Article

Me, My Spouse, and My Avatar: The Relationship between Marital Satisfaction and Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

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Abstract

A variety of online support groups exist for "gaming widows" who feel their spousal relationship has been displaced by time spent playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game(s) (MMORPGs). MMORPG research has been presented on youth and adults, however to date, there is no research on married gamers to support or refute the claims of discontented spouses. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the gaining behaviors of couples who play MMORPGs. The sample included 349 couples. Results indicated lower marital satisfaction related to couples' MMORPG gaming interactions such as quarrelling about gaming, not retiring to bed at the same time, and addictive gaining behavior. Positive effects of gaming together were also identified.

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... Partner phubbing is the extent to which your romantic partner or spouse uses or is distracted by his/her cell phone while in your company (Roberts & David, 2016). Considering that time spent on phone may displace or reduce meaningful interaction with one's spouse (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012), it is possible that the distractions caused by partner phubbing would undermine relationship satisfaction. Therefore, the current study would examine the effect of partner phubbing on relationship satisfaction among married Chinese adults and explore whether partner phubbing could exert significant indirect effect on depression via relationship satisfaction. ...
... Some empirical evidence has supported this hypothesis by showing that certain types of mobile technology use may become problematic in romantic relationship by increasing conflict and leading to poor relationship and marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Coyne, Stockdale, Busby, Iverson, & Grant, 2011;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016;Roberts & David, 2016;Schade, Sandberg, Bean, Busby, & Coyne, 2013). The presence of smartphone during proximal interactions is negatively correlated with perceptions of emphatic concern and closeness to the conversation partner (Misra, Cheng, Genevie, & Yuan, 2014). ...
... For instance, family members become frustrated when others do nonurgent activities on their phones in the presence of others (Oduor et al., 2016), and caretakers who are 'absorbed' in their smartphone have poor social interactions with their children (Radesky et al., 2014). Two cross-sectional studies have also shown that partner's playing game and partner phubbing are negatively associated with relationship and marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Roberts & David, 2016). Furthermore, two experimental studies indicate that the presence of mobile phones can interfere with human relationships (Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013), and mobile messaging behavior during an offline conversation can lead to more negative impression formation and perceptions of lower interaction quality (Vanden Abeele, Antheunis, & Schouten, 2016). ...
Article
Although relationship satisfaction has been shown to play an important role in married adults' depression, it is less clear whether partner phubbing can undermine relationship satisfaction and increase the risk of depression. The current study investigated the indirect effect of partner phubbing on depression via relationship satisfaction and the moderating role of relationship length in this indirect effect. Two hundred forty-three married Chinese adults participated in the study. The results indicated that partner phubbing had a negative effect on relationship satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction had a negative effect on depression. Partner phubbing had an indirect positive impact on depression via relationship satisfaction, and this indirect effect only existed among those married more than seven years. Results indicate that partner phubbing is a significant risk factor for depression among those married more than seven years.
... The fourth and last category focused on various types of co-use of ICT in families. Couse referred to co-playing video games (Ahlström et al., 2012;Coyne et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2018), sharing entertainment media (Gomillion et al., 2017, study 1;Hodge et al., 2012), joint internet use (Festl & Gniewosz, 2019;Williams & Merten, 2011), and using ICT to enhance some other joint activity (Kushlev & Dunn, 2019). ...
... Dew and Tulane (2015) found that partners reported lower marital quality if the extent to which they used digital media was different. A similar finding was reported in the Ahlström et al. (2012) study in which gaming related to conflicts and relational aggression in gamer/non-gamer couples but not in couples that were both gamers. ...
... (2017, study 1) reported that sharing media was related to greater relationship quality, especially when the couple shared few friends. The other two studies found that mutual interaction was the key to positive outcomes: Gaming together and interacting with the partner's avatar (virtual persona in the video game) (Ahlström et al., 2012) and using a laptop computer while interacting with one's partner was associated with positive outcomes. In the latter study, as reported earlier, use without interaction (i.e., technoference) was associated with negative relationship outcomes (Leggett & Rossouw, 2014). ...
Article
Information and communication technology (ICT) facilitates communication within families but may also displace face-to-face communication and intimacy. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate what positive and negative relationship outcomes are associated with ICT use in families, and whether and how the outcomes differ depending on relationship type (romantic relationship, parent–child relationship, or sibling). Included in the review were research published in English between 2009 and 2019 studying the effects of ICT on family relationships with quantitative data. 70 peer-reviewed articles (73 studies) were retrieved and categorized based on four types of ICT variables: personal use, personal use in the presence of a family member (technoference), communication between family members, and co-use with family members. Personal use and technoference were mostly related to negative outcomes due to, for example, displaced attention and more frequent conflicts. Romantic partners were especially strongly negatively affected displaying stressors unique to romantic relationships, such as infidelity. By contrast, communication and co-use showed mostly positive effects across all relationship types. In particular, “rich” communication media resembling face-to-face interaction were strongly associated with positive outcomes. We conclude that ICT impacts family relations in different ways, depending on both the type of relationship and type of ICT use. Personal ICT use tends to weaken both parenting and romantic relationships in ways that can partly be mitigated by co-use and communication. Directions for future research include, assessing how often ICT is used in relationship-strengthening versus relationship-interfering ways, investigating causal pathways between ICT use and relationship quality, and focusing on understudied relationship types, such as siblings and grandparents.
... Studies have established an association between gaming and lower relationship satisfaction (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Lo, Wang, & Fang, 2005). In addition, clinicians report that video game use is a problematic factor in many distressed couple relationships (Hawkins & Hertlein, 2013;Mitchell & Wells, 2007). ...
... Recent research has begun to explore the effects of video game use on relationship outcomes. Several studies have found that gaming has positive effects on social outcomes for individuals including increased social support (Trepte, Reinecke, & Juechems, 2012), more positive social interactions (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009), and, when used together, increased family closeness (Durkin & Barber, 2002;Padilla-Walker, Coyne, & Fraser, 2012 (Ahlstrom et al., 2012) has found positive effects of gaming on couple relationship outcomes, but only when partners played together. Despite these positive correlates, other studies have identified negative outcomes. ...
