Article

Gaining and leveraging customer-based competitive intelligence: The pivotal role of social capital and salesperson adaptive selling skills

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study explores the generation and use of competitive intelligence (CI) within the buyer–seller exchange process and its influence on salesperson performance. Using the concept of social capital as a theoretical foundation and multilevel data collected at three time points from 686 customer–salesperson dyads, the authors empirically test a conceptual framework that proposes both antecedents and consequences of CI sharing between customer and salesperson. The results of the study demonstrate that CI sharing by customers is a function of salesperson customer orientation, customer-centric extra-role behaviors, and relationship quality. CI sharing translates into increased perceived value, share-of-wallet, and profit margins when the salesperson utilizes the information to position and differentiate his or her product; however this occurs only when the salesperson has strong adaptive selling skills. Surprisingly, CI negatively influences these outcomes among low-adaptive salespeople, indicating that CI can actually work to a firm’s disadvantage if the salesperson is not equipped to respond to it. These findings suggest that CI must be examined differently than general market knowledge and that firms may leverage CI to their tactical advantage at the salesperson–customer interface if managed effectively.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Whereas various personal or job-related resources are available intrinsically or provided by organizations, social capital is a unique resource in the sense that it is developed and harnessed by salespeople through their day-to-day social engagement efforts. However, although prior researchers have emphasized the importance of social capital for B2B salespeople (Hughes et al., 2013;Rouziou et al., 2018), truly little is known on how salespeople cultivate this valuable resource. In general, while a few prior studies have explored how salespeople can use internal networking, exploratory navigation and internal selling as mechanisms to identify, nurture and channel internal organizational resources Nguyen et al., 2018;Plouffe et al., 2016;Steward et al., 2010), there are significant gaps in the systematic research on salespeople's entrepreneurial acquisition of resources that are external to the organization, such as social capital. ...
... Indeed, as Saxton and Guo (2020, p. 1) note, social capital is "linchpin of any meaningful benefit from engagement in social media." Consequently, echoing prior sales researchers who hold that social capital enables salespeople to create and/or capture value from internal or external social contexts (Hughes et al., 2013;Munyon et al., 2021;Rouziou et al., 2018), we propose that social capital enhances salespeople's effectiveness by serving as the mechanism that bridges social media use with value creation outcomes. Following prior research on social capital theory and social media in sales settings, social capital is conceptualized to include three facets, specifically, market knowledge, reputation and networking abilities that are accrued through salespeople's activities within social media contexts. ...
... The integration of the resource acquisition literature (Maritan and Peteraf, 2011;Martens et al., 2007) with the sales context is a novel advancement that not only serves to expound on how salespeople can entrepreneurially acquire valuable job resources but also illustrates the relevance of the resource acquisition perspective to boundary-spanning employees, such as B2B salespeople. Third, by identifying social capital as the conduit through which social media use engenders value cocreation and cross/upselling performance, we advance the literature on social capital theory in general (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998;Seibert et al., 2001) as well as on sales research using social capital theory Hughes et al., 2013;Rouziou et al., 2018). Specifically, we build on research which shows that social capital can ensue from social media use (Saxton and Guo, 2014) by identifying three novel dimensions of social capital that are idiosyncratic to the sales settingmarket knowledge, reputation and networking abilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose-This study aims to develop and test a process model of the effect of social media use by business-to-business (B2B) salespeople on their value cocreation and cross/upselling performance. Adopting a research acquisition perspective, the authors claim that salesperson's social media use is critical for generating social capital-an operant resource characterized by superior market knowledge, reputation and networking-which, in turn, directly and synergistically enhances value cocreation and cross/upselling outcomes. Design/methodology/approach-A model is developed based on extant sales research on salesperson's social media use and social capital theory. Data from B2B salespeople is analyzed using structural equation modeling to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings-The results demonstrate that salespeople's social media use enhances their social capital with support for direct effects on market knowledge and reputation, and indirect effect on networking. The results also show that the three aspects of social capital drive value cocreation, which enhances cross/upselling performance. Post hoc analysis shows the indirect effects of salesperson's social media use as well as the interconnected effects of the aspects of social capital on value cocreation. Practical implications-The study indicates that salespeople should be encouraged to use social media as a means for enhancing market knowledge and reputation, which can then be leveraged to build networking skills. Providing training to salespeople and coaching them on how to build their social capital is essential if organizations need to capitalize on novel ways to improve the value cocreation performance of their sales teams. Originality/value-This study demonstrates how salespeople's social media use can enhance their social capital, which, in turn, is critical for value cocreation and cross/upselling performance. The proposed framework opens opportunities for future studies to examine the role of salesperson social capital and value cocreation in B2B exchanges.
... (3) Outcomes. The BI process was found related to certain outcomes (C): of a strategic order (C-I) such as strategic management process (Hofer, 1978) and managerial representations of competitive advantage (Porac and Thomas, 1990); at a firm performance level (C-II) such as share of wallet (Zeithaml, 1988), customer perceived value (Hughes et al., 2013), product development (Lynn, 1998) and superior sales growth (Slater and Narver, 2000); related to decision-making (C-III) including decision-making speed (Leidner and Elam, 1995), problem identification speed (Leidner and Elam, 1995) and extent of analysis (Miller and Friesen, 1980); and under the umbrella of organizational intelligence (C-IV) encompassing perceived intelligence quality (Popovi c et al., 2012), perceived information availability (Leidner and Elam, 1995), intelligence use (Maltz and Kohli, 1996), receiver's trust (Moorman et al., 1992) and insight generation speed (Heinrichs and Lim, 2003). ...
... By so doing, they overlook the peculiarities of developing economies where other informal pressures and singularities (cultural, institutional and cognitive) moderate the relationship between the environment and BI collection. The second thread of studies examine executives' goal orientations (Pryor et al., 2019), strategic priorities (Opait et al., 2016) quality of information source (El Sawy, 1985;Jones and McLeod, 1986;Robinson and Simmons, 2017), experience and educational background (Cho, 2006), entrepreneurial attitude (Qiu, 2008), intuitive judgments (Constantiou et al., 2019) and boundary spanners' intelligence effort (Le Bon and Merunka, 2006;Mariadoss et al., 2014), customer orientation (Hughes et al., 2013). Unfortunately, these studies overlook to consider the collection activity as a formal unit within the organization, and explore the informal BI collection and source selection of boundary spanners and executives despite previous evidence of their bounded rationality (Cyert and March, 1963). ...
... Stream 3: the influence of the business intelligence process on outcomes (links B-I-II-III -C-I-II-III-IV) Drawing from marketing research, scholars explored the influence of BI collection and managerial representation of competitive advantage (Qiu, 2008), managerial belief in formulating and implementing strategies (Vedder et al., 1999) improvement of marketing strategies . Other scholars suggested that BI collection translates to share of wallet and profit margin (Hughes et al., 2013) and sales performance (Mariadoss et al., 2014), product innovation and competitive pricing strategies (Trim and Lee, 2008), price optimization, expanding product lines and service improvements (Peyrot et al., 1996), superior sales growth, customer satisfaction (Slater and Narver, 2000), innovation (Tanev and Bailetti, 2008) and profitability and revenues increase (Wright et al., 2009). Although these studies might pinpoint to the relationship between BI collection and strategic outcomes, the question of whether or not this step of the BI process contributes to strategy formulation or implementation remains ambiguous. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The business intelligence (BI) research witnessed a proliferation of contributions during the past three decades, yet the knowledge about the interdependencies between the BI process and organizational context is scant. This has resulted in a proliferation of fragmented literature duplicating identical endeavors. Although such pluralism expands the understanding of the idiosyncrasies of BI conceptualizations, attributes and characteristics, it cannot cumulate existing contributions to better advance the BI body of knowledge. In response, this study aims to provide an integrative framework that integrates the interrelationships across the BI process and its organizational context and outlines the covered research areas and the underexplored ones. Design/methodology/approach This paper reviews 120 articles spanning the course of 35 years of research on BI process, antecedents and outcomes published in top tier ABS ranked journals. Findings Building on a process framework, this review identifies major patterns and contradictions across eight dimensions, namely, environmental antecedents; organizational antecedents; managerial and individual antecedents; BI process; strategic outcomes; firm performance outcomes; decision-making; and organizational intelligence. Finally, the review pinpoints to gaps in linkages across the BI process, its antecedents and outcomes for future researchers to build upon. Practical implications This review carries some implications for practitioners and particularly the role they ought to play should they seek actionable intelligence as an outcome of the BI process. Across the studies this review examined, managerial reluctance to open their intelligence practices to close examination was omnipresent. Although their apathy is understandable, due to their frustration regarding the lack of measurability of intelligence constructs, managers manifestly share a significant amount of responsibility in turning out explorative and descriptive studies partly due to their defensive managerial participation. Interestingly, managers would rather keep an ineffective BI unit confidential than open it for assessment in fear of competition or bad publicity. Therefore, this review highlights the value open participation of managers in longitudinal studies could bring to the BI research and by extent the new open intelligence culture across their organizations where knowledge is overt, intelligence is participative, not selective and where double loop learning alongside scholars is continuous. Their commitment to open participation and longitudinal studies will help generate new research that better integrates the BI process within its context and fosters new measures for intelligence performance. Originality/value This study provides an integrative framework that integrates the interrelationships across the BI process and its organizational context and outlines the covered research areas and the underexplored ones. By so doing, the developed framework sets the ground for scholars to further develop insights within each dimension and across their interrelationships.
... The table does not include related research on buyer organization intra-firm networks (e.g., Ronchetto et al. 1989) or firm networks (e.g., Rindfleisch & Moorman, 2001;Rowley et al., 2000;Swaminathan & Moorman, 2009;Wang et al., 2017;Wuyts et al., 2004) * Román and Martín (2008) examine the effect of doubling visit frequency between two periods on change of sales, but their between-tie analysis does not allow for insights on within-tie change (Bolander et al., 2017(Bolander et al., , 2021Childs et al., 2019) Furthermore, it allows them to communicate benefits of the products/services they are selling and influence the decisionmaking process in a buyer organization. As a consequence, a salesperson can more successfully pursue a sales opportunity by creating value for a buyer organization and ultimately influencing the sales performance within the tie (Ahearne et al., 2013;Homburg et al., 2009;Hughes et al., 2013). Given that access to and management of these information flows occur within the salesperson-buyer organization tie, salespeople must be careful in choreographing their scarce face-to-face visits with a buyer organization. ...
... For a salesperson, increasing visits with a buyer organization can create more opportunities to uncover critical information related to the needs of and decision-making processes in a buyer organization (Palmatier, 2008). The resulting insights allow a salesperson to better identify and understand a sales opportunity as well as to better adapt, position, and connect the offering to buyer organization challenges (Hughes et al., 2013). A greater understanding of the decision-making process enables a salesperson to more directly influence buying decisions by better addressing key decision parameters and by more effectively overcoming concerns that come up throughout the sales cycle. ...
