterol, testosterone, luteinizing
and follicle stimulating hormone concentrations throughout
the period of administration[38].
4.30. Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae)
Aphrodisiac effect of 50% ethanolic Myristica fragrans (M.
fragrans) Houtt at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for seven days
in male rats was shown in significant augmentation of sexual
activity in male rats. It significantly increases the MF, IF,
and IL and caused significant reduction in the ML and PEI.
The extract was also observed to be devoid of any adverse
effects and acute toxicity[39].
4.31. Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae)
Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum
(O. gratissimum) at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for seven
days on mice significantly increases the MF, IF, IL, erections
as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138
S136
reduction in the ML and PEI. A dose of 500 mg/kg showed
maximum effect without any conspicuous gastric ulceration
and adverse effects[15].
4.32. Pedalium murex (Pedaliaceae)
Aphrodisiac activity of petroleum ether extract of
Pedalium murex (P. murex) plant at 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.
in ethanol induced germ cell damage and infertility in male
rat models depicted an increase in mating and mounting
behaviour, body weight, percentage of pregnancy, litter
size, sperm motility and also showed an increased levels of
testosterone, germinal cells and the luminal spermatozoa in
treated compared to control group[40].
4.33. Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae)
Effect of methanolic extract of P. incarnata on male mice
exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour at 75, 100 and
150 mg/kg, p.o. Amongst these, the highest activity was
observed with the 100 mg/kg, p.o. dose when the mountings
were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the
test extracts[41].
4.34. Peganum harmala (Nitrariaceae)
Treatment of Peganum harmala (P. harmala) seeds at 100
mg/kg, p.o. for 56 days in male rats was found to significantly
chang gonad and accessory gland weight and function,
semen quality, and histology of the organs involved in
reproduction, without affecting the metabolic function[42].
4.35. Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae)
Effect of hexane extract of flower buds of Syzygium
aromaticum (S. aromaticum) at 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.
for 35 days were evaluated for a single spermatogenic cycle
in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg/kg, p.o.) of the
extract increased the activities of Delta 5 3 beta -HSD and 17
beta -HSD, and serum level of testosterone[43].
4.36. Tricholepis glaberrima (Compositae)
Treatment of methanol extract of the aerial parts of
Tricholepis glaberrima (T. glaberrima) DC at dose of 200
mg/kg, p.o. for 28 days in sexually active male rats has
significantly increased ML, IL, while with a significant
reduction in MF, IF, and post-ejaculatory interval. Extract
favors spermatogenesis by enhancing the proliferation of the
seminiferous epithelium[44].
4.37. Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae)
Effect of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) at 5 mg/kg, p.o. for
8 weeks in adult Sprague-Dawley rats on sexual behaviour
and intracavernous pressures (ICP) showed increase in
mount and intromission frequencies, decrease in mount,
intromission, ejaculation latencies and PEI revealing the
improvement of the sexual behaviour parameters[45]. Effect
investigation of T. terrestris extract at 20 and 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks on
androgen metabolism in young males showed no significant
difference between T. terrestris supplemented groups
and control in the serum testosterone, androstenedione
or luteinizing hormone[46]. Aphrodisiac properties of the
furostanol glycoside fraction of T. terrestris in male castrated
rats were investigated at 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days
and found to increase orientational activity parameters such
as licking, anogenital and genital grooming and decreased
climbing and nongential grooming by male rats indicating
increased sexual stimulation[47]. Effect of T. terrestris at dose
of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. for 8 weeks on sexual behaviour
and ICP measurements in Sprague-Dawley rats reveals an
increase in body weight and ICP, mount and intromission
frequencies and decrease in mount latencies compared to
the control group[48].
4.38. Trichopus zeylanicus (Trichopodaceae)
Administration of the ethanol extract of Trichopus
zeylanicus (T. zeylanicus) leaves to male mice increased
the number of mounts and mating performance. The pups
fathered by the extract-treated mice were normal with
regard to foetal growth, litter size and sex ratio. Although
oral administration of a single dose (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was
effective, daily administration of the extract for 6 days was
more effective. The aqueous as well as n-hexane extracts of
the leaves were found to be inactive[49].
4.39. Turnera diffusa (Turneraceae)
Effect of Turnera diffusa (T. diffusa) at 20-80 mg/kg, p.o.
in sexually exhausted male rats significantly increased the
percentage of males achieving one ejaculatory series and
resuming a second one. In addition, T. diffusa significantly
reduces the PEI[50].
4.40. Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae)
Aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa (T. catappa)
seeds at dose of 1 500 mg/kg or 3 000 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days
in rats had a marked improvement of aphrodisiac action,
sexual vigour. In contrast, the higher dose (3 000 mg/kg, p.o.)
reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour
other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and
copulatory efficiency[51].