... Higher frequency video game use has been linked to decreased relationship quality with both friends and parents (Lo et al., 2005;Padilla-Walker, Nelson, Carroll, & Jensen, 2010), and more time spent playing is associated with greater conflict with siblings (Coyne et al., 2016), and lower relationship satisfaction with romantic partners (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). Other researchers have established an association between higher frequency of gaming (Coyne et al., 2012), as well as more gaming-dependent behavior (Hussain & Griffiths, 2009), and higher levels of relational aggression, physical aggression, and conflict in the relationship. ...
Article
We examined whether time together as a problem mediates the link between frequency of video game use and relational outcomes (relationship quality, relational aggression, physical aggression) among 431 married couples. We also examined the moderating effect of couple attachment behaviors on the association between time together as a problem and outcomes. There was no support for a direct or indirect relationship between gaming and outcomes; however, time together as a problem was consistently related to outcomes. Additionally, husband's and wife's attachment behaviors moderated the association between women's reports of time together as a problem and men's relational aggression. Clinical implications are discussed.
... Consequently, the social interaction negatively affects the phubbees' impression of the phubbers. In detail, When phubbing in a romantic or marital relationship was continuously occurring (partner phubbing), partners reported low levels of relationship quality and life satisfaction (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang, Xie, Wang, Wang, & Lei, 2017). After being phubbed by a partner, individuals reported relatively high levels of marital conflict (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). ...
... In detail, When phubbing in a romantic or marital relationship was continuously occurring (partner phubbing), partners reported low levels of relationship quality and life satisfaction (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang, Xie, Wang, Wang, & Lei, 2017). After being phubbed by a partner, individuals reported relatively high levels of marital conflict (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). In addition, children and adolescents received higher scores in internalization and externalization behaviors after being phubbed by their parents (McDaniel & Coyne, 2016b;McDaniel& Radesky, 2018;Xie et al., 2019). ...
Article
Phubbing, or the act of snubbing someone in a face-to-face interaction by using a smartphone, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the digital era. A person being phubbed can feel neglected and has an increased risk of mental illness. The present study examined how being phubbed is related to depression, mediated through self-esteem. Furthermore, this study examined the moderating effect of dispositional forgiveness on the relationship between being phubbed and depression via self-esteem. It was predicted that self-esteem would mediate the relationship between being phubbed and depression, and that this mediating effect would be stronger for individuals with low forgiveness dispositions than for individuals with high forgiveness dispositions. We recruited 995 undergraduates aged 18–20 years from three different universities in China to participate in the current study. Participants completed measures of being phubbed, self-esteem, depression, and dispositional forgiveness. The results revealed that self-esteem mediated the relationship between being phubbed and depression. Additionally, dispositional forgiveness moderated the indirect effect of being phubbed on depression through self-esteem. Unlike what was predicted, the indirect effect of being phubbed on depression was stronger for high forgiveness individuals than for low forgiveness individuals. This unanticipated orientation and other results are discussed.
... Keywords Couples · Media use · Relationship satisfaction · Demand-withdraw · Criticism-defensiveness 1 3 in person social relationships, increased relational conflicts, and lower levels of relational satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Coyne et al. 2012;Sublette and Mullan 2010). At the same time video games have been demonstrated to be an effective way for many individuals to reduce stress and relax (Reinecke 2009) as well as a positive method of engagement when partners play video games together (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). ...
... Keywords Couples · Media use · Relationship satisfaction · Demand-withdraw · Criticism-defensiveness 1 3 in person social relationships, increased relational conflicts, and lower levels of relational satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Coyne et al. 2012;Sublette and Mullan 2010). At the same time video games have been demonstrated to be an effective way for many individuals to reduce stress and relax (Reinecke 2009) as well as a positive method of engagement when partners play video games together (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). Similarly, using social media can be an outlet for individuals to share positive messages and foster relationships (Walker et al. 2009), while other findings indicate that there is a positive association between use of social media and jealousy within relationships (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that it is common for couples to experience conflict over media use. However, until recently clinicians and researchers have not explored the implications of media use within romantic relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between individuals’ perception of problematic media use in connection with relationship satisfaction, and to what extent demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness dynamics mediate this association. Data was collected with a sample of 242 respondents completing an online survey. Results showed that demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness patterns were found to be negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, and that the association between problematic media use and relationship satisfaction was partially mediated by the demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness patterns. Based on these results, there is potential for clinicians to view couple media use as a process level interaction, and by doing so, clinicians will be better able to implement interventions that utilize clients’ media use to promote relationship satisfaction and stability while reducing problematic media use.
... CMC channels of today provide accessible venues for self-disclosure, social support, and relationship formation and maintenance through synchronous communication, but sociologists have done little to systematically investigate social interactions among online gamers at the micro level. Sociological research on online games has covered areas such as implications of the internet on social change (DiMaggio, Hargittai, Neuman, and Robinson 2001), marital satisfaction among gaming couples (Ahlstrom et al. 2012), structural components of social roles in guilds (Ang and Zaphiris 2010), and the processes involved with the structural role of guild leader (Williams, Kirschner, and Suhaimi-Broder 2014), and gender identity work (Shapiro 2010). Scholars from other disciplines have covered various areas of inquiry, but have not yet investigated the influence of voice chat on social interaction among online gamers much less investigated related phenomena through a sociological lens. ...
... Despite the prosocial qualities of MMORPGs, only a small number of researchers have focused on the positive social facets of MMORPGs (Ducheneaut, Yee, Nickell, andMoore 2006, 2007;Williams, Caplan, Xiong 2007;Yee 2006). Many of the existing studies of MMORPGs investigate the negative aspects of the practice, such as the relationship between addiction and MMORPGs (Chuang 2006;Lee, Yu, and Lin 2007;Yee 2002) and marital satisfaction related to couples' MMORPG gaming interactions (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, and Lindsay 2012). The findings of the prosocial studies, however, conflict with the popular arguments that individuals are less connected to each other and that video games make people antisocial or socially awkward. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online gaming scholarship has rarely focused on the micro sociological aspects of virtual worlds as much of the research on online games is undertaken by psychologists and scholars in other fields. When a sociological lens is employed in analyzing social interactions that occur in virtual worlds, new understandings of social phenomena in virtual worlds can come to light. My research draws upon multiple sociological theories to make sense of data collect via in-depth interviews and participant observations in an attempt to understand how voice chat influences relationship formation and maintenance, gender relations among online gamers, and how online gamers use the label noob to regulate gamer masculinity in virtual worlds. Findings indicate the voice chat has a both a positive and negative impact on the social interactions of online gamers.