Article
Salesperson face-to-face visits with buyer organizations are an inherently dynamic phenomenon and choreographing changes in those visits is important for a salesperson to identify and pursue sales opportunities. Drawing on social network theory and adopting a novel within-tie change perspective, we provide guidance regarding salesperson choreographing. We do so by focusing on how often a salesperson visits a buyer organization (i.e., change in visit intensity, visit intensity trend, duration of relations) and the functions a salesperson visits in a buyer organization (i.e., change in diversity of visited functions, change in visit concentration on top-management). Our model of salesperson choreographing is tested using data from 2934 salesperson–buyer organization relationships over seven consecutive sales periods. Random coefficient models illustrate the complex and nuanced interplay of various aspects of salesperson choreographing on sales with a buyer organization. The findings provide actionable guidance for salespeople to better manage the choreographing of limited visits.
... Second, we identify selling abilities (i.e. adaptive selling) and opportunities (captured by social capital) as the underlying mediation pathways between the two psychological motivations and sales performance (Hughes et al., 2013;Johnson and Friend, 2015). Furthermore, differing from previous studies' categorization of social capital (e.g. ...
... Social capital refers to the social resources embedded in the social relationships between individuals and other people. People with rich social capital have access to multiple resources and opportunities that facilitate their successes (Hughes et al., 2013). Therefore, we analyze how individuals can leverage the resources embedded within connections with other people in a network to achieve good sales performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory and the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, this study examines how salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital influence sales performance. Design/methodology/approach This study uses survey data from 293 salespersons employed in China and their archival sales performance to test the hypotheses posited. Findings The results show that both salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital enhance sales performance via adaptive selling. However, these elements are primarily substitutes in influencing adaptive selling. In addition, by dividing social capital into two types (i.e. family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), the results reveal that salespersons' self-monitoring enhances family-based social capital, but not customer-based social capital. Finally, customer-based social capital, but not family-based capital, improves sales performance. Research limitations/implications This paper extends the literature on sales force management, which examines various psychological traits and their influences on sales performance. While self-monitoring and psychological capital have been investigated separately, this research simultaneously examines these two factors by drawing on resource conservation theory. Furthermore, it explores how these psychological traits impact salespersons' ability development (i.e. adaptive selling) and capital accumulation (i.e., family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), which, in turn, affect sales performance. Practical implications The results offer managerial insights into sales force selection and management. In particular, managers should encourage salespersons to obtain greater customer-based social capital, which is more valuable than family-based social capital in boosting sales performance. Social implications The present research is also beneficial for employee psychological health management, as it seeks to illuminate the role of psychological traits, ability development and capital accumulation. It offers insights into sociological research on social capital by categorizing it into family-based and customer-based capital. Originality/value This paper extends the literature on salespersons' psychological traits, selling abilities and social capital by examining the impacts of self-monitoring and psychological capital on adaptive selling and social capital. Specifically, this study examines the interplay between self-monitoring and psychological capital from the perspective of resources conservation theory.
... Later, CI began to be positioned as a formal function within companies in the USA (Begg and Toit 2007), but it was not until the 1990s that CI began to gain momentum (Du Toit and Muller 2005). Gradually, it has been observed that the collection and correct use of good information has a direct impact on business results (Tej Adidam et al. 2012;Fleisher and Blenkhorn 2003), which has given rise to numerous studies on this aspect: the influence of the internet on the quality of information and organisational impact (Teo and Choo 2001); the ability of vendors and customers to adapt to CI, and its influence on the results obtained (Hughes et al. 2013); or the repercussions of CI mechanisms in large companies (Bernhardt 1994). However, criticisms of the effect of CI on organisations also appear in the literature (Kahaner 1996), pointing to the difficulty of measuring the benefits of CI or the lack of interest in the scientific literature. ...
... Researchers have also published on the procedures for the generation and use of CI in companies. Many studies focus on marketing and sales strategies (Hughes et al. 2013;Homburg et al. 2017;Ramaseshan et al. 2013) as a field of application of CI, where it is also used as a learning model within the department (Dishman and Pearson 2003). CI is considered a useful tool for marketing managers and will increase their strategic responsiveness (Heinrichs and Lim 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The business environment of today is complex and dynamic due to increasing global competition. The businessman needs to master and know all the information that has strategic value, and Competitive Intelligence is positioned as the most appropriate tool to achieve this goal. In recent decades, research and publications related to Competitive Intelligence have been increasing, although the military heritage of this field of research and the association with large corporations has meant that the literature is still at an early phase of development and specialisation. This paper analyses scientific articles on Competitive Intelligence from journals in the Web of Science database between 1985 and 2021. The main objective of this research has been to detect the topics that have been most related to Competitive Intelligence. The 589 papers analysed indicate that interest in this topic is relatively recent and that the most central topic in the sample is Innovation. The bibliometric analysis carried out indicates that Competitive Intelligence is closely linked to innovation processes in companies, facilitating its development. Furthermore, it highlights the importance that business management, together with the promotion of absorptive capacity and alignment around Competitive Intelligence will allow companies to improve their competitive advantages, as well as greater success with new products. Little research was found on aspects related to small and medium-sized enterprises and patents in relation to Competitive Intelligence. This research aims to show which are the most researched topics in relation to Competitive Intelligence, so that it can serve as support for future research, as well as for company managers in making decisions in relation to this topic.
... Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus (2017) claim that a learning-oriented salesperson is more likely to get value from social media use which can also improve their performance at an organisational level. Furthermore, Lacoste (2016) and Ogilvie et al. (2018) argue that a salesperson must have the capability to develop interactive communication with a lead because a salesperson is a "boundary spanner" and has direct contact with the customer (Hughes, Le Bon and Rapp, 2012). Hence, a salesperson can increase and maintain trust by responding to comments, messages, and eventually drawing clients into the seller's social networks (Agnihotri et al., 2012). ...
... A prevailing opinion is that gathering market information is a key role of a salesperson (Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus, 2017;Rapp et al., 2013). In the concept of competitive intelligence and adoptive selling a salesperson gathers relevant information about the environment especially competitors to formulate better selling strategies (Hughes, Le Bon and Rapp, 2012;Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus, 2017;Rapp and Panagopoulos, 2012). Along similar lines, scholars urge organisations to support salespersons gather information by integrating social media and a CRM tool (Agnihotri et al., 2012;Choudhury and Harrigan 2014;Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus, 2017;Rodriguez, Peterson and Krishnan, 2012;Trainor et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The Business-to-Business (B2B) sales environment is facing unprecedented changes due to an increasing trend of digitisation and of late the changed buying behaviours during COVID-19. This revolution in B2B sales has reconceptualised all aspects of sales ranging from internal control to customer engagement. In such times, LinkedIn serves as an important platform for professional usage to maintain pace with the dynamic technology, increased data reliance, and online networking. Practitioners and academics alike have emphasised on LinkedIn as a noble tool for B2B sales. Since the research in this particular area is disintegrated and lacks common constructs, this study has focused on evaluating online B2B sales through LinkedIn. The three wide concepts researched are the efficacy of LinkedIn in B2B sales, the main application of LinkedIn in the sales process, and the effective performance evaluation metrics. The study further discusses the efficacy of LinkedIn as a B2B sales tool and identifies the factors affecting its performance through a factor analysis technique. We opted for a systematic literature review followed by a questionnaire-based survey among B2B salespeople and executives. Significant theoretical and managerial contributions were made through critical analysis of the extant literature and statistics found by the survey. The findings indicate that there are four major factors that affect the efficacy of LinkedIn in B2B sales. Furthermore, the findings have advanced the current understanding of the role of LinkedIn in achieving sales objectives. This research conceptualises the use of LinkedIn in building networks and enhancing B2B sales performance. The study concludes on recommending future directions and practical implications that can be adopted by researchers and practitioners.
... Social interactions within organizational boundaries facilitate the access and dissemination of information in an efficient and cost-effective way (Nahapiet and Ghoshal 1998). As social capital is traditionally an aggregate concept (Brehm and Rahn 1997), there has been more research analyzing the effects of social capital at the organizational level (e.g., Bachrach, Mullins, and Rapp 2017;Inkpen and Tsang 2005;Madhavaram and Hunt 2017) or relational level (Hughes, Bon, and Rapp 2013) than at the individual employee level (e.g., Bolander et al. 2015). Contemporary literature emphasizes the importance of intraorganizational resources for FLEs (Kalra et al. 2017;Rouziou et al. 2018). ...
... Intraorganizational social capital may be described as the capital emerging from an FLE's network of relationships with other individuals within the organization (Inkpen and Tsang 2005). It reflects the goodwill emerging from social relations that can be harnessed by an employee for some benefit (Hughes, Bon, and Rapp 2013). Specifically, our characterization of "benefit" relates to information advantages. 1 Thus, intraorganizational social capital provides FLEs access to information-based resources derived from their network of relationships (Kostova and Roth 2003). ...
Article
Grounded in social capital theory, this study explores the influence of intraorganizational social capital on frontline employees’ (FLEs) competitive intelligence activities and the subsequent effects of engaging in competitive intelligence on their information communication behavior and relational customer outcomes. We empirically test the hypothesized relationships using multisource, multi-industry data collected from business-to-business (B2B) FLEs and their customers. The results indicate that bridging social capital directly relates to FLEs’ competitive intelligence activities, while bonding social capital functions as a positive moderator of this relationship. Job autonomy also positively moderates the relationship between bridging social capital and competitive intelligence. Results further indicate that FLEs’ competitive intelligence directly and positively relates to customers’ perception of information communication, which positively influences customer loyalty and engagement behavior. These results indicate that the firms’ cultivation of social capital can improve the capability of their FLEs to provide information-based service to industrial customers.
... More generally, business exchanges occur through: (1) information generation and localized coordination which eases future transactions (Palmer, 1983;Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003); (2) normative pressure, that upholds mutually agreed-upon terms even without a formal contract (Koenig & Gogel, 1981); (3) relational ties, which induce individuals to transact out of social obligation, beyond tangible benefits (Frenzen & Davis, 1990), and (4) less concerns about opportunism, and lower monitoring costs (Jap & Anderson, 2003). Social exchange can subsequently result in increased commitment and performance (Hughes, Le Bon, & Rapp, 2013). ...
Article
Small businesses in emerging markets face several challenges that are difficult for individual firms to meet on their own, and thus require creative collaboration with other businesses. Using in-depth interview-based exploratory study and the premise of social exchange and dynamic capabilities, we theorize that small businesses engage in a cyclical process with the manufacturer firm. It involves allowing products to be dumped (i.e., 'Dumping') in certain situations, while on other occasions providing a cooling-off period (i.e., 'Releasing'). Based on behavioral learning, we further argue that this Dumping-Releasing cycle is a perpetuating managerial action, which managers alter across size and location of the small firm, resulting in overall superior performance for the manufacturer as well as the small firms. The hypotheses of this model were tested using 34,434 purchase instances over a 92-week period gathered from 2167 small businesses in India. How the study contributes to theory and practice, and potential research opportunities is discussed.
