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Stinging nettles leaf (Urtica dioica L.): Extraordinary vegetable medicine

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Abstract

The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are dependent upon the standards by which they are made and our knowledge base when prescribing them. Stinging nettles is a staple among Western herbalists and is widely used as a vegetable green, juice, tea, and freeze dried products, predominantly as a blood nourishing tonic and for seasonal rhinitis. The following botanical profile is excerpted from the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (R) and Therapeutic Compendium. (c) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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... Popis rastliny: Pŕhľava je trvalka patriaca do čeľade Urticeae, ktorá vytvára veľké husté kolónie, ktoré sa môže každoročne zväčšovať novými výhonkami z podzemkov 47) . Droga: list, vňať 48,49) . Obsahové látky nadzemných častí: flavonoidy, fenoly, kremičitany, skopoletin, karotenoidy (prevažuje betakarotén), chlorofyl, protoporfyrín, koproporfyrín, sitosterol, kyselina kávová, silica (ketóny, estery, alkoholy) a ďalšie 48,49) . ...
... Droga: list, vňať 48,49) . Obsahové látky nadzemných častí: flavonoidy, fenoly, kremičitany, skopoletin, karotenoidy (prevažuje betakarotén), chlorofyl, protoporfyrín, koproporfyrín, sitosterol, kyselina kávová, silica (ketóny, estery, alkoholy) a ďalšie 48,49) . Spôsoby podania: nálev z posekaných listov, šťava 49) . ...
... Nežiadúce účinky: Kontaktom s čerstvou pŕhľavou sa z pŕhlivých chĺpkov uvoľnia biologicky aktívne látky (acetylcholín, histamín, serotonín, leukotrieny) a v priebehu niekoľkých sekúnd spôsobujú svrbenie, dermatitídu a urtikáriu. Vyskytnúť sa môžu tiež alergické reakcie a gastrointestinálne ťažkosti ako je nevoľnosť, zvracanie a hnačka 48,49) . Toxicita: Toxicita pŕhľavy pri orálnom podaní je považovaná za veľmi nízku 50) . ...
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Subjective perception of insufficient milk supply is one of the most common problems of nursing mothers. For centuries, herbs have been used to increase lactation and remain popular even today. There is only a limited number of studies proving their safety and effectivity, so their use is based primarily on previous experience. The use of certain herbs has shown that they could be effective and safe, but further research is needed to define terms of use. This paper describes preliminary findings on the mechanism of action, adverse effects and possible interactions observed in some herbs frequently used to promote lactation.Key words: phytotherapy lactation herbal galactagogue.
... Trichomes act like needles which in contact with human skin inject acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, moroidin and formic acid, causing burning and rashes. U. dioica has been traditionally used as a source of medicine, food and feed additive and fibres [97]. ...
... Among the phenolic acids, chlorogenic, caffeoylmalic, caffeic, gallic and quinic are contained in nettle. U. dioica is a rich source of other bioactive compounds: kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin and its derivative, as well as patuletin and its glycosidic derivatives [97]. Essential oil of U. dioica contains more than 40 compounds, of which 70% are carvacrol, carvone, naphthalene, (E)-anethole, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, (E)-β-ionone and phytol [98]. ...
... Bioactive compounds contained in nettle extracts may enhance selective gastric functions and protect the gastric mucosa from chemical-induced damage. Roots of the nettle, in the form of extracts, are used to reduce complaints associated with prostate hyperplasia [97]. ...
Chapter
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It has long been shown that phytochemicals protect plants against viruses, bacteria, fungi and herbivores, but only relatively recently we have learnt that they are also critical in pro‐ tecting humans against diseases. A significant amount of medicinal plants is consumed by humans. As food‐related products, they additionally improve human health and general well‐being. This chapter deals with plant‐derived food preservatives. Particular attention has been paid to the following berry fruits: cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and açaí (Euterpe oleracea), as well as the following herbs and spices: peppermint (Mentha piperita), basil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioica), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyl‐ anicum) bark, cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as alternative sources of natural antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents with potential use in food indus‐ try. Moreover, we present an overview of the most recent information on the positive effect of bioactive compounds of these plants on human health. This chapter is a collec‐ tion of essential and valuable information for food producers willing to use plant‐derived bioactive substances for ensuring the microbiological safety of products.
... In folk medicine, UD seeds used for treatment of cancer (Kaya et al., 2013 andAktas et al., 2016), urinary tract disorder as well as an antiinflammatory agent (Di Lorenzo et al., 2013). The UD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and watersoluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and, calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). Moreover, UD has salicylic acid, lecithin, sterols, thymol, chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidants (Dügenci et al., 2003;Upton, 2013 andJalili et al., 2014) that promote detoxification, antiinflammatory and antioxidant capacity (Kataki et al., 2012b). ...
... The UD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and watersoluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and, calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). Moreover, UD has salicylic acid, lecithin, sterols, thymol, chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidants (Dügenci et al., 2003;Upton, 2013 andJalili et al., 2014) that promote detoxification, antiinflammatory and antioxidant capacity (Kataki et al., 2012b). ...
... The antioxidant effect of AEDPP returns to its high concentration of vitamins C, B1, B2, nicotinic acid (Niacin) and vitamin A (Hassan, 2011). Moreover, the AEUD contains both fat soluble vitamins (A and D) and water-soluble vitamins (C and B), minerals (iron, manganese, potassium and calcium) and proteins (Toldy et al., 2009 andUpton, 2013). On the other hand, several factors can be considered to understand the action and the capacity of antioxidants: the capacity for scavenging free radicals, the localization of antioxidant, but also the interaction with other antioxidants and the mobility of antioxidant at the microenvironment (Niki, 2010). ...
Article
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This study was conducted to investigate the influence of adding aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica (AEUD) and date palm pollen powder (AEDPP) to Tris extender on some post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5ºC, 48 hrs., 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years old were used in the current study during the period from 20 th November, 2017 to 20 th August, 2018. Pooled semen was equally divided into three groups within one experiment. AEUD (0.01 g / 50 ml extender) and AEDPP (0.02 g / 50 ml extender) were added to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, C). The AEUD and AEDPP groups exhibited greater (P<0.01) sperm's cell individual motility percentage as compared with the C group at cooling as well as 1, 2 and 3 months PC periods. Concomitantly, greater (P<0.01) live sperm percentage was observed in AEUD and AEDPP groups in comparison with the C group at all preservation periods. Lesser (Pd<0.01) abnormal sperm percentage were noticed for AEUD and AEDPP groups as compared with the C group at 48 hr., 1, 2 and, 3 months PC. Greater (P<0.01) acrosome integrity percentage was observed for AEUD as compared with the other two groups at 1, 2 and, 3 months PC. The AEUD and AEDPP groups exhibited greater (P<0.01) plasma membrane integrity percentage in comparison with the control group at all preservation periods. In conclusion, adding AEUD and AEDPP to Tris extender had a crucial role in improving some PC semen characteristics of Holstein bulls.
... Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) is a wild-growing, widespread annual plant from Urticaceae family. It has been used in a traditional medicine since ancient times in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis and as a tonic, astringent, and diuretic (Kavalali, 2003;Upton, 2013). Nettle infusions and decocts are frequently used for the treatment of anemia and convalescing patients because its administration increases the iron binding capacity as well as the level of red cell folate and vitamin B 12 in blood (Upton, 2013). ...
... It has been used in a traditional medicine since ancient times in the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis and as a tonic, astringent, and diuretic (Kavalali, 2003;Upton, 2013). Nettle infusions and decocts are frequently used for the treatment of anemia and convalescing patients because its administration increases the iron binding capacity as well as the level of red cell folate and vitamin B 12 in blood (Upton, 2013). Additionally, stinging nettle is used as a leaf vegetable, primarily in soups, vegetable pies, and salads (Kavalali, 2003). ...
... Additionally, stinging nettle is used as a leaf vegetable, primarily in soups, vegetable pies, and salads (Kavalali, 2003). Some medicinal properties of stinging nettle have been confirmed by a modern research; thus, nowadays, it plays a major role in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Chrubasik et al., 2007) and rheumatoid arthritis (Upton, 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this work was to determine the chemical profile of stinging nettle and to provide an insight into the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the immune response. Qualitative and quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic acids (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as dominant) and flavonol glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) are present in the aerial parts, while lignans (secoisolariciresinol, 9,9'-bisacetyl-neo-olivil and their glucosides) were detected in the root. Herb and root extracts expressed selective inhibition toward cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches in human platelets: root extracts were better at inhibiting thromboxane production, while herb extracts were more specific toward inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase pathway. Stinging nettle extracts mildly increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and growth-related oncogene release from nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells, stimulating MyD88/NF-κB/p38 signaling, hence preserving the epithelial integrity and enhancing intestinal steady-state defense. Additionally, root extract reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/growth-related oncogene secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in intestinal epithelial cells, thus showing the potential protective effect against tissue damage caused by inflammation processes. These observations suggest that stinging nettle is an interesting candidate for the development of phytopharmaceuticals or dietary supplements for cotreatment of various inflammatory diseases, particularly inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... In this context, researchers have studied the Urtica dioica [3,4], an evergreen edible plant commonly used since ancient times in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. ...
... U. dioica is the most common species of the Urticaceae family commonly known as Stinging nettle and one of the most studied medicinal plants worldwide. It is an herbaceous perennial plant and has a long history of usage for various kinds of health problems [3,4]. The plant grows in tropical and temperate wasteland areas around the world, and well tolerates all environments. ...
... Thus, the consumption of U. dioica was in line with an amelioration of phenolic compounds food intake and thus, the exploitation of these anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds defined the plant as a valuable tool towards mutagenesis and carcinogenesis [36]. Among lipid secondary metabolites, carotenoids were detected in the leaves and their total content was estimated equal to 29.6 mg/100 g dry weight [4,23]. ...
Article
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A large range of chronic and degenerative diseases can be prevented through the use of food products and food bioactives. This study reports the health benefits and biological activities of the Urtica dioica (U. dioica) edible plant, with particular focus on its cancer chemopreventive potential. Numerous studies have attempted to investigate the most efficient anti-cancer therapy with few side effects and high toxicity on cancer cells to overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells and the adverse effects of current therapies. In this regard, natural products from edible plants have been assessed as sources of anti-cancer agents. In this article, we review current knowledge from studies that have examined the cytotoxic, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of U. dioica plant on several human cancers. Special attention has been dedicated to the treatment of breast cancer, the most prevalent cancer among women and one of the main causes of death worldwide. The anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of U. dioica have been demonstrated on different human cancers, investigating the properties of U. dioica at cellular and molecular levels. The potent cytotoxicity and anti-cancer activity of the U. dioica extracts are due to its bioactive natural products content, including polyphenols which reportedly possess anti-oxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-proliferative properties. The efficacy of this edible plant to prevent or mitigate human cancers has been demonstrated in laboratory conditions as well as in experimental animal models, paving the way to the development of nutraceuticals for new anti-cancer therapies.
... Fresh stinging nettle has been used for flailing arthritic or paralytic limbs stimulating circulation and warmth the joints and extremities. This treatment is known as urtication (Upton, 2013). Different studies demonstrated antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and analgesic properties of SN extracts (Ghaima, Hashim, & Ali, 2013;Gülçin, Küfrevioǧlu, Oktay, & Büyükokuroǧlu, 2004;Johnson, Sohn, Inman, Bjeldanes, & Rayburn, 2013;Kukrić et al., 2012) as well as many others biological activities (Upton, 2013). ...
