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Stinging nettles leaf (Urtica dioica L.): Extraordinary vegetable medicine

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Abstract

The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are dependent upon the standards by which they are made and our knowledge base when prescribing them. Stinging nettles is a staple among Western herbalists and is widely used as a vegetable green, juice, tea, and freeze dried products, predominantly as a blood nourishing tonic and for seasonal rhinitis. The following botanical profile is excerpted from the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (R) and Therapeutic Compendium. (c) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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... In folk medicine, UD seeds used for treatment of cancer (Kaya et al., 2013 andAktas et al., 2016), urinary tract disorder as well as an antiinflammatory agent (Di Lorenzo et al., 2013). The UD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and watersoluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and, calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). Moreover, UD has salicylic acid, lecithin, sterols, thymol, chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidants (Dügenci et al., 2003;Upton, 2013 andJalili et al., 2014) that promote detoxification, antiinflammatory and antioxidant capacity (Kataki et al., 2012b). ...
... The UD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and watersoluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and, calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). Moreover, UD has salicylic acid, lecithin, sterols, thymol, chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidants (Dügenci et al., 2003;Upton, 2013 andJalili et al., 2014) that promote detoxification, antiinflammatory and antioxidant capacity (Kataki et al., 2012b). ...
... The antioxidant effect of AEDPP returns to its high concentration of vitamins C, B1, B2, nicotinic acid (Niacin) and vitamin A (Hassan, 2011). Moreover, the AEUD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and water-soluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). On the other hand, several factors can be considered to understand the action and the capacity of antioxidants: the capacity for scavenging free radicals, the localization of antioxidant, but also the interaction with other antioxidants and the mobility of antioxidant at the microenvironment (Niki, 2010). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the influence of adding aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica (AEUD) and date palm pollen powder (AEDPP) to Tris extender on some post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5ºC, 48 hrs., 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years old were used in the current study during the period from 20 th November, 2017 to 20 th August, 2018. Pooled semen was equally divided into three groups within one experiment. AEUD (0.01 g / 50 ml extender) and AEDPP (0.02 g / 50 ml extender) were added to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, C). The AEUD and AEDPP groups exhibited greater (P<0.01) sperm's cell individual motility percentage as compared with the C group at cooling as well as 1, 2 and 3 months PC periods. Concomitantly, greater (P<0.01) live sperm percentage was observed in AEUD and AEDPP groups in comparison with the C group at all preservation periods. Lesser (Pd<0.01) abnormal sperm percentage were noticed for AEUD and AEDPP groups as compared with the C group at 48 hr., 1, 2 and, 3 months PC. Greater (P<0.01) acrosome integrity percentage was observed for AEUD as compared with the other two groups at 1, 2 and, 3 months PC. The AEUD and AEDPP groups exhibited greater (P<0.01) plasma membrane integrity percentage in comparison with the control group at all preservation periods. In conclusion, adding AEUD and AEDPP to Tris extender had a crucial role in improving some PC semen characteristics of Holstein bulls.
... In this context, researchers have studied the Urtica dioica [3,4], an evergreen edible plant commonly used since ancient times in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. ...
... U. dioica is the most common species of the Urticaceae family commonly known as Stinging nettle and one of the most studied medicinal plants worldwide. It is an herbaceous perennial plant and has a long history of usage for various kinds of health problems [3,4]. The plant grows in tropical and temperate wasteland areas around the world, and well tolerates all environments. ...
... Thus, the consumption of U. dioica was in line with an amelioration of phenolic compounds food intake and thus, the exploitation of these anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds defined the plant as a valuable tool towards mutagenesis and carcinogenesis [36]. Among lipid secondary metabolites, carotenoids were detected in the leaves and their total content was estimated equal to 29.6 mg/100 g dry weight [4,23]. ...
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A large range of chronic and degenerative diseases can be prevented through the use of food products and food bioactives. This study reports the health benefits and biological activities of the Urtica dioica (U. dioica) edible plant, with particular focus on its cancer chemopreventive potential. Numerous studies have attempted to investigate the most efficient anti-cancer therapy with few side effects and high toxicity on cancer cells to overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells and the adverse effects of current therapies. In this regard, natural products from edible plants have been assessed as sources of anti-cancer agents. In this article, we review current knowledge from studies that have examined the cytotoxic, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of U. dioica plant on several human cancers. Special attention has been dedicated to the treatment of breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer among women and one of the main causes of death worldwide. The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of U. dioica have been demonstrated on different human cancers, investigating the properties of U. dioica at cellular and molecular levels. The potent cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activity of the U. dioica extracts are due to its bioactive natural products content, including polyphenols which reportedly possess anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-proliferative properties. The efficacy of this edible plant to prevent or mitigate human cancers has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions as well as in experimental animal models, paving the way to the development of nutraceuticals for new anti-cancer therapies.
... Nettle leaves are rich in chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, and trace elements [2][3][4][5][6][7]. The main carotenoids established in plant leaves are β-carotene, violaxanthin, xanthophylls, zeaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and lutein epoxide [8]. This nettle has a rich vitamin composition. ...
... As a result of its rich chemical composition, the multidirectional therapeutic activity of this valuable plant has been known for years. Based on the literature, U. dioica Plants 2021, 10, 686 2 of 12 and its phytocomponents extracted from different parts of the plant are reported to be used for various pharmacological activities, which include hypoglycaemic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antimicrobial, anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, diuretic, hypotensive, and analgesic activities [4,5,7,8,[13][14][15][16]. ...
... Stinging nettle grows well in nitrogen-rich soil, and blooms between June and September of every year [16]. Research [8] has stated that for medicinal purposes, the leaves should be picked before flowering. Picking of the plant leaves regrown after the second and third cutting can last until the first autumn frosts. ...
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This research aimed to determine the effect of different harvesting times on the chemical composition of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.). The leaves of nettle were harvested at the same place once a month in the period of April–September 2019. The analysis focused on the contents of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ash content, and macro- and microelements. The nettles harvested in April were characterized by the highest levels of soluble solids and some macro-and microelements (P, K, Fe, Zn). The plants harvested in May were distinguished for titratable acidity, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid contents. In this month, the plants were determined to have the highest antioxidant activity during the entire vegetation period. The plants collected in July contained the highest amount of Mn, but the antioxidant activity of these plants was the lowest during the vegetation period. In August, the plants had the highest levels of ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, and ash, while the plants collected in September were characterized by having the highest amounts of Ca, Mg, and B as compared to those established in other months of vegetation.
... Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a perennial wild plant of the Urticaceae family, genus Urtica, which is widespread in Europe, Asia, America and part of Africa, and has been adapted to different climatic conditions [1,2]. Nettle has long been used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to its nutritional and health potential, as all parts of nettle (leaves, stalks and roots) show a rich composition of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity [2,3] Previous studies have shown that nettle leaves and stalks are a rich source of vitamins A, B and C, minerals (iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium), polyphenols such as phenolic acids and flavonoids as well as pigments, especially chlorophyll and carotenoids [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. In accordance with the above, aerial parts of nettle have anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects; these nettle parts are used in the treatment of arthritis, anemia, allergies, joint pain and urinary tract infections, have a diuretic effect and are used to strengthen hair [3,12]. ...
... Nettle has long been used in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to its nutritional and health potential, as all parts of nettle (leaves, stalks and roots) show a rich composition of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity [2,3] Previous studies have shown that nettle leaves and stalks are a rich source of vitamins A, B and C, minerals (iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium), polyphenols such as phenolic acids and flavonoids as well as pigments, especially chlorophyll and carotenoids [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. In accordance with the above, aerial parts of nettle have anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects; these nettle parts are used in the treatment of arthritis, anemia, allergies, joint pain and urinary tract infections, have a diuretic effect and are used to strengthen hair [3,12]. Besides aerial parts, nettle root also presents a rich source of various compounds such as protein lectin, sterols, polysaccharides, lignans and phenols [5,7,13,14] and is mostly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia [15]. ...
... Besides aerial parts, nettle root also presents a rich source of various compounds such as protein lectin, sterols, polysaccharides, lignans and phenols [5,7,13,14] and is mostly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia [15]. Apart from medicinal use, other applications of nettle include food preparation, where it is consumed in the form of tea, soup, stew or salad [3], or for commercial extraction of chlorophyll, which is used as a green coloring agent (E140) [16]. ...
Article
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This study evaluated the presence of bioactives in wild nettle leaves and stalks during the phenological stage and in the context of natural habitat diversity. Thus, wild nettle samples collected before flowering, during flowering and after flowering from 14 habitats situated in three different regions (continental, mountain and seaside) were analyzed for low molecular weight polyphenols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC analysis, while the ORAC method was performed for the antioxidant capacity measurement. Statistical analysis showed that, when compared to the stalks, nettle leaves contained significantly higher amounts of analyzed compounds which accumulated in the highest yields before flowering (polyphenols) and at the flowering stage (pigments). Moreover, nettle habitat variations greatly influenced the amounts of analyzed bioactives, where samples from the continental area contained higher levels of polyphenols, while seaside region samples were more abundant with pigments. The levels of ORAC followed the same pattern, being higher in leaves samples collected before and during flowering from the continental habitats. Hence, in order to provide the product’s maximum value for consumers’ benefit, a multidisciplinary approach is important for the selection of a plant part as well as its phenological stage with the highest accumulation of bioactive compounds.
... The plant require less care and is drought tolerant but it is regarded as a weed in agricultural production systems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Khatiwada et al., 2011). Upton (2013) stated that 'let food be your medicine', which add value to the potential of incorporating traditional knowledge of stinging nettle. ...
... Seasonality, the fear of the stinging hairs, lack of commercial availability and the stigma related to stinging nettles being associate with famine/poor man's food are some of the reasons for its limited utilization as a source of food. The irritating contents of the stinging hairs are dissipated upon drying (Upton, 2013), blanching and cooking of the leaves (Rutto et al., 2013). As a vegetable, stinging nettle leaves are utilized in the preparation of many dishes such as salads, pies, soups, herbal tea or decocted tea in and combination with noodles, omelets or scrambled eggs (Bisht et al., 2012;Guarrera and Savo, 2013;Guil-Guerrero et al., 2003;Orčić et al., 2014;Sansanelli et al., 2014). ...
... The trichomes contain chemicals such as histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and acetylcholine and when touched by humans and other animals it produces a stinging sensation (Bisht et al., 2012;Mithril and Dragsted, 2012). The root, however, lacks stingers (Upton, 2013). Therefore, hand gloves and leg protection should be used to avoid the stings when harvesting the leaves (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). ...