... In addition to being the primary driver of revenue generation, sales staff isalsoan important source of potential market intelligence, predefined timeframe dynamics, and industry forecasting. Organizations need to provide a more comprehensive knowledge of the market, consumers and salespeoplewith the unique demands of consumers and the complexity of the market in emerging economies (Hughes et al., 2013). It is therefore necessary to further explain the performance structure of salespeopleinanorganization. ...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this analysis is to examine the impact of emotional intelligence and market orientation as an antecedent of sales performance. Furthermore, it investigates the moderating role of self-efficacy in the relationship betweenEI, MO,and SP. In Lahore, Pakistan, 285 questionnaires were sent to ten designated pharmaceutical companies' top, middle, and low-level managers. The choice of these firms is dependent on simple random sampling methods and minimal sample size estimation techniques. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to analyse the model and hypothesis. Smart PLS tools and the partial least squares approach is used for data processing. The study findings suggest that the two dimensions, emotional intelligence, and market orientation,positively impact sales performance. The results also support the moderation effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between EI, MO, and SP. So concerning return on revenue and future industry insight, evident market patterns, and business predictions, the EI and Mo are the vital sources of sales results. The sales force's position should also adjust according to these developments and realities, considering the large differences in the trade and market climate-related to competition and the severity of the rivalry between businesses and consumer usage habits. This research adds to the literature by identifying the unexplored Moderation impact of self-efficacy on EI, MO, and SP. This research expands the literature on self-efficacy effects, currently limited to attitudes and performance.
... According to Teigland and Wasko (2003), reciprocity is a cooperation mechanism that facilitates informal information sharing in cross-boundary exchanges. According to Hughes et al. (2013), a salesperson can "creates an environment conducive to the reciprocal nature of the social exchange, encouraging the buyer to respond in kind with something of benefit" such as "the sharing of information that might be unknown to and useful to the salesperson" (p. 95). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the increasing array of sales technology, salespeople must understand how each application assists them. This study examines how business-to-business salespeople use different forms of sales technology to meet their boundary-spanning roles. Our research draws from social exchange theory and task-technology fit theory to test a model that examines how salespeople use CRM and social media technologies differentially to support competitive information collection, product information communication, and buyer information sharing. Dyadic data from industrial buyers and sellers is used to analyze the technology-behavior relationships. Our study's results reveal social media use and CRM technology both positively influence buyer-seller information exchanges ; however, each technology takes a distinct route to enable the information exchange between the buyer and the seller. The results also suggest that managers need to champion the use of both technology applications to their salesforce.
... Penelitian ekstensif dalam pemulihan layanan terus berlanjut dan menjadi elemen penting bagi akademisi dan para manajer (Kunz, W.H. and Hogreve, 2011) Berbagai literatur mengusulkan anteseden kepuasan dengan pemulihan layanan seperti persepsi keadilan (Bradley, G. and Sparks, 2012;Choi, B. and Choi, 2014) perceived severity of failure (Balaji, M.S. and Sarkar, 2013;Betts, T.K., Wood, M.S. and Tadisina, 2011) disconfirmation of recovery expectations (Prasongsukarn, K. and Patterson, 2012) observasi pelanggan atas pemulihan layanan (Vaerenbergh, Y.V., Vermeir, I. and Larivière, 2013). Studi sebelumnya telah mengidentifikasi bahwa pemulihan layanan berdampak pada pengembangan hubungan pelanggan perusahaan, citra perusahaan, kepuasan pelanggan, niat membeli kembali, dan word of mouth (Casielles et al., 2017;Mostafa et al., 2015;Park, J.J. and Park, 2016) Terlepas dari pentingnya pemulihan layanan, para peneliti menunjukkan pemulihan layanan sebagai aspek yang relative terabaikan, yang membutuhkan lebih banyak studi (Nadiri, 2016), selain itu perusahaan mengejar strategi penjualan relasional yang mengadopsi hubungan perilaku menjual, karena terkait dengan kepuasan pelanggan, kepercayaan pelanggan, dan keberhasilan hubungan jangka panjang (Hughes, D.E., Bon, J.L. and Rapp, 2013;Maglajlic et al., 2016;Syafrizal, Abdul Wahid, N. and Ismail, 2012) Rumusan masalah penelitian mencakup apakah terdapat pengaruh signifikan service recovery terhadap kepuasan pelanggan? Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis pengaruh service recovery terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. ...
Article
In recent times, service recovery is receiving important attention in the service operations management literature. Service recovery involves actions designed to solve problems, change negative attitudes of dissatisfied consumers and retain customers. The research objective was to analyze the effect of service recovery on customer satisfaction. This research is a descriptive study with a quantitative approach. The sampling method was simple random sampling. The sample size is 170 people. The results show that it is true that service recovery has a considerable influence on customer satisfaction because the ability of service recovery explains the satisfaction of 73.3% and the most influential indicator is the way employees behave. PENDAHULUAN Bisnis terutama yang bergerak di bidang industry jasa, saat ini beroperasi dengan persaingan yang sangat tinggi di mana kepuasan pelanggan dan komitmen pelanggan menjadi elemen penting untuk menjamin kelangsungan hidup jangka panjang bisnis (Rashid et al., 2014). Oleh karena itu perusahaan terus mencari strategi bisnis untuk mengatasi keluhan pelanggan dan mengurangi tingkat kegagalan layanan sehingga dapat memuaskan pelanggan (Atuo, E.C. and Kalu, 2017). Terlepas dari semua upaya, kegagalan layanan tidak dapat dihindari karena orang tidak sempurna, dan cenderung melakukan kesalahan (Khan, U. and Khan, 2014) Selain itu pelanggan saat ini memiliki pengetahuan tentang produk dan layanan karena ketersediaan informasi online (Stratemeyer et al., 2014) Hal ini membuat pelanggan menjadi lebih menuntut layanan tersebut. Ketika kegagalan layanan terhadi, pelanggan yang puas berubah menjadi pelanggan yang tidak puas, dan hal ini mempertaruhkan hubungan perusahaan dengan pelanggannya (Lai, M.C. and Chou, 2015) Karena bisnis sekarang menyadari pentingnya memiliki strategi pemulihan layanan yang efektif sebagai cara untuk mendapatkan kepuasan pelanggan, Dengan menggunakan strategi pemulihan layanan, bisnis bertujuan untuk mengubah pelanggan yang awalnya tidak puas menjadi pelanggan yang berkomitmen menyebar informasi positif terntang bisnis (Fierro et al., 2014) dan berdampak positif terhadap profitabilitas dan pendapatan bisnis (Kruger et al., 2015) untuk mempertahankan pelanggan. Pelanggan yang berkomitmen merupakan aset bagi bisnis karena menciptakan pelanggan baru dapat menghabiskan biaya tinggi daripada mempertahankan pelanggan yang sudah ada sebelumnya (Chiu et al., 2012; Park, J.J. and Park, 2016) Oleh sebab itu pemahaman efek positif dari pemulihan layanan pada kepuasan pealnggan yang akan membantu penyedia layanan untuk melakukan pemulihan layanan sebagai alat yang penting untuk mendapatkan kepercayaan pelanggan yang tidak puas. Keberhasilan perusahaan jasa sangat bergantung kepada kemampuannya secara konsisten memberikan pengalaman pelanggan yang memuaskan. Namun organisasi yang berorientasi pada pelanggan dengan kualitas layanan yang tinggi terkadang masih melakukan kesalahan dalam pemberian layanan kepada konsumen (Hu, K.C., Lu, M.L., Tu, C.Y. and Jen, 2013). Pada saat terjadi kesalahan, yang sangat penting dimiliki adalah program pemulihan yang efektif diterapkan untuk memulihkan dan memuaskan pelanggan serta meningkatkan retensi (Allen et al.,2015). Sebagian besar service recovery melibatkan interaksi sosial, sewajarnya mengasumsikan bahwa orientasi budaya pelanggan akan memengaruhi bagaimana konsumen memandang keadilan dari upaya pemulihan untuk kepuasan konsumen (Prasongsukarn, K. and Patterson, 2012). Minuman jenis bubble tea akhir-akhir ini menjadi tren di kalangan siapapun yang berkawasan di sekitar Asia, salah satunya adalah Indonesia. Minuman dengan bahan dasar teh dan susu, serta toping
... Second, building on social capital theory in the FLE context (Hughes, Le Bon, & Rapp, 2013), we incorporate boundary conditions to determine the drivers and consequences of FLE social capital. Social capital theory underscores the fact that network structures and facilitators (i.e., OSNs) yielding positive social capital may fail to deliver anticipated outcomes due to personal and environmental factors in some situations (Hansen, Podolny, & Pfeffer, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Building upon social capital theory, we identify different attributes of front-line employee (FLE) social capital and outline how the use of online social networks (OSNs) can enable social capital development and social capital maintenance. We examine key boundary conditions of time management skills, perceived innovation climate, and customer perceived FLE responsiveness. Use of multi-informant data from FLEs working in B2B sales/service roles, their customers and managers enabled a comprehensive analysis that accounts for the endogenous nature of the predictor variables. We find the use of OSNs relates to social capital development and maintenance. Time management skills strengthen links between OSNs and both forms of social capital. However, perceived innovation climate plays a moderating role only in the social capital development process. Unique pathways connecting social capital development to customer loyalty with the firm and social capital maintenance to FLE sales performance were noted.
... The competitive intelligence that was incorporated into the market orientation framework was chosen to influence the corporate performance, either directly or through various intermediaries. Competitive intelligence has a direct impact on marketing performance (Ahearne, et al., 2013;Hughes, Le Bon & Rapp, 2013), as well as overall corporate performance (Johns & Van Doren, 2010). Such performance is measured by indicators such as growth, turnover, positioning and expectations. ...
Conference Paper
The expansion of web-based information sources and social media attracts companies 'attention to such channels as sources of competitive intelligence because of their reduced advertising costs, good quality and utilization of competitors' knowledge and products. Up to now, most research has focused on information gathering techniques rather than competitive intelligence and its impact on firm performance. The competitive intelligence applied by management and employees, makes knowledge transferred across the organization. The present study was conducted using applied-qualitative and library research methods through various articles. Information analysis is performed using the grounded theory method. The assessments show the positive impact of competitive intelligence web resources and alliance with information providers in the field of competitive intelligence. Competitive intelligence has an impact on the performance of the company with the mediating role of customer satisfaction and also using the information gained from the knowledge of competitive intelligence has increased the level of customer satisfaction and thus increased financial performance for the company.
... An indicator of professionalism in sales is that the seller adopts a problem-solving approach. A professional salesperson no longer asks, 'What can I sell individually?' but instead asks, 'How can I solve this customers' problem?' (Hughes et al., 2013). ...
... If an assigned IT auditor engages in audit reporting, after formal results communication, follow-up completes the IT audit system. Information is classifiable and assessable (Hughes et al., 2013). The contributions to audit practice are an improvement in IT audit processes for concluding on audit engagements more effectively with a concomitant reduction in engagement area risks. ...