4.41. Vanda tessellata (Orchidaceae)
Alcoholic extract of flowers of Vanda tessellata (V.
tessellata) at doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. were found to be
increase mating performance, and tend to increase the male:
female ratio of resulting offspring. This extract was devoid of
general toxicity[52].
5. Conclusion
Medicinal plants are used from ancient times and only
true natural medicines have been found useful in several
ways. They can be used directly or in extracted forms for
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138 S137
the management of various ailments, due to presence of
many phytochemicals. In this review we have mentioned
the pharmacologically tested aphrodisiac plants which
have claimed for its uses in the traditional system of
medicine to treat sexual disorder. Plants like T. catappa
seeds, S. aromaticum flower bud, and F. agrestis stem have
been found to have aphrodisiac activities in male rats. The
incidence of male sexual dysfunction is increasing, which
need more and rapid search of the plants with aphrodisiac
potentials. Chinese men have always been interested in
increasing virility and sexual satisfaction to the extent of
using any possible means[53]. In England, people believed
that plants having phallic-like features such as asparagus,
parsnips and carrots can be used as aphrodisiac agent.
Ukrainians believe carrots and celery have aphrodisiac
activity. In chinese culture, ginseng and rhinoceros horn is
used as an aphrodisiac agent[1]. Substances which enhance
sexual performance are called aphrodisiac including
foods, beverages, vitamins, minerals, and other natural and
synthetic chemicals[54-56].
The search for natural supplement from medicinal plants
is being intensified probably because of its fewer side
effects, its ready availability and less cost. All the plants
in this review have exhibited significant pharmacological
activity. The herbs can be effective aphrodisiacs, moreover,
isolation and identification of active constituents from
plants may bring a dynamic change in the modern world[57].
Many of the plant materials showed positive aphrodisiac
activities in animals. For the determination of the safety and
effectiveness of these substances for sexual enhancement it
is necessary to test pre-clinically in animals and clinically
in human being before consuming the drug. Further studies
are also needed to check the mechanism that underlie
behind such activity.
Demands of natural aphrodisiacs require increasing
studies to understand their effects on humans and strengthen
relationships to its safety. Due to unavailability of the
safety data, unclear mechanisms, and lack of knowledge to
support the extensive use of these substances, uses of these
products can be harmful to the human being. With more
clinical data, exact mechanisms of action, safety profile, and
drug interaction with other uses of these aphrodisiacs plant
materials, treating sexual disorder can become fruitful.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements
The financial assistance from University Grants Commission,
New Delhi, for Dinesh Kumar Patel (Senior Research
Fellowship) is greatly acknowledged.
References
[1] Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji A. Male sexual dysfunction and
methods used in assessing medicinal plants with aphrodisiac
potentials. Phcog Rev 2007; 11: 49-56.
[2] Thakur M, Chauhan NS, Bhargava S, Dixit VK. A comparative
study on aphrodisiac activity of some Ayurvedic herbs in male
Albino rats. Arch Sex Behav 2009; 38: 1009-1015.
[3] Carro-Juárez M, Lobatón I, Benítez O, Espíritu A. Pro-ejaculatory
effect of the aqueous crude extract of cihuapatli (Montanoa
tomentosa) in spinal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106:
111-116.
[4] Zamblé A, Sahpaz S, Brunet C, Bailleul F. Effects of Microdesmis
keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats. Phytomed 2008; 15:
625-629.
[5] Zamblé A, Martin-Nizard F, Sahpaz S, Hennebelle T, Staels
B, Bordet R, et al. Vasoactivity, antioxidant and aphrodisiac
properties of Caesalpinia benthamiana roots. J Ethnopharmacol
2008; 116: 112-119.
[6] Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase
activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol
2005; 96: 127-132.
[7] Hosseinzadeh H, Ziaee T, Sadeghi A. The effect of saffron, Crocus
sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on
sexual behaviors in normal male rats. Phytomed 2008; 15: 491-495.
[8] Mullaicharam AR, Karthikeyan, Barish, Umamaheswari R.
Aphrodisiac property of Allium sativum Linn. extract in male rat.
Hamdard Medicus 2004; 47: 30-35.
[9] Guohua H, Yanhua L, Rengang M, Dongzhi W, Zhengzhi M, Hua
Z. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract. J
Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122: 579-582.
[10] Ratnasooriya WD, Jayakody JR. Effects of aqueous extract of
Alpinia calcarata rhizomes on reproductive competence of male
rats. Acta Biol Hung 2006; 57: 23-35.