Thesis
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Stinging nettle/common nettle (U. dioica L.) is known since ancient times as a wild source of food and a herbal medicine, but the plant remains underutilized. Drying of stinging nettle leaves not only allow their use when the plants are not physiologically active but also extend their consumption period and utilization at times of food shortage and for addressing micronutrient malnutrition. However, drying could result in decomposition of heat sensitive metabolites such as fatty acids, amino acids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and insoluble phenolic compounds present in the fresh stinging nettle leaves. These changes might lead to production of volatile compounds, non-volatile compounds, soluble phenolic compounds etc. The systematic description of the aroma, flavour and colour of cooked stinging nettle leaves and leaf infusions, prepared from fresh or dried leaves has not been published. With this study, the effects of using fresh or oven-dried leaves to cook a relish or to prepare an infusion on sensory and nutritional properties were measured. In addition, the effect of two infusion cycles on the sensory properties of leaf infusions was determined. Although the colour changed during heat processing, most of the characteristic green-related aroma and flavour notes of fresh nettle leaves were preserved in cooked leaves and leaf infusions prepared from dried leaves. When cooking the leaves, the use of dried leaves resulted in an increase in fermented aroma, earthy, burnt flavour, bitter and also salty taste compared to fresh leaves. In leaf infusions, a decrease of grassy, earthy and mint aromas as well as seafood and green-herblike aroma and flavour notes were observed. The first two brewed infusions from fresh or dried leaves provided similar aroma and flavour intensities. Further, the ∆E (total colour difference) value, showed variation in colour of fresh leaves compared to oven dried leaves. The ∆E value also showed variation in colour between the two infusion cycles as well as in uncooked and cooked leaves. The change in aroma, flavour and colour of leaf infusions and cooked leaves when oven dried leaves were used compared to fresh leaves, prompted an investigation into the effect of drying methods (i.e. freeze-drying and oven drying) on nutritional properties of stinging nettle leaf food products and food ingredient components. Oven drying of stinging nettle leaves resulted in a higher loss of β-carotene and ascorbic acid content compared to freeze drying. A typical serving portion of either fresh, freeze dried or oven dried nettle leaves could provide more than 20 % of the daily value of vitamin A (e.g. 870 µg per day); therefore, nettle leaves in all these forms are rich sources of vitamin A. In contrast, freeze dried and oven dried nettle leaves were found to be a good source of vitamin C while fresh leaves can be considered as a rich source of vitamin C. In general, dried stinging nettle leaves can be considered as a rich source of Ca, Mg and vitamin A; a good source of vitamin C, Fe, and Mn; and a source of Mg and K. In contrast to a decrease in β-carotene and ascorbic acid content, an increase in total phenol content and antioxidant activity were observed in oven dried leaves compared to fresh stinging nettle leaves. Dried stinging nettle leaves or leaf powder are used to make infusions and decoctions for human medicinal and nutritional purposes due to the antioxidant properties of its constituent vitamins A and C, and phenolic compounds. This led to further investigation into the effect of the type of extraction (i.e. infusion and decoction) on the ascorbic acid, β-carotene, total phenol content, antioxidant activity of stinging nettle leaf powder manufactured using freeze drying or oven drying. β-carotene and ascorbic acid was found to be higher in infusions compared to decoctions. The total phenol content and antioxidant activity of decoction samples were significantly higher compared to infusions (p < 0.01). This study provides evidence that stinging nettle leaf food products could potentially contributes to dietary intakes of minerals (i.e. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg and K), protein, vitamins (i.e. A and C) and antioxidants and can potentially be incorporated in the diet for overcoming micronutrient malnutrition. Further consumer research is needed to determine which sensory characteristics of the products from stinging nettles drive liking or disliking by target consumers. All in all, this study contributes to the understanding of the potential of stinging nettle for addressing food and nutrition security.
... The nettle (Urtica dioïca L.), an Urticaceae, is a ubiquitous perennial plant native to Eurasia and Mediterranean sea which growing in moderate climate and wet rich soil. This species has been named extraordinary plant for its several popular uses in folk medicine against gout disease, hair loss, mild bleeding, stomach ache, rheumatic pain, colds, cough and liver insufficiency (Tahri et al. 2000;Upton 2013;Di Virgilio et al. 2015;Mansoori et al. 2017;Vajic et al. 2018). Due to its higher chlorophyll content, nettle leaves are used as green coloring agent in food industries (Upton 2013;Shonte and de Kock 2017). ...
... This species has been named extraordinary plant for its several popular uses in folk medicine against gout disease, hair loss, mild bleeding, stomach ache, rheumatic pain, colds, cough and liver insufficiency (Tahri et al. 2000;Upton 2013;Di Virgilio et al. 2015;Mansoori et al. 2017;Vajic et al. 2018). Due to its higher chlorophyll content, nettle leaves are used as green coloring agent in food industries (Upton 2013;Shonte and de Kock 2017). In addition, Urtica dioïca plant is known for the quality of tensile fibers (Bodros and Baley 2008) and fiberboards production (Akgül 2013). ...
... In addition, Urtica dioïca plant is known for the quality of tensile fibers (Bodros and Baley 2008) and fiberboards production (Akgül 2013). In ethnopharmacology, several studies have proved cardiovascular, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-diabetic, blood pressure, oxidative stress and anti-hypertensive effects of Urtica dioïca extracts (Malik et al. 2011;Upton 2013;Carvalho et al. 2017;Mansoori et al. 2017;Vajic et al. 2018). ...
Article
This study highlights, for the first time, the effect of Algerian nettle (Urtica dioïca L.) water extract against some phytopathogens bacteria. Results showed that water extract exhibited high level of total phenol content (261.7 ± 5.1 mg g−1 GAE) and a remarkable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 20.0 ± 0.6 µg mL−1) comparable to Trolox as reference (IC50 = 16.5 ± 0.5 µg mL−1). Moreover, results showed that water extract presented an interesting inhibition of some Gram-positive and Gram-negative phytopathogens’ bacteria. These results highlighted that secondary metabolites from Urtica dioïca could be an alternative pathway to synthetic pesticides for plant diseases control.
... In addition to directly binding to sex hormone-binding globulin, Urtica dioica contains elements of histamine and serotonin. Histamine has been identified in the hairs and leaves of Urtica dioica [8,9]. Histamine is known to promote the release of prolactin, leading to further potential galactorrhea [10]. ...
... Histamine is known to promote the release of prolactin, leading to further potential galactorrhea [10]. Urtica dioica has also been found to contain serotonin [9,11]. Several prior case reports have documented slightly elevated prolactin levels in patients taking serotoninergic agents, including fluoxetine, escitalopram, and venlafaxine [12][13][14]. ...
... Inhibition of SHBG may result in increased levels of unbound estrogen which produce hormonal actions, including galactorrhea [2] Histamine mediated Histamine contained in the hairs of leaves of Urtica dioica may stimulate prolactin release [8][9][10] Serotonin mediated Serotonin has been isolated in Urtica dioica. Serotoninergic inhibition of dopamine may stimulate prolactin release. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND The increasing popularity and availability of herbal supplements among patients necessitates a better understanding of their mechanism of action and the effects they have on the body, both intended and unintended. Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is an herbaceous shrub found throughout the world that has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. CASE REPORT A 30-year-old woman with obesity and GERD presented to a primary care clinic with new-onset galactorrhea. A urine pregnancy test was negative. Prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and a metabolic panel were all within normal limits. A mammogram demonstrated scattered areas of fibroglandular density and benign-appearing calcifications in the left breast. The breast ultrasound showed no suspicious findings. Her medications included intermittent Echinacea, etonogestrel implant 68 mg subdermal, and the supplement stinging nettle 500 mg, which she had been taking over the past month for environmental allergies. After consultation with a clinical pharmacist, the stinging nettle was discontinued. No additional changes to her medications or supplements were made. One week after discontinuation, she returned to the clinic with complete resolution of the galactorrhea. CONCLUSIONS Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a common supplement and has effects on (1) sex hormone-binding globulin, (2) histamine-induced prolactin release, and (3) serotonin-induced release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The local estrogen bioactivity in breast tissue may subsequently lead to gynecomastia and/or galactorrhea. Supplements are an often overlooked but a critical component of medication reconciliation and potential clinical adverse effects.
... Throughout the history, this plant found its place as a both food and medicine. Its leaves have been used for treatment of flailing arthritis or paralytic limbs, and for stimulation of circulation and warming the joints and extremities (urtication) (Upton, 2013). Several studies reported different types of activity of this plant's extracts, such as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and analgesic properties (Gülçin et al., 2004;Upton, 2013;, as well as for treatment of various conditions and diseases, such as anemia, gout, eczema, urinary, bladder, and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Orčić et al., 2014). ...
... Its leaves have been used for treatment of flailing arthritis or paralytic limbs, and for stimulation of circulation and warming the joints and extremities (urtication) (Upton, 2013). Several studies reported different types of activity of this plant's extracts, such as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and analgesic properties (Gülçin et al., 2004;Upton, 2013;, as well as for treatment of various conditions and diseases, such as anemia, gout, eczema, urinary, bladder, and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Orčić et al., 2014). Moreover, this plant is also well-known as a dietary source of nutrients. ...
... It was previously reported that water extracts showed higher reducing capability than α-tocopherol and better inhibitor for superoxide generation than BHT. The metal chelating capability was reported to be higher than both BHT and α-tocopherol (Upton, 2013). These results are similar with the ones reported in this study. ...
Article
Stinging nettle is annual plant from Urticaceae family used as food and medicine. Due to the nonsufficient data, this work aimed to isolate the bioactive compounds from the stinging nettle leaves by supercritical carbon dioxide. Extracts were analyzed and assessed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Main fatty acids were α-linolenic (31.06-58.42 mg/g E), palmitic (9.17-13.12 mg/g E), and linoleic (10.93-16.51 mg/g E) acids. Chlorophylls (33.00-7365.11 mg/100 g E) and carotenoids (166.88-722.62 mg/100 g E) were also found in all samples. Four empirical kinetic equations were effectively utilized for kinetic modeling of supercritical fluid extraction. As per proper statistical features, empirical models show good concurrence with experimental data. The numerical modeling of a process is gainful to foresee the process conduct and furthermore extend the methodology from laboratory to industrial scales. The principal component analysis was used to visualize the fatty acids profile, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxic activity of extract.
... In the freeze-dried form; roots, instead, help tackling benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, such as difficulty in urination. For both plant parts different studies have enlightened some mechanisms of action, providing support to the traditional uses (Upton 2013;De Vico et al. 2018). Besides ''urticae radix'', Commission E also reports a monograph for ''urtica herba'' and ''urtica folium'' given by herbs and leaves of U. dioica and Urtica urens and/or their hybrids, gathered while in bloom: can be used ''as supportive therapy for rheumatic ailments'' and ''as irrigation therapy for inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and treatment of kidney gravel'' (Blumenthal et al. 1998). ...
... Table 2 summarizes the biological activity of U. dioica extracts responsible for its medical and health properties. Infusions of this plant have been used since ancient Egyptian times for the relief of arthritis, rheumatism and lumbago (Harrison 1961;Upton 2013). Over the past few years, the biological activity of this plant has been widely studied to elucidate its use for pharmacological purposes. ...
Article
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Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), commonly known as stinging nettle, is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the group of phytoalimurgic vegetables, including the wild edible species that were all used in the past when there was a shortage of food. The plant is well known from everybody for the dermatitis it causes when touched, due to biochemical mediators such as histamine and acetylcholine. Recently there was a rediscovery of the plant as food and medicine because of the range of biological activities exhibited such as antirheumatic, anti-infective, immuno-modulatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, and allergy relief. This review, providing a botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological overview of the species, aims to contribute to arouse interest in the scientific community on this promising plant.
... Drying of stinging nettle leaves not only grants their use when the plants are not physiologically active but also extends their consumption period. Additionally, the irritating contents of the stinging hairs are dissipated upon drying (Upton, 2013). ...
... The drying method chosen can have a major impact on nutrient degradation and retention (Shilton, 2003). Ambient air-drying (such as well-ventilated air drying and sun drying) was mentioned as a common method of drying stinging nettle leaves (Maanda and Bhat, 2010;Upton, 2013). However, the slow drying process involved in ambient air-drying methods may lead to a loss of quality of the leaves (e.g. ...