... This treatment is known as urtication (Upton, 2013). Different studies demonstrated antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and analgesic properties of SN extracts (Ghaima, Hashim, & Ali, 2013;Gülçin, Küfrevioǧlu, Oktay, & Büyükokuroǧlu, 2004;Johnson, Sohn, Inman, Bjeldanes, & Rayburn, 2013;Kukrić et al., 2012) as well as many others biological activities (Upton, 2013). Beside its usage in medicine, this herb has been also used in human nutrition as food or tea and also har-vested commercially due to high content of chlorophyll, which is used as green coloring agent (E140) in food and medicines (Brown, 1995). ...
... On the other hand, ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic and sinapic acids were detected only in UAE extract. Presence of flavonodis in both glycoside and aglycone forms, as well as phenolic acids, were previously confirmed using different liquid chromatographyc techniques (Bucar, Britzmann, Streit, & Weigend, 2006;Orčić et al., 2014;Pinelli et al., 2008;Upton, 2013). ...
... This plant is generally known for biological activity and positive efect which expresses on human health. It has long history of application in folk medicine where it has been used for treatment of lailing arthritis or paralytic limbs, stimulation of circulation, and warming the joints and extremities [2]. There are wide ranges of studies which have dealt with biological activity of this plant. ...
... There are wide ranges of studies which have dealt with biological activity of this plant. They have proved antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inlammatory, antiulcer, and analgesic properties of plant and its extracts [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Besides application in medicine, this plant has also been used in human nutrition for a long time. ...
... The inflmmatory activity of Urtica dioica is attributed to its inhibition of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase and cytochines (Morgia and Privitera, 2018). Urtica dioica used externally alleviates pain because the histamine in the leaf hairs has a counterirritant effect that blocks the pain signal from the painful area of the body (Upton, 2013). ...
... A formula (Rosaxan) consisting of rosehip (Rosa canina), Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) root extract and Urtica dioica leaf extract proved in a double-blinded RCT to be a safe and effective treatment option for gonarthritis patients (Brien et al., 2006;Moré et al., 2017). Upton (2013) reviewed stinging nettle herb (Urtica dioica) and wrote that it has a broader range of action than NSAIDs because it (the lipophilic hexane fraction, not the aqueous extract) interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism, modulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and also modulates cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell migration into the joint, and the attachment of synovium to bone and cartilage. Zgrajka et al. (2013) studied the kynurenic acid content of plants used for rheumatism. ...
Article
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Ethnopharmacological relevance There are insufficient safe and effective treatments for chronic pain in pets. In cases such as osteoarthritis there is no commercially available cure and veterinarians use NSAIDs to manage pain. Pet owners may have to plan for a lifetime of plant-based treatment for the conditions that lead to chronic pain in pets. Phytopharmacotherapies have the advantage of being less toxic, cheap or free, readily available, are more likely to be safe for long-term use and have the potential to reset the immune system to normal functioning. Aim of the study To examine the recently published medicinal plant research that matches unpublished data on ethnoveterinary medicines (EVM) used for pets in Canada (British Columbia) to see if the EVM data can provide a lead to the development of necessary drugs. Materials and methods In 2003 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holisitic medicinal/veterinary practitioners obtained using a purposive sample. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop that discussed the plant-based treatments. A copy of the final version of the manual was given to all research participants. In 2018, the recently published research matching the EVM data was reviewed to see if the EVM practices could serve as a lead for further research. Results and conclusion Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. The injuries treated in pets in British Columbia included abscesses (resulting from an initial injury), sprains and abrasions. Dogs were also treated with medicinal plants for rheumatoid arthritis, joint pain and articular cartilage injuries. More than 40 plants were used. Anal gland problems were treated with Allium sativum L., Aloe vera L., Calendula officinalis L., Plantago major L., Ulmus fulva Michx., Urtica dioica L. and Usnea longissima Ach. Arctium lappa, Hydrangea arborescens and Lactuca muralis were used for rheumatoid arthritis and joint pain in pets. Asthma was treated with: Linum usitatissimum L., Borago officinalis L., Verbascum thapsus L., Cucurbita pepo L., Lobelia inflata L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Pets with heart problems were treated with Crataegus oxyacantha L., Cedronella canariensis (L.) Willd. ex Webb & Berth, Equisetum palustre L., Cypripedium calceolus L., Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, Humulus lupulus L., Valeriana officinalis L., Lobelia inflata L., Stachys officinalis (L.) Trev., and Viscum album L. The following plants were used for epilepsy, motion sickness and anxiety- Avena sativa L., Valeriana officinalis, Lactuca muralis (L.) Fresen., Scutellaria lateriflora L., Satureja hortensis L., and Passiflora incarnata L. Plants used for cancer treatment included Phytolacca decandra, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Rumex acetosella, Arctium lappa, Ulmus fulva, Rheum palmatum, Frangula purshiana, Zingiber officinale, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ulmus fulva, Althea officinalis, Rheum palmatum, Rumex crispus and Plantago psyllium. Trifolium pratense was used for tumours in the prostate gland. Also used were Artemisia annua, Taraxacum officinale and Rumex crispus. This review of plants used in EVM was possible because phytotherapy research of the plants described in this paper has continued because few new pharmaceutical drugs have been developed for chronic pain and because treatments like glucocorticoid therapy do not heal. Phytotherapuetic products are also being investigated to address the overuse of antibiotics. There have also been recent studies conducted on plant-based functional foods and health supplements for pets, however there are still gaps in the knowledge base for the plants Stillingia sylvatica, Verbascum thapsus, Yucca schidigera and Iris versicolor and these need further investigation.
... Beneficial effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of this plant was confirmed in treatment of anemia (Leporatti and Corradi, 2001;Pinelli et al., 2008), gout and eczema (Orčić et al., 2014;Pinelli et al., 2008), urinary, bladder and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Orčić et al., 2014). Wide spectra of biological activities of nettle has been observed (Bisht et al., 2012;Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Guil-Guerrero et al., 2003;Orčić et al., 2014;Sánchez-Mata et al., 2016;Stanojević et al., 2016;Upton, 2013), including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiulcer, hypolipidemic and many other properties (Ghaima et al., 2013;Güder and Korkmaz, 2012;Gülçin et al., 2004;Kataki et al., 2012;Kukrić et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Upton, 2013). These activities were related to the presence of biologically active compounds, such as vitamins (C, K and B series), essential amino acids, fatty acids, carotenes, terpenoids, polyphenolic compounds, dietary fibers, etc. (Bağci, 2002;Đurović et al., 2017;Guil-Guerrero et al., 2003;Gül et al., 2012;Gülçin et al., 2004;Kukrić et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Otles and Yalcin, 2012;Pinelli et al., 2008). ...
... Beneficial effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of this plant was confirmed in treatment of anemia (Leporatti and Corradi, 2001;Pinelli et al., 2008), gout and eczema (Orčić et al., 2014;Pinelli et al., 2008), urinary, bladder and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Orčić et al., 2014). Wide spectra of biological activities of nettle has been observed (Bisht et al., 2012;Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Guil-Guerrero et al., 2003;Orčić et al., 2014;Sánchez-Mata et al., 2016;Stanojević et al., 2016;Upton, 2013), including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiulcer, hypolipidemic and many other properties (Ghaima et al., 2013;Güder and Korkmaz, 2012;Gülçin et al., 2004;Kataki et al., 2012;Kukrić et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Upton, 2013). These activities were related to the presence of biologically active compounds, such as vitamins (C, K and B series), essential amino acids, fatty acids, carotenes, terpenoids, polyphenolic compounds, dietary fibers, etc. (Bağci, 2002;Đurović et al., 2017;Guil-Guerrero et al., 2003;Gül et al., 2012;Gülçin et al., 2004;Kukrić et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Otles and Yalcin, 2012;Pinelli et al., 2008). ...
Article
Biologically active compounds were isolated from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves using non-conventional extraction techniques such as ultrasound-assisted (UAE), microwave-assisted (MAE) and subcritical water extraction (SCW). Based on the extraction efficiency of six various solvents determined preliminary, water was selected as appropriate solvent for further extraction. The highest total phenolics (463.59 mg CAE/g SN) and flavonoids (11.00 mg CE/g SN) contents, and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 16.93 μg/mL), reducing power (EC50 = 30.07 μg/mL) and polarographic assays (HPMC = 243.2%/mL) were ascribed to SCW extract. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial assays also confirmed domination of SCW technique. Superior cytotoxic activity against Hep2c, RD and L2OB cell lines (13.42 μg/mL, 9.69 μg/mL and 7.52 μg/mL, respectively) and potent antimicrobial activity extract against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 9.76 μg/mL) were also observed. The highest number of individual phenolic compounds were found in MAE extract. Rutin was identified as the most dominant compound in UAE, MAE and SCW extracts (578.36 μg/g, 722.83 μg/g and 215.49 μg/g, respectively), while sinapic acid as the most dominant phenolic acid (50.49 μg/g, 63.12 μg/g and 18.08 μg/g, respectively).
... Urtica spp. (nettles) is characterized by serrated leaf species, stinging plants and midrange size, having an extensive range of uses, being economically viable in many industrial areas, namely in textile, paper, food, cosmetic industries, and are still considered relevant as human health promoters (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Upton, 2013). The species addressed in this study -Urtica dioica L., Urtica membranacea Poir. ...
... The species addressed in this study -Urtica dioica L., Urtica membranacea Poir. and Urtica urens L. have distinct morphological characteristics and differ in their distribution (Upton, 2013). "Common nettle" (Urtica dioica) is a perennial plant, with a wide global distribution; the "nettle of tails" (Urtica membranacea) is a perennial plant with a distribution restricted to the Mediterranean region and still poorly studied; "nettleless" (Urtica urens) is spread primarily on the north hemisphere (Rodríguez, Palacios, Molina, & Corchero, 2006). ...
Article
Urtica dioica and other less studied Urtica species (Urticaceae) are often used as a food ingredient. Fifteen hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sixteen flavonoids, flavone and flavonol-type glycosides were identified in hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts of Urtica dioica L., Urtica urens L. and Urtica membranacea using HPLC-PDA-ESI/MSⁿ. Among them, two p-coumaroyl-caffeoylquinic acid isomers and three statin-like 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl flavone derivatives were identified for the first time in Urtica urens and U. membranacea respectively. Urtica membranacea showed the higher content of flavonoids, mainly luteolin and apigenin C-glycosides, which are almost absent in the other species studied.
... Comparing with other analysed plants it was higher in average two to three times. Our results were similar to data reported by Upton (2013), who noticed that content of chlorophylls in nettles could be 0.08-0.30% FW. ...
... mg g -1 (stinging nettle). The determined content of total carotenoids in fresh leaves is higher than results reported by Guil-Guerrero et al.(2003)andUpton (2013) who has been reported that the total amount of carotenoids from fresh leaves of nettles was determined 29.6 mg 100 g -1 DW. Our results are also higher than the data of Žnidarčič et al. (2011) who analysed carotenoids content in fresh dandelion leaves and determined 6.34 mg 100 g -1 . ...
... Roots of this plant are used against benign prostate hyperplasia. It is also utilized against rheumatic conditions and urinary tract disorders and allergies 144 . The distribution of phytochemicals from the aerial parts ethanol extracts of U. diocia from Islamabad Pakistan authenticated the presence of important flavonoids like orientin and luteolin 82 . ...
... Ziziphus jujube belongs to the family Rhamnaceae. It contains simple carbohydrates (9%), protein (2%) and polysaccharides (2%) 144 . Investigations of Rasool et al., 149 , Shad et al., 60 and Rahman et al., 49 validated antioxidant activity of species of Z. jujube from Pakistan. ...