[11] Sharma V, Thakur M, Chauhan NS, Dixit VK. Evaluation of the
anabolic, aphrodisiac and reproductive activity of Anacyclus
pyrethrum DC in male rats. Sci Pharm 2009; 77: 97-110.
[12] Thakur M, Bhargava S, Dixi VK. Effect of Asparagus racemosus on
sexual dysfunction in hyperglycemic male rats. Pharm Biol 2009;
47: 390-395.
[13] Ramachandran S, Sridhar Y, Sam SK, Saravanan M, Leonard JT,
Anbalagan N, et al. Aphrodisiac activity of Butea frondosa Koen.
ex Roxb. extract in male rats. Phytomed 2004; 11: 165-168.
[14] Pande M, Pathak A. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum
gratissimum (Ram tulsi) on sexual behaviour in male mice. Int J
PharmTech Res 2009; 1: 468-473.
[15] Pande M, Pathak A. Sexual function improving effect of
Chenopodium album (Bathua sag) in normal male mice. Biomed
Pharmacol J 2008; 1: 325-332.
[16] Ratnasooriya WD, Fernando TS. Effect of black tea brew
of Camellia sinensis on sexual competence of male rats. J
Ethnopharmacol 2008; 118: 373-377.
[17] Al-Zubairi AS, Ismail P, PeiPei C, Abdul AB, Ali RS, Wahab ASI,
et al. Short-term repeated dose biochemical effects of Catha
edulis (Khat) crude extract administration in rats. Int J Trop Med
2008; 3: 19-25.
[18] Ali ST, Rakkah NI. Probable neuro sexual mode of action of
Casimiroa edulis seed extract verses sildenafil citrate (Viagra(tm))
on mating behavior in normal male rats. Pak J Pharm Sci 2008;
21: 1-6.
[19] Chauhan NS, Rao ChV, Dixit VK. Effect of Curculigo orchioides
rhizomes on sexual behaviour of male rats. Fitoterapia 2007; 78:
530-534.
[20] Venkatesh P, Hariprasath K, Soumya V, Francis MP, Sankar
Patel DK et al./Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)S131-S138
S138
S. Isolation and aphrodisiac screening of the fruits of Durio
zibenthinus Linn. Asian J Bio Sci 2010; 3: 1-17.
[21] Onuaguluchi G, Nwafor P. Pharmacological basis for the use of the
antivenene water soluble extract of Diodia scandens as a laxative,
oxytocic agent and a possible aphrodisiac in traditional medicine
practice in eastern Nigeria. Phytother Res 1999; 13: 459-463.
[22] Ang HH, Sim MK. Aphrodisiac effects of Eurycoma longifolia root
in non-copulator male rats. Fitoterapia 1998; 69: 445-447.
[23] Ang HH, Sim MK. Aphrodisiac evaluation in sexually naive male
mice after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
Nat Prod Sci 1998; 4: 58-61.
[24] Ang HH, Cheang HS. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on
laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-
stimulated castrated intact male rats. Arch Pharm Res 2001; 24:
437-440.
[25] Zanoli P, Zavatti M, Montanari C, Baraldi M. Influence of
Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually
sluggish and impotent male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 126:
308-313.
[26] Ang HH, Ngai TH, Tan TH. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack
on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats. Phytomed 2003; 10:
590-593.
[27] Ang HH, Ikeda S, Gan EK. Evaluation of the potency activity of
aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Phytother Res 2001; 15:
435-436.
[28] Ang HH, Sim MK. Eurycoma longifolia Jack and orientation
activities in sexually experienced male rats. Biol Pharm Bull
1998; 21: 153-155.
[29] Ang HH, Chan KL, Gan EK, Yuen KH. Enhancement of sexual
motivation in sexually naive male mice by Eurycoma longifolia.
Int J Pharmacog 1997; 35: 144-146.
[30] Suja SR, Latha PG, Pushpangadan P, Rajasekharan S. Aphrodisiac
property of Helminthostachys zeylanica in male mice. J Trop Med
Plants 2002; 3: 191-195.
[31] Orisakwe OE, Husaini DC, Afonne OJ. Testicular effects of sub-
chronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous
extract in rats. Reprod Toxicol 2004; 18: 295-298.
[32] Chaturapanich G, Chaiyakul S, Verawatnapakul V, Pholpramool
C. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive
parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats. Reproduction
2008; 136: 515-522.
[33] Gonzales GF, Córdova A, Vega K, Chung A, Villena A, Góñez C.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and
fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone
levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol 2003; 176: 163-168.
[34] Ageel AM, Islam MW, Ginawi OT, Al-Yahya MA. Evaluation of
the aphrodisiac activity of Litsea chinensis (Lauraceae) and Orchis
malculata (Orchidaceae) extracts in rats. Phytother Res 1994; 8:
103-105.