Article
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Stinging nettles provide low-cost quality nutrition for alleviating malnutrition. Previous research on stinging nettles focused mainly on the nutritional quality of fresh leaves. In this study, the effect of drying method on macronutrients, mineral content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene content and total phenols content and antioxidant activity were investigated. The contribution of fresh, oven dried or freeze dried stinging nettle leaves to the required daily value for the nutrients were also determined. Oven drying of nettle leaves resulted in a higher loss of β-carotene and ascorbic acid content compared to freeze drying. In contrast, the total phenols content and total antioxidant activity were higher in oven dried stinging nettle leaves compared to freeze dried leaves. Overall, freeze dried and oven dried nettle leaves can be considered as a rich source of Ca, Mg and vitamin A; a good source of vitamin C, Fe, and Mn; and a source for Mg and K. Stinging nettle leaves could potentially be used as a cheap natural source of antioxidants and for addressing micronutrient malnutrition.
... The root contains lectins, polysaccharides, phytosterols, lignans, coumarines (scopoletin), and high amounts of fatty acids. The main constituents of nettle stems are flavonoids and anthocyanins, whereas their flowers contain high amounts of β-sitosterol and 7 flavonoid glycosides (Said et al., 2015;Upton, 2013;El Haouari, M and Rosado, JA, 2019). ...
... In fact, only Korani et al. (Korani et al., 2017a) reported itching in one patient of the treatment group. However, allergic skin reactions (Contact urticaria and burning pain) and mild gastrointestinal adverse events have been observed following intake of commercial stinging nettle extracts; where it is asserted that histamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, are responsible (Upton, 2013). With regards to drug interactions, no adverse interactions have been reported for nettle. ...
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health problem, worldwide, that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have investigated the effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) supplementation on markers of glycemic status in patients with T2DM, with conflicting results. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of nettle on some glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, from database inception up to June 2019, to identify RCTs investigating the effect of nettle supplementation on glycemic markers, including fasting blood sugar (FBS) concentrations, insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage in adults with T2DM. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results of this meta-analysis were reported based on the random effects model. Eight RCTs, comprising 401 participants , were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. Based on the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool, five studies were considered as good quality, one was fair, and two studies were poor, respectively. The results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in FBS concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD]: −18.01 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −30.04 to −5.97, p < .001, I 2 = 94.6%) following nettle supplementation. However, no significant reduction was observed in insulin levels (WMD: 0.83 Hedges' g, 95% CI: −0.26 to 1.92, p = .13, I 2 = 89.4%), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index (WMD: −0.22, 95% CI: −0.83 to 0.40, p = .49, I 2 = 69.2%), or glycosylated hemoglo-bin percentage (WMD: −0.77%, 95% CI: −1.77 to 0.22, p = .12, I 2 = 83.0%). The findings of the present study suggest that nettle supplementation may be effective in controlling FBS for T2DM patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm the veracity of these results. K E Y W O R D S glycemic markers, meta-analysis, nettle, systematic review, type 2 diabetes mellitus
... Martinez et al. (2006) showed that SNE has high inhibitory effects against microbial growth and can extend fresh pork sausage's functional characteristics. Plant leaves have not only high antioxidant and antimicrobial properties against a broad spectrum of bacteria's (Upton, 2013) but also is a good source of phenolic components, elements, tannins, flavonoids, and chlorophylls (Lorenzo & Munekata, 2016;Said et al., 2015). Aksu and Kaya (2004) reported that SNE significantly decreases the microbial count in Sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage). ...
... Moreover, the accumulation of alkaline substances may be another reason for increasing pH during refrigerated storage(Radha Krishnan et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2017).At the end of refrigerated storage, treated trout meats with 6% nettle extract (with 0.1% and 0.2% of ε-PL) significantly (p < .05) had the lowest pH while compared with other groups especially control samples, due to high antimicrobial activities of nettle extract(Upton, 2013) and ε-PL(Chang et al., 2014) (Figure 1). These results are paralleled withMingyuan et al. (2020) reports, which showed that rosemary extract and ε-PL incorporated in edible films significantly (p < .05) ...
Article
The effects of incorporation of stinging nettle extract (3% and 6%) and ɛ-polylysine (0.1% and 0.2%) on chemical, microbial properties and stability of rainbow trout fish fillets wrapped in polyethylene bags (in atmosphere condition) and refrigerated for 12 days at 4°C were evaluated. No remarkable differences regarding the chemical composition of rainbow trout fish (protein, moisture, fat, and ash content) resulting from the treatments were noted. The lowest TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and the highest phenolic compounds were noted in samples treated with 6% SNE + 0.2% ɛ-PL on day 12. While the highest inhibitory effects against the growth of TVC, psychrotrophic bacteria, coliform, yeast, and molds corresponded to samples treated with 6% SNE (T4 and T5) at day 12. During the storage, the samples' TVB-N (total volatile base nitrogen) increased, whereas the total phenolic content of the rainbow trout samples declined. The rainbow trout samples treated with 6% SNE + 0.2% ɛ-PL had the highest amount of redness and the lowest TVB-N values. Therefore, these natural ingredients could be used to maintain rainbow trout meat quality and shelf life.
... Nettle is also an important source of iron, vitamin A, C and D, carotenoids, essential amino, fatty acids (Guil-Guerrero, 2003, Rutto et al., 2013Said et al., 2015, Di Virgilio et al., 2015Baumgardner, 2016) proteins, minerals calcium, potassium, manganese, choline, amines, anti-oxidant chlorophyll and 5-hydroxytryptophan (Bisht et al., 2012 andUpton, 2013) and it improve oxidative stability in brined vegetables. Fiol et al., (2016) opines that it can also be used either as a steamed vegetable or a regular ingredient in many preparations such as in pastas and omelettes. ...
... Other beneficial effects of nettle have also been reported on inflammation, hypoglycemia, hypotension, antiasthmatic, astringent, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, hypoglycemic, stings, tonic, anemia, eczema, sciatica, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cardiovascular problems, arthritis, allergic rhinitis and during excessive menstruation (Koch, 2001;Safarinejad, 2006;Pinelli et al., 2008;Roschek et al., 2009;Bisht et al., 2012;Guarrera andSavo, 2013 andUpton, 2013). Furthermore, stinging nettle exhibits antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antiandrogenic, antihyperglycemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, anticancer activities, antiviral and antiulcer activity (Gülcin et al., 2004;Orˇci´c et al., 2014;Asgarpanah andMohajerani, 2012 Upton, 2013). ...
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n the last 15-20 years, the need to develop management strategies for non –wood forest resources have drastically increased. The aim of this study was to document the role of stinging nettle in the diet-base and medicinal world among the rural and urban population within Aberdare and Mt Kenya forest landscapes. Stratified random sampling designed was used, questionnaires were administered to communities living within the urban, slum and rural areas. DMRT test showed significant differences on extraction of the forest products (P<0.05), consumption of nettle products (P < 0.5), diseases cured (P < 0.05) and administration of nettle products (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation (Spearman, rs = 0.920, n = 6, P = 0.013) on the preference of products extracted from the forest and the uses of nettle products (Pearson, rs = 0.782, n=3, P = 0.02) across the three sites. The GINI coefficient of income showed that products from the forest played a key role in reducing the inequality in the study sites. The findings indicates that stinging nettles plays an important medicinal and food function to the local community and therefore strategies should be put in place to promote its usage and sustainably manage its exploitation within the forests. Keywords: Non-wood forest products, Urtica masaica, stinging nettle, Mt Kenya and Aberdare (PDF) The Medicinal And Diet Base Value Of Stinging Nettle (Urtica Masaica) To The Rural And Urban Livelihoods Within Aberdare And Mt Kenya Forest Landscapes. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337050010_The_Medicinal_And_Diet_Base_Value_Of_Stinging_Nettle_Urtica_Masaica_To_The_Rural_And_Urban_Livelihoods_Within_Aberdare_And_Mt_Kenya_Forest_Landscapes [accessed Dec 19 2019].
... The traditional uses of leaves and roots reported diuretic, blood purifier, nasal and menstrual haemorrhage, eczema, emmenagogue, rheumatism, nephritis, anaemia, diarrhoea, jaundice and epilepsy [1,8]. Herbs of U. dioica used to treat stomach ache in Turkish folk medicine [9] and also treat cold and cough [9,10]. Urtica dioica is widely known for biological activity and beneficial effect on human health. ...
... In India, this plant is used for the skin eruptions, nosebleeds, eczema and uterine haemorrhages [19]. In Turkish folk medicine, the plant of U. dioica is used to treat stomach ache [10]. The entire plant used for several purposes such as fodder, medicine, cosmetic, textile production, biodynamic agriculture and food [22,23]. ...
Article
Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) belonging to family Urticaceae, is obtained from word 'uro' to burn or 'urere' denotation to sting. It is found in the Himalayas region from Kashmir to Kumaon region (Uttarakhand.). The plant has been used in traditional system of medicines especially uses nasal and menstrual haemorrhage, eczema, rheumatism, nephritis, anaemia, diarrhoea, jaundice and epilepsy. The plant contains bioactive constituents like tannins, fatty acids, flavonoids, sterols, isolectins, proteins, and terpenes. Leaves of Urtica dioica also contain minerals such as (sodium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) and some vitamins like vitamin B, C and K. The plant has been reported to have antiviral, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiurolithiatic, hepatoprotective, antifungal and anti-helminthic effect. The updated review compiles the published data about the chemical constituents, pharmacognostic evaluation, ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities.
... For example, ethnobotanical records may list a traditional medicine as useful in the treatment of increased urine output, which may be a symptom of numerous diseases including DM, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or several urinary tract infections (UTIs). Indeed, in other parts of the world, U. dioica is indicated for inflammation and prostatic hyperplasia (Upton, 2013), as well as for diabetes (El Haouari and Rosado, 2019). Whether the usage of U. dioacia in traditional South African medicine is due to symptomatic relief, or if its use is targeted more specifically at DM is unclear. ...
... For example, many plants are recorded as being useful to decrease urinary output (a symptom of DM). However, increased urinary frequency and volume may also be a symptom of multiple other diseases including some urinary tract infections (UTIs) and prostatic hyperplasia (Upton, 2013). Thus, it may not be possible to discern whether a plant was used specifically to treat DM or one of these pathologies. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases globally and is of considerable concern to global health. Approximately 425 million people are estimated to have DM globally and this is predicted to increase to >642 million by 2040. Whilst the prevalence of DM in South Africa is slightly lower than the global average, it is expected to rise rapidly in future years as more South Africans adopt a high calorie “Westernised” diet. Traditional medicines offer an alternative for the development of new medicines to treat DM and the usage of South African plants is relatively well documented. Aim of the study: To critically review the literature on the anti-diabetic properties of South African plants and to document plant species used for the treatment of DM. Thereafter, a thorough examination of the related research will highlight where research is lacking in the field. Materials and methods A review of published ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies was undertaken to identify plants used to treat DM in traditional South African healing systems and to identify gaps in the published research. The study was non-biased, without taxonomic preference and included both native and introduced species. To be included, species must be recorded in the pharmacopeia of at least one South African ethnic group for the treatment of DM. Results One hundred and thirty-seven species are recorded as therapies for DM, with leaves and roots most commonly used. The activity of only 43 of these species have been verified by rigorous testing, although relatively few studies have examined the mechanism of action. Conclusion Despite relatively extensive ethnobotanical records and a diverse flora, the anti-diabetic properties of South African medicinal plants is relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of most plants used traditionally to treat DM are yet to be verified and few mechanistic studies are available. Further research is required in this field.
... Roots of this plant are used against benign prostate hyperplasia. It is also utilized against rheumatic conditions and urinary tract disorders and allergies 144 . The distribution of phytochemicals from the aerial parts ethanol extracts of U. diocia from Islamabad Pakistan authenticated the presence of important flavonoids like orientin and luteolin 82 . ...