... Research exploring the impacts of gaming on romantic relationships is in its relative infancy, however similarly mixed findings are evident (see Hertlein & Hawkins, 2012 for a review). Some research has suggested that gaming can be associated with increased aggression, notably amongst males, which can negatively impact relationships (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Coyne et al., 2012). Ahlstrom et al. found that marital satisfaction is more affected by conflict arising from differences in couples' gaming patterns and attitudes toward gaming, rather than the amount of time spent on gaming per se (see also Dew & Tulane, 2015). ...
... Finally, there was no evidence in these data of any effect of gaming on relationship satisfaction. As outlined earlier, existing research in this space has tended to focus on more established marital or cohabiting relationships (e.g., Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Dew & Tulane, 2015;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016) with these studies supporting the notion that negative impacts arise when there is a misalignment in gaming behaviours between partners. The present results do not speak to that aspect but raise the possibility that in younger individuals where gaming is more normalised and perhaps intrinsic to relationship development fewer problems might be evident, as least in the earlier stages of relationship development. ...
Article
Objectives: A body of research is clarifying the complexity of the effects of online gaming on the lives of gamers. We explored self-reported negative emotional states, satisfaction with life, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of young adults. Methods: We recruited 165 student participants (70.9% female; Mage = 24.24, SD = 6.15) who completed an online survey. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess the relationships between online gaming, gender and the measures of negative emotional states, satisfaction with life, and relationship satisfaction. Results: No effects of gaming on relationship satisfaction were evident. However, gaming was positively related to satisfaction with life. In contrast, when negative emotional states were examined, female gamers had higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than both non-gamers and male gamers. Conclusion and Implications: This highlights the complexities of the effects of gaming and that gaming itself should not be pathologized. The interactions evident in female gamers require further investigation, with the results supporting the notion that in some cohorts pre-existing characteristics of gamers might be a factor, as could how female gamers engage with online gaming environments. Further, the distinction between cognitive judgmental measures of satisfaction with life and negative emotional states was reiterated.
... However, many studies have highlighted the negative outcomes of excessive internet use, such anxiety, depression, (Akin & Iskender, 2011), negative influences on quality of life (Cheng & Li, 2014), development of direct aggression (Martínez-Ferrer et al., 2018;Lim et al., 2015) amplification of passive and displaced aggression, immature defense mechanism, denial (Waqas et al., 2016), pervasiveness of cyber aggression (Machimbarrena et al., 2018), marital dissatisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012), and loneliness (Koyuncu et al., 2014). Glaser et al. (2018) investigated the affiliation between mental health and the use of social media and revealed that social media use for social networking indirectly affects anxiety and depression adversely if mediated by internet addiction. ...
... Furthermore, Cheng and Li (2014) found that internet addiction prevalence was inversely associated with the quality of life as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental con-ditions) indicators. There were also recommendations showing that addiction toward online games negatively affects marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine the association of internet addiction with cyber aggression and displaced aggression among 513 (173 boys and 338 girls) Pakistani preteens and teenagers. The participants were randomly selected to complete a survey based on validated instruments, internet addiction test, cyber aggression questionnaire for adolescent, and displaced aggression questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficients, one-way analysis of variance, and independent sample t-test were run to scrutinize hypothesis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 (IBM SPSS Corp.; Armonk, NY, USA). The results revealed that 34% of the youth was severely or moderately addicted to internet misuse. Furthermore, findings demonstrated that internet addiction is significantly and positively associated with cyber aggression and displaced aggression. Results also highlighted that internet addiction, cyber aggression, angry rumination, and displaced aggression vary with sex, and internet obsession is higher in boys than in girls. Implications of these results were discussed and some recommendations suggested.
... Gaming can have a negative social impact as well. The controversial spectre of addiction hangs over games studies, as scholars note that problematic game play in a subset of the gaming population can strain or replace preexisting romantic and peer relationships (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Domahidi and Quandt 2015). However, scholars counter that addiction/problematic gaming is difficult to identify, is often present in a smaller number of players than has been argued and requires nuanced studies to identify conditions that produce problematic gaming (Colder Carras and Kardefelt-Winther 2018;Colder Carras et al. 2017;Snodgrass et al. 2012Snodgrass et al. , 2014. ...
... As a minor finding, we found that game play did affect players' offline lives. Much research has been dedicated to the negative aspects of game/ life conflict, even into internet or gaming addiction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Domahidi and Quandt 2015). Our findings in this study suggest that players of this type of MMMORTS game experience the possibility and reality of those types of negative effects, particularly role strain between their commitments to the guild and their commitments to people and organizations outside the game. ...
Article
Many studies of motivations for game play do not consider change in motivations over time. Given the depth of motivations research, this gap seems unusual. In this article, we explore the motivations that players have for beginning, continuing and quitting play in the mobile massively multiplayer online real-time strategy (MMMORTS) game Lords Mobile by reporting on a nineteen-month virtual ethnography. We found that players often download the game due to external motivators such as ads or a reward for playing the game. People often stay playing the game due to game mechanics that strongly encourage the player to form relationships with other players. Players often quit the game due to conflicts with their offline obligations or due to lack of interest in the game. Observing the beginning, middle and end of game play shows that players change motivations over time and respond to external motivators in addition to internal motivators.
... It is possible, however, that video games may actually increase conflict. For example, one study (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012) found that playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMPORGs) was related to conflict among married couples, especially when one individual played video games and the other did not. In turn, arguments over gaming were associated with decreased marital satisfaction. ...
Article
The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent playing video games was associated with increased conflict over the amount of time spent using media, as well as the content of those media. Conflict over the media, in turn, was associated with increased physical and relational aggression in the relationship. Thus, conflict over the media offers one explanation for why video game play may increase aggression in romantic relationships.