[35] Luo Q, Li Z, Huang X, Yan J, Zhang S, Cai YZ. Lycium barbarum
polysaccharides: Protective effects against heat-induced damage
of rat testes and H2O2-induced DNA damage in mouse testicular
cells and beneficial effect on sexual behavior and reproductive
function of hemicastrated rats. Life Sci 2006; 79: 613-621.
[36] Suresh S, Prithiviraj E, Prakash S. Dose- and time-dependent
effects of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed on
sexual behaviour of normal male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;
122: 497-501.
[37] Lampiao F, Krom D, du Plessis SS. The in vitro effects of Mondia
whitei on human sperm motility parameters. Phytother Res 2008;
22: 1272-1273.
[38] Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT, Adesokan AA. Androgenic
potentials of aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata (G. Don)
Bullock ex Hoyl. stem in male Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol
2008; 118: 508-513.
[39] Tajuddin, Ahmad S, Latif A, Qasmi IA, Amin KMY. An
experimental study of sexual function improving effect of
Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Nutmeg). BMC Complement Altern Med
2005; 5: 16.
[40] Balamurugan G, Muralidharan P, Polapala S. Aphrodisiac activity
and curative effects of Pedalium murex (L) against ethanol
induced infertility in male rats. Turk J Biol 2010; 34: 153-163.
[41] Dhawan K, Kumar S, Sharma A. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol
extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice. Phytother
Res 2003; 17: 401-403.
[42] Subhan F, Sultan S, Alam W, Tahir F, Dil AS. Aphrodisiac
potential of Peganum harmala seeds. Hamdard Medicus 1998; 4:
69-72.
[43] Mishra RK, Singh SK. Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum
flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in
mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46: 3333-3338.
[44] Padashetty SA, Mishra SH. Aphrodisiac studies of Tricholepis
glaberrima with supportive action from antioxidant enzymes.
Pharm Biol 2007; 45: 580-586.
[45] Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Aphrodisiac properties of
Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated
rats. Life Sci 2002; 71: 1385-1396.
[46] Neychev VK, Mitev VI. The aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris
does not influence the androgen production in young men. J
Ethnopharmacol 2005; 101: 319-323.
[47] Tyagi RM, Aswar UM, Mohan V, Bodhankar SL, Zambare GN,
Thakurdesai PA. Study of furostenol glycoside fraction of Tribulus
terresteris on male sexual function in rats. Pharm Biol 2008;
46:191-198
[48] Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP , Prasad RN . Sexual effects of
puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an
evaluation using a rat model. J Altern Complement Med 2003; 9:
257-265.
[49] Subramoniam A, Madhavachandran V, Rajasekharan S,
Pushpangadan P. Aphrodisiac property of Trichopus zeylanicus
extract in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 57: 21-27.
[50] Estrada-Reyes R, Ortiz-López P, Gutiérrez-Ortíz J, Martínez-
Mota L. Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual
behavior in sexually exhausted males. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;
123: 423-429.
[51] Ratnasooriya WD, Dharmasiri MG. Effects of Terminalia catappa
seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats. Asian J
Androl 2000; 2: 213-219.
[52] Kumar PKS, Subramoniam A, Pushpangadan P. Aphrodisiac
activity of Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) Hook. ex Don extract in male
mice. Ind J Pharmacol 2000; 32: 300-304.
[53] Kaphle K, Wu LS, Yang NY, Lin JH. Herbal medicine research in
Taiwan. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3: 149-155.
[54] Sandroni P. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.
Clin Auton Res 2001; 11: 303-307.
[55] Shamloul R. Natural aphrodisiacs. J Sex Med 2010; 7: 39-49.
[56] Krychman ML, Gubili J, Pereira L, Holstein L, Cassileth B. Female
sexual enhancers and neutraceuticals. Current Sexual Health
Reports 2007; 4: 177-182.
[57] Malviya N, Jain S, Gupta VB, Vyas S. Recent studies on
aphrodisiac herbs for the management of male sexual dysfunction
ñ a review. Acta Pol Pharm 2011; 68: 3-8.
... [1] Most of the African and Asian population use traditional medicines for their primary health care. [2] In Ethiopia, about 80% of the human population and 90% of livestock rely on traditional medicine. [3,4] There are 6000 species of higher plants in Ethiopia, of which more than 14% are used as traditional medicines. ...