Book
Full-text available
As the power of computing continues to advance, companies have become increasingly dependent on technology to perform their operational requirements and to collect, process, and maintain vital data. This increasing reliance has caused information technology (IT) auditors to examine the adequacy of managerial control in information systems and related operations to assure necessary levels of effectiveness and efficiency in business processes. In order to perform a successful assessment of a business’s IT operations, auditors need to keep pace with the continued advancements being made in this field. IT Auditing Using a System Perspective is an essential reference source that discusses advancing approaches within the IT auditing process, as well as the necessary tasks in sufficiently initiating, inscribing, and completing IT audit engagement. Applying the recommended practices contained in this book will help IT leaders improve IT audit practice areas to safeguard information assets more effectively with a concomitant reduction in engagement area risks. Featuring research on topics such as statistical testing, management response, and risk assessment, this book is ideally designed for managers, researchers, auditors, practitioners, analysts, IT professionals, security officers, educators, policymakers, and students seeking coverage on modern auditing approaches within information systems and technology.
... Customer-oriented salespeople are therefore interested in learning how to understand customers by paying attention to consumer needs, and on that basis, are interested in providing the best solutions to consumer problems, not just simple sales. On the other hand, sales-oriented salespeople tend to rapidly maximize their short-term profits [49,50]. However, it is important to understand these two concepts to the effect that a high level of customer orientation does not necessarily accompany a low level of sales orientation. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study sets out to assess the effects of sales-related capabilities of personal selling organizations on individual sales capabilities, sales behaviors, and sales performance in cosmetics personal selling channels. Data are collected from 151 salespeople, their sales organizations, and their visiting customers (151) in South Korea. The proposed hypotheses are tested through the structural equation modelling technique. The study finds that both types of sales-related capabilities (salesforce management capabilities and personal selling capabilities) have significant positive effects on the individual sales capabilities, respectively. Further, the individual sales capability of salespeople has a stronger impact on customer-oriented sales behavior than on selling-oriented sales behavior. Similarly, selling-oriented sales behavior has a negative effect on customer satisfaction while customer-oriented sales behavior has a positive effect. The study further finds that customer-oriented sales behavior has a positive effect, while selling-oriented sales behavior has no statistically significant effect on sales performance. The relationship length, the study finds, moderates the relationship between customer-oriented sales behavior and customer satisfaction. The study offers practical and theoretical insights into understanding the nuances of sales-related capabilities of sales organizations and how they affect the individual selling capabilities of salespeople, their selling behaviors and sales performance. The results also have crucial consequences for sales organizations, as they can help sales managers design strategies and develop a culture that focuses on building and enhancing the selling capabilities of the firm and the salesforce. The present study demonstrates how the selling capabilities of the personal selling organization can influence the individual selling capabilities of the salesperson and how these could engender positive selling behaviors and sales performance.
... In addition to being the primary driver of revenue generation, sales staff isalsoan important source of potential market intelligence, predefined timeframe dynamics, and industry forecasting. Organizations need to provide a more comprehensive knowledge of the market, consumers and salespeoplewith the unique demands of consumers and the complexity of the market in emerging economies (Hughes et al., 2013). It is therefore necessary to further explain the performance structure of salespeopleinanorganization. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this analysis is to examine the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) and market orientation (MO) as an antecedent of sales performance (SP). Furthermore, this paperinvestigates the moderating role of self-efficacy ontherelationship between EI, MO,and SP. To achieve this, 285 questionnaires were sent to ten pharmaceutical companies' top, middle, and low-level managers in two Pakistani cities. The choice of these companies was dependent on simple random sampling methods and minimal sample size estimation techniques. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is then applied to analyze the model and hypothesis,and partial least squares regression is used for data processing in Smart-PLS. The findings presented here suggest that the two dimensions-emotional intelligence and market orientation-positively impacttheperformance of sales staff. The results also support the moderation effect of self-efficacy on the relationships between EI, MO, and SP. Both EI and MO are identified as vital influencers of sales resultsconcerning return on revenue and future industry insight, evident market patterns, and business predictions. Sales staffbehaviorneeds toadjust based on these changes, especially considering large differences in the competitive trade and market climate and due to the severe rivalry between businesses and clientusage habits. This research adds to the literature by identifying the unexplored moderation impact of self-efficacy on EI, MO, and SP. Furthermore, it expands the literature on self-efficacy effects, currently limited to attitudes and performance.
... Distinct from employees' positive emotion, which might be gained through happy customers via reciprocity in social exchange, the formation of employee empathy requires more in-depth social interactions with customers. Through relationships and experiences established in customer-employee exchanges, service employees could anticipate what customers are thinking (cognitive empathy) and how customers feel (affective empathy) in service encounters, supporting them to perform well on related tasks (Hughes, Le Bon, & Rapp, 2013). During favorable social interactions with service employees, friendship and mutual trust encourages server-friendly customers to share tacit knowledge (e.g., preferences of luxury customers, competitive advantages and innovative programs of other hotels and restaurants, or constructive feedback to improve products and services) with employees (Hau, Kim, Lee, & Kim, 2013), thus improving employees' sense of empathy in service encounters. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes and examines the role server-friendly customers play in the customer-employee exchange stage of service encounters, and how customer-employee exchange relates to employee organizational citizenship behaviors toward customers, colleagues, and hotel organizations. To further explain how service employees could reenergize through the psychological resources gained from server-friendly customers at the point of customer-employee exchange, conservation of resources theory was applied. Hotel employees in the United States and China were sampled to jointly examine our proposed model. Findings of this study contribute valuable theoretical implications by emphasizing the role of customer-employee exchange in the formation of employee citizenship behaviors, as well as practical implications with regard to mentoring employees, thus strategically reenergizing psychological resources and obtaining tacit knowledge of citizenship behavior and its practice.
... The adaptive sale as it has a positive impact on the needs of the customers and sales performance of a firm and its measurement and, for the salespersons to use the adaptive selling behavior, it is necessary to get the detailed information regarding their customers first (Park et al., 2010; Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus, 2017). Also, the salesperson must have the knowledge of their competitors and the market or the sales situations as well while adapting the selling approaches and presentations that fit the customer's needs (Hughes, Le Bon, and Rapp, 2013). According to the adaptive selling behavioral model presented by Weitz et al.(1986), the acquisition of the information regarding the customers, competitors and market (which is precisely the information regarding the sales situation), through formal or informal ways, is the chance or the opportunity for the salespersons for adapting to different customers and sales conditions to present their offers most attractively (Weitz, Sujan and Sujan, 1986; Itani, Agnihotri and Dingus, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of adaptive sales behavior to improve emotional intelligence and sales performance within the beverage industry. The population of this research comprised of the Beverage Industry of Pakistan. One hundred eighty employees were selected as the sample from the two big beverage companies in Pakistan. For this research, stratified random sampling technique was used. This study uses a cross-sectional and quantitative research design based on survey methods. The questionnaire has three parts and is used for data collection. Smart PLS-3 was used to evaluate the hypothesis of this study. The Results of this study highlighted the significance mediating the role of adaptive selling behavior to enhance emotional intelligence and sales performance. In contrast, emotional intelligence and sales performance have a significant correlation between each other.
... O marketing interno tem um papel a desempenhar ao reunir objetivos, educar e motivar colaboradores de diferentes departamentos , rever os seus papéis dentro da empresa e promover a compreensão de que todos os colaboradores desempenham papéis diferentes em diferentes departamentos, sendo uma mais-valia para atingir o objetivo da empresa (Lee & Chen, 2005). Ao promover o relacionamento com colaboradores de diferentes áreas, o marketing interno desencadeia uma atmosfera na qual a equipa de contacto é incentivada a trabalhar em conjunto com outros membros da empresa para a realização de um objetivo comum (Hughes et al., 2013). ...
Article
O marketing interno representa um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento de uma empresa centrada no cliente ao motivar e direcionar os colaboradores com o objetivo de atingirem, em conjunto, os objetivos organizacionais. Empresas de prestação de serviços têm vindo a demonstrar uma preocupação na melhoria da comunicação interna com o objetivo de reduzir o isolamento interdepartamental, incentivando assim a cooperação interpessoal e atingir uma maior satisfação do cliente. A presente estudo tem como principal objetivo analisar a relação entre práticas de marketing interno, a compatibilidade de objetivos e o grau de perceção dos colaboradores relativamente à satisfação do cliente no setor da publicidade em Portugal. Através de duas amostras: colaboradores do departamento de contacto e colaboradores do departamento criativo foi possível uma análise comparativa mais direcionada, possibilitando a demonstração das diferenças existentes nos dois departamentos com o intuito de perceber quais as dimensões que devem ser mantidas, melhoradas ou, por fim, abandonadas. O marketing interno tem impacto positivo na compatibilidade de objetivos bem como na satisfação do cliente e a compatibilidade de objetivos tem impacto positivo na satisfação do cliente. No departamento criativo verificou-se que apenas a relação entre o marketing interno e a satisfação do cliente foi suportada.
... É durante a interação entre vendedor-cliente que os vendedores têm acesso às informações que, inicialmente, não estão prontamente disponíveis para as organizações (Rapp, Ahearne, Mathieu, & Schillewaert, 2006). Portanto, quando a IC é articulada de forma estratégica por parte do vendedor, há uma influência do compartilhamento de informações (sobre a concorrência) úteis para a organização (Hughes, Le Bon, & Rapp 2012). Com uma melhor compreensão da concorrência e dos produtos comercializados, os gestores podem auxiliar os vendedores a atingirem eficiência nas vendas por promoverem superação às objeções e às adversidades encontradas no atendimento do cliente. ...
Este ensaio teórico suEste trabalho sugere um modelo teórico no qual a experiência do gestor e a dispersão da inteligência competitiva possuem efeitos moderadores na inteligência competitiva, alterando a eficiência em vendas. A dispersão da inteligência competitiva consiste em variações e distorções do conhecimento e a experiência do gestor compreende o tempo de empresa que o supervisor está na organização. O trabalho traz as seguintes contribuições: primeiro, quanto mais dispersa é a inteligência competitiva, pior é a eficiência de vendas no nível individual. Segundo, quanto maior é a experiência do gestor, melhor é a relação entre Inteligência Competitiva e eficiência. No mais, sugerem-se oportunidades de futuras pesquisas
... The notion that an organisation's salesforce is critical for the provision of knowledge on customer needs and product features demanded by customers is well established in the literature on marketing and sales (Gordon et al., 1997;Homburg et al., 2017;Homburg & Jensen, 2007;Rouziès et al., 2005;Verbeke et al., 2011), as well as in studies focusing on organisational information processing, where salespersons' role as market information creators is highlighted (Ahearne et al., 2013;Hughes et al., 2013). However, in spite of the acknowledgement that R&D-sales cooperation has a positive influence on new-product performance (Ernst et al., 2010) and that it may increase the innovation success of newly developed products (Homburg et al., 2017), studies focusing on R&D-sales cross-functional cooperation for knowledge transfer are scarce, particularly from an attributions perspective and its emphasis on the perceptions that employees hold of the reasons why management adopts certain human resource practices (Nishii et al., 2008;Shantz et al., 2016;van de Voorde & Beijer, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the challenges of R&D–sales cross‐functional cooperation by exploring how HR practices encourage knowledge transfer, minimising peer‐to‐peer friction and maximising the effectiveness of the exchanges for performance innovation. We combined document analysis of professional HR management magazines and semi‐structured interviews at a Finnish digital media firm, in order to identify manifestations of institutional work expressing and legitimising knowledge transfer‐focused HR management practices, and how employees make sense of them. Our findings identify manifestations of institutional work expressing, sustaining and legitimising knowledge transfer and relate these manifestations to distinct dimensions of human resource management practices. We integrate prevailing institutional expectations and employees' attributions of knowledge transfer‐focused human resource practices, which highlights the connections between human resource management and the knowledge management field, as well as the dichotomy between the more humanist knowledge transfer strategies and those that are information technology‐oriented. Our original integration of institutional expectations and a case analysis of employees' attributions of knowledge transfer‐focused human resource practices contribute directly to management practice dealing with the effects of organising strategically for knowledge‐based innovation outcomes. This has implications in terms of the development of interpersonal skills, the engagement and development of cross‐team work; the design of participative mechanisms; and the implementation of knowledge transfer principles, practices and systems.