... Ziziphus jujube belongs to the family Rhamnaceae. It contains simple carbohydrates (9%), protein (2%) and polysaccharides (2%) 144 . Investigations of Rasool et al., 149 , Shad et al., 60 and Rahman et al., 49 validated antioxidant activity of species of Z. jujube from Pakistan. ...
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Background: There exist natural antioxidants in plants that scavenge harmful free radicals from the body. Free radicals are species of chemical origin with an unpaired electron and play a pivotal role in combating against health-related problems like lung damage, inflammation, and cardiovascular ailments etc. Antioxidants halt the development of these free radicals called the reactive oxygen species either by chelating the trace elements or by enzymes inhibition. Objectives: The aim of present review was to collect information about Pakistani medicinally important plants with the exploration of their antioxidant potential. Methodology: Total 206 papers were looked over, which were obtained from numerous sources like; Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Research Gate, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. Results: Overall, 93 plants representing 44 families with potential antioxidant activity reported from Pakistan have been presented in this review. Maximum number of species from Asteracea, Poaceae and Rutaceae familes were scrutinized for their potential antioxidant activity from Pakistan. Conclusion: The present review clearly designates that the presence of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Pakistan vary with the species of the plants and material/extracts used. From this review, it is recommended to perform comprehensive experimental investigations based on toxicology and ethnopharmacology on these precious plants from Pakistan. It will be advantageous in the provision of trustworthy information to patients and determine further innovative compounds for safer and new drugs development with fewer side effects.
... The trichomes contain chemicals such as histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and acetylcholine and when touched by humans and other animals it produces a stinging sensation (Bisht, Bhandari and Bisht, 2012;Mithril and Dragsted, 2012). The root, however, lacks stingers (Upton, 2013). Therefore, hand gloves and leg protection should be used to avoid the stings when harvesting the leaves (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). ...
... Therefore, hand gloves and leg protection should be used to avoid the stings when harvesting the leaves (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). The irritating contents of the stinging hairs are dissipated upon drying (Upton, 2013), blanching and cooking of the leaves (Hughes et al., 1980;Rutto et al., 2013). ...
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Background: Wild plants are essential for increased dietary diversity; for food and nutritional security and as herbal remedies. Stinging nettle, Urtica species, is one of the 20 widely consumed wild plants with cultural importance index ranging from 0.5-1.26 CI in different countries. As in previously conducted wild plants ethnobotanical studies in Ethiopia, the present study reported for the first time the indigenous knowledge and consumer’s perspectives of stinging nettle (Urtica simensis) in the central and southeastern highlands of Oromia regional states of Ethiopia. Methods: Data was collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, key informant discussions, focus group discussions and tour-guided field observation in 13 districts of three zones (Arsi, Bale and North Shewa) of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Results: The local people gather, where women carries 69.2% of the responsibilities for collecting and cooking, stinging nettle in winter and spring season almost from everywhere with higher preference for road sides followed by homestead boundaries, waste land, field boundaries and agroforestry in order of importance. The factors limiting harvesting, consumption and marketing of stinging nettles could be ranked as cultural barriers (63.1%) > lack of knowledge (26.9%) > stinginess (10%). According to key informants, the local people who gather and cook stinging nettle are commonly referred as the poor and they call stinging nettle crop as a poor man crop. Interestingly, covering hands with cloths and wearing plastic bags were traditional manipulations practiced by the local community to protect themselves from stinging hairs thereby avoiding stinging sensation and collect the young and tender shoots from the plant. The highest use-value indices of stinging nettle plant was in North Shewa zone (UVc = 0.93), followed by Arsi zone (UVc = 0.9), and Bale zone (UVc = 0.63). Its central role in North Shewa (FL = 51.7%) and Arsi zone (FL = 50 %) is as a source of both food and fodder, where as in Bale zone (FL = 33.3%) is as a source of food only. In the study areas stinging nettle sauce is prepared by boiling young nettle leaves and roasted barley powder and then cooled sauce is served with injera. Conclusions: There exists biological security to livelihood of the people in the study areas by consuming stinging nettle to cope up times of food shortage. This result shed light on further research and a needs to popularize, awareness creation, the potential for domestication, value addition and processing for food and nutritional security and wellbeing of consumers.
... However, since ancient times, nettle has been used in medicine for the treatment of rheumatic conditions and urinary tract infections and as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory. In addition, nettle is used for its histamine desensitization, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities, among many other medicinal uses [119][120][121]. Moreover, it has been used in the production of textile fibers and biomass [119]. ...
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Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yields. Most of the compounds used are synthetic, and their overuse causes environmental pollution and human health problems. Currently, several countries are working to reduce the use of agrochemicals. Organic agriculture is now emerging as a sustainable alternative to traditional agriculture using environmentally friendly strategies such as the application of organic fertilizers from plant and animal waste and pesticides based on plant extracts and microbials. However, the availability of commercial biopesticides and organic fertilizers is very limited because there are certain barriers to the commercialization of biological products. These barriers include small available quantities of raw materials and strict registration laws requiring toxicological tests and other studies that are expensive and time consuming. The objective of this review is to provide details about the various organic fertilizers and pesticides that do not have the same disadvantages as synthetic compounds in terms of persistence and toxicity.
... The soluble and insoluble fiber may contribute to beneficial effects through the action of the gut microbiota. The wide range of compounds in the ethanolic extract have been elucidated by a number of researchers [1,12,13] and have been shown to include the phenolic acids; p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, quinic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and, 5-Ocaffeolylquinic acid. The second large group of compounds are flavonols which include kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercitrin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and isorhamnetin. ...
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The shoot of Urtica dioica is used in several cultures as a vegetable or herb. However, not much has been studied about the potential of this plant when consumed as a whole food/vegetable rather than an extract for dietary supplements. In a 12-week dietary intervention study, we tested the effect of U. dioica vegetable on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed ad libitum with isocaloric diets containing 10% fat or 45% fat with or without U. dioica. The diet supplemented with U. dioica attenuated high fat diet induced weight gain (p < 0.005; n = 9), fat accumulation in adipose tissue (p < 0.005; n = 9), and whole-body insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index) (p < 0.001; n = 9). Analysis of gene expression in skeletal muscle showed no effect on the constituents of the insulin signaling pathway (AKT, IRS proteins, PI3K, GLUT4, and insulin receptor). Notable genes that impact lipid or glucose metabolism and whose expression was changed by U. dioica include fasting induced adipocyte factor (FIAF) in adipose and skeletal muscle, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppar-α) and forkhead box protein (FOXO1) in muscle and liver, and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (Cpt1) in liver (p < 0.01). We conclude that U. dioica vegetable protects against diet induced obesity through mechanisms involving lipid accumulation and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.
... Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), popularly known as nettle, is a medicinal plant rich in vitamins, iron, calcium, sodium and fatty acids (Rutto et al. 2013). It is used by the textile and food industries besides being common in popular medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, muscle paralysis and diabetes mellitus (Upton 2013). The species has attracted researchers' attention for its anticancer and antioxidant activity (Fattahi et al. 2018;Ghaima et al. 2013;Gülçin Communicated by Danny Geelen. ...
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Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), popularly known as nettle, is a medicinal plant used by the textile, food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the influence of different LED wavelengths and light intensity on the growth, phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica grown in vitro. Nodal segments were taken to MS culture medium under 26, 51, 69, 94 and 130 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹, and the following light spectra: blue, red, white, combinations of red and blue (1red/1blue, 2.5red/1blue and 1red/2.5blue) and cool white fluorescent lamps. Leaf area, photosynthetic pigments, total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity were evaluated 40 days after culture implementation. Plantlets grown under 94 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ showed better growth and dry weight production outcomes. Phenolic compound and flavonoid production, as well as antioxidant activity were intensified at 130 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Plantlets grown under 1red/2.5blue produced 5.53 times more phenolic compounds and 8.63 times more flavonoids than plants under fluorescent lights. And dry weight accumulation was favored by wavelength of 2.5red/1blue. The antioxidant activity was influenced by the light intensity, being directly proportional to the increase in light intensity. Increased red light rate induced plantlet etiolation.
... calcium, magnesium, and iron). They regulate the digestive system, stimulate the appetite, have a positive effect on the functioning of the immune system, and exhibit antibacterial activity (Al-Asadi, 2014;Upton, 2013). ...
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b>The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effect of the addition of nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaves or fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds to rabbit feed on their breeding and lactation performance. The research material was female Blanc de Termonde rabbits (n = 22) and their offspring – four consecutive litters. The does were divided into three feeding groups, and each group was fed ad libitum a commercial pelleted complete feed with min. 17,5% crude protein, max. 15% crude fibre, and 2-3% crude fat. The diet for does in the control group (n = 6) contained wheat bran, dried alfalfa, extracted soybeans, barley, beet pulp, sunflower meal, and a vitamin and mineral supplement. The does in experimental group I (n = 8) were fed a diet enriched with 2% dried nettle leaves, while the diet for experimental group II (n = 8) contained fenugreek seeds (2%). The rabbits were mated between 10 and 14 days after kindling. To examine the effect of the herbal supplements on the does’ reproductive and lactation performance, the following information was collected: number of rabbits born per litter, litter weight at 24 h after birth and at 21 days of age, and milk yield. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS statistical package. The results show positive effects of the use of nettle leaves and fenugreek seeds in the diet of female rabbits, but this should be confirmed in further research.</b
... U. dioica is the single species that has been commercialized for the medicinal purposes, as well as for the extraction of chlorophyll and stem fibers. U. dioica was also found to be a strong source of caffeic acid analogues, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids and Nettle extract has also been studied for rheumatism, rhinitis, eczema, and arthritis [11][12]13]. ...
Article
Utricaceae is a family of herbs and shrubs that can be found in a variety of habitats around the world. A lot of research has been carried out till date targeted for close understanding of this medicinal plant. The botanical distribution, Ethnomedicinal applications, Traditional uses as well as Pharmacological properties of the Urtica genus, are discussed in this study. The composition such as flavonoids and array of phenolic compounds which includes alcohols, Diocanol, Diol glucosides, Terpenes diols, and sugars as well are an inclusion in the genus Urtica. A wide range of research reports have been published representing its biological and pharmacological potential against cancer, tumors, bacterial, viral or fungal infections significantly. The information about the Urtica genus has been extracted using electronic database search such as Google Scholar and Pubmed as well as a library search for peer-reviewed journal publications.
... A study in dogs with BPH has shown that nettle roots could reduce the initial volume of the prostate by 70 % (Bauer, 1992). Bioactive compounds of root extracts inhibit the growth of human prostate cells, but the mechanism of action remains unknown (Upton and Dayu, 2013). ...
Article
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Prostatic adenoma, or benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), is a natural and common disease in elderly men. Its etiology is multifactorial. BPH is associated with annoying symptoms and morbid complications. The treatment of BPH with drugs, or synthetic chemicals, damages hepatic and renal tissues developing cirrhosis and kidney failure. As an alternative, there has been recourse to the use of medicinal plants or natural health. Pumpkin seeds, nettle leaves and soybeans have been proven to be potent against pain and discomfort in BPH patients. Moreover, plants used at high doses during a long period as treatment, may be toxic and complicate the lifestyle of BPH patients. Both, drugs and plants, used without precaution is a dilemma of prevention and toxicity. The patients simultaneously consume the drug and plants to anticipate healing. Combined drug-plant therapy could have harmful effects on health due to an accumulating antagonistic synergy of chemical and natural.