Article
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Background: There exist natural antioxidants in plants that scavenge harmful free radicals from the body. Free radicals are species of chemical origin with an unpaired electron and play a pivotal role in combating against health-related problems like lung damage, inflammation, and cardiovascular ailments etc. Antioxidants halt the development of these free radicals called the reactive oxygen species either by chelating the trace elements or by enzymes inhibition. Objectives: The aim of present review was to collect information about Pakistani medicinally important plants with the exploration of their antioxidant potential. Methodology: Total 206 papers were looked over, which were obtained from numerous sources like; Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Research Gate, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. Results: Overall, 93 plants representing 44 families with potential antioxidant activity reported from Pakistan have been presented in this review. Maximum number of species from Asteracea, Poaceae and Rutaceae familes were scrutinized for their potential antioxidant activity from Pakistan. Conclusion: The present review clearly designates that the presence of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Pakistan vary with the species of the plants and material/extracts used. From this review, it is recommended to perform comprehensive experimental investigations based on toxicology and ethnopharmacology on these precious plants from Pakistan. It will be advantageous in the provision of trustworthy information to patients and determine further innovative compounds for safer and new drugs development with fewer side effects.
... The root contains lectins, polysaccharides, phytosterols, lignans, coumarines (scopoletin), and high amounts of fatty acids. The main constituents of nettle stems are flavonoids and anthocyanins, whereas their flowers contain high amounts of β-sitosterol and 7 flavonoid glycosides (Said et al., 2015;Upton, 2013;El Haouari, M and Rosado, JA, 2019). ...
... In fact, only Korani et al. (Korani et al., 2017a) reported itching in one patient of the treatment group. However, allergic skin reactions (Contact urticaria and burning pain) and mild gastrointestinal adverse events have been observed following intake of commercial stinging nettle extracts; where it is asserted that histamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, are responsible (Upton, 2013). With regards to drug interactions, no adverse interactions have been reported for nettle. ...
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major health problem, worldwide, that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have investigated the effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) supplementation on markers of glycemic status in patients with T2DM, with conflicting results. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of nettle on some glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, from database inception up to June 2019, to identify RCTs investigating the effect of nettle supplementation on glycemic markers, including fasting blood sugar (FBS) concentrations, insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage in adults with T2DM. The Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results of this meta-analysis were reported based on the random effects model. Eight RCTs, comprising 401 participants , were included in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. Based on the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool, five studies were considered as good quality, one was fair, and two studies were poor, respectively. The results of the meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in FBS concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD]: −18.01 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −30.04 to −5.97, p < .001, I 2 = 94.6%) following nettle supplementation. However, no significant reduction was observed in insulin levels (WMD: 0.83 Hedges' g, 95% CI: −0.26 to 1.92, p = .13, I 2 = 89.4%), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index (WMD: −0.22, 95% CI: −0.83 to 0.40, p = .49, I 2 = 69.2%), or glycosylated hemoglo-bin percentage (WMD: −0.77%, 95% CI: −1.77 to 0.22, p = .12, I 2 = 83.0%). The findings of the present study suggest that nettle supplementation may be effective in controlling FBS for T2DM patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm the veracity of these results. K E Y W O R D S glycemic markers, meta-analysis, nettle, systematic review, type 2 diabetes mellitus
... The traditional uses of leaves and roots reported diuretic, blood purifier, nasal and menstrual haemorrhage, eczema, emmenagogue, rheumatism, nephritis, anaemia, diarrhoea, jaundice and epilepsy [1,8]. Herbs of U. dioica used to treat stomach ache in Turkish folk medicine [9] and also treat cold and cough [9,10]. Urtica dioica is widely known for biological activity and beneficial effect on human health. ...
... In India, this plant is used for the skin eruptions, nosebleeds, eczema and uterine haemorrhages [19]. In Turkish folk medicine, the plant of U. dioica is used to treat stomach ache [10]. The entire plant used for several purposes such as fodder, medicine, cosmetic, textile production, biodynamic agriculture and food [22,23]. ...
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Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) belonging to family Urticaceae, is obtained from word 'uro' to burn or 'urere' denotation to sting. It is found in the Himalayas region from Kashmir to Kumaon region (Uttarakhand.). The plant has been used in traditional system of medicines especially uses nasal and menstrual haemorrhage, eczema, rheumatism, nephritis, anaemia, diarrhoea, jaundice and epilepsy. The plant contains bioactive constituents like tannins, fatty acids, flavonoids, sterols, isolectins, proteins, and terpenes. Leaves of Urtica dioica also contain minerals such as (sodium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium) and some vitamins like vitamin B, C and K. The plant has been reported to have antiviral, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiurolithiatic, hepatoprotective, antifungal and anti-helminthic effect. The updated review compiles the published data about the chemical constituents, pharmacognostic evaluation, ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities.
... In the freeze-dried form; roots, instead, help tackling benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, such as difficulty in urination. For both plant parts different studies have enlightened some mechanisms of action, providing support to the traditional uses (Upton 2013;De Vico et al. 2018). Besides ''urticae radix'', Commission E also reports a monograph for ''urtica herba'' and ''urtica folium'' given by herbs and leaves of U. dioica and Urtica urens and/or their hybrids, gathered while in bloom: can be used ''as supportive therapy for rheumatic ailments'' and ''as irrigation therapy for inflammatory diseases of the lower urinary tract and treatment of kidney gravel'' (Blumenthal et al. 1998). ...
... Table 2 summarizes the biological activity of U. dioica extracts responsible for its medical and health properties. Infusions of this plant have been used since ancient Egyptian times for the relief of arthritis, rheumatism and lumbago (Harrison 1961;Upton 2013). Over the past few years, the biological activity of this plant has been widely studied to elucidate its use for pharmacological purposes. ...
Article
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Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), commonly known as stinging nettle, is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the group of phytoalimurgic vegetables, including the wild edible species that were all used in the past when there was a shortage of food. The plant is well known from everybody for the dermatitis it causes when touched, due to biochemical mediators such as histamine and acetylcholine. Recently there was a rediscovery of the plant as food and medicine because of the range of biological activities exhibited such as antirheumatic, anti-infective, immuno-modulatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, and allergy relief. This review, providing a botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological overview of the species, aims to contribute to arouse interest in the scientific community on this promising plant.
... Drying of stinging nettle leaves not only grants their use when the plants are not physiologically active but also extends their consumption period. Additionally, the irritating contents of the stinging hairs are dissipated upon drying (Upton, 2013). ...
... The drying method chosen can have a major impact on nutrient degradation and retention (Shilton, 2003). Ambient air-drying (such as well-ventilated air drying and sun drying) was mentioned as a common method of drying stinging nettle leaves (Maanda and Bhat, 2010;Upton, 2013). However, the slow drying process involved in ambient air-drying methods may lead to a loss of quality of the leaves (e.g. ...
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Stinging nettles provide low-cost quality nutrition for alleviating malnutrition. Previous research on stinging nettles focused mainly on the nutritional quality of fresh leaves. In this study, the effect of drying method on macronutrients, mineral content, ascorbic acid, β-carotene content and total phenols content and antioxidant activity were investigated. The contribution of fresh, oven dried or freeze dried stinging nettle leaves to the required daily value for the nutrients were also determined. Oven drying of nettle leaves resulted in a higher loss of β-carotene and ascorbic acid content compared to freeze drying. In contrast, the total phenols content and total antioxidant activity were higher in oven dried stinging nettle leaves compared to freeze dried leaves. Overall, freeze dried and oven dried nettle leaves can be considered as a rich source of Ca, Mg and vitamin A; a good source of vitamin C, Fe, and Mn; and a source for Mg and K. Stinging nettle leaves could potentially be used as a cheap natural source of antioxidants and for addressing micronutrient malnutrition.
... For example, ethnobotanical records may list a traditional medicine as useful in the treatment of increased urine output, which may be a symptom of numerous diseases including DM, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or several urinary tract infections (UTIs). Indeed, in other parts of the world, U. dioica is indicated for inflammation and prostatic hyperplasia (Upton, 2013), as well as for diabetes (El Haouari and Rosado, 2019). Whether the usage of U. dioacia in traditional South African medicine is due to symptomatic relief, or if its use is targeted more specifically at DM is unclear. ...
... For example, many plants are recorded as being useful to decrease urinary output (a symptom of DM). However, increased urinary frequency and volume may also be a symptom of multiple other diseases including some urinary tract infections (UTIs) and prostatic hyperplasia (Upton, 2013). Thus, it may not be possible to discern whether a plant was used specifically to treat DM or one of these pathologies. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases globally and is of considerable concern to global health. Approximately 425 million people are estimated to have DM globally and this is predicted to increase to >642 million by 2040. Whilst the prevalence of DM in South Africa is slightly lower than the global average, it is expected to rise rapidly in future years as more South Africans adopt a high calorie “Westernised” diet. Traditional medicines offer an alternative for the development of new medicines to treat DM and the usage of South African plants is relatively well documented. Aim of the study: To critically review the literature on the anti-diabetic properties of South African plants and to document plant species used for the treatment of DM. Thereafter, a thorough examination of the related research will highlight where research is lacking in the field. Materials and methods A review of published ethnobotanical books, reviews and primary scientific studies was undertaken to identify plants used to treat DM in traditional South African healing systems and to identify gaps in the published research. The study was non-biased, without taxonomic preference and included both native and introduced species. To be included, species must be recorded in the pharmacopeia of at least one South African ethnic group for the treatment of DM. Results One hundred and thirty-seven species are recorded as therapies for DM, with leaves and roots most commonly used. The activity of only 43 of these species have been verified by rigorous testing, although relatively few studies have examined the mechanism of action. Conclusion Despite relatively extensive ethnobotanical records and a diverse flora, the anti-diabetic properties of South African medicinal plants is relatively poorly explored. The efficacy of most plants used traditionally to treat DM are yet to be verified and few mechanistic studies are available. Further research is required in this field.
... Nettle is also an important source of iron, vitamin A, C and D, carotenoids, essential amino, fatty acids (Guil-Guerrero, 2003, Rutto et al., 2013Said et al., 2015, Di Virgilio et al., 2015Baumgardner, 2016) proteins, minerals calcium, potassium, manganese, choline, amines, anti-oxidant chlorophyll and 5-hydroxytryptophan (Bisht et al., 2012 andUpton, 2013) and it improve oxidative stability in brined vegetables. Fiol et al., (2016) opines that it can also be used either as a steamed vegetable or a regular ingredient in many preparations such as in pastas and omelettes. ...
... Other beneficial effects of nettle have also been reported on inflammation, hypoglycemia, hypotension, antiasthmatic, astringent, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic, hypoglycemic, stings, tonic, anemia, eczema, sciatica, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cardiovascular problems, arthritis, allergic rhinitis and during excessive menstruation (Koch, 2001;Safarinejad, 2006;Pinelli et al., 2008;Roschek et al., 2009;Bisht et al., 2012;Guarrera andSavo, 2013 andUpton, 2013). Furthermore, stinging nettle exhibits antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, analgesic, antiandrogenic, antihyperglycemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, anticancer activities, antiviral and antiulcer activity (Gülcin et al., 2004;Orˇci´c et al., 2014;Asgarpanah andMohajerani, 2012 Upton, 2013). ...