... Customer-oriented salespeople are interested in learning how to understand consumers by paying attention to their needs and then providing the best solutions to those problems, rather than simply making sales. Short-term gain sales-oriented salespeople, on the other hand, seek to maximize their profits as soon as possible [11,30,31]. Understanding these two concepts, however, is vital for understanding that a high level of customer orientation does not always imply a low level of sales orientation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the effect of salespeople’s individual sales capabilities on selling behaviors and sales performance in door-to-door personal selling channels. The data are gathered from 219 South Korean salespeople. The hypotheses are tested using the structural equation modeling technique. The study finds that salespeople's individual sales capabilities have a greater impact on customer-oriented selling behavior than sales-oriented selling behavior. Similarly, both sales-oriented and customer-oriented selling behaviors have significant positive effects on sales performance. The study also discovers that competitive intensity moderates the relationship between customer-oriented selling behavior and sales performance, but has no significant effect on the relationship between sales-oriented selling behavior and sales performance. The current research only looks at door-to-door personal selling channels in South Korea. The implication is that the impacts of individual selling capabilities may differ in other contexts. The current study demonstrates that competitive intensity can reduce the impact that a “customer orientation” has on sales performance, and thus a blend of the two orientations (SOCO) is recommended for desired performance outcomes in the face of competition. Additionally, firms should focus on creating a culture that builds and enriches the sales capabilities of salespeople.
... Consequently, this traditional source of information is expensive and time-consuming to acquire (Kotler, 2012). Douglas and Joël Bon (2013) argued that salespeople who collect competitive information may generate more sales revenue and hence leverage firms' market share and profit margins. They emphasized the need for special managerial attention and training programs for achieving this. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to offer a conceptualization of sales transformation, a phenomenon that is redefining the role of salespeople and the nature of Business-to-Business (B2B) relationships while disrupting the selling logics across a variety of industries. Design/methodology/approach Through a two-stage approach, the authors propose and test a conceptual model of sales transformation. The authors conducted 20 interviews and two focus groups with sales directors and managers. The authors then surveyed directors, executives and managers in the sales area ( n = 190) and tested a reflective–formative hierarchical model using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings Sales transformation is a multidimensional construct that includes four higher-order dimensions, namely, people, digitalization, integration and acceleration, and 16 sub-dimensions. These dimensions simultaneously contribute to the sales transformation phenomenon that is conceptualized as a systemic process. This study also offers a measurement tool to assess the degree of sales transformation and enhance the value generated through sales. Originality/value Although many companies are facing challenges stemming from the process of sales transformation, most studies have only focused on micro-aspects of this transformation. This study provides a holistic view of sales transformation aimed at understanding the complexity of this phenomenon by adopting a macro-level perspective on the different dimensions that contribute to its occurrence and development.
Article
The selling practice is facing an unprecedented process of change that is redefining the logic of value co-creation and disrupting the nature of B2B relationships across several industries. This phenomenon is well-known in managerial practice but under-investigated at a theoretical level. Sales literature aligns on acknowledging that selling and value co-creation unfold within broader service ecosystems. However, the changes occurring in sales have been predominantly studied by focusing on the single elements affecting them. Based on a qualitative study of 48 sales experts, this research draws on the service ecosystem theory to offer a holistic perspective of the factors driving the transformation of selling for value co-creation. The proposal from the study is that value co-creation through selling is a systemic and multi-actor phenomenon, including two antecedents: Hybridization of salespeople and Digital ecosystem empowerment, two boundary conditions: Multi-actor integration and Acceleration, and 23 sub-dimensions driving change in selling. The study also provides guidance for managerial practices, which is crucial due to the high failure rate of attempts at transforming sales.
Article
Dynamic capabilities are central to firms' strategic decision-making and have received increasing attention in recent years due, in part, to the development of the information society. This research explores how web-based and human information sources interact and advance the development of dynamic capabilities. We use a mixed-methods approach executed in two studies. Study 1 reports insights gleaned from in-depth interviews with 12 senior managers. Study 2 provides the findings from a survey completed by 139 senior managers. The analysis indicates that the use of web-based and human information sources facilitates all dynamic capabilities types – sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring. Furthermore, sensing mediates the effects of the information sources on seizing and reconfiguring. This research highlights the strategic potential of using business information sources to advance dynamic capabilities while differentiating between the most commonly used information sources and inspecting their individual and synergistic effects on the advancement of dynamic capabilities.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to illustrate how integrating competitive intelligence (CI) into a US health-care firm can aid in information sharing and building knowledge for the organization. Design/methodology/approach This study is exploratory using a systematic literature review to develop a conceptual model applied to the US health-care industry. Findings This research presents key propositions of CI’s role in the CI process along with the C-suite’s role in supporting a process and culture to ultimately, gain competitive advantage through the knowledge-based view. Practical implications With the growing volume of data, a unified system and culture within a firm is paramount. The US health-care system is a privatized industry that has become more competitive stifling information sharing. The need for prompt and accurate decision-making has become an imperative. Crises, like the current COVID-19 pandemic, only exacerbate the issue. This model offers a blue print for executives to build a CI function and encourage information sharing. Originality/value Previous research has focused on the CI process and its value. Yet, little research is found on how to integrate CI into a firm and its role through the CI process. This study builds a conceptual model addressing integration and the flow of information to knowledge along with key firm dynamics to nurture the function. Although the model is applied specifically to US health care, it offers application to most any industry.
Article
Purpose Drawing on Foa and Foa’s elaboration of social exchange theory, the authors propose that buyers reciprocate perceived commitment on the part of the salesperson and supplier with commitment on their own parts because of strengthening of the relationship’s tacit governance mechanism – cooperative norms. Design/methodology/approach This study uses data from 155 buyers doing business with a multinational supplier. The buyers were from firms generating less than $100,000 in billings. The salesforce of the supplier firm sponsoring the research is responsible for account management and communicating directly with buyers. Findings Buyers, who feel that their suppliers are providing a symbolic, long-term, particularistic benefit (commitment), respond with their own strengthened commitment to the relationship; this mutualism is explained entirely by the mediating effect of the relationship’s cooperative norms. Where buyers perceive generally favorable treatment (satisfaction), without these three qualities, their own reciprocal commitment increases directly and cooperative norms play no part. The results also demonstrate the transition of buyer perceptions of the salesperson as they develop into beliefs about the selling firm as a whole. Practical implications Drawing on the “reciprocation-in-kind” principle, supplier firms seeking long-term, open-ended commitment from their customers should cultivate it via similarly long-term and open-ended commitments of their own. Attention must be given to the unwritten, often unstated “rules of the road” for business relationships, as these rules represent the mechanism through which investments in long-term, profitable partnerships bear fruit. Originality/value The conceptual model draws on and empirically tests Foa and Foa’s framework within social exchange theory to predict what form of buyer reciprocation will result, based on the characteristics of perceived seller-provided benefits. This study illustrates that the tacit governance structure of a B2B relationship – its cooperative norms – plays a critical role in the strength of a buyer’s commitment to its supplier.
Article
Within the context of industrial exhibitions, few researchers have explored how booth staffing decisions affect the booth personnel's reactions and conduct at trade shows. In the current study, Narver and Slater's market orientation dimensions are considered as the predictors of exhibitor's booth personnel commitment. Besides, this study explores the impacts of exhibitor's booth personnel commitment on booth worker's role clarity, goal acceptance, and work effort. Finally, the influences of work effort on three forms of booth staff's information behavior are tested. The data collected from five different B2B exhibits in Taiwan support eleven of the twelve hypotheses. Based on the analytic results, the present research adds theoretical and managerial implications to the existing literature of industrial exhibitions. In particular, it highlights three issues for exhibitors to consider, which include process ambiguity, interaction adaptation, and informational paradox.
Article
The role and nature of business-to-business (B2B) sales has evolved since the end of the 20th century, mostly driven by technological, organizational and social changes. However, the literature has yet to catch up with that evolution. Particularly, the literature lacks contemporary studies that exclusively showcase the key determinants and practices that facilitate the success of B2B sales. Hence, we conduct a meta-analysis of the literature and summarize the results of 139 independent published studies from 1980 to 2019 that examined the relationship between several determinants and B2B sales success. Our results show that such success may be influenced by 31 different determinants associated with four dimensions of the selling process (i.e., salesperson, organization, customer, and environment). We also investigate the moderator effects of measurement source (subjective vs. objective), measurement items (single vs. multiple), industry context (goods vs. services), number of industries (single vs. multiple), sales function (inside sales vs. outside sales) and year of publication (before 2010 vs after 2010) between several determinants and B2B sales success. Our findings convey important implications for theory and practice on the key determinants of B2B sales success, as well as the conditions on which each determinant is effective. We also provide recommendations for further research on B2B sales success.
Article
Full-text available
Despite recent attention from scholars, internal networking remains underexplored in the sales literature, particularly with respect to its effect on longitudinal measures of performance. The current research addresses this notable omission by examining the interactive effect of salespeople’s internal networking ability and their supervisor’s organizational status on performance growth trajectories. Utilizing 20 quarters of individual, financial performance data from 113 salespeople at a warehousing equipment manufacturer, we find that both internal networking and a supervisor’s organizational status drive a salesperson’s performance growth trajectory. However, the interaction of these two variables has a negative – and counterintuitive – effect on performance growth trajectory. That is, supervisors with high organizational status attenuate (buttress) the performance growth of their high (low) networking salespeople. Taken together, these results reveal an important boundary condition regarding the efficacy of internal networking, and underscore the importance of sales managers in shaping the effectiveness of their salespeople’s internal networking efforts.
Article
O objetivo do estudo foi o de mapear a produção científica internacional sobre inteligência competitiva em uma das principais bases de dados, a ISI Web of Science entre os anos 1956 e 2016, realizando uma pesquisa bibliométrica em trabalhos acadêmicos, identificando-se, após aplicados os filtros de refinamento, 162 registros de publicação em 108 periódicos distintos. O estudo conclui que, apesar do crescimento das pesquisas sobre o assunto, existe uma lacuna de investigação em algumas áreas do conhecimento como na administração e na ciência da informação, principalmente no Brasil, apontando também, a possibilidade de exploração do assunto com diferentes perspectivas como por exemplo através da pesquisa e desenvolvimento, marketing e área de vendas.