... Tehnoloģiju izmantošana var kļūt problemātiska romantiskās attiecībās, palielinot konfliktus un izraisot neapmierinātību ar attiecībām (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012), jo tehnoloģiju izmantošana kļūst uzbāzīga ikdienas dzīvē un indivīdi cīnās ar mēģinājumiem neizmantot savu ierīci. Tehnoloģijas izmantošana var būt uzmācīga, joindivīdiem rodas problēmas ar draugiem un ģimenes locekļiem (Elphinston & Noller, 2011;Gentile, Coyne, & Bricolo, 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of the study Tehnoference, conflict, satisfaction with couple’ s relationships and emotional intelligence connection is to find out is there a relationship to technology and the frequency of conflicts in couple relationships, satisfaction with relationships and emotional intelligence. Main questions of the study: 1.Is there a connection to the technoference and the frequency of conflicts in the relationship? 2.Is the frequency of conflicts in a relationship related to satisfaction with relationships? 3.Is there a relationship to an emotional intelligence with a technofrence? 4.Is there a relationship between emotional intelligence and satisfaction with relationships?
... It is important to note that previous research findings with regard to the relation between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction still have not reached an agreement. First, many empirical studies have supported this negative effect by showing that certain types of mobile technology use may become problematic in romantic relationships by increasing conflict and leading to poor relationship or marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Clayton 2014;Coyne et al. 2011;McDaniel and Coyne 2016;McDaniel et al. 2017;Roberts and David 2016;Schade et al. 2013). For instance, only mere presence of cell phones and mobile messaging behavior during an offline conversation can interfere with human relationships (Przybylski and Weinstein 2013) and lead to more negative impression formation and perceptions of lower interaction quality (Vanden Abeele et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the moderating effects of self-esteem and marital status on the association between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction. Four hundred and twenty-nine Chinese adults completed the measures of partner phubbing, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, and marital status. The findings revealed that partner phubbing was not significantly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, self-esteem moderated the association between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction. More specifically, for high self-esteem adults, partner phubbing was significantly associated with relationship satisfaction. In contrast, for adults with low levels of self-esteem, this association became nonsignificant. The association between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction was also moderated by marital status, which showed that the significant relation between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction only existed among married adults.
... The interruption due to mobile phone usage is a risk factor of wellbeing (McDaniel & Drouin, 2019). Numerous studies found that partner phubbing not only impacts negatively on conversation quality and intimacy (Vanden Abeele, Hendrickson, Pollmann, & Ling, 2019), but also on both the spouse's mental health as well as their marital quality (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang, Xie, Wang, Wang, & Lei, 2017;Wang, Zhao, & Lei, in press). Although many prior studies have given ample evidence on the negative effects of partner phubbing, there is little research that examines the influence of phubbing on parent-child relationships. ...
... Further, some wives attempted to play MMORPGs as a way to connect with Downloaded by [Judy van de Venne] at 06:54 09 December 2015 their husbands. Research suggests co-playing can result in improved marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012), but for the majority of women engaging in online play, this did not improve their relationship frustrations due to other issues it created. Boundaries within the game-playing relationship may need to be defined between the couple (e.g., not playing with one another's character) to prevent increased marital conflict. ...
Article
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A content and thematic analysis was conducted using forum messages from websites developed for wives of online gamers who play World of Warcraft. Blog posts from 50 women describing conflict in their marital relationship involving their husband's online game play were analyzed. Four overarching themes were identified and discussed in terms of the impact of online gaming on family functioning and relationships, emotional outcomes, and coping mechanisms. Results of ensuing issues arising from excessive gaming as perceived by the non-gaming spouse and ways in which they cope with these issues are shared.
... Emerging studies are constantly giving evidence on the fact that phubbing is a risk factor for people's interpersonal relationships and mental health. In family systems, "partner phubbing" (phubbing behavior in romantic or marital relationships) decreases spouses' mental health, relationship quality, and satisfaction (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2016;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang, Xie, Wang, Wang, & Lei, 2017), and exacerbates marital conflicts (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012). ...
Article
Introduction: Phubbing is a social exclusion behavior related to mobile phone use. It undermines interpersonal relationships and mental health. This study aimed to test the connections between parental phubbing and depression in late childhood and adolescence, as well as the mediating roles of parental warmth, parental rejection, and relatedness need satisfaction. Methods: We conducted two studies. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study of 530 Chinese students (268 boys and 262 girls, Mage = 13.15 ± 0.64 years) who completed self-report questionnaires. We conducted structural modeling to test the relationship between parental phubbing and depression. Study 2 used a short longitudinal design to validate the results of Study 1 and test the mediating roles of parental warmth, parental rejection, and relatedness need satisfaction. In Study 2, we recruited 293 Chinese students (151 boys, 141 girls, and one participant with no reported gender information, Mage = 12.87 ± 0.74 years) to complete the questionnaires and applied structural equation modeling to analyze the data. Results: Two sequential mediation effects were found. The first was parental phubbing → parental warmth → relatedness need satisfaction → depression (protection-reduced effect). The second was parental phubbing → parental rejection → relatedness need satisfaction → depression (risk-increased effect). Gender differences were non-significant. Conclusions: The study revealed that parental phubbing was associated with students' depression in late childhood and adolescence through two paths. The present study highlights the need to establish family norms regulating mobile phone use to reduce phubbing.
... Wittek et al. (2015) found that younger individuals were more likely than any other age group to display pathological video gaming tendencies, but this group of "younger individuals" ranged from 16 to 30 years old. Likewise, researchers have shown that video game play is common in adult romantic relationships with couples between the ages of 20 and 35 (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Coyne et al., 2012). Indeed, the average age of first childbirth is 26 years (Stone, 2018), well within the age range of people the most likely to display pathological gaming tendencies and most men who have children had their first child before the age of 30 (Livingston, 2015). ...
Article
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For most people, playing video games is a normal recreational activity, with little disruption to gamers’ emotional, social, or physical health and well-being. However, for a small percentage of gamers, video gaming can become pathological (Fam, 2018). Substantial research has examined pathological gaming in teens and young adults (Cheng, Cheung, & Wang, 2018; Choo, Gentile, Sim, Khoo, & Liau, 2010), yet pathological gaming in adults (c.f. Holgren, 2017), especially in the context of parenthood, has been relatively ignored. The current study sought to address this limitation by studying associations between pathological gaming characteristics and parenting outcomes in a sample of men and women who have had a child in the last year. Fathers spent more time than mothers playing video games and displayed more pathological video gaming tendencies. Pathological gaming for mothers and fathers was related to increased depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between pathological gaming and decreased feelings of parental efficacy, perceived parental competence, increased parenting stress, and increased perceived impact of parenting. Pathological video game playing was also directly related to decreased feelings of parental efficacy for mothers and fathers. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
... Regarding IGA, it is a specific addiction on the internet. Since the advent of the first commercial Internet video games in the 1970s, Internet video gaming expanded so quickly that it has become the fastest-growing form of human recreation and the largest entertainment medium in the world (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). Video gaming is interactive and attractive and greatly influences people, particularly adolescents, leading to excessive gameplay among some individuals . ...