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n the last 15-20 years, the need to develop management strategies for non –wood forest resources have drastically increased. The aim of this study was to document the role of stinging nettle in the diet-base and medicinal world among the rural and urban population within Aberdare and Mt Kenya forest landscapes. Stratified random sampling designed was used, questionnaires were administered to communities living within the urban, slum and rural areas. DMRT test showed significant differences on extraction of the forest products (P<0.05), consumption of nettle products (P < 0.5), diseases cured (P < 0.05) and administration of nettle products (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation (Spearman, rs = 0.920, n = 6, P = 0.013) on the preference of products extracted from the forest and the uses of nettle products (Pearson, rs = 0.782, n=3, P = 0.02) across the three sites. The GINI coefficient of income showed that products from the forest played a key role in reducing the inequality in the study sites. The findings indicates that stinging nettles plays an important medicinal and food function to the local community and therefore strategies should be put in place to promote its usage and sustainably manage its exploitation within the forests. Keywords: Non-wood forest products, Urtica masaica, stinging nettle, Mt Kenya and Aberdare (PDF) The Medicinal And Diet Base Value Of Stinging Nettle (Urtica Masaica) To The Rural And Urban Livelihoods Within Aberdare And Mt Kenya Forest Landscapes. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337050010_The_Medicinal_And_Diet_Base_Value_Of_Stinging_Nettle_Urtica_Masaica_To_The_Rural_And_Urban_Livelihoods_Within_Aberdare_And_Mt_Kenya_Forest_Landscapes [accessed Dec 19 2019].
... Stinging nettle is a perennial herbaceous cosmopolitan plant with long history of usage in treatment of different kinds of health problems (Nencu et al., 2013). Moreover, numerous researches confirmed antiinflammatory, analgesic, antiplatelet, positive cardiovascular and smooth-muscle activity, as well as hypotensive effect of stinging nettles (Upton, 2013). Di Virgilio et al. (2015) reports that nettle can be used as leafy vegetable, it has been used for centuries in salads, pies and soups. ...
... Od biljke se može koristiti koren, list, cvet i seme. List koprive sadrži širok spektar hemijskih konstituenata: acetilholin, histamin, 5-hidroksitriptamin (serotonin), hlorogenu i kafeinsku kiselinu, kumarine (skopoletin), flavonoide, terpene, masne kiseline, minerale i vitamine [3]. Vodeni i vodeno-etanolni ekstrakti lista kopive pokazuju hipotenzivnu [4], antiinflamatornu [5], diuretičnu [6], imunomodulatorsku [7] i antioksidativnu aktivnost [8,9]. ...
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2 Visoka strukovna škola za tekstil, Leskovac, Srbija U radu je ispitivana antioksidativna aktivnost vodeno-etanolnih ekstrakata iz lista koprive (Urtica dioica L.) primenom DPPH, FRAP i H2O2 metode. Vode-no-etanolni ekstrakti dobijeni su primenom različitih tehnika ekstrakcije (mac-eracija na sobnoj temperaturi i temperaturi ključanja, ultrazvučna, Soxhlet i Tillepape ekstrakcija). Sadržaj ukupnih fenola i flavonoida određen je spek-trofotometrijski, metodom po Folin-Ciocalteu i metodom sa AlCl3, respektivno. Najveći sadržaj fenola (630,21 mg GKE/g suvog ekstrakta) i flavonoida (21,06 mg RE/g suvog ekstrakta) određen je u ekstraktu dobijenom primenom Soxlet ekstrakcije. Najbolju antioksidativnu aktivnost pokazao je vodeno-etanolni ek-strakt dobijen primenom Soxlet ekstrakcije, nezavisno od primenjene antiok-sidativne metode. Prezentovani podaci ukazuju da su bioaktivne komponente, fenoli i flavonoidi, verovatno najvećim delom odgovorne za antioksidativnu aktivnost dobijenih ekstrakata. Vodeno-etanolni ekstrakti iz lista koprive pred-stavljaju potencijalni prirodni izvor antioksidanata. Uvod Kopriva (Urtica dioica L.) je jednogodišnja ili višegodišnja korovska biljka sa istaknutim dlačicama koje žare, iz porodice Urticaceae [1]. Može se komerci-jalno gajiti, a raste u vlažnim područjima SAD i Evrope [2]. Od biljke se može koristiti koren, list, cvet i seme. List koprive sadrži širok spektar hemijskih konstitu-enata: acetilholin, histamin, 5-hidroksitriptamin (sero-tonin), hlorogenu i kafeinsku kiselinu, kumarine (sko-poletin), flavonoide, terpene, masne kiseline, minerale i vitamine [3]. Vodeni i vodeno-etanolni ekstrakti lista kopive pokazuju hipotenzivnu [4], antiinflamatornu [5], diuretičnu [6], imunomodulatorsku [7] i antioksidativnu aktivnost [8,9]. Antioksidanti su supstance koje neutral-isanjem slobodnih radikala, doniranjem svog elektrona, sprečavaju oštećanja važnijih biomolekula u organizmu [10]. Potvrđeno je da vodeno-alkoholni ekstrakti koprive inhibicijom lipidne peroksidacije i oksidacijom fenolnih jedinjenja ispoljavaju antioksidativnu aktivnost [11]. Liofi-lizirani ekstrakti lista koprive ispoljavaju antialergijsku ak-tivnost, kontrolom Histamin 1 (H1) receptora koji regulišu oslobađanje histamina iz bazofila i drugih ćelija. Smatra se da su jedinjenja nikotinamid, adenin, sinefrin i ostol, a koja su identifikovana u koprivi, odgovorna za antiinflam-atorne i antialergijske efekte [2]. Ekstrakt lista koprive se može koristiti i kao pomoćni lek kod reumatoidnog artriti-sa [12]. Vodeni ekstrakti koprive su povremeno korišćeni kao narodni lek za lečenje kancera i šećerne bolesti u Turskoj [4,13]. Cilj ovog rada je određivanje antioksidativne ak-tivnosti vodeno-etanolnih ekstrakata lista koprive do-bijenih različitim tehnikama ekstrakcije: maceracija na sobnoj temperaturi i temperaturi ključanja, ultrazvučna, Soxhlet i Tillepape ekstrakcija, primenom DPPH, FRAP i H2O2 testa. EKSPERIMENTALNI DEO Biljni materijal U istraživanju je korišćen list koprive, Urticae folium, koji je dobijen iz Instituta za proučavanje lekovitog bilja " Dr Josif Pančić " (Beograd). Neposredno pre ekstrakcije suvi list je samleven u laboratorijskom električnom mlinu (" BRAUN AROMATIC KSM2 "). Reagensi i hemikalije Etanol i vodonik-peroksid su nabavljeni od Centro-chem-a (Stara Pazova), dok 2,4,6-Tris(2-piridil)-1,3,5-triazin (TPTZ reagens), butil hidroksi toluen (BHT), L-(ORIGINAL NAUČNI RAD)
... Le foglie sono semplici e opposte, lunghe circa 5-10 cm, con un picciolo ben definito che arriva a misurare metà del lembo fogliare, quest'ultimo di forma ovaleoblunga. Il margine è fortemente dentato e lungo le nervature si ritrovano nuovamente i peli urticanti, che caratterizzano tutta la superficie (Upton, 1998). ...
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Urtica dioica L., ovvero l'ortica, è una pianta dalle svariate proprietà e proprio per questo motivo, appare come una risorsa ancora oggi parzialmente inesplorata. Fin dall'antichità il suo uso è stato abbondante, infatti era usata in campo tessile, alimentare e come metodo curativo. Proprio per questo motivo tutti i popoli ne sono da sempre affascinati e attenti studiosi, per la sua elevata capacità di adattamento e dai pochi bisogni che necessita dal momento della crescita fino alla raccolta. Grazie a queste caratteristiche, l'ortica è divenuta parte di studi e analisi anche nel mondo contemporaneo. Analizzando l'interesse nei confronti della biodiversità si può notare come l'ortica stessa possa aumentarne il livello. Questa urticacea oltre ad avere proprietà riscontrabili in campo alimentare e tessile, aiuta anche i suoli che vengono considerati dal punto di vista agronomico non sfruttabili a divenirlo, mediante il suo apparato radicale largamente ramificato. Per il suo uso in campo tessile occorre prestare un'attenzione particolare, infatti se l'ortica durante la sua crescita e diffusione non richiede grandi sforzi, è proprio nella trasformazione in fibra che i costi aumentano a livello di risorse di lavorazione e manodopera. L'ortica permette di creare prodotti destinati al mercato del tessile che sono in linea con le esigenze ambientali, infatti questa pianta richiede un quantitativo minimo di diserbanti e fitofarmaci e la possibilità di coltivarla a livello locale, riducendo l'impatto ambientale del trasporto. La fibra dell'ortica, al di là dell'aspetto poco rassicurante, è simile a quella del lino, inoltre presenta buone caratteristiche antistatiche, traspiranti e termoregolatrici. Per arrivare alla produzione di tessuto da Urtica dioica, così come per altre specie vegetali da fibra si procede alla raccolta degli steli, per poi seguire con la macerazione, stigliatura, filatura e tessitura. Come si è visto l'uso dell'ortica risale a tempi antichissimi, ma è stato riproposto un progetto portato avanti dall'Istituto di biometereologia (Ibimet) del Cnr di Firenze che già nel 2006 aveva iniziato uno studio sul possibile impiego tessile dell'ortica. Sempre in relazione a progetti di ricerca, in Germania e in Olanda alcuni centri universitari sono riusciti a portare a termine e ricostruire l'intera filiera, cominciata dall' Ibimet, questo successo è stato ottenuto sia grazie alla tradizione di questi due paesi nella lavorazione dell'ortica, sia per le condizioni climatiche favorevoli per la crescita delle piante e per la macerazione in campo degli steli. Occorre sottolineare come la riscoperta dell'uso tessile e medico dell'ortica possa portare benefici ancora oggi poco conosciuti. In futuro sarebbe vantaggioso aprire le porte a questa pianta che degli studi approfonditi e condizioni climatiche ottimali potrebbe far risultare un ottimo investimento per l'economia a basso impatto ambientale e per la biodiversità nel nostro territorio.
... U. urens leaves have a relatively high level of proteins [26] . The leaves of nettle are good sources of different significant minerals and vitamins in addition to flavonoids and terpenes [27][28][29] . Some studies were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of U. urens [30][31][32] . ...
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol and water extracts from Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis and Urtica urens in combination with camel whey proteins. The bioactivity of all samples was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disk diffusion method was used to examine the antibacterial potential for all combinations. For further antibacterial investigation, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured by micro-broth dilution method. The obtained results showed that ethanol extracts of B. undulata and R. chalepensis were the most active. Synergistic antibacterial activity was observed for whey and ethanol extracts of B. undulata and R. chalepensis. The MIC and MBC values for these two combinations against S. aureus were equal to 1.56 and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. The obtained results form a platform for further studies on other combinations between camel whey and other plant extracts.
... Nettles contain flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenes, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Stinging nettle leaves are rich in vitamin C, B groups vitamins, vitamin K, and some minerals mainly calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium (Upton 2013). Nettle leaves contain nine carotenoids: Lutein, lutein isomers and b-carotene are the basic carotenoids (Guil-Guerrero et al. 2003). ...