Article
O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em descrever e analisar os efeitos do processo da inteligência competitiva na estratégia em uma empresa de comércio de produtos veterinários localizada em Belo Horizonte/MG. Foi realizado um estudo de caso de abordagem qualitativa e finalidade descritiva, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada para coleta de dados junto a cinco gestores e um gerente de projeto terceirizado. Os dados foram analisados utilizando a técnica de análise de conteúdo. No planejamento da implantação da inteligência competitiva na empresa, foi preciso levantar informações de todos os departamentos da empresa, de concorrentes, público alvo, logística, marca, imagem, oportunidades, ameaças, em seguida tais informações foram compiladas e analisadas. A implantação de inteligência competitiva facilitou os processos administrativos, tornando-os mais eficientes e menos burocráticos. As mudanças foram consideradas como positivas, uma vez que permitiram a melhoria do ambiente, no aspecto do trabalho em equipe, a partir da valorização dos funcionários por parte da empresa. Os resultados indicaram que houve evolução no planejamento estratégico financeiro, que ficou mais eficaz. Há evidências de que, após a implantação da Inteligência Competitiva, a empresa tornou-se mais competitiva em relação aos concorrentes no mercado em que atua, possibilitando maior aceitação de seus produtos no mercado.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Organizations need actionable knowledge to cope with environmental uncertainty, make effective decisions and develop innovation strategies. Since innovation evolves through generations, the present study aims to unravel and define innovation intelligence, considering this transformation, and discuss how environmental uncertainty is resolved in each one. Design/methodology/approach This article is a conceptual paper that employs a typology and model approach in its research design Findings Contexts are categorized into ordered and unordered (according to the Cynefin framework), in which intelligence with prediction and control approaches are applied for uncertainty management, respectively. Also, the three generations of innovation management, namely, technology push, market pull and a combination of these two (hybrid), intelligence benefit from a prediction approach, and in the networked (collaborative) generation, intelligence takes advantage of a control approach. Research limitations/implications The conceptual approach adopted in this research is limited to, and focused on, understanding intelligence, innovation intelligence and presenting preliminary insights into their relationship with uncertainty management. Practical implications This research guides decision-makers to adopt the appropriate intelligence approach to manage uncertainty during their innovation management process and illustrate it by the industry uncertainty matrix and COVID-19 pandemic situation. Originality/value This study proposes a typology of intelligence based on different knowledge pyramids. Also, it introduces innovation intelligence and its relation to knowledge management and environmental uncertainty management that has not yet been clearly addressed in the literature. Moreover, it determines the uncertainty management approaches for each variant of innovation intelligence.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the large body of research that examines the determinants of salesperson performance, significant variation exists regarding how scholars can operationalize salesperson performance using secondary, firm-provided data. Moreover, this variation often exists without explanation or justification. We explore the issue in three parts. First, we conduct practitioner surveys to discover various salesperson performance operationalizations (SPOs) in use by salespeople and sales managers. Second, using a carefully constructed and theoretically driven evaluative framework, we conduct a systematic review of the literature on salesperson performance that encompasses over thirty years of empirical research on the subject; this review allows us to better understand the SPOs that scholars use. Third, we compare these practitioner and scholarly perspectives to create a comprehensive conceptual model of the different types of SPOs. The model highlights theoretical insights and provides guidance to scholars and reviewers related to the selection of appropriate SPOs for meeting specific research objectives.
Article
Customer-oriented frontline employees are motivated by a strong desire to help customers. While such motivation enhances customer outcomes, it can also encourage frontline employees to engage in customer-directed prosocial behaviors that undermine organizational norms. We consider such a possibility and find that: (1) in their quest to satisfy customers’ needs, customer-oriented employees engage in customer-focused voice and/or pro-customer rule breaking, (2) the extent to which employees perform these behaviors depends on whether they identify with the organization or customers, (3) customer-focused voice enhances while pro-customer rule breaking hinders role performance, (4) the net performance consequences of a customer orientation can be positive or negative, and (5) various contingency factors determine whether rule breaking results in lower performance ratings from supervisors. These findings offer evidence of a customer orientation dark side and, paradoxically, underscore that internally focused marketing efforts are critical for a customer orientation to enhance frontline employee performance.
Article
Reciprocity is inherent to business-to-business (B2B) exchanges and paves the way for salespeople and customers to experience the emotional states of gratitude and indebtedness. Despite advancements in understanding customers' experience of these two emotions and the notion that salespeople, too, are subject to emotional influence, there is limited understanding of salesperson gratitude and indebtedness and the ensuing implications for managers. Using emotion and relationship marketing theory, this study addresses this gap by gathering salesperson data from a large B2B organization to identify relationship characteristics eliciting these emotions in salespeople and the effects on relational outcomes, including relationship quality, relationship satisfaction, and positive word of mouth (WOM). The findings demonstrate differences in the relational characteristics associated with these emotions and the beneficial consequences of gratitude and not indebtedness, thereby presenting theoretical and managerial implications and suggestions for future research.
Article
This study investigates how the interpersonal relationship quality between a salesperson and customer as well as the supplier’s service quality and value affect purchase intentions in information technology/information systems outsourcing service settings and examines the moderating effects of relationship quality. The results indicate that relationship quality and value affect purchase intentions. Perceived value mediates the impact of service quality on purchase intentions. Relationship quality negatively moderates the relationship between service quality and purchase intentions.
Article
This article aims to identify the concepts of Competitive Intelligence according to the approach of the main authors referenced to characterize their conceptual currents and their research areas. In order to do so, a bibliometric study was carried out in IC, from 2005 to 2015, during which time the CI began to establish itself as the main information provider in organizations. The data were collected in the international journals of the Web of Science. The compiled articles were processed through the Bibexcel Software, generating a matrix of citations and co-citations, which processed, resulted in exploratory factorial analysis, allowing to relate the main classical or seminal authors in the theme, as well as the main currents that they defend. It is the main conclusion that all the approaches of the identified chains, be it in marketing, knowledge management, business, technology, among others, allow organizations a better strategic structuring. It was also possible to identify the current authors who continue to publish, based on their research, on the classic themes as well as the evolutions of the conceptual approaches. As for the theoretical contribution, it is emphasized that in fact, there is little research on the theoretical foundations of competitive intelligence, revealing important areas such as maturity of use of intelligence in organizations and theory of intelligence processes.
Article
Several studies suggest that accelerating technology, increasing product complexity, and an expanding volume of information in the marketplace are changing sales roles, necessitating a review of the current sales skills required for success. Using mixed methods, we examine the skills required of contemporary B2B salespeople. First, we draw on unique data from 3.8 million LinkedIn job postings to examine which skills sales recruiters are seeking in new hires. Whilst confirming the importance of previously researched sales skills, this identified a sales skill largely disregarded by the extant literature: salesperson analytical skills. We triangulated these findings through interviews with 20 sales executives and developed a scale to measure this new analytical skills construct. Then, to test the scale's predictive and nomological validity, we used survey data from 251 business-to-business salespeople. Results reveal that salesperson analytical skills have both a direct and a moderating effect on sales performance across varying selling situations.
Article
Unlike other developed countries, the US healthcare system is largely privatized and highly competitive. This dynamic stifles effective information sharing, while the need for prompt and accurate evidence-based decision making has become crucial. Crises, like the COVID-19 pandemic, elevate the importance of quality decision making and exacerbate issues associated with the lack of a cohesive system to share information. Competitive intelligence (CI) is a discipline that encourages gathering, analyzing, and sharing information throughout a firm in order to develop and sustain competitive advantage. CI could be considered a precursor in establishing a learning organization (LO). Although CI research has focused on its process and value, little is found in the literature on how to integrate CI into an organization; this is particularly true in healthcare. A conceptual model is proposed to build and integrate a CI function and culture within a healthcare organization to encourage effective information sharing and knowledge development. In turn, this can provide a mechanism to create a learning health system (LHS). Although the model was developed specifically for US healthcare, it offers application to healthcare in other countries as well as most any industry.
Article
Introduction: In recent years, with the increase in growth of Information Technology (IT) companies and diversified workforce, there is an increased research on Work\family conflict and occupational future. Objective: The objective is to study about the work\family conflict relation with occupational future with the effect of environmental support (support from organization and family) as moderator. Methodology: The data is gathered from 392 Information Technology employees working in different Information Technology companies in India. The data is analyzed with hierarchical regression and correlation Results: The outcomes of the study divulged a positive relation between work\family conflict and occupational future. And also, the results showed that every environmental item does not moderate between work family conflict and occupational future. Conclusion: Therefore work and occupational future is significant for the existence of IT industry, provide practical awareness of employee welfare and improve balanced life which might differ under certain specific conditions.
Article
Purpose This study investigated the effects of social capital on frontline bank employee's adaptive selling behavior via the psychological process. Frontline bank employees' positive social relationships enhance their perception of the work environment and encourage work engagement. With the multiple mediation model, both internal and external social capital have direct and indirect influence on the frontline bank employee's adaptive selling behavior. Design/methodology/approach Data for this study were collected from a cross-sectional sample of retail banking industry in Korea. Specifically, using two-step procedures, employees of financial service or insurance sales department in banks were selected and online survey questionnaires were distributed to them. Data from 330 employees were collected and analyzed. Findings The results of this study showed how social capital affects frontline bank employees' person–job fit as a cognitive psychological process, leading to work engagement as an emotional psychological process and, in turn, more adaptive selling behavior. Using multiple mediation analysis, the results showed that work engagement on its own exerts a mediating effect on social capital, whereas a person–job fit does not. Research limitations/implications This study applied both aspects of the social capital concept by dividing it into internal and external social capital, and exploring each separately. This study examined the influence on psychological processes and behavioral response by distinguishing between the two forms of social capital. Second, this study expands the previous studies by introducing social capital as an antecedent factor of frontline bank employees' adaptive selling behavior. Finally, this study explains how frontline bank employees' relational resources (i.e. social capital) influence their emotional aspect (i.e. work engagement) and cognitive aspect (i.e. person–job fit), which ultimately influence performance-driven behavior (i.e. adaptive selling behavior). Practical implications This research showed the importance of hiring frontline bank employees with excellent social capital capabilities. Furthermore, this study underscored the fact that organizations require preparing and providing practical management methods that can improve the social capital of their current frontline employees. Last, organization need to design the job in a way that innately improves frontline employees' social capital. Therefore, these jobs provide many opportunities for frontline bank employees to use their ability to build relationships in their interactions with customers and make practical decisions to achieve job performance. Originality/value This study improved our understanding regarding the importance of employees' social capital by revealing the psychological process of how frontline bank employees' social capital affects adaptive selling behavior. Second, this study expands on the literature by introducing internal and external social capital as an antecedent factor affecting the adaptive selling behavior of frontline bank employees. Furthermore, this study advances understanding on the manner in which relational resources of frontline bank employees (i.e. social capital) influence the emotional (i.e. work engagement) as well as the cognitive aspects (i.e. person–job fit), which ultimately influence performance-driven behavior (i.e. adaptive selling behavior).