Article
This study examined the relationship between teaching–research conflict and job burnout among university teachers and the moderating role of perceived supervisor support (PSS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. Using a cross‐sectional design, data were collected from a convenience sample of 488 university teachers in China. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to examine the moderating role of PSS and PsyCap in the relationship between teaching–research conflict and job burnout. The results showed that (a) teaching–research conflict was positively linked to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but negatively linked to personal accomplishment, (b) PSS moderated the effects of teaching–research conflict on both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but did not act as a moderator in the relationship between teaching–research conflict and personal accomplishment, and (c) PsyCap moderated the effect of teaching–research conflict on all three dimensions of job burnout.
... Regarding IGA, it is a specific addiction on the internet. Since the advent of the first commercial Internet video games in the 1970s, Internet video gaming expanded so quickly that it has become the fastest-growing form of human recreation and the largest entertainment medium in the world (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). Video gaming is interactive and attractive and greatly influences people, particularly adolescents, leading to excessive gameplay among some individuals . ...
Article
Full-text available
With Internet games increasingly prevailing among adolescents over the last decade, Internet gaming addiction (IGA) draws more and more attention from scholars and practitioners, and a consolidating line of research has linked some psychological factors to IGA. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the effect of self-discrepancy on IGA, this study adopted a cross-sectional design to examine the effects of actual-ideal self-discrepancy, avatar identification, and locus of control on gamers’ IGA risk. Data were collected over a 1-month period using a convenience sample of 508 university student gamers from three universities in Henan Province of China. The results of structural equation modeling analyses showed that avatar identification partially mediated the relationship between actual-ideal self-discrepancy and IGA among gamers; meanwhile, locus of control moderated the effects of actual-ideal self-discrepancy and avatar identification on IGA among gamers.
... It may also be interesting to study phubbing among interpersonal dyads. For example, it could be that phone distractions are less harmful to individuals if both people are preoccupied with their phones (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). Relatedly, future research should examine phubbing from the perpetrator's (vs. ...
Article
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Preoccupation with our cellphones has irrevocably changed how we interact with others. Despite many advantages of smartphones, they may undermine both our in-person relationships and our well-being. As the first to investigate the impact of phubbing (phone-snubbing), the present research contributes to our nascent understanding of the role of smartphones in consumer behavior and well-being. We demonstrate the harmful effects of phubbing, revealing that phubbed individuals experience a sense of social exclusion, which leads to a heightened need for attention and results in individuals attaching to social media in hopes of regaining a sense of inclusion. Although the stated purpose of technology like smartphones is to help us connect with others, in this particular instance, it does not. Ironically, the very technology that was designed to bring humans closer together has isolated us from these very same people.
... Individuals in F o r P e e r R e v i e w 5 satisfying romantic relationships report higher levels of both psychological and physical wellbeing (Leggett and Rossouw, 2014). How romantic partners communicate has been identified as a key antecedent to relationship satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). Given the marked increase in the use of smartphones to communicate (McDaniel, 2015), research that studies their rise in romantic relationships is well-warranted. ...
Article
The ubiquitous and omnipresent smartphone has dramatically altered how people communicate. The present research investigates how partner phubbing (phone snubbing) among romantic partners impacts relationship satisfaction. Study 1 experimentally manipulates partner phubbing and finds it drives romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction. Study 2 uses an alternative manipulation of partner phubbing and explores the moderating role of interpersonal attachment anxiety in the relationship between partner phubbing, romantic jealousy, and relationship satisfaction. Study 2 finds that partner phubbing and attachment anxiety have an interactive effect on jealousy, which then leads to relationship satisfaction. Study 3 employs a survey and finds that partner phubbing has downstream negative effects on well-being through romantic jealousy, but only among anxiously attached individuals. The heavy use of technology, especially smartphones, in the presence of one’s romantic partner, and the negative outcomes associated with partner phubbing, establishes the importance of research in this area. Directions for future research and study limitations are discussed.
... This is because conflict arises when the time spent on video games displaces the time that could have been spent with one's spouse or partner. Similarly, Ahlstrom et al. (2012) in a study of online game players found that the time spent on gaming had created conflict among the couples studied. Meanwhile, 70% of the women in the sample of a study by McDaniel and Coyne (2016) reported that smartphones regularly interrupted their interactions with their partners. ...
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Smartphones and the internet have indeed revolutionized our lives in innumerable ways, among them the emergence of a social phenomenon called ‘phubbing.’ Phubbing is a portmanteau combining the words “phone” and “snubbing”. A person engaging in “phubbing” interacts obsessively with his/her phone rather than communicating with nearby people. Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) is defined as phubbing behaviour when in the presence of one’s spouse or significant other. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between Pphubbing and marital quality, and to investigate the moderating role of gender and age in this relationship. The participants in the survey were 390 married adults living in Kuala Lumpur. The respondents were selected randomly and volunteered to answer a series of questionnaires made up of the Partner Phubbing Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and a section on demographic data. Results showed that Pphubbing behaviour has a significant negative relationship with marital quality. Moreover, gender and age were found to have significant moderating effects on the relationship between Pphubbing and marital quality. The reported impact of Pphubbing on marital quality was stronger among females than males, and the effects were also stronger among younger adults. These findings may have implications for family and couple counselling and for the coaching profession. Future research should be done to address this phenomenon more thoroughly. Keywords: interpersonal communication; marital quality; partner phubbing; phubbing; relationship
... Conversely, individual leisure was assumed to have a negative relationship to marital satisfaction; however, research between 1990 and 2012 provided additional insight. For example, scholars demonstrated negative effects of individual leisure on marital satisfaction could be moderated by spousal support in individual long-distance running (Baldwin, Ellis, & Baldwin, 1999;Goff, Fick, & Oppliger, 1997;Goodsell & Harris, 2011), and in individual participation in Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORGPs) (Ahlstrom et al., 2012). When examining spouse involvement in family vacationing, research also connected more egalitarian couples to more positive perceptions of family vacations (Madrigal et al., 1992). ...