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Context: Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) is an important and commonly used plant for its medicinal and pharmacological properties. Objective: We analyzed the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Urtica urens in ethanol (EtOH) and water (WA) solvents, employing standard analytical methods. Materials and methods: Polyphenol, flavonoid and tannin content of Urtica urens leaves were determined, after their extraction, using EtOH (70%) and WA extracts as well as the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene and FRAP) and the antibacterial (via the method of dilution tests) activities of EtOH and WA extracts. Results: The 70% EtOH of Urtica urens showed the highest values of total phenolic (31.41 mg GAE/g DW), flavonoids (6.81 mg quercetin/g DW), tannin (8.29 mg GAE/g DW) and TEAC (560 mmol Trolox/g DW), compared to the WA. The results of DPPH for EtOH (95.56%) were higher than that of WA (64.56%) at a concentration of 40 mg/L. The extracts displayed a FRAP 106.23 for EtOH and 30.55 μmol Fe(II)/g DW for WA. The results clearly indicated that EtOH was the strongest radical scavenger (IC50 = 245.65 ± 10.2 μg/mL). Ethanol was the most effective with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) < 250 μg/mL. WA has no antibacterial activity. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that leaves of Urtica urens could be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
... U. dioica, often called "nettle" or "stinging nettle," is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant belonging to Urticaceae family and growing in the temperate zones of Asia, America, North Africa, and Europe [5]. Some scientists have studied the chemical composition of U. dioica and reported that its leaves contained a wide variety of chemical constituents such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, flavonoids, sterols, phenolics, and fatty acids, which have beneficial effects on human health [6][7][8][9]. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica methanolic 2 BioMed Research International leaf extract showed the presence of cinnamic acid, coumarins, and homovanillic acid as phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis of the extract also evidenced the presence of abundant -carotenes and chlorophyll [10]. ...
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The present paper investigated the efficiency of Urtica dioica (U. dioica) on hemostatic and wound healing activities. U. dioica leaf extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant effects as well as their flavonoid and polyphenol content. The hydroethanolic extract (EtOH-H 2 OE), showing the most potent antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro , thanks to its flavonoid and polyphenol richness, was selected for hemostatic and wound healing evaluation. Twenty-four rats completing full-thickness wounds were split into four groups. The wounds were topically treated with saline solution, glycerol, “CICAFLORA,” and U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE (50 µ L/mm ² ) until day 11. The wound healing effect was assessed by macroscopic, histological, and biochemical parameters. Rats treated with EtOH-H 2 OE showed fast wound closure (92.39%) compared to the control animals (60.91%) on the 11th day of wounding ( P<0.01 ). Histopathological and biochemical explorations showed full epidermal regeneration and an improvement of the hydroxyproline content in the U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE treated rats. Analysis of fatty acids and sterols by GC-MS showed the presence of unsaturated fatty acids and a high concentration of lupeol known for their involvement in reepithelialization. These results prove the efficiency of U. dioica EtOH-H 2 OE in wound healing and supported its traditional use.
... Stinging nettle leaves are rich in vitamins such as C, the B group and K, micronutrients; they also contain iron which regulates the movement of K and Ca in cells, and calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, boron, silicon which stimulate the immune system, and chlorophyll which activates the growth of plants. Stinging nettle greatly absorbs minerals from the soil, especially iron as it contains vitamin C (Upton, 2013). The chemical content of field horsetail and stinging nettle allows making assumptions that it may influence the synthesis of phytochemicals in germinating seeds. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aqueous extracts of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) plants on the synthesis of compounds with antioxidant properties in germinating seeds. The seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), dining lentil (Lens culinaris L.), mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were germinated for 72 hours. Germinating seeds were imbibed and daily soaked in aqueous stinging nettle and field horsetail plant extracts. We studied the influence of elicitation on the amount of dry matter, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins and catechins as well as vitamin C, P and antioxidant activity in germinated seeds. During germination, 34.21% more intense synthesis of anthocyanins occurred in quinoa seeds treated with stinging nettle extract solutions compared with those treated with water only. Under the influence of extracts, the content of vitamin C significantly increased only in lentils, treated with stinging nettle extract by 40.65 mg 100 g⁻¹ fresh weight (FW) and field horsetail extract by 42.48 mg 100 g⁻¹ FW, while in mung beans the increase was noticed after treatment with field horsetail extract (by 62.4 mg 100 g⁻¹). Plant extract solutions did not have statistically significant impact on vitamin P (rutin) accumulation in germinated seeds. However, a trend towards P increase was observed in all germinated seeds, except for alfalfa. Germinated alfalfa seeds and mung beans were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. © 2017, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. All rights reserved.
... In traditional medicine, nettle is used for treatment of anemia. The beneficial effect of nettle on the erythropoiesis was similar to that of ironcontaining preparations (Upton, 2013). The mean of MCV and MCH was the highest in group H, therefore reduced count of RBC cannot be associated with iron deficiency. ...
... There are many different types of herbal medicine (6). Urtica dioica belongs to the plant family of Urticaceae that contains different beneficial compounds such as anti-oxidants, formic acid, lectins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, etc. (7)(8)(9). Our previous study has shown that the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica could induce the apoptotic pathway and inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (10). ...
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease with variable disease progression risk, and treatment response. Urtica dioica is a traditional herb used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) gene expression in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, two breast cancer cell lines being estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative, respectively. Cell lines were cultured in suitable media. After 24 h, different concentrations of the extract were added and after 72 h, ADA and ODC1 gene expression as well as BCL2 and BAX apoptotic genes were assessed by Taqman real time PCR assay. Cells viability was assessed by MTT assay, and apoptosis was also evaluated at cellular level. The intra and extracellular levels of ODC1 and ADA enzymes were evaluated by ELISA. Results showed differential expression of ADA and ODC1 genes in cancer cell lines. In MCF-7 cell line, the expression level of ADA was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner but its expression did not change in MDA-MB cell line. ODC1 expression was increased in both examined cell lines. Also, increased level of the apoptotic BAX/BCL-2 ratio was detected in MCF-7 cells. These results demonstrated that Urtica dioica induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by influencing ODC1 and ADA genes expression, and estrogen receptors. The different responses observed with these cell lines could be due to the interaction of Urtica dioica as a phytoestrogen with the estrogen receptor.
... Grassy, woody and bitter were attributes previously used to describe herbs (parsley, bay leaf, spearmint, basil) (Diaz-Maroto et al., 2004) and fresh or freeze-dried (uncooked) nettle leaves (Dey, 2013). Fishy aroma and bitter taste were reported by Upton (2013) to describe fresh and dried (uncooked) nettle leaves. ...
Article
Stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.) have been known since ancient times as a wild source of food and a herbal medicine, but the plant remain underutilized. The aroma, flavour and colour of cooked stinging nettle leaves and leaf infusions prepared from the fresh or dried leaves, has not been researched. The effect of using fresh or oven-dried leaves in a cooked product or to prepare an infusion on sensory attributes were established. In addition, the effect of two infusion cycles on the sensory quality was determined. A trained descriptive sensory panel evaluated the sensory characteristics of cooked nettle and spinach leaves using 19 aroma and 26 flavour descriptors. Twenty aroma and 25 flavour descriptors were used for evaluating the leaf infusions. The L, a*, b* and ∆ E values of fresh, dried and cooked leaves were also measured. Although the colour changed, most of the characteristic green type aroma and flavour notes of fresh nettle leaves were preserved in cooked leaves and leaf infusions prepared from dried leaves. The two brewed infusions from fresh or dried leaves provided similar aroma and flavour intensities. Further consumer research will determine which sensory characteristics of the products from stinging nettles drive consumer liking or disliking. This research contributes to the understanding of the potential of stinging nettle for addressing food and nutrition security and well-being of consumers.
... Upton (2013) reviewed stinging nettle herb (Urtica dioica) and wrote that it has a braoader range of 554 action than NSAIDs because it (the lipophilic hexane fraction, not the aqueous extract) interferes with 555 arachidonic acid metabolism, modulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and also modulates 556 cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell migration into the joint, and the attachment of synovium to 557 bone and cartilage.558 559 Zgrajka et al., (2013) studied the kynurenic acid content of plants used for rheumatism. ...
... Fresh nettle leaves contain smaller amounts of sterols and higher concentrations of flavonol glycosides. The leaves of the plant also contain carotenoids, mainly β-carotene, violaxanthin, xanthophylls, zeaxanthin, luteoxanthin and lutein epoxide [5]. Terpene diols, terpene diol glucosides, α-tocopherol, as well as five monoterpenoid components have also been detected in nettle leaves [39]. ...
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Nettles (genus Urtica, family Urticaceae) are of considerable interest as preservatives in foods for both human and animal consumption. They have also been used for centuries in traditional medicine. This paper reviews the properties of nettles that make them suitable for wider applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Nettles contain a significant number of biologically-active compounds. For example, the leaves are rich sources of terpenoids, carotenoids and fatty acids, as well as of various essential amino acids, chlorophyll, vitamins, tannins, carbohydrates, sterols, polysaccharides, isolectins and minerals. Extracts from the aerial parts of nettles are rich sources of polyphenols, while the roots contain oleanol acid, sterols and steryl glycosides. Due to the variety of phytochemicals and their proportions they contain, nettles show noticeable activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These properties make nettles suitable for a range of possible applications, including functional food, dietary supplements and pharmacological formulations. Despite these benefits, the nettle is still an underestimated plant source. This paper provides a unique overview of the latest research on nettle plants focusing on the possibilities for transforming a common weed into a commercial plant with a wide range of applications. Special attention is paid to the antimicrobial activity of the active compounds in nettles and to possible uses of these valuable plants in food and feed formulations.
... Nettle is also a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (60%) whose 50% corresponds to linoleic acid (C18:2), an omega-6 and it can strengthen the immune system, body resistance against bacterial or viral infections and antioxidant activity (Rutto et al., 2013). This is because nettle possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties (Rutto et al., 2013;Upton, 2013). ...
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The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of stinging nettle powder (SNP) on laying performance, egg quality, and some selected serum biochemical parameters of quails. One hundred and forty-four 10-wk-old Japanese quails (initial body weight = 199 ± 18 g) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups (basic diet without SNP [SNP0], SNP0 with 3% SNP [SNP3], SNP0 with 6% SNP [SNP6]) with 4 replicates of 12 quails for a rearing period of 12 wk. At 22 wk of age, the final body weights of the SNP3 and SNP6 groups were significantly (P = 0.001) reduced compared to that of the SNP0 group. Daily feed intake was not statistically different among the groups. The mean number of eggs laid ranged from 65 to 69 with laying rates from 76.8% to 82.1%. The percentage of cracked eggs was not significantly different among the groups and ranged from 1.6% to 1.9%. The egg weight was similar and the feed conversion ratio was closer among the groups. The egg yolk cholesterol, serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels in the SNP6 group were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) compared to those of the SNP0 group. Serum Ca, P and Mg were not significantly influenced by the supplementation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the supplementation of SNP to the quail diet at the level of 6% reduced quail egg yolk cholesterol, serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels and did not negatively influence quail performance.
... A study in dogs with BPH has shown that nettle roots could reduce the initial volume of the prostate by 70 % (Bauer, 1992). Bioactive compounds of root extracts inhibit the growth of human prostate cells, but the mechanism of action remains unknown (Upton and Dayu, 2013). ...
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Prostatic adenoma, or benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), is a natural and common disease in elderly men. Its etiology is multifactorial. BPH is associated with annoying symptoms and morbid complications. The treatment of BPH with drugs, or synthetic chemicals, damages hepatic and renal tissues developing cirrhosis and kidney failure. As an alternative, there has been recourse to the use of medicinal plants or natural health. Pumpkin seeds, nettle leaves and soybeans have been proven to be potent against pain and discomfort in BPH patients. Moreover, plants used at high doses during a long period as treatment, may be toxic and complicate the lifestyle of BPH patients. Both, drugs and plants, used without precaution is a dilemma of prevention and toxicity. The patients simultaneously consume the drug and plants to anticipate healing. Combined drug-plant therapy could have harmful effects on health due to an accumulating antagonistic synergy of chemical and natural.
... The soluble and insoluble fiber may contribute to beneficial effects through the action of the gut microbiota. The wide range of compounds in the ethanolic extract have been elucidated by a number of researchers [1,12,13] and have been shown to include the phenolic acids; p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, quinic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and, 5-Ocaffeolylquinic acid. The second large group of compounds are flavonols which include kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercitrin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and isorhamnetin. ...