... It exhibits anthelmintic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties and has a pleasant flavour and aroma (Dimov et al., 2018;Maksimov, 2017). Stinging nettle is a well-known herb, which is native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America (Upton, 2013). Its leaves contain a significant number of biologically active compounds such as vitamins A and C; minerals such as calcium, iron, and potassium; and organic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tannins (Kregiel, Pawlikowska, & Antolak, 2018;Movagharnejad, Vahdatkhoram, & Nanvakenari, 2019) Melissa officinalis L., commonly known as lemon balm, is also an important medicinal plant with a fresh, strong, sweet lemon flavour (Lee, Choi, Choi, & Lee, 2014). ...
Article
The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the quality of no-salt wheat bread prepared with a mixture of herbs (MH) using a method involving the addition of scalded flour and to compare this method to the traditional single-phase method. In the case of the single-phase method, MH (thyme, lemon balm, and nettle (1:1:1)) was added in the form of dried herbs at a level ranging from 3% to 12% (every 3%) to the dough, whereas in the case of scalded flour, MH was added as an infusion (at concentrations ranging from 0, 12, 24, 26, and 48 mg/mL). According to our results, an increase in the level of MH caused a decrease in the volume of the bread and an increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the prepared bread. Moreover, with the addition of MH, there was a decrease in the brightness and a slight decrease in the redness of the crumb. The use of scalded flour resulted in lower crumb hardness and chewiness than that of the single-phase method. According to the sensory evaluation, scalded flour method can be used in the production of good quality no-salt bread with the addition of MH with up to 24 mg/mL of herbal infusion.
... It is native to Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America (Orčić et al., 2014). Biological activity of this plant has been extensively investigated, while results showed that plant and its extracts expressed antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiulcer, hypolipidemic, and many other activities (Gülçin, Küfrevioǧlu, Oktay, & Büyükokuroǧlu, 2004;Kukric et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Upton, 2013;Zeković et al., 2017). Beside mentioned activities, this plant has been implemented for treating various diseases and conditions of anemia, gout, eczema, urinary, bladder and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Leporatti & Corradi, 2001;Orčić et al., 2014;Pinelli et al., 2008). ...
Article
Stinging nettle is an annual plant. This plant is known for applications in folk medicine, and as the human diet. The stinging nettle leaves has been used to obtain extracts, which are expected to be with a high content of biologically active compounds. Prepared microwave extracts were applied in the formulation of the functional products. The article completes preparation of the bread with addition of the stinging nettle leaves and its extract, and bread’s composition in phenolic acids, flavonoids, micro elements, and macro elements. The biological activity of the prepared bread samples showed significant antioxidant activity. This was especially true against DPPH radicals. It has been shown that it holds a high cytotoxic activity. Leaves themselves decreased the quality of the bread, while the extract improved the quality. It was sensorially confirmed. The article concluded that the extract substitutes leaves in bread as a product of a high benefit.
... The extract of U. dioica increase diuresis by 11% when administered at a low dose (4 mg/kg/h) and by 84% at a high dose (24 mg/kg/h); it also induces natriuresis by 28% and 143% at the same respective low and high doses (87). Studies on the effects of U.dioica preparations on humans have been limited (86,88). In vitro studies have found that, like Betula spp. ...
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Background This manuscript contains the results of Podkarpackie Voivodeship (Poland) ethnomedical studies on the treatment of urinary tract diseases using wild and cultivated plants. The study concerns plants mainly used for the supportive treatment of urinary tract infections, urolithiasis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this present study, we aim to collect and assess the ethnomedicinal potential of plants used in Podkarpackie Voivodeship (Poland) to treat urological diseases. Methods This article is based on interviews with fourteen recognized traditional healers (urban areas) and nine informants (rural areas) living in the south-eastern region of Poland - Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The survey took place between November 2019 and January 2021. For each plant mentioned in herbal remedies, polish name, part used, mode of preparation, and their properties, according to the healers and informants, were recorded. Results For the analysis, 123 species that belong to 43 families were selected. The most common families used to treat urinary diseases in Podkarpackie herbal medicine are the Compositae (18 species), Rosaceae and Apiaceae (11 species in each), Leguminosae (9 species), and Ericaceae (6 species). Of the species listed, Apium graveolens L., Arctium lappa L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Juniperus communis L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, Solidago virgaurea L., Urtica dioica L., and Viola tricolor L. were the most frequently mentioned. Most plants are used in multicomponent blends, which are given in the form of infusions or decoction. The described plants have mainly antiseptic, diuretic, spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusions The results of the research described in this paper indicate that herbal treatment of urinary tract diseases is still used in Poland in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship. It is mainly used by people who do not want to use allopathic medicine, especially antibiotics. They are both inhabitants of large cities and villages. The latter often because of the multi-generational tradition, prefer self-healing.
... From ancient times, in "urtication" therapy, people have used the sting of the fresh stinging nettle by ailing arthritic or paralytic limbs to induce blood circulation for warm joints and extremities Ancient Egyptians also used the injection for the alleviation of arthritis and lumbago (Harrison, 1961). "This practice of urtication or rubefaction became a standard in folk medicine as a remedy for arthritis, rheumatism, and muscular paralysis and is perhaps the most ancient medicinal use of stinging nettle" (Upton, 2013). ...
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Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease. The pharmacological therapy of RA is often symptomatic to mitigate pain and inability with analgesics and drugs with defined side effects and risks. Complementary medicines might decrease the signs of RA and reduce the need for these medicines. In the present study, we investigated the anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Urtica dioica and Evening Primrose Ogil (EPO), in patients with RA. Methods: This randomized, double‐blind, controlled trial involved 90 RA patients, and randomly assigned them into EPO, Urtica dioica, and placebo groups. The potential effect of these herbal medicines on Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Total Anti-oxidant Capacity (TAC), IL-17, Rheumatoid Factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (Anti-CCP), C Reactive Protein (CRP), and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) before and after clinical trial were evaluated. The trial registration number is IRCT20201001048897N1. Results: After a three month follow up, the mean values of DAS28, IL-17, TAC, RF, and CRP in EPO and Urtica dioica groups were significantly different from the placebo group. However, the VAS, Anti-CCP, and ESR at baseline and at the end of the study were not significantly different between the three groups. After the intervention, the within-group DAS28 in the EPO and Urtica dioica groups, and placebo group reduced significantly compared to the baseline. Conclusion: Medicinal plants EPO and Urtica dioica were appeared to decrease inflammatory factors, and can improve the symptoms of RA. Thus, EPO and Urtica dioica have great potential as a complementary therapy in RA patients.
... Among the vast selection of wild plants, Urtica dioica L., commonly known as stinging nettle of family Urticaceae, is a spontaneous, ubiquitous, and perennial plant and a known weed in intensive farming. It is traditionally used as medicine and is a multi-purpose commercial crop used for pharmaceutical extracts, textile fibers, and as colorant (chlorophyll, E140) [1][2][3]. Moreover, nettle leaves and extracts were found to contain various phytochemicals such as organic acids and phenolic compounds (e.g., flavonoids) that render them with diuretic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities [4,5]. ...
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Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a ubiquitous, multi-utility, and under-utilized crop with potential health benefits owing to its nutritional and bioactive components. The objective of the work is to produce powders by drying wild stinging nettle leaves as a storable, low-cost functional additive to be used in bakery and ready-to-cook products. Convective drying (CD) and freeze-drying (FD) were applied on unblanched (U) or blanched (B) leaves, which were then milled to nettle powders (NPs). The obtained NPs were evaluated for selected physicochemical (moisture, color), techno-functional (flow indices, hygroscopicity), and phytochemical (pigments, phenols) characteristics as well as mineral contents. Blanching improved mass transfer and reduced the oxidative degradation of pigments during drying, but it caused a loss of total phenols content, antioxidant activity, and potassium content. As for the drying method, CD resulted in better flow properties (i.e., Carr Index and Hausner Ratio), while FD retained better the color, pigments, magnesium content, phenolic, and antioxidant parameters. Overall, the evaluated processing methods resulted in different technological properties that can allow for better evaluation of NPs as a food additive or ingredient. Among the NPs, blanched and freeze-dried powders despite showing inferior technological properties can be recommended as more suitable ingredients targeted f or food enrichment owing to better retention of bio-active components.
... They regulate the digestive system and stimulate appetite. They have a positive impact on the functioning of the immune system and they exhibit antibacterial activity [19,20]. Nettle improves biochemical, haematological, and immunological parameters [21]. ...
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The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds as additives to fodder in order to improve post-slaughter traits and quality parameters of Termond White rabbit meat (n = 60; 30 , 30 ). Three experimental groups were created. The control group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) was fed ad libitum feed containing corn, bran, wheat, dried alfalfa, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dicalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and vitamin-mineral premix. The animals from the first experimental group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) were fed a complete mixture added with 1% of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves. Rabbits from the second group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) were fed with a complete mixture added with 1% of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. Rabbits fed with pellets with the addition of nettle were characterized by a higher slaughter weight, higher weight of hot and cold carcasses, lungs, kidneys and head as well as a higher weight of the fore, middle and hind part of the carcass compared to the other two groups. The carcasses of animals fed with fenugreek and nettle had a higher percentage of the fore and hind parts compared to the carcasses of the animals from the control group. The female carcasses were characterized by a significantly higher percentage of the middle part compared to the male carcasses. For most colour measurement traits, the differences depending on the feeding regime were significant. The effect of gender on meat colour was non significant. The effect of feeding regime and of gender on texture traits such as shear force, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness were non significant. Feeding had no effect on muscle fibre diameter, but it affected the muscle fibre type I percentage. Thus, the group fed with pellets containing nettle leaves had higher percentage of type I muscle fibres than the control group. The effect of gender on muscle fibre traits was non significant.
... B 1 , B 2 , C, and K), caffeic acid derivatives, terpenoids, ceramides, carotenoids, essential oils, fatty acids, minerals (e.g. Fe, Ca, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni), phytosterols, glycosides and many other polyphenolic compounds (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Orcic et al., 2014;Upton, 2013). On the other hand, sage is a member of the Lamiaceae family, native to the Mediterranean region. ...
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The incorporation of plant leaf extracts into biodegradable food packaging materials is a promising green approach to develop active films with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In this context, this study aimed to develop active films based on chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose blend (CS/HPMC) enriched with sage (SLE) and nettle (NLE) leaf extracts (7.5–15% w/w of biopolymer) to characterize their surface and cross-section morphology, optical, mechanical, water barrier, and antioxidant properties for food packaging applications. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed microstructural integrity and compatibility between CS and HPMC and incorporated leaf extracts. The successful incorporation of plant extracts was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Active films showed improvement in UV–Vis light barrier properties (p < 0.05) with opacity value lower than five. Addition of leaf extracts induced a slightly darker color by inducing a green and yellow shade. Addition of NLE increased the water solubility and water vapor permeability compared to the control film (p < 0.05). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were increased upon addition of leaf extracts. Overall, CS/HPMC films incorporated with SLE and NLE could be employed as a green alternative for partial substitution of synthetic plastics with antioxidant activity and to prolong the shelf-life of food products.
... With recent concerns around climate changes, resources savings and constant need for technological progress, researchers are leading new studies to better characterize these biomaterials and replace their petroleum-based counterparts (Abbès et al. 2020 or Karaky et al. 2019). Ramie and Nettle advantages have been known for centuries, their mechanical and biological properties were used in the cloth industry as well as in medicine (Allais 2019;Draghy 2005;Upton 2013). ...