... In spite of tremendous development in the field of allopathic medicines during the 20 th century, plants still remain one of the major sources of drugs in modern as well as in the traditional system of medicine. Herbal medicines are universally accepted because of the fact that medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the health-care system Drug Invention Today | Vol 13 • Issue 4 • 2020 phytochemicals [2,6] and they are safe, less toxic, economical, and a reliable key natural resource of drugs all over the world. [7] Phytochemicals are bioactive compounds found in plants that work with nutrients and dietary fiber to protect against diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are constantly generated in the human body through exogenous and endogenous pathways and alter the structure and function of cellular components and responsible for oxidative stress diseases. Antioxidants are both natural and synthetic sources prevent the tissue damage by scavenging free radicals. Objectives: The objective present study has been carried phytochemical screening with different organic leaves extracts of Rumex nervosus and the evaluates the in-vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus. Methods: Organic leaves extracts of R. nervosus extract were obtained by serial exhaustive solvent extraction method and further subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activities of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus showed the presence of a maximum number of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and proteins. The ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus exhibited significant dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activities with 64.95% inhibition at a concentration of 100 μg/ml with IC50 values of 68.62 μg/ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethyl acetate leaves extracts of R. nervosus shown significant DPPH radical scavenging activity due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds and might be served as a potential source of natural antioxidants, for development of therapeutic antioxidant drugs helpful in preventing the destructive process of various oxidative stress diseases. KEY WORDS: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, Oxidative stress, Rumex nervosus, Secondary metabolites
... 1-2 Among men aged 40 -70 years, an estimated 34.8% have moderate to complete erectile dysfunction. 2 This condition can be managed via psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. 1,3 Free radicals are known to be present in seminar plasma, some of the most prevalent ROS are hydroxyl, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. ...
... No significant difference was observed in the activity of Compound X (10 mg/mL) and positive control (vitamin E) 26 mg/mL using in vitro model. Spectroscopic information from NMR studies ( 1 H, 13 C, DEPT and HMBC) and MS suggested the bioactive compound to be a pentacyclic triterpene, 13, 14-epoxyoleanan-3-ol-acetate (M + 470, C31H50O3) as shown in Figure 2 - 2,7,8,10 Antioxidant activity of M. charantia might be connected with its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation, and hence protect sperm. 27 -28 It therefore has potential in the treatment of sperm-related male infertility. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Male infertility has been associated with oxidative stress-induced and/or microbial induced in some men. The use of medicinal plants to overcome oxidative stress-induced infertility cannot be over emphasized. Hence, the aim of this research was to isolate the antilipid peroxidation (an index of usage for treating oxidative stress-induced male infertility) bioactive principle from Momordica charantia using bioactivity-guided isolation. Materials and methods: n-Hexane fraction from the crude ethanol extract obtained by Soxhlet extraction of aerial parts (without fruit) of bitter melon, M. charantia, was assessed for in vitro lipid peroxidation, followed by bioactivity-guided isolation of bioactive principles using in vitro lipid peroxidation as an index of aphrodisiac and male fertility enhancer. Results: Fractionation of the active n-hexane fraction using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) gave five pooled fractions on the basis of their thin layer chromatography (TLC) characteristics (n-hexane: EtOAc, 2:3, sulphuric acid spray). In vitro activity of the most active VLC fraction C was less than that of the positive control, vitamin E. Further fractionation of VLC-C by open column chromatography on silica gel led to the isolation of a compound which was purified by preparative-TLC. The purified compound, 10 mg/mL (Rf 0.54, TLC silica gel, n-hexane: ethyl acetate; 2:3) was equipotent with vitamin E (25 mg/mL) in reducing peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro. Structural elucidation by NMR (1H, 13C) and mean mass spectroscopy confirmed the identity of the new bioactive compound as 13, 14-epoxyoleanan-3-ol-acetate. Conclusion: This study scientifically validates the traditional claim of M. charantia as an aphrodisiac or male fertility enhancer and suggests that 13, 14-epoxyoleanan-3-ol-acetate might be responsible for the observed activity.
... The mechanism of action of Saponin has been shown to enhance aphrodisiac through either a conformational change it adopts after binding to hormone receptors leading to an increase in the functionality of the hormone, or directly targeting the enzymes that synthesize the hormones to improve the hormonal production (Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008) [8] . Similarly, alkaloid acts by vasodilating the reproductive organ to enhance blood flow leading to improved coitus (Patel et al., 2011) [23] , just as witnessed in this study. So this extract according to Suresh-Kumar et al., (Suresh-Kumar et al., 2009) [28] could act by causing alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters and regulating the action of these neurotransmitters on their target cells or by boosting androgen levels. ...