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The shoot of Urtica dioica is used in several cultures as a vegetable or herb. However, not much has been studied about the potential of this plant when consumed as a whole food/vegetable rather than an extract for dietary supplements. In a 12-week dietary intervention study, we tested the effect of U. dioica vegetable on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were fed ad libitum with isocaloric diets containing 10% fat or 45% fat with or without U. dioica. The diet supplemented with U. dioica attenuated high fat diet induced weight gain (p < 0.005; n = 9), fat accumulation in adipose tissue (p < 0.005; n = 9), and whole-body insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index) (p < 0.001; n = 9). Analysis of gene expression in skeletal muscle showed no effect on the constituents of the insulin signaling pathway (AKT, IRS proteins, PI3K, GLUT4, and insulin receptor). Notable genes that impact lipid or glucose metabolism and whose expression was changed by U. dioica include fasting induced adipocyte factor (FIAF) in adipose and skeletal muscle, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppar-α) and forkhead box protein (FOXO1) in muscle and liver, and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (Cpt1) in liver (p < 0.01). We conclude that U. dioica vegetable protects against diet induced obesity through mechanisms involving lipid accumulation and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.
... However, since ancient times, nettle has been used in medicine for the treatment of rheumatic conditions and urinary tract infections and as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory. In addition, nettle is used for its histamine desensitization, anti-platelet aggregation, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities, among many other medicinal uses [119][120][121]. Moreover, it has been used in the production of textile fibers and biomass [119]. ...
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Chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yields. Most of the compounds used are synthetic, and their overuse causes environmental pollution and human health problems. Currently, several countries are working to reduce the use of agrochemicals. Organic agriculture is now emerging as a sustainable alternative to traditional agriculture using environmentally friendly strategies such as the application of organic fertilizers from plant and animal waste and pesticides based on plant extracts and microbials. However, the availability of commercial biopesticides and organic fertilizers is very limited because there are certain barriers to the commercialization of biological products. These barriers include small available quantities of raw materials and strict registration laws requiring toxicological tests and other studies that are expensive and time consuming. The objective of this review is to provide details about the various organic fertilizers and pesticides that do not have the same disadvantages as synthetic compounds in terms of persistence and toxicity.
... It is native to Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America (Orčić et al., 2014). Biological activity of this plant has been extensively investigated, while results showed that plant and its extracts expressed antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiulcer, hypolipidemic, and many other activities (Gülçin, Küfrevioǧlu, Oktay, & Büyükokuroǧlu, 2004;Kukric et al., 2012;Orčić et al., 2014;Upton, 2013;Zeković et al., 2017). Beside mentioned activities, this plant has been implemented for treating various diseases and conditions of anemia, gout, eczema, urinary, bladder and kidney problems (Di Virgilio et al., 2015;Leporatti & Corradi, 2001;Orčić et al., 2014;Pinelli et al., 2008). ...
Article
Stinging nettle is an annual plant. This plant is known for applications in folk medicine, and as the human diet. The stinging nettle leaves has been used to obtain extracts, which are expected to be with a high content of biologically active compounds. Prepared microwave extracts were applied in the formulation of the functional products. The article completes preparation of the bread with addition of the stinging nettle leaves and its extract, and bread’s composition in phenolic acids, flavonoids, micro elements, and macro elements. The biological activity of the prepared bread samples showed significant antioxidant activity. This was especially true against DPPH radicals. It has been shown that it holds a high cytotoxic activity. Leaves themselves decreased the quality of the bread, while the extract improved the quality. It was sensorially confirmed. The article concluded that the extract substitutes leaves in bread as a product of a high benefit.
... Various chemical constituents namely flavonoids, 13-hydroxy octadecatrienoic acid, Vitamin B family, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-esters, carotenoids (Lutein, β-carotene), polysaccharides, protein, minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Na) and terpenes have been reported. [5][6][7][8] The members of the Nettles family have long been used for the treatment of various ailments as a home remedy. ...
Article
Background: Urtica urens L. (Family Urticaceae), known as annual nettle, dwarf nettle, small nettle, dog nettle or burning nettle, is used in the treatment of arthritis, uric acid diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia and burn. In Homoeopathy, the whole plant is used for the treatment of gout, uric acid diathesis, joint pain, lithiasis, urticaria and agalactia and burns. Objective: The objectives of the present study were to investigate morpho‑anatomical, powder and physicochemical standards of the whole plant of Urtica urens for authentication and identification of raw drug. Materials and Methods: The current study includes macroscopical and microscopical study of root, stem, leaf and powder and physicochemical studies of whole plant powder and mother tincture of Urtica urens. Results: The taproot is rounded, thick and brown; leaves are long petiolate, elliptic to broadly ovate; stem 0.5–1 cm thick, rounded and branched. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic studies showed the distinguishing characters of root stem and leaf. In physicochemical studies of the drug, extractive values in alcohol and water were ≤7.52 and ≤13.88% w/w, respectively; loss on drying, total, acid insoluble and water‑soluble ash were found to be ≤11.75, ≤24.55, ≤3.59 and ≤6.89% w/w, respectively. In mother tincture, weight per millilitre, alcohol content, total solids, pH and λmax were found to be ≥0.97 g, 47% v/v–52% v/v, ≤1.88% w/v, 7.93 and 266, 279 nm, respectively. Conclusion: The data presented in this communication may be used as diagnostic characters for identification and authentication of raw drug so as to ensure purity, quality and efficacy of homoeopathic drug Urtica urens. Keywords: Homoeopathy, Pharmacognosy, Standardisation, Urtica urens
... The most common species are U. dioica, dioecious, U. urens and U. pilulifera that commonly grow wild in the subtropical areas of Asia, Europe and North America. 1,2 Nettle leaves are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiulcer, diuretic and nutritive 3,4 and have been widely used, for fresh juice or infusion production, in the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergic rhinitis and gout. 5 Stinging nettle has been used for many years as food, and in particular for salad, pies, soups and herbal tea preparation. ...
Article
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).
... Urtica dioica L. (known as stinging nettle) belongs to the family of Urticaceae and it is a perennial herb that has been widely found in temperate and tropical regions [14]. Due to its interesting pharmacological properties such as being antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-aging; nettle has been used as a medicinal plant for treating rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer, as well as inflammation over a thousand years [15,16]. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate physical, mechanical, and osteogenic properties of silk fibroin (SF)nanofibers containing Urtica dioica L. (nettle)extract at different concentrations. In this respect, the successful incorporation of nettle in SF nanofibers was analyzed and then confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The mean fiber diameter, water uptake, breaking strain, cellular attachment, and proliferation of the given nanofibers also increased as the nettle content was added, while this trend was opposite in terms of tensile strength and modulus. The in vitro release studies correspondingly demonstrated that the nettle release had been controlled according to Fickian diffusion and it was faster in the samples including more nettle. Furthermore, both ARS staining and real-time RT-PCR results suggested that nettle had enhanced the expression of both early and late markers of osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.
... Carvacrol and carvone are the main terpenoids found in U. dioica, which account for 46.8% of the oil. These compounds exhibit a broad range of biological properties such as growth-promoting, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral actions (Upton, 2013). Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from pro-apoptotic oxidant stress, which results in increased epithelial cell growth (Miller et al., 2001). ...
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Nettle (Urtica dioica) contains a wide range of chemical constituents that confer a strong antioxidant capacity to the plant. The present study was to investigate the antioxidant gene expression and pulmonary hypertensive responses of broiler chickens to U. dioica. A total of 240 one-d-old broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of U. dioica (0, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%). Birds were reared for 6 wk in a high altitude region (2,100 m). The results showed a significant relative overexpression (target gene/β-actin as the arbitrary unit) of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in the liver and lung of the chickens fed U. dioica. Lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed, as reflected in reduced circulatory concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the birds fed U. dioica. These birds also had significantly (P
... Collection site was incorporated as a random effect Urtica dioica, the host plant of A. levana, has been reported to have high anti-oxidative capacity (Gülçin et al., 2004;Khare et al., 2012). It is possible that stinging nettle supplies the larvae with high levels of anti-oxidative compounds (Upton, 2013), and allows the insects to express high levels of PO activity without suffering autoimmune effects. In any case, our results suggest that species-specific physiological and ecological factors can well affect the severity of immunological trade-offs. ...
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Seasonal polyphenism constitutes a specific type of phenotypic plasticity in which short‐lived organisms produce different phenotypes in different times of the year. Seasonal generations of such species frequently differ in their overall lifespan and in the values of traits closely related to fitness. Seasonal polyphenisms provide thus excellent, albeit underused model systems for studying trade‐offs between life history traits. Here we compare immunological parameters between the two generations of the European map butterfly (Araschnia levana), a well known example of a seasonally polyphenic species. To reveal possible costs of immune defence, we also examine the concurrent differences in several life history traits. Both in laboratory experiments and in the field, last instar larvae heading towards the diapause (overwintering) had higher levels of both phenoloxidase (PO) activity and lytic activity than directly developing individuals. These results suggest that individuals from the diapausing generation with much longer juvenile (pupal) period invest more to their immune system than those from the short‐living directly developing generation. The revealed negative correlation between pupal mass and PO‐activity may be one of the reasons why, in this species, the diapausing generation has a smaller body size than the directly developing generation. Immunological parameters may thus well mediate trade‐offs between body size related traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed.
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For hundreds of years the people of peasant and indigenous communities in the Andes have used nettle in the treatment of biological and spiritual diseases, nevertheless their uses are little documented in this particular region. The aim of the study was to register the main species of the genus Urtica L. (nettles), in villages in the upper basin of the river Ambato, Tungurahua Province, Ecuador, their uses and the local knowledge around them. Key informants (natural therapists) were selected to perform individual and group interviews. Plant samples were collected at specific places well known by the informants. The samples were preserved, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH and organic matter. Traditional uses of each species and the characteristics of the informants were documented. The results show that there are four species of nettles, three natives (U. flabellata, U. leptophylla and U. magellanica) and one introduced (U. dioica), growing on soils with pH ranges between 6.16 y 7.68 with a mean percentage of organic matter at 12.37%. Each has a preferential use, the permanence and contribution to the local knowledge is discussed.
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Urtica dioica (UD), commonly known as “stinging nettle”, is a herbaceous flowering plant that is a widely used agent in traditional medicine worldwide. Several formulations of UD leaf extract have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, with anticancer potential. The current study investigated the possible anticancer properties of nettle tea, prepared from Urtica dioica leaves, on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, and deciphered the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment of AML cell lines (U-937 and KG-1) with UD aqueous leaf extract resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation, an increase in apoptotic hallmarks such as phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer membrane leaflet, and DNA fragmentation as revealed by cell-death ELISA and cell-cycle analysis assays. Apoptosis induction in U937 cells involves alterations in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 upon exposure to nettle tea. Furthermore, the chemical composition of UD aqueous extract indicated the presence of multiple chemical agents, such as flavonoids and phenolics, mainly patuletin, m/p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, among others, to which the pro-apoptotic and anti-tumor effects may be attributed.