Article
Purpose The aim of this paper is to test how leader–member exchange (LMX) interacts with procedural justice climate to influence three types of employee motivation (i.e. achievement striving motivation, status striving motivation and communion striving motivation). Furthermore, this study empirically examines the indirect effects of LMX on customer loyalty through employee motivation and service orientation. Design/methodology/approach This study used a matched sample of 188 retail service employees and 376 customers from a large shopping mall in South Korea to test the empirical model. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and bootstrapping method were employed to test a series of proposed hypotheses. Findings The results show that LMX significantly enhances customer loyalty through two motivational dimensions and service orientation. In particular, this study shows that achievement and status striving motivation are directly related to service orientation, but communion striving motivation does not affect customer-focused service attitude. In addition, procedural justice climate serves as a critical moderator and synergistically interacts with LMX to influence achievement and status striving motivation. Research limitations/implications This study offers new insight regarding how managers' roles in both individual (leader–member exchange) and organizational (procedural justice climate) level affect different forms of retail service employee motivation and service orientation, which in turn, result in customer loyalty. Practical implications The results suggest that when retail service employees perceive procedural fairness at retail stores, they are more motivated to work hard to complete their assignments and achieve their sales goals in conjunction with leader support. Therefore, managers must provide a clear guideline and procedure regarding salary raises and performance evaluations or engage in thorough discourse on such matters with employees prior to announcements of such decisions. Moreover, as retail service employees interact with customers in the frontline, and how they serve customers plays a key role in creating customer loyalty. Managers should encourage retail service employees to engage in service-oriented behaviors. Originality/value The results suggest that LMX facilitates more formal task-related motivation to achieve either tasks or status while it is less related to relationship-building motivation, which is a unique contribution of this study. The results offer better understating of how LMX differentially leads to specific types of employee motivation in the existing literature.
Article
Sales management students carry certain misconceptions about sales jobs, which often create confusion in their minds about the nature of the sales job- should they be customer-oriented or sales-oriented? To excel in the initial years of their careers as effective salespersons, students might emphasize sales-orientation or target achievement over customer-orientation. This might force them to choose manipulative practices in their professional lives. The orientation also depends upon the gender and prior sales experience of the students. Thus, if the instructors could assess the students’ orientation, i.e., sales-orientation or customer-orientation, which they would practice during the job in advance, they could mentor them with proper inputs. The present study is an attempt to predict such orientations of the students by using a modified version of the SOCO scale. The findings suggest that gender and prior sales experience play a significant role in predicting the students’ orientation in some cases.
Book
Full-text available
A comprehensive entity security program deploys information asset protection through stratified technological and non-technological controls. Controls are necessary for counteracting threats, opportunities, and vulnerabilities risks in a manner that reduces potential adverse effects to defined, acceptable levels. This book presents a methodological approach in the context of normative decision theory constructs and concepts with appropriate reference to standards and the respective guidelines. Normative decision theory attempts to establish a rational framework for choosing between alternative courses of action when the outcomes resulting from the selection are uncertain. Through the methodological application, decision theory techniques can provide objectives determination, interaction assessments, performance estimates, and organizational analysis. A normative model prescribes what should exist according to an assumption or rule.
Article
We examine how to encourage collaboration between local sales and marketing teams in multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries in order to successfully commercialize new product launches by creating integrated, locally adapted implementation plans. Empirical research within six subsidiaries of an MNE operating in southern Latin America found that centrally produced processes alone were insufficient for successfully launching new products in these subsidiary markets. However, devolving power, while using cross‐functional teams and formalized processes to encourage communication, led to the development of the types of trust that facilitate effective relationships between sales and marketing teams, which resulted in successfully adapted new product launches for each subsidiary market. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory and practice.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined how executives' perceptions of the environment affected their decisions to collect strategic information. It was hypothesized that two dimensions of perceived uncertainty would have unique relationships with environmental scanning. Interviews were conducted with 72 senior executives in a cross-section of industries and produced the following results: (1) strategic importance was the primary determinant of scanning; (2) scanning declined as the environment was perceived to be more complex; and (3) perceived variability interacted with importance to positively affect scanning.
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a methodology for determining the segment-level impact of explanatory variables on multiple criterion measures obtained on a constant-sum scale. These explanatory variables could characterize different product, situation, or person related conditions that either occur naturally or are experimentally manipulated. Their proposed methodology simultaneously estimates market segment membership and multivariate segment-level parameters for each dependent criterion, using finite mixtures of conditional Dirichlet distributions. They conduct a modest Monte Carlo simulation analysis to investigate the performance of the proposed methodology. The authors also provide an empirical application to industrial buying decisions that examines the impact of the type of buying situation on multiple vendor selection criteria such as economic cost, functional performance, vendor cooperation, and vendor capability. We present a methodology for determining the segment-level impact of explanatory variables on multiple criterion measures obtained on a constant-sum scale. These explanatory variables could characterize different product, situation, or person related conditions that either occur naturally or are experimentally manipulated. Consider the subsequent illustrative scenarios entailing constant-sum multiple criterion data: Resource allocation decisions. The analyst might wish to evaluate the impact of specific factors on the allocation of resources among different items. Consider the problem of understanding the effect of key determinants on the manner in which: • product managers allocate the total marketing budget among advertising, sales promotion, and trade promotion; • sales managers divide the total compensation package for sales-people among straight salary, commission, and non-monetary incentives; or • financial investors allocate their investment dollars among stocks, bonds, and various other financial instruments.
Article
Full-text available
This study reports findings from an experiment designed to investigate how verbal exchange between a salesperson and a prospect influences sales outcomes of an initial sales encounter. One hundred ninety-six salesperson-customer dyads were videotaped controlling for sales situation variables. Findings provide support for the idea that elements of task and social disclosure differentially influence customer perceptions of interaction quality and business relationship potential. In addition, the study illustrates a methodology that can be used to investigate dyadic interchange.
Article
Full-text available
The firm’s quest to create customer value is dependent on the synergistic coordination of many parts of the organization, wherein internal resources and capabilities are effectively harnessed to create a competitive advantage. The often suboptimal relationship between marketing and sales acts as an inhibitor to success in this regard and has been the subject of much attention in both the academic literature and popular press. The authors offer new insights into this issue by examining how the marketing–sales interface affects, and is affected by, other functional areas in the development of key organizational capabilities. They introduce a holistic framework that identifies key levers that must be integrated through cross-functional coordination and cooperation to achieve superior market-based capabilities that in turn enable the firm to create lasting customer value. Propositions linking the levers to market-based capabilities are offered to shape new research opportunities in the domain of the marketing and sales interface.
Article
Full-text available
Because customer service employees often represent the sole contact a customer has with a firm, it is important to examine job-related factors that affect customer service employee performance and customer evaluations. In two diverse customer settings, the authors capture matched responses from service employees, supervisors, and customers. The authors use the data to examine the potential chain of effects from customer service employee work-family conflict and family-work conflict, to job stress and job performance, to customer purchase intent (CPI). The results show direct (and indirect) effects of work-family conflict and family-work conflict on service employee customer-directed extra-role performance (CDERP). The results also show direct effects of job stress on service employee in-role performance (IRP) and CDERP and on CPI. Furthermore, the findings show that job stress has a more pronounced effect on IRP than on CDERP and that CDERP has a greater effect on CPI than does IRP. The authors conclude with a discussion of managerial and theoretical implications.
Article
Full-text available
Employing elements of organizational theory and service recovery research, the authors examine how employees' perceptions of shared values and organizational justice can stimulate customer-directed extra-role behaviors when handling complaints. They also investigate how these extra-role behaviors affect customers' perceptions of justice, satisfaction, word of mouth, and purchase intent. The authors capture and match employee and customer perceptions regarding the relevant constructs following a complaint and recovery experience. The results indicate that employees' perceptions of shared values and organizational justice affect customer-directed extra-role behaviors. Furthermore, the authors find that extra-role behaviors have significant effects on customers' perceptions of justice and that these behaviors mediate the effects of shared values and organizational justice on customer justice perceptions. Their study reveals that customer ratings of justice affect the customer outcomes of satisfaction with recovery, overall firm satisfaction, purchase intent, and word of mouth. Finally, the authors show that customers' perceptions of justice mediate the effects that extra-role behaviors have on customer outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
We build on an emerging strategy literature that views the firm as a bundle of resources and capabilities, and examine conditions that contribute to the realization of sustainable economic rents. Because of (1) resource-market imperfections and (2) discretionary managerial decisions about resource development and deployment, we expect firms to differ (in and out of equilibrium) in the resources and capabilities they control. This asymmetry in turn can be a source of sustainable economic rent. The paper focuses on the linkages between the industry analysis framework, the resource-based view of the firm, behavioral decision biases and organizational implementation issues. It connects the concept of Strategic Industry Factors at the market level with the notion of Strategic Assets at the firm level. Organizational rent is shown to stem from imperfect and discretionary decisions to develop and deploy selected resources and capabilities, made by boundedly rational managers facing high uncertainty, complexity, and intrafirm conflict.
Article
Scholars of the theory of the firm have begun to emphasize the sources and conditions of what has been described as “the organizational advantage,” rather than focus on the causes and consequences of market failure. Typically, researchers see such organizational advantage as accruing from the particular capabilities organizations have for creating and sharing knowledge. In this article we seek to contribute to this body of work by developing the following arguments: (1) social capital facilitates the creation of new intellectual capital; (2) organizations, as institutional settings, are conducive to the development of high levels of social capital; and (3) it is because of their more dense social capital that firms, within certain limits, have an advantage over markets in creating and sharing intellectual capital. We present a model that incorporates this overall argument in the form of a series of hypothesized relationships between different dimensions of social capital and the main mechanisms and processes necessary for the creation of intellectual capital.
Article
Executive Overview Strategic managers and researchers have long been interested in understanding sources of competitive advantage for firms. Traditionally, this effort has focused on the relationship between a firm's environmental opportunities and threats on the one hand, and its internal strengths and weaknesses on the other. Summarized in what has come to be known as SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, this traditional logic suggests that firms that use their internal strengths in exploiting environmental opportunities and neutralizing environmental threats, while avoiding internal weaknesses, are more likely to gain competitive advantages than other kinds of firms.¹ This simple SWOT framework points to the importance of both external and internal phenomena in understanding the sources of competitive advantage. To date, the development of tools for analyzing environmental opportunities and threats has proceeded much more rapidly than the development of tools for analyzing a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses. To address this deficiency, this article offers a simple, easy-to-apply approach to analyzing the competitive implications of a firm's internal strengths and weaknesses.
Article
This article describes the background, methodology, and results of a pilot study which compared the market research results achieved by airline representatives versus professional interviewers. The study demonstrates that it is difficult for sales representatives to collect unbiased information.
Article
Feedback from the sales force, a subject of concern to management, has received only cursory empirical investigation. This study sought to determine if, in fact, feedback does occur within a sales force consistent with current assumptions. The results revealed that only rarely was such information reported back to management. The article also explores the role and responsibility of marketing management in this area.
Article
A 16-item scale is developed to measure the degree to which salespeople practice adaptive selling-the degree to which they alter their sales presentation across and during customer interactions in response to the perceived nature of the sales situation. This paper-and-pencil scale assesses self-reports of five facets of adaptive selling: (1) recognition that different sales approaches are needed for different customers, (2) confidence in ability to use a variety of approaches, (3) confidence in ability to alter approach during an interaction, (4) collection of information to facilitate adaptation, and (5) actual use of different approaches. The reliability of the scale is .85. Support for the nomological validity of the scale is found by failure to disconfirm relationships with an antecedent (intrinsic motivation), several general personality measures of interpersonal flexibility (self-monitoring, empathy, locus of control, and androgyny), and a consequence (self-reported performance).