... The mechanism of action of Saponin has been shown to enhance aphrodisiac through either a conformational change it adopts after binding to hormone receptors leading to an increase in the functionality of the hormone, or directly targeting the enzymes that synthesize the hormones to improve the hormonal production (Gauthaman and Adaikan, 2008) [8] . Similarly, alkaloid acts by vasodilating the reproductive organ to enhance blood flow leading to improved coitus (Patel et al., 2011) [23] , just as witnessed in this study. So this extract according to Suresh-Kumar et al., (Suresh-Kumar et al., 2009) [28] could act by causing alterations in the levels of neurotransmitters and regulating the action of these neurotransmitters on their target cells or by boosting androgen levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brassica juncea is consumed because of its perceived numerous medicinal potentials amongst which includes aphrodisiac. This work was designed to investigate the effect of Brassica juncea Ethanolic Seed Extract (BJESE) on the sexual behavior and reproductive organs of male wistar rats. Methodology: Adult wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n=6). Normal saline 1 mL, low and high doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of BJESE and sildenafil citrate (SC) (5mg/kg) were orally administered to groups I-IV respectively. Treatment lasted for 14days and sexual behavioral tests were conducted weekly. Thereafter, blood sample was collected through retro-orbital plexus for hormonal assay. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the hypothalamus, testes and epididymis were carefully dissected out for histological tissue processing. Results: BJESE administration significant decreased mount and intromission latencies and post ejaculatory interval (PEI) relative to the normal saline. Luteinizing hormone and testosterone were significant increase in both BJESE and sildenafil groups in comparison with the normal saline group. Follicle stimulating hormone was altered in the treatment groups as compared with the normal. There was slight distortion in testicular connective tissues whereas the seminiferous tubules were normal; containing germ cells in various stages of development and normal epididymal histological structures in all the groups. Conclusion: BJESE improved sexual behavior of male wistar rats particularly in high dosage (400mg/kg).
... medicinal tree species used in the treatment of diarrhoea or male sexual weakness(Abbiw, 1990;Birdi et al., 2010; Hoffman et al., 2004;Patel et al., 2011;Ralebona et al., 2012;Tajuddin et al., 2003 andTeke et al., 2010). The plants were selected based on their recorded usage for the treatment of the said diseases and were subsequently collected from three different conservation sites: Ankasa Nature Reserve, Bia Conservation Area and Kakum Conservation Area, all in southern Ghana. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to high poverty levels coupled with high patients to doctor ratio in Ghana, most people especially the urban poor and rural dwellers resort to herbal medicines which are quite cheap for their primary healthcare. Developing measures to maximize the medicinal potentials of indigenous plants will reduce the number of lives lost through diseases. A major setback is that most herbal products sold in public places lack scientific evidence for safety, quality and efficacy. As the safety of herbal medicine depends on the ability to correctly identify the plants used in their preparation, this study sought to use DNA barcoding as an identification tool in the authentication of herbal medicines. Silica dried leaves samples from thirty seven different medicinal tree species covering 24 families, used in the treatment of diarrhoea and male sexual weakness from three different conservation areas: Ankasa, Bia and Kakum, were sequenced at the rbcL gene region. A success sequence rate of 94.59% was achieved for the rbcL gene region. To verify the authenticity of the reference DNA database produced from the thirty five medicinal tree sequences in the proper identification of medicinal plants species, silica-dried samples of eleven tree species from farmlands within the Akuapem North district of the Eastern region (specifically around Aburi and its environs) were sequenced in the rbcL gene region. All the eleven tree species had their counterparts successfully sequenced in the reference DNA database. A sequence success rate of 90.91% was achieved, and each of the sequences in the verification data perfectly matched their counterparts in the reference database implying that DNA barcoding can be used in the identification of all medicinal plants species to ensure the safety of herbal medicines in Ghana. The study also sought to find out: (i) the medicinal tree species used in the treatment of diarrhoea, male sexual weakness (ii) how herbalists identify the plants species they use, (iii) their availability, distribution and abundance, (iv) the quantity of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea and male sexual weakness per month, (v) the parts and sources of the plants species used and (vi) the awareness of forest conservation in southern Ghana. Structured questionnaire and interview guides were used to seek information from a purposive group including herbalists, commercial medicinal plants collectors and sellers in two different markets; Kasoa and Nyanyano, and the communities around the three selected conservation areas; Ankasa, Bia and Kakum. The traditional method of identification was the only available method used for identification of medicinal plant species by both practicing herbalists and commercial plant collectors. Seventy three plants species were mentioned to be used for the treatment of diarrhoea and male sexual weakness or both. Roots were the commonly used part of the plants in herbal medicine preparation. The parts of plants used, and the rate of collection of some medicinal plants were found to affect the survival of some plants species. There was a hundred percent level of awareness of forest conservations in southern Ghana. DNA barcoding is the best identification tool for medicinal plants species which when accepted for use will completely eliminate misidentification and help in the proper documentation of medicinal plants species. This will inform on the proper conservation and management options for the protection of threatened species as well as the controlled harvesting and trade in vulnerable and important medicinal plants.