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Mental illnesses (MIs) such as anxiety, epilepsy, major depression, schizophrenia, sleep disorder, and pain influence the quality of life severely. According to the World Health Organization Atlas for Mental Health (2014), the formal health sector in Lesotho has only 13.7 mental health workers per 100 000 of the population, which breaks down to 0.1 psychiatrist and other medical doctors, 0.3 psychologists, 4.7 nurses, and 5.2 social workers. Traditional health practitioners (THPs) have always played a significant role in the prevention and treatment of MIs, via utilization of Lesotho’s vast diversity of plants. This investigation aims to determine which medicinal plants are used for the treatment of MIs in the Berea, Leribe, and Maseru districts of Lesotho. A combination of unstructured and semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted with 27 THPs. They were interviewed about the status of MIs in Lesotho, diagnostic methods, medicinal plants used, and preparation and administration of the herbal remedies in the treatment of MIs. A total of 43 different plant species (indigenous and exotic) were indicated by the THPs as commonly used to treat neurological disorders. With the exception of one unidentified plant, the plants represented 26 families and 42 genera. The most common families are the Asteraceae (9 species), Fabaceae (5 species), and Rosaceae (3 species). The most cited plant species were Morella serrata (Myricaceae) (26%), followed by Xysmalobium undulatum (Asclepiadaceae) (22%), and Afroaster hispidus (Asteraceae) (15%). This survey provides, for the first time, a database of Lesotho’s medicinal plants that are used to treat MIs.
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Thirty two samples of different types of imported and locally produced medicinal plants consumed by adults in Jordan were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were measured. The annual equivalent dose rate was calculated. The measurements show that the average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in (Bqkg-1±SD) are 2.63±0.30, 1.44±0.18 and 593.97±63.47 respectively. The measured concentration of 137Cs was found only in Alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) sample and is equal to 1.03±0.27 Bqkg-1. The values of annual equivalent dose for consuming the plants per individual adult for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were ranged between (0.11-1.56) µSvy-1, (10.00x10-3 – 70.00x10-3) µSvy-1and (0.13-9.88) µSvy-1respectively. The obtained results were compared with the standard accepted international values, and were found to be within the acceptable limits. Therefore, medicinal plant samples investigated here do not pose any significant health hazard and are considered radiologically safe for adult consumption.
Chapter
Powdery mildew of strawberry is caused by the obligate pathogenic fungus Sphaerotheca macularis f. sp. fragariae. The disease affects the leaves, flowers and fruit of this crop. Preharvest use of fungicide sprays may provide an alternative to the control of postharvest Mildew. However, fungicide resistance in Sphaerotheca spp. can result in the failure of disease control. In this study, the resistance of the strain of Sphaerotheca macularis isolated from strawberries was tested in vitro with three fungicides (Mancozeb, Fosetyl-aluminium and Propineb) enriched with Urtica dioica extract. The Mancozeb - U. dioica extract combination was very effective on seeding and sporulation, and moderately effective on growth. The Propineb - U. dioica extract combination was moderately effective on growth and sporulation but ineffective on seeding. Tests done with Fosetyl-Al alone were ineffective on seeding, growth and sporulation. The effects of different temperatures and relative humidity (RH), on germination and conidial germ tube length were evaluated on detached strawberry leaves. Our results suggest that alternating sprays using different classes of fungicides will be required to control mildew of strawberries, and that U. dioica extract may be an effective bio-fungicide incorporated into a fungicide spray program before the harvest for the fight against mildew of strawberries.
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Esta guía de campo aborda los usos tradicionales de la flora silvestre comestible y medicinal de Chile y de otras partes del mundo. Además, aporta antecedentes sobre la distribución, hábitat y propagación de las especies tratadas.
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Novel bioactive coatings were prepared to extend the quality and shelf life of fresh fish fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). For this, whey protein isolate (WPI) with 96 g/100 g protein content was used as the coating-forming agent with glycerol in a ratio of 3.3 g/100 mL as plasticizer. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers containing extract of Urtica dioica L., often called stinging nettle, at 60:40 (g:g) were produced by electrospinning. These were then incorporated into WPI at different concentrations, i.e., 50 and 70 g/100 g. Fish fillets protected by means of the functionalized coatings were stored for 15 days at 4 °C. Protected fish fillets exhibited higher antimicrobial efficiency against mesophilic, psychrophilic, and lactic acid bacteria as well as Enterobacteriaceae than equivalent coatings containing Urtica dioica L. water extract. In particular, incorporation of 70 g/100 g PCL nanofibers exhibited the lowest counts in both bacterial growth and values in total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) during storage. Additionally, the coatings successfully provided antioxidant activity that could help to increase fish fillets' quality and favor their preservation.
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the ineffectiveness of the current therapies seriously limits the survival rate of NSCLC patients. In the search for new antitumor agents, nature has played a pivotal role providing a variety of molecules, which are likely to exert selective anti-tumour properties. Herein, we investigated the antiproliferative potential of Urtica dioica L. extract (UD) against NSCLC cell models with low sensitivity to cisplatin, a cytotoxic agent largely employed to cure NSCLCs. UD inhibited cell proliferation in the selected cells, while no toxic effects were observed in normal lung cells. Furthermore, the co-treatment of UD and cisplatin notably sensitised NSCLC cells to cisplatin. Mechanistically, we discovered that UD-promoted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via activation of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) triggering apoptosis. We also performed an extensive NMR analysis of UD, identifying rutin and oxylipins as the main secondary metabolites present in the mixture. Additionally, we discovered that an oxylipins’ enriched fraction contributes to the antiproliferative activity of the plant extract. In the future, this study may provide new chemical scaffolds for the design of anti-cancer agents that target NSCLCs with low sensitivity to cisplatinum.
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Introduction: The phytoalimurgic plants, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are a source of nutraceuticals. Objectives: To apply a combined metabolomic fingerprinting approach by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to common dandelion, corn poppy and stinging nettles to obtain simultaneous identification and quantitation of the major classes of organic compounds. Methodology: The whole plants collected in the Cilento National Park were dried and then extracted to obtain non-polar and polar organic extracts. GC-MS was used for non-polar extracts while 1 H-NMR spectroscopy was used for polar extracts. In both cases, simultaneous identification and quantification of the bioactive metabolites was obtained. Results: Non-polar organic extracts of all plants were mainly composed of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. The two pentacyclic triterpenols α- and β-amyrin were detected in nettle extract. The analysis of polar organic extracts allowed to detect and quantify organic acids and sugars as main metabolites along with amino acids, caffeoyl derivatives, flavonoids, and nucleotides. In particular, corn poppy leaves contained a huge amount of glyceric acid (55.7% of the total extract). Stinging nettles, instead, exhibited a large amount of choline (19.5%). Conclusion: Metabolomic approach coupling GC-MS with NMR spectroscopy allowed to provide a detailed metabolite profile of three alimurgic plants, common dandelion, corn poppy and stinging nettle, from both a qualitative and quantitative point of view.
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Numerous herbs are useful for treating patients with a wide range of arrhythmias. In all cases, C. laevigata is recommended for prevention and treatment as a gentle tonic. For treating mild arrhythmias not related to demonstrable heart pathology, simple sedatives such as L. cardiaca and S. lateriflora are recommended. For more serious cases or when milder remedies are not sufficient, S. grandiflorus or H. undatus, C. scoparius, R. serpentaria, and C. majalis offer more potent, although also potentially more dangerous, options. However, careful monitoring and proper dosing usually allow even these strong herbs to be utilized safely.
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Atomic emission spectrometry was applied for the determination of potassium and sodium concentrations in crude drugs and decoctions. The content of the two elements and potassium–sodium ratios of medicinal plant extracts were measure as a basis for evaluating diuretic activity. The potassium–sodium ratios were higher in the diuretic plant decoctions, than in crude drug decoctions used for different activities. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In this study, the antibacterial activity of common nettle (Folium urticae) on some bacteria was investigated. Extract of common nettle which is prepared in diethyl ether tested to standard bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Micrococcus luteus with disk diffusion method as in vitro. It is determined that common nettle has inhibitory activity on S. aureus, E. faecalis and M. smegmatis but has no inhibitory activity at the proliferation of other bacterial strains.
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In this literature review, we aimed to determine the prevalence, frequency of usage and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices and characteristics in cancer patients who were participated in research studies in Turkey. We have reached the 14 articles relevant to the subject which were published from 2001 to 2007, and 7 abstracts were published in National Congresses' abstract books in Turkey. Total number of subjects was 5252 (5069 adult and 183 pediatric) cancer patients. Data acquisition methods were face-to-face interview and/or using a questionnaire. Frequency of CAM use was between 22.1% and 84.1%. Mostly used type of CAM was herbal preparations (mostly "stinging nettle/Urtica dioica"); factors affecting use of CAM was gender; duration of disease, end stage disease, socioeconomic status and educational level. In studies those indicated the reasons for using CAM; most of the patients were stated that in order to do everything possible to fight with the disease, and belief of usefulness. Most of the patients use these therapies due to recommendation of family members, friends and other patients in the clinic and generally they have started to use herbal therapy together with medical therapy after diagnosis of cancer.
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Spinacia oleracea, L. (Chenopodiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Brassicaceae) and Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) were tested for their antimutagenic effects on pesticides in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without the metabolic activation of S9. It was determined that the extracts from these plants decreased the mutagenic effects of Captan, Folpet, DDVP, Azinphosmethyl, Bioresmethrin and Trifluralin, Since various papers have previously discussed the antimutagenic effects of glutathione, cysteine and ascorbic acid, the extracts were also tested for the presence of these chemicals. Glutathione and cysteine were detected using paper chromatography. The presence of ascorbic acid was detected with a colorimetric assay. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assays of the chemical substances were evaluated using the Ames test.
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The effects of Rumex patientia and Urtica dioica on levels of blood glucose, plasma amino acids and other parameters, urine excreta, and liver and kidney histology were examined in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. Streptozotocin increased blood glucose and changed the levels of amino acids and other parameters, and caused degenerative changes in the liver and kidney. Rumex patientia had some protective effect on these parameters changed by streptozotocin, while Urtica dioica had no protective effects.
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Plants of Urtica dioica were cultivated in three years with four different nitrogen (N) levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1) and the aerial parts were harvested three times per year to investigate if the content of flavonoids and phenolic acids were affected. The flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and the phenolic acids 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-feruloylquinic acid and 2-O-caffeoylmalic acid were identified and quantified in extracts of the aerial parts of U. dioica by LC-DAD-MS and RP-HPLC-DAD, respectively. High N-levels reduced the concentration of total flavonoids significantly from an average of 10 mg g-1 dry matter (DM) at 0 kg N ha-1 to 5 mg g-1 at 400 kg N. The effect of N levels on total phenolic acids was only significant in the second harvest each year with a reduction from an average of 30 mg g-1 DM at 0 kg N ha-1 to 23 mg g-1 at 400 kg N ha-1. The composition of flavonoids changed significantly among the major flavonoids with later harvest time resulting in an increase in the content of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and a decrease of the quercetin-3-O-glucoside content. From the present study it appears that cultivation of U. dioica herba for medicinal purposes with a high yield of bioactive compounds is a compromise between a high yield of plant material and the content of flavonol glycosides and phenolic acids in the harvested product.
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Twenty healthy volunteers ingested for 21 days 2 capsules b.i.d. of an IDS 23/1 containing nettle leaf extract (Rheuma-Hek). Before and after 7 and 21 days the basal and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were measured ex vivo. In vitro the effects of IDS 23/1 on the release of these cytokines were determined. Additionally basal interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were recorded. Orally taken the test drug has ex vivo no effect on basal levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 which were always below detection limits. After 7 and 21 days ingestion ex vivo a decrease of LPS stimulated TNF-α release of 14.6 and 24.0%, respectively, was observed. IL-1 β was reduced for 19.2 and 39.3%. In vitro IDS 23/1 added to whole blood resulted in an exceeded inhibition of LPS stimulated TNF-α and IL-1 β secretion which correlated with the duration of the drug ingestion. Using the highest tested IDS 23/1 concentration the inhibition reached 50.5 (day 0) to 79.5% (day 21) for TNF-α and 90.0 (day 0) to 99.2% (day 21) for IL-1 β, respectively. IDS 23/1 induced a pronounced release of IL-6 in absence of LPS only in vitro. The detected IL-6 concentrations were comparable to those after LPS stimulation, additive effects could not be observed. The absence of detectable IL-6 concentrations in whole blood ex vivo after oral ingestion of the tested drug as well as the differences in the inhibition patterns for TNFα and IL-1β ex vivo and ex vivo in vitro suggest that the extract contains different pharmacological effective compounds with varying bioavailabilities.