Article
I present argument and evidence for a structural ecology of social capital that describes how the value of social capital to an individual is contingent on the number of people doing the same work. The information and control benefits of bridging the structural holes-or, disconnections between nonredundant contacts in a network-that constitute social capital are especially valuable to managers with few peers. Such managers do not have the guiding frame of reference for behavior provided by numerous competitors, and the work they do does not have the legitimacy provided by numerous people doing the same kind of work. I use network and performance data on a probability sample of senior managers to show how the value of social capital, high on average for the managers, varies as a power function of the number of people doing the same work.
Article
A new approach for research on effectiveness in sales interactions is proposed. This approach is based on considering the moderating effect of the salesperson's resources, the customer's buying task, and the customer-salesperson relationship. A contingency framework is presented and research directions related to the framework are suggested.
Article
The author develops a comprehensive inventory of selling activities and uses it to analyze the jobs of 1393 salespeople employed by 51 industrial selling organizations. He also develops a taxonomy of sales activities based on frequency of occurrence of 121 sales activities. In addition, a taxonomy of six industrial sales jobs is created from configurations of sales activity factors. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed and directions for further research are proposed.
Article
Learning and performance goal orientations, two motivational orientations that guide salespeople's behavior, are related to working smart and hard. Working smart is defined as the engagement in activities that serve to develop knowledge of sales situations and utilize this knowledge in selling behavior. It is found that a learning goal orientation motivates working both smart and hard, whereas a performance goal orientation motivates only working hard. The goal orientations also are found to be alterable through supervisory feedback. Furthermore, self-efficacy, sales-people's confidence in their overall selling abilities, is found to moderate some of the relationships with the goal orientations.
Article
The concept of customer orientation in salespeople is defined, a scale is developed to measure the degree to which salespeople engage in customer-oriented selling, and the properties of the scale are reported. A test of the nomological validity indicates the use of customer-oriented selling is related to the ability of the salespeople to help their customers and the quality of the customer-salesperson relationship.
Article
Many companies resist global markets because of seemingly insurmountable problems with these markets. Salespeople are often used successfully to gather market information. There is a wealth of market data that can be collected by a company's international sales force and distributors' sales force which can prove to be valuable in surmounting cultural and marketing barriers associated with global markets. The current paper discusses how and with what success U.S. multinational companies are using their international sales forces in gathering international marketing research data.
Article
Academicians and practitioners alike have agreed on the significance of competitive intelligence in firm performance, strategy development, and the critical role of the sales force in gathering this intelligence. However, the influence that competitive intelligence has on individual salesperson performance has been widely neglected. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this research embarks on the theoretical development of competitive intelligence as an individual-level construct. The differentiating qualities of salesperson competitive intelligence and organizational competitive intelligence are described and a framework presenting the general process of salesperson competitive intelligence is proposed. Finally, links from salesperson competitive intelligence to performance are presented, and the potential negative implications of this intelligence are discussed.
Article
Marketing scholars have suggested that salespeople can play an important role in firms' ongoing efforts to understand their customers' perceptions and preferences. However, very few studies have examined the accuracy of the information which salespeople are able to provide. This article reports the results of a survey of an industrial marketer's customers, outside salespeople, and telemarketing salespeople about market information. Salespeople can accurately assess the importance of various product and service attributes to their customer. However, salespeople are unable to gauge the specific performance levels expected by their customers. Interestingly, telemarketing salespeople are approximately as accurate as outside salespeople with respect to both types of information. The article explains these results and discusses their managerial implications.
Article
This article reviews the use and role of the salesforce as an extension of the marketing research function. The purpose of this paper is to provide a tentative assessment of the role of salespeople in the marketing research function as applied to an advanced-technology company active in several industries, countries, and continents.
Article
This study investigated how industrial salespeople gain the trust of their customers. Results show that trust increases as the customer gains the impression that the salesperson is dependable, honest, competent, customer oriented, and likeable. Based on the results, a general model of trust building is suggested.
Article
The quality of strategic planning depends on the quality of information gathering.
Article
This study uses a causal modelling methodology to examine competing methodological and theo- retical hypotheses concerning the effects of prod- uct quality on direct costs and business unit re- turn on investment (ROI). Results show that the PIMS' measures under study exhibit high reliabil- ity across all samples. The findings fail to support the widely held view that a high relative quality position is incompatible with achieving a low rel- ative cost position in an industry.
Article
The authors combine findings from 155 samples of more than 31,000 salespeople to test alternative models of antecedents and consequences of adaptive selling behavior (ASB) and customer orientation (CO). A random-effects meta-analysis yields average values for 28 different correlations ranging from -.16 to .35, 19 of which are significant. Controlling for salesperson gender and selling experience, structural equation modeling indicates that ASB increases self-rated, manager-rated, and objective measures of performance, whereas CO increases only self-rated performance. Both ASB and CO increase job satisfaction. Tests of reciprocal relationships indicate that ASB increases CO and job satisfaction increases performance rather than vice versa. Selling experience increases performance but not job satisfaction, and saleswomen rate their performance and satisfaction slightly higher than salesmen do. The magnitudes of the relationships indicate that ASB and selling experience have greater effects than CO and gender on salesperson performance.
Article
The current research systematically develops and empirically validates a scale to measure word-of-mouth communication and investigates two forms of customer commitment and service quality as potential antecedents. The findings support the hypotheses that affective commitment is positively related to word-of-mouth communication but that high sacrifice commitment is not related to word-of-mouth communication. Interestingly, the effect of service quality on word-of-mouth communication appears to be industry dependent. A distinction is made between word-of-mouth activity and word-of-mouth praise.
Article
Despite. the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations. This article examines the assumption that OCBs improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. First, several theoretical and conceptua1 explanations of why OCBs may improve organizational effectiveness are provided. Following this, a review of the available empirical evidence is provided. The results of this review indicate that OCBs make important contributions to the variance in organizational effectiveness, although helping behavior tends to have more system- atic effects than either sportsmanship or civic virtue. Finally, the implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Article
Salespeople involved in the marketing of complex services often perform the role of "relationship manager." It is, in part, the quality of the relationship between the salesperson and the customer that determines the probability of continued interchange between those parties in the future. A relationship quality model is advanced and tested that examines the nature, consequences, and antecedents of relationship quality, as perceived by the customer. The findings suggest that future sales opportunities depend mostly on relationship quality (i. e., trust and satisfaction), whereas the ability to convert those opportunities into sales hinges more on conventional source characteristics of similarity and expertise. Relational selling behaviors such as cooperative intentions, mutual disclosure, and intensive followup contact generally produce a strong buyer-seller bond.
Article
Delivering superior value to customers is an ongoing concern of management in many business markets of today. Knowing where value resides from the standpoint of the customer has become critical for suppliers. In this article, the construct of customer-perceived value is first assessed through a literature review. Then a multiple-item measure of customer value is developed, and our approach is illustrated by the marketing strategy development project of a major chemical manufacturer in international markets. The article finally discusses how the customer value audit can be linked to marketing strategy development and provides guidelines for managerial actions.
Article
Over 200 SCIP members worldwide involved in Sales and Marketing Intelligence (SMI) responded to a survey of current practices. The results show that median budgets are less than US$250,000, with median staffing of two people or less. Sales and Marketing Intelligence units are located primarily at the corporate or divisional level. While information on competitors is their major focus, SMI overall has a greater strategic/marketing focus than a tactical/sales focus. A variety of primary and secondary sources are used. In managing information, paper still plays an important role, though more companies are becoming “wired” for electronic networking. In analysis, competitor profiling techniques are used more than future-oriented methods. In communicating intelligence, e-mail is seen as the most effective of a range of methods used. Competitive Intelligence practitioners rate their own effectiveness generally higher in support of Marketing than in support of Sales. To succeed, CI professionals need to achieve “buy-in” and trust at both the executive and functional management levels. Lack of those, in addition to resource constraints and other concerns, create barriers to success. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
This article describes the results of a benchmarking study of mechanisms used in corporate CI operations to coordinate strategic and tactical intelligence for sales and marketing. The American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC) sponsored the study, for which the authors served as subject-matter experts. The objective was to identify a set of mechanisms that establish a conceptual and operational integration of strategic and tactical intelligence. In-depth case studies of five best-practice companies (Amoco, Boehringer Ingelheim, Dow Chemical, Met Life, and SBC), supplemented with quantitative surveys from an additional nine firms, provided the study data. The findings show that best-practice firms use a set of five coordinating mechanisms that the authors label TAP-IN™: (1) Teams, (2) CI human-resource job design and Allocation, (3) the Planning process, (4) Interaction (dialogue), and (5) human intelligence Networks. The use of these five mechanisms in tandem provides a sophisticated means of coordinating strategic and tactical intelligence in the sales and marketing functions and throughout the firm. All of the companies in the sample used the TAP-IN mechanisms to some degree. The data reveal a relationship between the number of mechanisms used by a company and the overall effectiveness of the coordination process. For instance, Dow Chemical and Amoco used all five mechanisms. These two companies also reported they were able to achieve coordination between strategic and tactical intelligence to a very high degree. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Michael Porter presents a comprehensive structural framework and analytical techniques to help a firm to analyze its industry and evolution, understand its competitors and its own position, and translate this understanding into a competitive strategy to allow the firm to compete more effectively to strengthen its market position. The introduction reviews a classic approach to strategy formulation, one that comprises a combination of ends and means (policies), factors that limit what a company can accomplish, tests of consistency, and an approach for developing competitive strategy. A competitive strategy articulates a firm's goals, how it will compete, and its policies for achieving those goals. Competitive advantage is defined in terms of cost and differentiation while linking it to profitability. Part I, "General Analytical Techniques," provides a general framework for analyzing the structure of an industry and understanding the underlying forces of competition (and hence profitability). Five competitive forces act on an industry: (1) threat of new entrants, (2) intensity of rivalry among existing firms, (3) threat of substitute products or services, (4) bargaining power of buyers, and (5) bargaining power of suppliers. Looking at industry structure provides a way to consider how value is created and divided among existing and potential industry participants. One competitive force always captures essential issues in the division of value.There are three generic competitive strategies for coping with the five competitive forces: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) focus. There are risks with each strategy. A firm without a strategy is "stuck in the middle." This framework for examining competition transcends particular industry, technology, or management theories. Building on this framework, techniques are presented for industry forecasting, analysis of competitors, predicting their behavior, and building a response profile. Essential for a competitive strategy are techniques for recognizing and accurately reading market signals. Implications of structural analysis for buyer selection and purchasing strategy are presented. Game theory provides concepts for responding to competitive moves. Using the concept of strategic groups, structural analysis can also explain differences in firm performance (profitability), provide a guide for competitive strategy, and predict industry evolution. Part II, "Generic Industry Environments," shows how firms can use the analytical framework to develop a competitive strategy in industry environments, which reflect differences in industry co