... Reproductive disorders are steadily increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging [1,2] . Male sexual behavior comprises a complex pattern of genital and somatomotor responses, elicited, directed, and maintained by external and internal signals [3] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Alchornea cordifolia, a shrub found in tropical Africa, is used to treat several physiological disorders, including male infertility and impotency. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves on the sexual behavior of senescent and sexually inexperienced rats. In order to evaluate aphrodisiac properties and reproductive performance, rats were divided into groups: group I receiving distilled water, group II receiving testosterone, group III receiving sildenafil citrate, group IV and V receiving the methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves at 200 mg / kg and 400 mg / kg, respectively. The treatment was done by gavage for groups I, III, IV and V and subcutaneous injection of testosterone every three days for group II for 14 days. On days 1, 7 and 14, the rats were mated to the receptive females. At the end of this last treatment, the rats were mated with gonad-intact females. 14 days after of treatment, the extract leads to an increase in libido and sexual performance parameters (mounts, intromissions and ejaculations frequency) and an increase in sexual desire (decrease of mount and intromission latency). The extract also prolonged the duration of coitus by increasing the ejaculation latency and the average interval of copulation. An increase in the percentage of female’s rats impregnated as well as the numbers of implantations were recorded in females’ rats mated with the males treated with our extract. These results reveal the potential of the methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves to improve male reproductive performance justifying its use in traditional medicine
... The withdrawal effect of sildenafil is a decrease in systemic systolic and diastolic arterial pressure and cardiac output, so it is contraindicated for patients using nitrate or nitric oxide donors. Sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease who use sildenafil raises concerns about its safety (Ganie et al., 2019;Patel et al., 2011, Patel et al., 2012. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pepper plants belong to the Piperaceae family with many pharmacological activities. The fruits of these plants have been widely used traditionally for various therapies, one of which is an aphrodisiac. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the aphrodisiac activity of the fruits of three pepper plants, Piper nigrum, Piper retrofractum, and Piper cubeba to prove their traditional use. Methods: The level of piperin, the active compound of plants from the family Piperaceae, was also determined in the ethanolic extract of those three fruits of the pepper plant. The aphrodisiac activity was determined by counting the number of introducing and mounting mice. The acute toxicity test of the extract was carried out according to the OECD-423 guidelines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits had the highest piperin concentration, while the ethanolic extract of Piper retrofractum fruits had the highest aphrodisiac activity, according to the findings. During the entire duration of the acute toxicity study, no signs of toxicity or mortality were discovered.Conclusion: This study proves that all fruits of three species of pepper plants exhibit aphrodisiac activity. Furthermore, this study also shows that not only piperin is responsible for the aphrodisiac effect.
... Patel and others (2005) listed over 456 Indian plants and fungi with claimed aphrodisiac effects. Some of the species reported in recent literature include Asteracanta longifolia, Polygonatum verticillatum, Abelmoschus manihot, [13][14][15][16] Anacyclus pyrethrum and Argyreia nervosa. ...
Article
Background : Ocimum fimbriatum is used traditionally in Zambia for its aphrodisiac effect, but there is no scientific evidence to support this use. Therefore this study aimed to validate the aphrodisiac effects of the plant's root extract in rats. Study Design : This was an experimental study in which sixty Wisteria rats (30 males and 30 females) were separated into 5 groups of 12 rats and treated with different doses of the extract. ...
... Patel and others (2005) listed over 456 Indian plants and fungi with claimed aphrodisiac effects. Some of the species reported in recent literature include Asteracanta longifolia, Polygonatum verticillatum, Abelmoschus manihot, [13][14][15][16] Anacyclus pyrethrum and Argyreia nervosa. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ocimum fimbriatum Briq. var. fimbriatum is used traditionally in Zambia for its aphrodisiac effect, but there is no scientific evidence to support this use. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the aphrodisiac effects of the plant's root extract in rats.