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Understanding the relationship between leisure and families has been and will continue to be an important area of study. The purpose of this study is to review existing family leisure research from four select journals between 1990 and 2012. Articles are examined for sample characteristics , methods, analytical approaches, and thematic trends. Overall, 181 articles regarding family leisure, leisure in context of family life or roles, and individual experiences of family leisure are identified. Findings suggest scholars made strides toward expanding methods, analyses, and sampling diversity, though more diversity in sampling and analytical approaches is needed. Three major research themes are present: promoting family well-being through leisure, the costs and constraints to family leisure, and family leisure in the margins.
... For instance, Coyne, Busby, Bushman, Gentile, Ridge, and Stockdale. (2012) found that as men's videogame playing increased, relationship conflict over media use increased, even spilling over into relational aggression (also see Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012). Most likely, such conflict and relational aggression emerge as partners become upset with how the time spent on these media displaces time that could be spent on the relationship, as well as increases the chance that use will interrupt interactions between partners. ...
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The current chapter examines what I term “technology interference” or “technoference,” which includes times when and ways that technological devices intrude, interrupt, and/or get in the way of couple or family communication and interactions in everyday life. I begin this discussion first by examining individual characteristics that predict individual use of mobile devices, as well as problematic use. I then move to an examination of characteristics of the devices themselves, those features that influence use. Then, I turn to how even normative use of technology might produce interruptions in family life, and what the current research tells us about how technology interference might influence personal and couple well-being. Overall, preliminary work suggests that technology interference is common in couple relationships and that greater interference is related to diminished personal and relational well-being.
... Though this research suggests that technology use can be positive in relationships, a few studies indicate that certain types of technology use may become problematic in romantic relationships by increasing conflict and leading to poor relationship satisfaction (e.g., Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012; Coyne et al., 2012; Schade et al., 2013). One explanation for these negative outcomes may be that technology use becomes intrusive in daily life and individuals struggle to disconnect from their devices. ...
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Technology use has proliferated in family life; everyday intrusions and interruptions due to technology devices, which we term “technoference,” will likely occur. We examine the frequency of technoference in romantic relationships and whether these everyday interruptions relate to women’s personal and relational well-being. Participants were 143 married/cohabiting women who completed an online questionnaire. The majority perceived that technology devices (such as computers, cell or smartphones, or TV) frequently interrupted their interactions, such as couple leisure time, conversations, and mealtimes, with their partners. Overall, participants who rated more technoference in their relationships also reported more conflict over technology use, lower relationship satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and lower life satisfaction. We tested a structural equation model of technoference predicting conflict over technology use, which then predicted relationship satisfaction, which finally predicted depression and life satisfaction. By allowing technology to interfere with or interrupt conversations, activities, and time with romantic partners—even when unintentional or for brief moments—individuals may be sending implicit messages about what they value most, leading to conflict and negative outcomes in personal life and relationships.
... The negative effects of phubbing in couples can influence other relationship-related constructs such as reducing interaction quality, availability of the partner, trust, intimacy (Aagaard, 2020;Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Amichai-Hamburger & Etgar, 2016;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Misra, Cheng, Genevie, & Yuan, 2014;Nakamura, 2015), and increase negative affect and jealousy (Guazzini, Raimondi, Biagini, Bagnoli, & Duradoni, 2021;Krasnova, Abramova, Notter, & Baumann, 2016). Nonetheless, we argue that the literature has largely omitted how a person's phubbing behavior is internally appraised or evaluated by their partner. ...
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Interactions between intimate partners are important for the maintenance of a healthy relationship. However, the practice of snubbing one partner in favor of a mobile phone (phubbing), may undermine interactions. Thus far, research has mainly investigated between-person differences, i.e., people experiencing more partner phubbing report lower relationship satisfaction. However, phubbing is linked to processes which unfold within-person and might trigger different appraising mechanisms across different phubbing situations. This study examined participants in intimate relationships (N = 133) over seven days. Results based on multilevel modelling demonstrate that participants did not report lower relationship satisfaction on days when phubbing occurred compared to days without phubbing. However, on days when people experienced partner phubbing, higher phubbing intensity was associated with stronger appraisals reactions: participants reported lower perceived partner responsiveness, more negative and less positive moral judgment of partner’s phubbing behavior. These appraisal mechanisms were significantly associated with end-of-day relationship quality. This evidence highlights the importance of appraisal mechanisms in phubbing situations, in other words how the phubbing is perceived is important.
... Individuals still experience 'a sense of embodiment within their own avatar', making intimacy and sexual engagement possible and very real, even though it takes place within a virtual world (Lomanowska & Guitton 2016:139-140). According to Ahlstrom et al. (2012:2) more than a third of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Gamers are married, implying that online gaming can no longer be viewed as an entertainment mainly utilised by youth. See Hertlein and Hawkins (2012:19-22) for an overview of different areas of couple's relationships that are affected by online gaming. ...
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The complex context of contemporary society with the dynamic element of digital technologies, challenges Christian marriages in several ways. This article aimed to identify theological resources that can help Christian marriages flourish in the given context. The objective of this study was to identify theological resources, that can be used to encourage Christian marriages to flourish amid the challenges brought by the context of the digital age. This article followed the method of a literature study. The discussion started with an overview of the context of the digital age, and the relevant challenges that it poses to Christian marriages. This was followed by a pastoral perspective that was presented on the concept of spirituality. The article concluded by exploring the construct of resilience, through the lens of spirituality as it relates to Christian marriages. It was discovered that relational resilience is needed for Christian marriages, to meet the challenges of this context. Oneness was identified as a crucial element in the resilience of Christian marriages, when it is viewed through the lens of spirituality. The prominent connection between resilience and spirituality, stimulated reflection on a relational view on the Trinity as well as a marital spirituality, which informed the understanding of oneness, that can exist in Christian marriage relationships. Two overarching theological resources were identified, that can be applied in pastoral care to encourage the resilience of Christian marriages in a digital age. The first resource relates to the oneness of the Trinity, which spouses can imitate in their marriage relationship in order to increase intimacy. Secondly, marital spirituality was explained as a shared path of faith to which spouses commit, in order to intentionally practise an awareness for God’s presence, to honour closeness to the church and to be devoted to one another in daily life. Contribution: The challenges that Christian marriages face in a digital age, are placed in the context of spirituality and trinitarian theology, making an innovative theological contribution, by identifying theological resources that can enable Christian marriages to flourish.