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Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for half maximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 μm/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 μg/ml for IDS 23 and 38 μg/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapic of rheumatoid diseases.
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A neutral and an acidic carbohydrate-protein polymer were isolated from leaves of Urtica dioica. The neutral fraction was a glycoprotein, containing the serine-O-galactoside glycopeptide bond. Methylation analysis revealed a highly branched structure, arabinose constituting the exterior and mainly galactose the interior part of the carbohydrate moiety. Galacturonic acid was the major component of the acidic fraction.
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.Urtica dioicia L. (common stinging nettle) is not only a medicinal plant but also a natural source of fodder the food value of which is not inferior to that of clover. The properties of the stinging nettle are largely due to the presence of carotene and carotenoids in it. The carotenoids were extracted and separated by the method of B. G. Savinov and S. E. Kudritskaya [2]. The carotenoid extract of fresh stinging nettle leaves so obtained was saponified and was then subjected to chromatographic separation on a column filled with magnesium. Petroleum ether yielded mixture A of carotenoids. Mixture B of carotenoids was adsorbed in the upper part of the column. By thin-layer chromatography, carotenoid mixture A was separated into three zones: an orange zone (i) rose to the top part of the chromatogram, then a pale yellow zone (2) was adsorbed, and at the starting line there was a bright orange zone (3). The chromatography of a benzene extract of carotenoid mixture B on magnesia calcined at 700°C and the development of the chromatogram with the same solvent led to the separation of the mixture into two zones: a yellow zone (4) collected in the receiver, and a pink zone (5) remained on the adsorbent. The carotenoids isolated were investigated on a SF-10 spectrophotometer in various solvents. The maxima of the absorption curves in the visible region of the spectrum are given below (nm):
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A B S T R A C T Stinging emergences in Urtica dioica L. characteristically possess an elongate stinging cell and a multicellular pedestal. The emergence is derived from the epidermal and subepidermal cell layers. The apical wall of the stinging cell is composed of silica bodies which decrease basipetally in concentration. The basal portion of the cell wall of the stinging cell is devoid of silica bodies and lacks primary pit fields or pits between it and the pedestal cells. X-ray microanalysis of electron dense particles located in the stinging cell ER-golgi complex indicate that these particles contain silicon. There is no ultrastructural evidence for the presence of a toxin synthesizing system or a toxin itself. STINGING EMERGENCES are known to occur in four dicotyledonous plant families, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Loasaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae. However, the members of the Urticaceae are perhaps the most familiar and cosmopolitan. A stinging emergence is defined on the basis of its morphology, ontogeny, and capacity to inflict pain by the active release of a toxin from the stinging cell. Since their first description and illustration
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The presence of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and acetylcholine has been demonstrated in the Indian stinging nettle, Urtica parviflora (Roxb.). In addition, the presence of a histamine-liberating substance is strongly indicated. The whole leaves of the plant were extracted in acetone. The acetone-extracted material was used to detect 5-HT and acetylcholine. The acid-treated extract was used for the detection of histamine, and the histaminase-treated extract was used for the detection of the histamine liberator. Appropriate biological and chromatographic tests were performed for the pharmacologically active constituents.
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Forty individuals suffering from an acute arthritis took part in an open randomized study comparing the effects of 50 mg diclofenac plus stewed Herba Urticae dioicae (stinging nettles) with 200 mg diclofenac. Thirty-seven patients completed the study. Assessment was based on the decrease of the elevated acute phase protein CRP and the clinical signs of acute arthritis (physical impairment, subjective pain and pressure pain (patient assessment) and stiffness (physician assessment). All assessments were done on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 4. In both groups median scores improved by about 70% relative to the initial value. Only minor adverse effects occurred during treatment. The authors conclude, that stewed Herba Urticae dioicae may enhance the NSAID antirheumatic effectiveness.
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BACKGROUND: Owing to the demand for ‘health foods’, commercial development of wild vegetables may find a sizable market niche if adequate agricultural methods are used to domesticate such species. Available techniques of cultivation (even in traditional farming) may provide many advantages, such as enhancement of the content of active principles in plants and improvement in the quality of the raw material to be processed on an industrial scale. In this context, the flavonoid composition and content of roots and leaves from five varieties of wild herbs (Cichorium intybus, Portulaca oleracea, Tragopogon porrifolius, Urtica dioica and Valerianella eriocarpa) and their cultivated relatives in central Italy were compared. The aims of the study were (i) to reveal the metabolic profile of particular bioactive metabolites present in some unusual food species by using a simple method of analysis, (ii) to quantify and compare the amount of polyphenolic metabolites in wild and cultivated plants and (iii) to evaluate the effect of growing conditions on polyphenolic variability. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Each herb possessed a specific flavonoid fingerprint as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data. The total phenolic content in cultivated leaves was greater than that in wild leaves for all herbs examined (P < 0.05), with the exception of P. oleracea. CONCLUSION: The results show that the polyphenolic content of the majority of the cultivated herbs (edible parts) is no lower than that of their wild relatives, thus indicating that these species are suitable for cultivation. Copyright
Article
From a methanolic extract of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves two new β-D-glucopyranosides of diastereomeric 3-hydroxy-α-ionol[4-(4′-hydroxy-2′,6′,6′-trimethylcyclohex-2′-en-1-yl)-but-3-en-2-ol] 1a and 2a were isolated by adsorption chromatography on XAD-2 resin and MeOH elution. After preseparation of the crude glycosidic extract with rotation locular countercurrent chromatography (RLCC) and multi-layer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC), the new natural products were peracetylated, purified by HPLC and characterized as their penta-acetates 1b and 2b.
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This study was designed to investigate the effects Nigella sativa L. (NS) and Urtica dioica L. (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. A total of 60 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were utilized in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4 + UD treated), C (CCl4 + NS treated) and D (CCl4 + UD + NS treated), each containing 15 animals. All groups received CCl4 [0.8 ml/kg of body weight, subcutaneously, twice a week for 90 days starting day 1]. In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.2 ml/kg NS or/and 2 ml/kg UD oils for 45 days starting day 46. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 ml/kg normal saline solution for 45 days starting day 46. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from five randomly chosen rats in each treatment group at beginning, at 45th and at 90th day of the experiment. The CCl4 treatment for 45 days increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatments (alone or combination) for 45 days starting day 46 decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. Live weights of the rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. It is concluded that NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the antioxidant defence system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.
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The common wild plant nettle, especially Urtica dioica, is one of the most potent plants in producing direct irritation to the skin (urticaria). In this study, total lipids of Urtica dioica were separated into neutral and polar lipids, which were further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Triglycerides, sterol-esters, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, glyceryl ethers, sterols, tocopherols, diglycerides, and galactosyldiglycerides were identified as the main neutral lipid classes by comparing their retention times on an HPLC column and their migration following spraying with specific reagents on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with standards. Four main classes of phospholipids (i.e., phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine) were also identified. A phospholipid that induced platelet aggregation was identified as platelet-activating factor on the basis of biological, chemical, and spectral methods. Keywords: Urtica dioica; Urticaceae; nettle; lipid analysis; platelet-activating factor
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Nine European plants were selected to be screened for hypoglycaemic activity. Selection criteria were based on traditional use and literature references. Total extracts of the plants were prepared by boiling the dried material with water or macerating it with 80% ethanol. Male Swiss mice were orally loaded with glucose after the extracts had been given by oral gavage. Four extracts improved the glucose tolerance: Adiantum capillus veneris, Daucus carota, Galega officinalis and Juglans regia. Further investigation will be focused on bioguided isolation of active fractions.
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Sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), mountain tea (Sideritis spp), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata), nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymbra spicata), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosehip (Rosa canina L.), mentha (Mentha piperita L.), balm (Melissa officinalis L.), tea (Camelia sinensis L.) (Black and green), sena leaf (Casia angustifolia), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum casia) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) were used as plant material in this study. Decoction was applied to R. canina, A. dracunculus and C. casia, and infusion was applied to other plant materials. Ten, 15 and 20 min were used as a time parameter for both infusion and decection. Inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AEs) has been used for the determination of the elements in all infusions, decoctions and plant material.
Article
Several parts (leaves at different maturity stages, stems, roots and seeds) of an edible wild vegetable, Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) were analysed for fatty acids by GLC and carotenoids by reversed-phase HPLC and gradient elution. α-linolenic acid was the pre-dominant fatty acid in leaves, while seeds were richer in linoleic acid. Nine carotenoids were identified in the leaves. For all leaf maturity levels, lutein, lutein isomers, β-carotene and β-carotene isomers were the major carotenoids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin and lycopene were also important contributors in specific leaf maturity stages.
Article
The effect of histamine on delayed-type hypersensitivity provoked in the abdominal cavity of mice was studied. When histamine (0.1–10 mg/kg) was injected twice a day for 2 consecutive days after antigen challenge, cell accumulation in the inflammed site and the production of lymphokine was significantly suppressed. Similar suppressive effects were observed after injection with an H2-agonist, dimaprit, but not in the case of an H1-agonist, 2-methylhistamine. The effect of histamine on cell accumulation in an implanted sponge was blocked by the H2-antagonists, cimetidine and ranitidine, but only slightly by the H1-antagonists, pyrilamine and diphenhydramine. In adrenalectomized mice, the suppressive effect of histamine was slightly weaker than in normal mice, but the inhibitory effect of histamine was almost completely blocked by H2-antagonists in both cases. The suppressive effect of histamine on the production of lymphokine (macrophage chemotactic factor) was also blocked by cimetidine. Using gel chromatography, the chemotactic activity fraction was eluted as molecules having a molecular weight of 30 000–70 000. These results suggest that the histamine-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in mice is affected mainly by the production of lymphokine(s) via an H2-receptor-bearing lymphocyte.
Article
The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Infusions were prepared in common way in which teas are prepared for human consumption. The total phenolics were measured by Folin–Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make practical comparison of relative antioxidant potential of phenolics extracted from selected medicinal plants, the phenol antioxidant coefficient (PAC) was calculated for each infusion. The total phenolic content of medicinal plant infusions ranges from 9 to 2218 mg/L. The FRAP range from 0.06 to 25 mM/L. There was significant linear correlation between total phenolic content and FRAP. According to their antioxidant capacity, 70 medicinal plant extracts can be divided in five groups: (a) very low FRAP (<1 mM/L) n = 9; (b) low FRAP (1–5 mM/L), n = 37; (c) good FRAP (5–10 mM/L), n = 15; (d) high FRAP (10–20 mM/L), n = 8; and (e) very high FRAP (>20 mM/L), n = 1 medicinal plant extract. The PAC was ranging from 1.1 to 3.9 (average 2.4). The best results were obtained for Melissae folium infusions: high phenolic concentration, very high FRAP (>20 mM/L) and PAC > 3. The effect of infusion time and infusion temperature on the phenolic content, FRAP, and free radical scavenging ability was tested. DPPH radical scavenging ability of Melissae folium phenolics was similar to (+)-catechin but not as good as for quercetin. Compared to Trolox and vitamin C, Melissae folium phenolics were more efficient free ABTS radical scavengers. The results indicate that Melissae folium infusions could be an important dietary source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity comparable with red wine or beverages like tea.