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Current environmental concerns are increasingly forcing manufacturers to reduce the use of petroleum derivatives in order to reduce their carbon footprint. The use of new plant-based materials is therefore an interesting alternative to plastics. A certain number of plant fibers have been rediscovered for use in the form of agro-composites; Nettle fiber is one of them. The objective of this review is thus to take stock of current knowledge on the European Nettle fiber (Urtica Dioica) and its asian version (Boehmeria nivea, or Ramie), which are too often confused. This “weed,” which has been used since antiquity, is coming back into fashion thanks to the highlighting of some of its properties but also to its simplicity of cultivation. The association PLA/Nettle, lending itself perfectly to this concept of modern ecological material 100% biodegradable, is also highlighted in this work where the intrinsic qualities of each component are detailed based on the promising uses of this agro-composite mentioned in the literature or the automotive industry.
... It has a long history of use in Indian traditional folk medicine (Mamta and Preeti, 2014). In several experimental animal models and clinical studies, it has been shown to have potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties (Upton, 2013). However, no research on neuroprotective effect of Urtica dioica on ischemiareperfusion brain injury has ever been done. ...
... In addition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypocholesterolemic properties are attributed to it. This activity is the result of biologically active compounds present in nettle such as phenolic acids (including protocatechuic, quinic, coumaric, coffee, ferulic), tannins, pigments, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and phytoestrogens [1,[3][4][5]. ...
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Citation: Krawęcka, A.; Sobota, A.; Pankiewicz, U.; Zielińska, E.; Zarzycki, P. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) as a Functional Component in Durum Wheat Pasta Production: Impact on Chemical Composition, In Vitro Glycemic Index, and Quality Properties. Molecules 2021, 26, 6909. Abstract: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a good source of biologically active compounds with proven beneficial health effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nettle herb supple-mentation on chemical composition, including the content of selected minerals and pigments, the in vitro glycemic response, and the cooking and sensory quality of extruded pasta. Tagliatelle-shaped pasta was produced under semi-technical scale by partial replacement of durum wheat semolina with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of lyophilized nettle. The partial substitution with freeze-dried nettle caused a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the content of minerals, especially calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium in the products. The calcium content in the pasta fortified with 5%-addition of stinging nettle was 175.9 mg 100 g −1 and this concentration was 5.8 times higher than in the control sample. At the same time, high content of chlorophylls and carotenoids (237.58 µg g −1 and 13.35 µg g −1 , respectively) was noticed. Enriching pasta with a 0-5% addition of stinging nettle resulted in a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the content of the total dietary fiber (TDF) (from 5.1 g 100 g −1 to 8.82 g 100 g −1) and the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) (from 2.29 g 100 g −1 to 5.63 g 100 g −1). The lowest hydrolysis index of starch (HI = 17.49%) and the lowest glycemic index (GI = 49.31%) were noted for the pasta enriched with 3% nettle.
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Powdery mildew of strawberry is caused by the obligate pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp. fragariae. The disease affects the leaves, flowers and fruit of this crop. Preharvest use of fungicide sprays may provide an alternative to the control of postharvest Mildew. However, fungicide resistance in Sphaerotheca spp. can result in the failure of disease control. In this study, the resistance of the strain of Sphaerotheca macularis isolated from strawberries was tested in vitro with three fungicides (Mancozeb, Fosetyl-aluminium and Propineb) enriched with Urtica dioica extract. The Mancozeb - U. dioica extract combination was very effective on seeding and sporulation, and moderately effective on growth. The Propineb - U. dioica extract combination was moderately effective on growth and sporulation but ineffective on seeding. Tests done with Fosetyl-Al alone were ineffective on seeding, growth and sporulation. The effects of different temperatures and relative humidity (RH), on germination and conidial germ tube length were evaluated on detached strawberry leaves. Our results suggest that alternating sprays using different classes of fungicides will be required to control mildew of strawberries, and that U. dioica extract may be an effective bio-fungicide incorporated into a fungicide spray program before the harvest for the fight against mildew of strawberries.
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Thirty two samples of different types of imported and locally produced medicinal plants consumed by adults in Jordan were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured. The annual equivalent dose rate was calculated. The measurements show that the average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in (Bqkg-1±SD) are 2.63±0.30, 1.44±0.18 and 593.97±63.47 respectively. The measured concentration of 137Cs was found only in Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) sample and is equal to 1.03±0.27 Bqkg-1. The values of annual equivalent dose for consuming the plants per individual adult for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were ranged between (0.11-1.56) µSvy-1, (10.00x10-3 – 70.00x10-3) µSvy-1and (0.13-9.88) µSvy-1respectively. The obtained results were compared with the standard accepted international values, and were found to be within the acceptable limits. Therefore, medicinal plant samples investigated here do not pose any significant health hazard and are considered radiologically safe for adult consumption.
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Leaves are an important organ of the plant due to number of performed essential functions such as light harvesting, gas exchange. The different shapes and modifications providing additional functions like defense, reproduction, accumulation of reserve substances etc. Leaf is usually made of the same kind of tissue regardless of species. However, the leaf epidermis is not homogeneous and usually vary between species and within the plant itself. In particular it differs considerably depending on whether it is abaxial or adaxial surface. In this work the upper and lower leaf surfaces of Urtica dioica coming from the clean area of Bieszczady and polluted district of Kraków in three months of plant growth, from March to May, were compared. The task was to determine and indicate the impact of environmental pollution during the plant growth on the upper leaf surface which task is the light harvesting and lower side that is specialized for gas exchange. Using ATR FTIR spectroscopy and 2D correlation, it was possible to unravel the specificity of the leaf surfaces. Current studies have shown that during the growth of the plant the greatest changes occur in the cell wall polysaccharides. In a clean environment the valuable amino acids are shown up, while in contaminated location modification are primarily linked to the presence of proteins and also of xyloglucans. The abaxial surface of the leaf is more sensitive to these changes.
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Background Heat stress is one of the most critical problems confronting the poultry industry. Stinging nettle (SN) is a medicinal plant with potent antioxidant properties. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary SN at two different levels (2 and 4%) on the serum levels of cortisol and some selected parameters of broilers exposed to chronic heat stress. Methods A total of 240 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six dietary groups as follows: (1) control: fed the basal diet; (2) HS: heat-stressed broiler fed the basal diet; (3) HS-SN2: heat-stressed broiler fed 2% dietary SN; (4) HS-SN4: heat-stressed broilers fed 4% SN; (5) SN2: no heat-stressed broilers fed the basal diet supplemented with 2% SN; (6) SN4: no heat-stressed broilers fed the basal diet supplemented with 4% SN. Diet supplementation with SN was performed from days 14 to 35 and chronic heat stress was induced from days 22 to 29. The serum parameters were evaluated on days 14, 21, 29 and 35. Results HS had higher serum levels of cortisol, total cholesterol (TC), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase (CK) compared to the other treatments. HS-SN4 had significantly lower cortisol, TC, alanine aminotransferase and CK compared to HS and HS-SN2. Conclusions The inclusion of 4% SN powder in the broilers’ diet alleviated the negative effects of heat stress by decreasing cortisol, TC and tissue damage indices. It seems that dietary SN could be used as a feed additive in the poultry diet for improving the health status and defence mechanisms of the birds under stressful conditions.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Cross-cultural comparison of plants used during lactation and the postpartum period offers insight into a largely overlooked area of ethnopharmacological research. Potential roles of phytochemicals in emerging models of interaction among immunity, inflammation, microbiome and nervous system effects on perinatal development have relevance for the life-long health of individuals and of populations in both traditional and contemporary contexts. Aim of the study Delineate and interpret patterns of traditional and contemporary global use of medicinal plants ingested by mothers during the postpartum period relative to phytochemical activity on immune development and gastrointestinal microbiome of breastfed infants, and on maternal health. Materials and Methods Published reviews and surveys on galactagogues and postpartum recovery practices plus ethnobotanical studies from around the world were used to identify and rank plants, and ascertain regional use patterns. Scientific literature for 20 most-cited plants based on frequency of publication was assessed for antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antidepressant, analgesic, galactagogic and safety properties. Results From compilation of 4418 use reports related to 1948 species, 105 plant taxa were recorded ≥ 7 times, with the most frequently cited species, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Pimpinella anisum, Euphorbia hirta and Asparagus racemosus, 81, 64, 42, 40 and 38 times, respectively. Species and use vary globally, illustrated by the pattern of aromatic plants of culinary importance versus latex-producing plants utilized in North Africa/Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa with opposing predominance. For 18/20 of the plants a risk/benefit perspective supports assessment that positive immunomodulation and related potential exceed any safety concerns. Published evidence does not support a lactation-enhancing effect for nearly all the most-cited plants while antidepressant data for the majority of plants are predominately limited to animal studies. Conclusions Within a biocultural context traditional postpartum plant use serves adaptive functions for the mother-infant dyad and contributes phytochemicals absent in most contemporary diets and patterns of ingestion, with potential impacts on allergic, inflammatory and other conditions. Polyphenolics and other phytochemicals are widely immunologically active, present in breast milk and predominately non-toxic. Systematic analysis of phytochemicals in human milk, infant lumen and plasma, and immunomodulatory studies that differentiate maternal ingestion during lactation from pregnancy, are needed. Potential herb-drug interaction and other adverse effects should remain central to obstetric advising, but unless a plant is specifically shown as harmful, considering potential contributions to health of individuals and populations, blanket advisories against postpartum herbal use during lactation appear empirically unwarranted.
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Urtica dioica (UD), commonly known as “stinging nettle”, is a herbaceous flowering plant that is a widely used agent in traditional medicine worldwide. Several formulations of UD leaf extract have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, with anticancer potential. The current study investigated the possible anticancer properties of nettle tea, prepared from Urtica dioica leaves, on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, and deciphered the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment of AML cell lines (U-937 and KG-1) with UD aqueous leaf extract resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation, an increase in apoptotic hallmarks such as phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer membrane leaflet, and DNA fragmentation as revealed by cell-death ELISA and cell-cycle analysis assays. Apoptosis induction in U937 cells involves alterations in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 upon exposure to nettle tea. Furthermore, the chemical composition of UD aqueous extract indicated the presence of multiple chemical agents, such as flavonoids and phenolics, mainly patuletin, m/p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, among others, to which the pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects may be attributed.
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The potential of plants in the treatment of severe diseases and disorders is well known since Vedic age. Evidences strongly show that most of the ancient medical practitioner’s had utilised the magic of plant based remedies to get maximum therapeutic outcomes. Modern era researchers and scientists are also very well aware of the therapeutic benefits of plants and their extremely low or no side effects as compared to synthetically obtained drug moieties thus most of them are walking in the olden footsteps. This of course is the reason of increasing use of plant based formulations and why now days these formulations are capturing big commercial markets globally. Recently, nanotechnology has also extended its feet to the herbal realm so that maximum advantages can be obtained by the development of nano-based herbal formulations. Keeping all these facts in mind this chapter has been written to highlight the great potential of a plant Urtica dioica which has been neglected and underrated since ages inspite of its well known evidences for the treatment of some severe and life-threatening disease. Numbers of literatures also support the folk and traditional use of this plant for a number of diseases because of its high nutritional value. This chapter includes general introduction, description, chemical constitution, mechanism of action, its use in Alzheimer disease and toxicity aspects of this plant.