... Research examining the role of MMORPGs and couples is only now beginning to emerge. Studies suggest that in marriages where one partner plays Downloaded by [75.35.88.9] at 06:50 25 March 2015 and the other does not, marital satisfaction levels are lower (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Hertlein & Hawkins, 2012). For men, more time spent playing video games has been associated with increased physical and relational aggression (Coyne et al., 2012). ...
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Few studies have examined the impact of online video game addiction on addicts’ family members. The purpose of this study is to describe the lived experiences of the spouses of online video game addicts via qualitative, phenomenological methodology. Data were gathered via online, open-ended questions and suggested three categories that described participants’ experiences of being married to an online video game addict: Changes in My Husband, Changes in Me, and Changes in the Marital Relationship. Among these categories, seven themes and 12 subthemes emerged. The study concludes by discussing the essence of the phenomenon, as well as implications for therapy.
... It was reported that some heavy Internet users indulged in online relationship or extramarital affairs which led to family problems and difficulties in real-life social relationships (Young 1998). There were also findings showing that Internet use behavior such as gaming negatively affected marital satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). ...
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Using a panel design, this study examined the prospective relationships between Internet addiction and life satisfaction as well as hopelessness in a representative sample of Hong Kong adolescents. Starting from 2009/10 academic year, 3328 Secondary 1 students in 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in this longitudinal study (Mean age = 12.59 years; SD = 0.74 years). All participants responded to a questionnaire that includes the Internet Addiction Test, Life Satisfaction Scale, and Hopelessness Scale on a yearly basis. Cross-lagged analyses based on three waves of data collected during three junior adolescent years showed that Internet addiction measured at Time 1 predicted poor life satisfaction and hopelessness at Time 2, but not vice versa. Similarly, Internet addiction at Time 2 predicted low life satisfaction at Time 3, and the cross-lagged effects of life satisfaction and hopelessness on Internet addiction from Time 2 to Time 3 remained non-significant. The findings support the thesis that poor personal well-being in adolescents is the consequence rather than the cause of Internet addictive behaviors. To improve quality of life and prevent suicidality in adolescents, strategies that help reduce addictive behaviors related to the Internet should be considered.
Article
This study used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model and a national sample of married couples (N = 1368) to explore the relationship between entertainment media use and marital satisfaction, conflict, and perceived marital instability. Entertainment media-use included newer types of media (e.g., social networking websites) as well as traditional media (e.g., television). A number of negative relationships between media use and wives’ and husbands’ marital quality emerged. Husbands’ use of social networking websites, in particular, was associated with many of the marital quality variables. The effect sizes of media use were small, however. We also explored whether the relationship worked in reverse and whether media use differences between the spouses would relate to marital quality. When spouses reported different levels of using video games, they also reported lower levels of marital quality. The findings suggest that as media technology continues to change, it may relate to marital quality in new ways.
Article
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between media-based family leisure and family functioning. Because the sample (n = 500) included responses from parents and children (ages 11 to 16) from each family, mixed models were used to account for family-level and individual-level variance. Findings Indicated a negative relationship between media use and family functioning; media connection and parental media monitoring were positively related to family functioning. This was stable over time even when accounting for variance explained by depression, anxiety, conflict, and other demographic variables. The mixed linear model analysis and use of longitudinal data add to existing research. Current findings suggest parental involvement In adolescent media use is the most important factor in explaining variance in family functioning.
Conference Paper
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While plenty of research on internet and video game addicts exists, little has been written about the experiences of the spouses of these addicts. This narrow focus on the individual leaves researchers and mental health professionals with few tools for helping family members of the addict or involving them in the treatment process. The purpose of this workshop is to describe the lived experiences of spouses of online video game addicts, and to provide possible treatment options that incorporate the partner of the addict. Phenomenological data suggest three categories that help describe the experience of being married to a male online video game addict: Changes in My Husband, Changes in Me, and Changes in the Marital Relationship. Among these categories, seven themes and 12 subthemes emerge. The category Changes in My Husband included the themes Real World Isolation, Defensiveness, and Personal Consequences. The category Changes in Me includes the theme Emotions, which includes the subthemes Anger and Resentment, Stress, and Frustration. The category Changes in the Marital Relationship includes the themes Our Roles and Responsibilities, which includes the subthemes of Chores and Parenting, the theme Distance, which includes the subthemes of More Conflict, No Emotional Intimacy, Rare Physical Intimacy, and No Communication, and the theme of Financial Losses. The themes here often correspond with the themes of spouses of alcoholics, including emotional distress, conflict, and neglect. Outcome research has mainly focused on individual and group treatment approaches for internet and video game addiction treatment. However, family-based treatment for chemical addictions has been supported in the literature and could be adapted for treatment of internet or video game addictions. Family-based treatment approaches that demonstrate efficacy in treating adults for substance use problems include Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) and Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) . Suggestions for adapting these approaches to the treatment of internet and video game addicts and their spouses are presented in this workshop, as are approaches for treating the spouses when the addict does not want to participate in treatment.
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The study examines how persons in a close relationship with a gamer of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) perceive relationship problems caused by the gaming hobby. Revisiting the concept of pure relationships by Anthony Giddens, we analysed eight deep interviews with persons who claim their relationship with the gamer had ended or turned downhill due to the volume of the gaming. The study formulates a conception of the clashes of interest in areas of (1) situational clashes in everyday choreography, (2) shifts in long view prioritizing, (3) deficient communication and (4) understandings of self and autonomy in relation to gaming and relationship. These conceptual paths serve to understand the problems from a sociological perspective. On a more general level, the study demonstrates the timeliness in devoting attention to the premises under which intimacy and commitment are negotiated in offline and online relationship constellations.