Article
Studies on flavonoids from plant sources has gained a momentum due to their versatile health benefits. The main sources of flavonoids in humans are fruits, vegetables, red wine and tea. They are small molecular weight secondary metabolites produced in different parts of the plant such as seeds, bark, root, fruits and flowers. Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) a naturally occurring flavonoid is present in roots of Alpinia officinarum, honey and propolis. Its extraction and detection has been reported using various methods such as chromatography, spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods associated with other sophisticated techniques. Galangin showed various pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, radical scavenging, anticancer activity and hypolipidimic activity. The present review discusses the pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and bioanalytical aspects of galangin, which can be beneficial for researchers working in the field of galangin
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brassica juncea is one of the herbal substances consumed because of the belief that it possesses aphrodisiac potentials. Hence, this work was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous Brassica juncea seed extract (ABJSE) on the sexual behavior and selected reproductive organs of male Wistar rats. Methods: Adult Wistar rats (220 ± 20 g) of 10 weeks old were randomly divided into four groups; I - IV (n=6). Normal saline, ABJSE (200 and 400 mg/kg) and sildenafil citrate, SC; (5 mg/kg) body weight was administered per os, daily for 14 days. Sexual behavioral tests were performed with estrus female rats weekly. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The blood sample was collected for sexual hormonal assay, while the hypothalamus, testes, and epididymis were also harvested for histological tissue processing. Results: ABJSE improved sexual performance by significantly reducing mount and intromission latencies; post-ejaculatory interval, while increasing Ejaculatory and intromission frequencies compared to the control group. The mounting frequency did not record any significant change compared with the control. Testosterone was significantly increased in ABJSE groups. Histologically, the reproductive tissues of the treatment groups were packed with seminiferous tubules and spermatozoa although slight distortion in the connective tissues was also noticed. While the hypothalamus showed a slight increase in neurosecretory activities in the treatment groups. Conclusion: The ABJSE has aphrodisiac potential but it should be taken at a low dose because it has deleterious tendencies. Keywords: Brassica juncea, sexual behavior, aphrodisiac, sexual dysfunction, post ejaculator interval, intromission frequency
Article
Full-text available
The sub-chronic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffia (HS) calyx aqueous extract on the rat testes was investigated with a view to evaluate the pharmacological basis for the use of HS calyx extract as an aphrodisiac. Three test groups received different doses of 1.15, 2.30, and 4.60 g/kg based on the LD50. The extracts were dissolved in the drinking water. The control group was given equivalent volume of water only. The animals were allowed free access to drinking solution during the 12-week period of exposure. At the expiration of the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, testes excised and weighed, and epididymal sperm number recorded. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results did not show any significant (P > 0.05) change in the absolute and relative testicular weights. There was, however, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the epididymal sperm counts in the 4.6 g/kg group, compared to the control. The 1.15 g/kg dose group showed distortion of tubules and a disruption of normal epithelial organization, while the 2.3 g/kg dose showed hyperplasia of testis with thickening of the basement membrane. The 4.6 g/kg dose group, on the other hand, showed disintegration of sperm cells. The results indicate that aqueous HS calyx extract induces testicular toxicity in rats.
Article
Aim: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally treated with 1500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. Results: The 1500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. Conclusion: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.
Article
E. longifolia root extractives (0.5 g/kg/day, p.o.) were investigated for aphrodisiac effects on sexually sluggish old adult male rats observed for copulatory behaviour for 12 consecutive wedge. Results showed that repeated dosing of E. longifolia root extractives exerted pronounced stimulation of copulatory behaviour in non-copulator male rats with high level of maintenance of both intromissions and ejaculations.
Article
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC (Compositae), commonly referred to as ‘Akarkara’, is widely recognized in Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine as tonic and rejuvenator. The roots are also considered aphrodisiac and sexual stimulant. Aqueous extract of the roots was studied for its effect on sexual behavior, spermatogenesis, and sperm count. Fructose levels in seminal vesicles of albino rats were also recorded. Two doses i.e. 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract on administration in albino rats showed pronounced anabolic and spermatogenic effect in animals of respective groups. The sperm count and fructose levels in seminal vesicle were markedly increased. Improvement in sexual behavior of male rats was characterized by increased mount and intromission frequency and reduced mount and intromission latency. The extract had a dose dependent influence on sperm count and seminal fructose concentration which increased significantly.
Article
Objective: To study the effect of V.tessellata on the sexual behaviour of male mice and general toxicity, if any, in mice. Methods: An aqueous suspension (2 g/kg, wet wt.) or extract (water or alcohol, 200 mg/kg) of root, flower or leaf of V. tessellata was administered (p.o.) to male mice and 1 hr, after administration their mounting behaviour was observed. The most active extract (alcohol extract of flower) was administered (50 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to different groups of male mice and their mounting behaviour, mating performance and reproductive performance were determined. The general short term toxicity of the alcohol extract in male mice was also determined. Results: The flower and, to some extent, the root, but not the leaf of V. tessellata was found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice. This activity was found in the alcohol extract of the flower. This extract (50 or 200 mg/kg) also increased mating performance in the mice. The pups fathered by the extract treated mice were found to be normal with an increasing trend in the male/female ratio of these pups. The alcohol extract was devoid of any conspicuous general toxicity. Conclusion: The alcohol extract of V.tessellata flower stimulates the sexual behaviour of male mice.