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Urtica dioica L. (nettle) has been widely used in industry, cosmetics and medicine and has long been used by the public in phytotherapeutic applications. Despite its economic potential, it is still not cultivated but consumed as wild. In this study, total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle extracts obtained by different methods were investigated. In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nettle extracts obtained by different methods and the oil content of the extracts was analyzed by GC-MS. As a result of GC-MS analysis, 12 different fatty acids were determined. The main fatty acid components of nettle extracts were linoleic acid (61.40%), oleic acid (14.66%) and palmitic acid (10.42%). Ultrasonic bath was found to be more effective in extracting bioactive contents of extracts than fermentation and water boiling methods. Total phenolic content of plant extracts obtained by USB method was 26.78 mg g-1, total flavonoid amount was 3.07mg g-1, FRAP value was 21.53 µg g-1and DPPH value was 6.20 mgg-1. According to antimicrobial activity results, ethanol extracts showed a better inhibition effect on bacteria than water extracts, but none of the extracts were found to be effective against Candida albicans.
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Urtica dioica (UT) vegetable attenuates diet induced weight gain and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that UT imparts metabolic health by impacting the gut microbiota composition. We examined effects of UT on the cecal bacterial taxonomic signature of C57BL/6J mice fed isocaloric diets: a low-fat diet (LFD) with 10% fat, a high fat diet (HFD) with 45% fat or the HFD supplemented with 9% UT (HFUT). Among Firmicutes, the HFD had no significant impact on Clostridia, but increased Bacilli particularly genus Lactococcus and Lactobacillus. HFUT lowered Lactococcus but not Lactobacillus to levels of the LFD (P<0.01; n=9). Further examination of Clostridia showed that HFUT increased genus Clostridium by over 2-fold particularly the species C. vincentii and C. disporicum and increased genus Turicibacter by 3-fold (P<0.05; n=9). Abundance of Clostridium and Turicibacter negatively correlated with body weight (P<0.05; R²=0.42) and HOMA-IR (P<0.05; R²=0.45). Turicibacter and Clostridium have been shown to be more abundant in lean phenotypes compared to obese. Clostridium impacts host phenotype by inducing intestinal T cell responses. The HFUT diet had no effect on members of Actinobacteria. Among Bacteroidetes, HFUT mainly increased proliferation of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (P<0.05; n=9) with no significant impact on other groups. Functional analysis showed that HFUT enhanced bacterial beta-alanine and D-arginine metabolism both of which are associated with a lean phenotype and enhanced insulin sensitivity. We conclude that impacting the proliferation of Clostridium and Turicibacter and amino acid metabolism may be a contributing mechanism by which Urtica dioica impacts metabolic health.
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Background: PlantCrystals are a new concept to produce plant-based formulations. Their principle is based on the diminution of parts of or whole plants. In this study, the effect of a surfactant on stinging nettle leaf PlantCrystals was investigated. Secondly, the contents of bulk material and the PlantCrystals formulation were compared. In addition, for the very first time, the skin penetration of PlantCrystals was investigated. Methods: Stinging nettle leaves were milled with high-pressure homogenization. Sizes were analyzed via light microscopy and static light scattering. To investigate the effect of the milling, the flavonoid and total carotenoid content were determined, and the antioxidant capacity of the formulation was measured via total polyphenol content and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Finally, the impact on skin penetration was investigated. Results: Size analysis showed a stabilizing effect of the surfactant, and the chemical analysis revealed higher flavonoid and polyphenol contents for PlantCrystals. The penetration of the formulation into the stratum corneum was shown to be promising; PlantCrystals possessed a visually perceived higher fluorescence and homogeneity compared to the bulk material. Conclusion: The concept of PlantCrystals improved the availability of valuable constituents and the penetration efficacy. The utilization of the natural chlorophyll fluorescence for skin penetration analysis of plant-based formulations proved itself highly effective.
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Stinging nettle is appreciated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which renders the plant a popular ingredient in a healthy diet in form of salads or smoothies. The most common use, presumably, is of dried leaves as ingredient in tea mixtures. The plant’s health benefits are attributed primarily to phenolic phytochemicals. Here we describe the characterization and quantification of a phylloxanthobilin (PxB), a yellow chlorophyll catabolite, in nettle tea. Despite their abundance in the plant kingdom, chlorophyll catabolites have been overlooked as phytochemicals and as part of human nutrition. Our investigations of tea reveal that one cup of nettle tea contains about 50 µg of PxB with large variations depending on the supplier. When investigating the bioactivities of PxB, our observations show that PxB has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities comparable to known bioactive small molecules found in nettle, indicating the phylloxanthobilin to be an overlooked ingredient of nettle tea.
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Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is an edible plant, well-known for its nutritional and nutraceutical properties. Stinging nettle leaves are typically rich in fibers, minerals and vitamins, as well as antioxidant compounds, i.e., polyphenols and carotenoids. Due to these reasons, since ancient times stinging nettle has been widely used in Italy as an ingredient in foods and beverages as a therapeutic agent. This work provides an investigation focused on bread enrichment with nettle leaves and the improvement of bread proximate composition in minerals, fibers and antioxidant compounds during product preparation. The comparison between plain and nettle enriched white bread shows a significant increase in fibers and nutrients, i.e., calcium and copper levels. Nettle enrichment also provides an increase in lutein and β-carotene, as well as in total phenols and antioxidant activity. These last two nutritional elements are remarkably high in enriched bread and it has been found that phenolic concentration increases during breadmaking steps, from kneading to primary dough fermentation and from secondary fermentation of shaped loaves to baking.
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Stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) is annual plant from Urticaceae family growing wild all over the world. Throughout the history, this plant found its place as a both food and medicine. Due to the nonsufficient study, this work aimed to isolate the bioactive compounds from the stinging nettle leaves by supercritical fluid extraction. Extracts were analyzed and assessed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Main fatty acids were α-linolenic, palmitic, and linoleic acids in all six samples. Beside fatty acids, chlorophylls and carotenoids were also found in all samples. Four empirical kinetic equations were effectively utilized for kinetic modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of stinging nettle leaves oil. As per proper statistical features, empirical models show good concurrence with experimental data. The numerical modeling of a process is gainful to foresee the process conduct and furthermore extend the methodology from laboratory to industrial scales. The principal component analysis was used to visualize the fatty acids profile and antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic activity of extract obtained from stinging nettle leaves. It was found that both composition and activity were strongly dependent on the parameters of the extraction process.
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The purpose of this study is to explore the single factors including the time, solid‐liquid ratio, choice of organic solvent and ethanol concentration that influenced the extraction of flavonoids and triterpenoids from Urtica and firstly optimized the ultrasonic‐assisted extract conditions using response surface method. The ethanol extract of Urtica was further purified by polyamide column chromatography and macroporous resin column chromatography. The results showed that flavonoid compounds yield and triterpenoid compounds were 3.432% and 9.184% respectively. LC‐MS analysis were applied for identification and confirmation of flavonoids, triterpenoids and a small quantity of polyphenols. In addition, the bacteriostasis experiments of the products were conducted. The results showed flavonoid, and triterpenoid compounds from Urtica showed good antibacterial activities.
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O interesse pelo estudo das “Plantas Alimentícias Não Convencionais- PANC’s” vem crescendo, impulsionado, principalmente, pela tendência crescente de consumo pela população. Esse é o caso da família Urticaceae, a qual possui espécies descritas por possuírem propriedades nutritivas e que podem ser agregadas em produtos como um alimento funcional. Apesar dessas evidências, os estudos acerca da composição química e propriedades biológicas dessa família ainda são escassos. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a composição nutricional, a atividade antioxidante, o teor de fenólicos totais e compostos majoritários de quatro espécies da família Urticaceae (Boehmeria caudata Sw, Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd., Urtica circularis (Hicken) Sorarú e Urtica dioica (L.) coletadas no sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que a espécie U. baccifera foi a que apresentou o maior teor de umidade (11,02 %) e de fibra alimentar (43,85 %). A espécie U. circularis apresentou o maior teor de minerais totais (20,95 %) e de proteína (26,6 %), enquanto que a B. caudadta obteve maior teor de carboidrato (7,64 %). Com relação ao teor de fenólicos totais observou-se maior conteúdo para as espécies B. caudata e U. dioica (274,92 ± 6,05 e 260,84 ± 8,56 mg GAE/ g, respectivamente), sendo a hesperidina o flavonoide majoritário, detectado na espécie U. bacccifera (116,49 ± 0,94 µg/mL). Tomados em conjunto, os resultados demonstram que as espécies da família Urticacea, tipicamente conhecidas pelas suas propriedades urticantes, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de nutrientes e de compostos bioativos com capacidade antioxidante.
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Mental illnesses (MIs) such as anxiety, epilepsy, major depression, schizophrenia, sleep disorder, and pain influence the quality of life severely. According to the World Health Organization Atlas for Mental Health (2014), the formal health sector in Lesotho has only 13.7 mental health workers per 100 000 of the population, which breaks down to 0.1 psychiatrist and other medical doctors, 0.3 psychologists, 4.7 nurses, and 5.2 social workers. Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have always played a significant role in the prevention and treatment of MIs, via utilization of Lesotho’s vast diversity of plants. This investigation aims to determine which medicinal plants are used for the treatment of MIs in the Berea, Leribe, and Maseru districts of Lesotho. A combination of unstructured and semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted with 27 THPs. They were interviewed about the status of MIs in Lesotho, diagnostic methods, medicinal plants used, and preparation and administration of the herbal remedies in the treatment of MIs. A total of 43 different plant species (indigenous and exotic) were indicated by the THPs as commonly used to treat neurological disorders. With the exception of one unidentified plant, the plants represented 26 families and 42 genera. The most common families are the Asteraceae (9 species), Fabaceae (5 species), and Rosaceae (3 species). The most cited plant species were Morella serrata (Myricaceae) (26%), followed by Xysmalobium undulatum (Asclepiadaceae) (22%), and Afroaster hispidus (Asteraceae) (15%). This survey provides, for the first time, a database of Lesotho’s medicinal plants that are used to treat MIs.
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The total concentration of zinc, iron, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as their water and acetic acid extractable forms - nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus - were determined in St. John's wort herb (Hypericum perforatum L.) yarrow herb (Achillea millefolium L.), nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.) and birch leaves (Betulapendula Roth.), collected from four natural locations in northern Poland. The content of total Zn and Fe was determined by FAAS, whereas of total N, total P and their extractable forms by UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The obtained results showed that particular plant species differed significantly in the contents of Zn, Fe, P and P-PO,. The area of harvest didn't have major effects on the concentration of analyzed elements in the studied plant species. Significantly, 13 inter-element correlations were obtained for the studied elements, mainly between iron and nitrogen, iron and phosphorus, phosphorus and nitrogen and among their water-extractable forms, indicating their involvment in metabolism of medicinal plants. Nutritional and toxicological aspects of the analyzed plants used commonly as folk medicines in Poland were evaluated by comparison of the obtained results with the WHO/FAO norms.
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Numerous herbs are useful for treating patients with a wide range of arrhythmias. In all cases, C. laevigata is recommended for prevention and treatment as a gentle tonic. For treating mild arrhythmias not related to demonstrable heart pathology, simple sedatives such as L. cardiaca and S. lateriflora are recommended. For more serious cases or when milder remedies are not sufficient, S. grandiflorus or H. undatus, C. scoparius, R. serpentaria, and C. majalis offer more potent, although also potentially more dangerous, options. However, careful monitoring and proper dosing usually allow even these strong herbs to be utilized safely.
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The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform, and acetone extracts of four plant species were studied. The dried extracts of the whole plant of Artemisia absinthium (Compositae/Asteraceae) and Urtica dioica (Urticaceae), flowering plants of Fumaria officinalis (Papaveraceae/Fumariaceae) and the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae/Lamiaceae) were tested in vitro against 12 bacterial species and strains by the agar diffusion method. Bacillus brevis FMC 3, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Micrococcus luteus LA 2971, Mycobacterium smegmatus RUT, Escherichia coli DM, Listeria monocytogenes SCOTT A, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus thermophilus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 P 41797 were used in this investigation. The results indicated that neither the whole plant extracts of Urtica dioica nor Fumaria officinalis showed antibacterial activity against the test micro-organisms. All the extracts of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis showed various inhibitory effects (7-16 mm/20 µl inhibition zone), except the acetone extract against Yersinia enterocolitica. The whole plant ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Artemisia absinthium inhibited some of the test micro-organisms (8-16 mm/20 µml inhibition zone).
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Atomic emission spectrometry was applied for the determination of potassium and sodium concentrations in crude drugs and decoctions. The content of the two elements and potassium–sodium ratios of medicinal plant extracts were measure as a basis for evaluating diuretic activity. The potassium–sodium ratios were higher in the diuretic plant decoctions, than in crude drug decoctions used for different activities. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Stinging emergences in Urtica dioica L. characteristically possess an elongate stinging cell and a multicellular pedestal. The emergence is derived from the epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. The apical wall of the stinging cell is composed of silica bodies which decrease basipetally in concentration. The basal portion of the cell wall of the stinging cell is devoid of silica bodies and lacks primary pit fields or pits between it and the pedestal cells. X-ray microanalysis of electron dense particles located in the stinging cell ER-golgi complex indicate that these particles contain silicon. There is no ultrastructural evidence for the presence of a toxin synthesizing system or a toxin itself.
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Extracts of the aerial parts of nettle (Urticae folium/herba) are used for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic ailments and as a diuretic in inflammatory disorders of the lower urinary tract [1]. The active constitutents are supposed to be phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the taxonomy of Urtica seems to be complex and numerous subspecies and varieties of U. dioica L. exist. Hence we undertook LC-PDA-MS analyses of a range of U. dioica samples (including subspecies and varieties) and compared their profiles of phenolic acids and flavonoids with those of U. urens L., U. galeopsifolia Wierzb. ex Opiz, U. flabellate Kunth., U. platyphylla Wedd., U. pubescens Ledeb., U. peruviana Goltman and U. mexicana Liebm.. In all U. dioica samples neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeoylmalic acid together with the rutinosides and glucosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin could be detected which was in accordance with literature [2, 3]. Additionally kryptochlorogenic acid, 2-caffeoyltartaric acid and p-cumaroylquinic acid was found. U. urens contained predominantly chlorogenic acid, no caffeoylmalic acid could be detected (4). Further constituents which were new for the genus Urtica were feruloylmalic acid (U. flabellata, U. peruviana), cichoric acid, feruloyltartaric acid, schaftosid and orientin (U. peruviana). In an in vitro assay on 12-LOX inhibition (5) the methanolic extract of U. platyphylla and U. flabellata showed the highest activities (% inhibition at 100µg/mL: 53.6±10.5 and 58.2±16.6, respectively). References: 1. ESCOP Monographs, 2nd edition, ESCOP, Exeter, and Thieme, Stuttgart. 2. Budzianowski, J. (1991), Planta Med. 57:507–515. 3. Chaurasia, N., Wichtl, M. (1987), Planta Med. 53: 432–434. 4. Schomakers, J. et al. (1995), Dtsch Apoth Ztg 135: 578–84. 5. Schneider, I. et al. (2004), Planta Med, 70:471–74.
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U. dioica L. was used as medicinal plant since ancient times. Hydroalcoholic extract of the nettle root (Urticae radix) are currently used in the therapy of micturition disorders associated with slight and moderate BPH.
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In this study, the antibacterial activity of common nettle (Folium urticae) on some bacteria was investigated. Extract of common nettle which is prepared in diethyl ether tested to standard bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Micrococcus luteus with disk diffusion method as in vitro. It is determined that common nettle has inhibitory activity on S. aureus, E. faecalis and M. smegmatis but has no inhibitory activity at the proliferation of other bacterial strains.
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In the stinging nettle leaf extracts, obtained with CO2 at supercritical conditions, the presence and contents of fatty acids, palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3), were evaluated. Methyl esters of the fatty acids prepared with methanolic solution of sulphuric acid were determined by gas chromatography. Saturated fatty acids showed better solubility in supercritical CO2 at a lower pressure and temperature of extraction, whereas unsaturated fatty acids showed better solubility at a higher pressure and temperature. The highest content of total fatty acids of 44.1% was found in the stinging nettle leaf extracts obtained at 140 bar, 333 K, after 6 h of extraction and 8.3% of moisture in the raw material. As much as 6.8, 1.1, 3.6, 20.2 and 12.4% of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3, respectively, was found.
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In this literature review, we aimed to determine the prevalence, frequency of usage and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices and characteristics in cancer patients who were participated in research studies in Turkey. We have reached the 14 articles relevant to the subject which were published from 2001 to 2007, and 7 abstracts were published in National Congresses' abstract books in Turkey. Total number of subjects was 5252 (5069 adult and 183 pediatric) cancer patients. Data acquisition methods were face-to-face interview and/or using a questionnaire. Frequency of CAM use was between 22.1% and 84.1%. Mostly used type of CAM was herbal preparations (mostly "stinging nettle/Urtica dioica"); factors affecting use of CAM was gender; duration of disease, end stage disease, socioeconomic status and educational level. In studies those indicated the reasons for using CAM; most of the patients were stated that in order to do everything possible to fight with the disease, and belief of usefulness. Most of the patients use these therapies due to recommendation of family members, friends and other patients in the clinic and generally they have started to use herbal therapy together with medical therapy after diagnosis of cancer.
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Spinacia oleracea, L. (Chenopodiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicaceae) and Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) were tested for their antimutagenic effects on pesticides in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without the metabolic activation of S9. It was determined that the extracts from these plants decreased the mutagenic effects of Captan, Folpet, DDVP, Azinphosmethyl, Bioresmethrin and Trifluralin, Since various papers have previously discussed the antimutagenic effects of glutathione, cysteine and ascorbic acid, the extracts were also tested for the presence of these chemicals. Glutathione and cysteine were detected using paper chromatography. The presence of ascorbic acid was detected with a colorimetric assay. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assays of the chemical substances were evaluated using the Ames test.
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The effects of Rumex patientia and Urtica dioica on levels of blood glucose, plasma amino acids and other parameters, urine excreta, and liver and kidney histology were examined in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Streptozotocin increased blood glucose and changed the levels of amino acids and other parameters, and caused degenerative changes in the liver and kidney. Rumex patientia had some protective effect on these parameters changed by streptozotocin, while Urtica dioica had no protective effects.
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Plants of Urtica dioica were cultivated in three years with four different nitrogen (N) levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1) and the aerial parts were harvested three times per year to investigate if the content of flavonoids and phenolic acids were affected. The flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and the phenolic acids 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid and 2-O-caffeoylmalic acid were identified and quantified in extracts of the aerial parts of U. dioica by LC-DAD-MS and RP-HPLC-DAD, respectively. High N-levels reduced the concentration of total flavonoids significantly from an average of 10 mg g-1 dry matter (DM) at 0 kg N ha-1 to 5 mg g-1 at 400 kg N. The effect of N levels on total phenolic acids was only significant in the second harvest each year with a reduction from an average of 30 mg g-1 DM at 0 kg N ha-1 to 23 mg g-1 at 400 kg N ha-1. The composition of flavonoids changed significantly among the major flavonoids with later harvest time resulting in an increase in the content of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and a decrease of the quercetin-3-O-glucoside content. From the present study it appears that cultivation of U. dioica herba for medicinal purposes with a high yield of bioactive compounds is a compromise between a high yield of plant material and the content of flavonol glycosides and phenolic acids in the harvested product.
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Twenty healthy volunteers ingested for 21 days 2 capsules b.i.d. of an IDS 23/1 containing nettle leaf extract (Rheuma-Hek). Before and after 7 and 21 days the basal and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were measured ex vivo. In vitro the effects of IDS 23/1 on the release of these cytokines were determined. Additionally basal interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were recorded. Orally taken the test drug has ex vivo no effect on basal levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 which were always below detection limits. After 7 and 21 days ingestion ex vivo a decrease of LPS stimulated TNF-α release of 14.6 and 24.0%, respectively, was observed. IL-1 β was reduced for 19.2 and 39.3%. In vitro IDS 23/1 added to whole blood resulted in an exceeded inhibition of LPS stimulated TNF-α and IL-1 β secretion which correlated with the duration of the drug ingestion. Using the highest tested IDS 23/1 concentration the inhibition reached 50.5 (day 0) to 79.5% (day 21) for TNF-α and 90.0 (day 0) to 99.2% (day 21) for IL-1 β, respectively. IDS 23/1 induced a pronounced release of IL-6 in absence of LPS only in vitro. The detected IL-6 concentrations were comparable to those after LPS stimulation, additive effects could not be observed. The absence of detectable IL-6 concentrations in whole blood ex vivo after oral ingestion of the tested drug as well as the differences in the inhibition patterns for TNFα and IL-1β ex vivo and ex vivo in vitro suggest that the extract contains different pharmacological effective compounds with varying bioavailabilities.
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Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for half maximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 μm/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 μg/ml for IDS 23 and 38 μg/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapic of rheumatoid diseases.
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A neutral and an acidic carbohydrate-protein polymer were isolated from leaves of Urtica dioica. The neutral fraction was a glycoprotein, containing the serine-O-galactoside glycopeptide bond. Methylation analysis revealed a highly branched structure, arabinose constituting the exterior and mainly galactose the interior part of the carbohydrate moiety. Galacturonic acid was the major component of the acidic fraction.
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.Urtica dioicia L. (common stinging nettle) is not only a medicinal plant but also a natural source of fodder the food value of which is not inferior to that of clover. The properties of the stinging nettle are largely due to the presence of carotene and carotenoids in it. The carotenoids were extracted and separated by the method of B. G. Savinov and S. E. Kudritskaya [2]. The carotenoid extract of fresh stinging nettle leaves so obtained was saponified and was then subjected to chromatographic separation on a column filled with magnesium. Petroleum ether yielded mixture A of carotenoids. Mixture B of carotenoids was adsorbed in the upper part of the column. By thin-layer chromatography, carotenoid mixture A was separated into three zones: an orange zone (i) rose to the top part of the chromatogram, then a pale yellow zone (2) was adsorbed, and at the starting line there was a bright orange zone (3). The chromatography of a benzene extract of carotenoid mixture B on magnesia calcined at 700°C and the development of the chromatogram with the same solvent led to the separation of the mixture into two zones: a yellow zone (4) collected in the receiver, and a pink zone (5) remained on the adsorbent. The carotenoids isolated were investigated on a SF-10 spectrophotometer in various solvents. The maxima of the absorption curves in the visible region of the spectrum are given below (nm):
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A B S T R A C T Stinging emergences in Urtica dioica L. characteristically possess an elongate stinging cell and a multicellular pedestal. The emergence is derived from the epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. The apical wall of the stinging cell is composed of silica bodies which decrease basipetally in concentration. The basal portion of the cell wall of the stinging cell is devoid of silica bodies and lacks primary pit fields or pits between it and the pedestal cells. X-ray microanalysis of electron dense particles located in the stinging cell ER-golgi complex indicate that these particles contain silicon. There is no ultrastructural evidence for the presence of a toxin synthesizing system or a toxin itself. STINGING EMERGENCES are known to occur in four dicotyledonous plant families, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Loasaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae. However, the members of the Urticaceae are perhaps the most familiar and cosmopolitan. A stinging emergence is defined on the basis of its morphology, ontogeny, and capacity to inflict pain by the active release of a toxin from the stinging cell. Since their first description and illustration