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The internet has become ubiquitous in many people's lives to an extent that necessitates the investigation of its impact on marital relationships. There has been a lack of such studies in the Iranian context and the present study investigated the relationship between internet addiction and couple burnout. A total of 377 married individuals participated in an online survey comprising demographic information, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Couple Burnout Measure (CBM). Partial least squares –structure equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to assess the relationships in the proposed research model. Structural equation modelling showed a significant effect of sub-components of internet addiction (lack of control; social withdrawal and emotional conflict; time management problems; and concealing problematic behavior) on emotional burnout. In addition, lack of control and time management problems showed significant and positive effect on somatic burnout. However, the relationships between internet addiction components and psychological burnout were not demonstrated as hypothesized. Given the explained relationships between factors comprising internet addiction and couple burnout, couple therapists need to be made more aware of the risks of internet overuse upon marital relationships and to encourage couples to optimize the internet use to prevent negative outcomes (in particular emotional burnout) among couples.
Article
Objective This qualitative study was designed to explore how leisure is experienced by military couples postdeployment and the extent to which couples use leisure to cope with deployment or promote reintegration. Background To date, many studies have investigated how deployment affects relationship quality and stability. There is a dearth of literature on the leisure experiences of combat veterans and their spouses. Studying couples' leisure experiences may illuminate underlying processes that can explain couple relationship quality postdeployment. Method Ten combat veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) and their spouses/partners participated in separate in‐depth, face‐to‐face interviews about their perceptions of leisure and relationship experiences postdeployment. Results Four themes emerged: (a) deployment changes veterans and couples' leisure, (b) spouses support leisure and reintegration postdeployment, (c) leisure provides insight into military and deployment experiences, and (d) deployment helps couples cultivate appreciation. Conclusion This study provides evidence that everyday couple leisure experiences (e.g., watching movies, doing home projects) may be integral in fostering reintegration postdeployment. Implications Practitioners are encouraged to educate military couples about the potential of free or inexpensive leisure experiences to promote reintegration by providing daily opportunities for positive interactions and creating contexts to share enjoyable moments.
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Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) have been a fruitful venue to study social interactions ranging from small temporary groups, to larger more permanent in-game social collectives such as guilds or clans. Much of this literature is focused on strangers becoming friends through MMOG play; comparatively, little is known about gameplay-based interactions between pre-existing romantic couples. To address that gap, this paper describes the methods used and subsequent results of an empirical investigation of the in-game actions and collaborations between couple and non-couple pairings as they played the MMOG RIFT. In our attempts to determine if couples display distinctive in-game behaviors, we found that players with a pre-existing relationship (friendship or romantic) behave in a similar manner while playing together. However, our findings indicate that avatar proximity is the key to distinguishing whether this pre-existing relationship is platonic or romantic in nature.
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Financial stress can heighten pressure and conflict within couple relationships. Recreation participation has the potential to alleviate stress and deepen relational bonds. Drawing on data from semistructured interviews with 25 couples, this study explores recreation in the lives of low-income couples in committed relationships. Qualitative methods were used to examine the recreation activities couples engaged in, with whom, and where; what value they placed on their recreation participation; and what factors influenced their recreation engagements. Findings indicate couples engage in a wide range of shared couple recreation, including partner-support, utilitarian, home-based, and “date-like” experiences. Couples value their recreation for both immediate and more lasting benefits and often make intentional efforts to enrich their relationships by pursuing low-or no-cost activities and by negotiating the various challenges associated with their limited financial resources. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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The massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMOG), Star Wars Galaxy of Heroes (SWGoH), inspired by the iconic film Star Wars, attracts many players who form guilds and play as a form of entertainment. This study aimed to explore how the activities performed in this online video game may help players develop certain types of competencies, and whether the competencies developed could be considered key elements in the performance of other, more serious, leisure-related activities. An explanatory case study research strategy was chosen with participant observation as the main method of data collection. Results show that SWGoH promotes the development of competencies before, during, and after play. The competencies most often observed were leadership, time management, team management, and goal-setting, while four key elements of the serious leisure perspective predominated: systematisation, perseverance, obligations and responsibilities, and skills and knowledge.
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With video game use widely accepted and practiced in a wide variety of households worldwide, it is important for researchers to understand links between video game use and romantic relational experiences. Although unexplored within gaming literature, previous research has indicated the importance of attitudes of acceptance or approval within the couple relationship with acceptance of a partner's specific behavior being linked to relational outcomes. Using dyadic data from 6,756 couples (n = 13,512) from 16 different countries, an actor-partner interdependence moderating model was employed to evaluate how acceptance of video game use moderated the link between video game use and dyadic adjustment, while controlling for mental health, relational characteristics, and other demographic variables. Results indicate that higher reports of individual video game use were linked with improved rates of partner dyadic adjustment. Furthermore, results indicated that partner-interaction effects for acceptance of video game use moderated the relationships between video game use and dyadic adjustment. This supports the importance of considering contextual factors when examining gaming use and its links with other constructs.
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Background: Massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) evolve online, whilst engaging large numbers of participants who play concurrently. Their online socialization component is a primary reason for their high popularity. Interestingly, the adverse effects of MMOs have attracted significant attention compared to their potential benefits. Methods: To address this deficit, employing PRISMA guidelines, this systematic review aimed to summarize empirical evidence regarding a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal MMO well-being outcomes for those older than 13. Results: Three databases identified 18 relevant English language studies, 13 quantitative, 4 qualitative and 1 mixed method published between January 2012 and August 2020. A narrative synthesis methodology was employed, whilst validated tools appraised risk of bias and study quality. Conclusions: A significant positive relationship between playing MMOs and social well-being was concluded, irrespective of one's age and/or their casual or immersed gaming patterns. This finding should be considered in the light of the limited: (a) game platforms investigated; (b) well-being constructs identified; and (c) research quality (i.e., modest). Nonetheless, conclusions are of relevance for game developers and health professionals, who should be cognizant of the significant MMOs-well-being association(s). Future research should focus on broadening the well-being constructs investigated, whilst enhancing the applied methodologies.
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Technology as a communication medium now functions as a core way to connect to peers, family members, and romantic partners independent of time and location. These technologies help us to initiate relationships and maintain them, but also can introduce complications such as connection to others outside of our relationships and take time away from relationships. The purpose of this study was to test a model proposing a moderating effect of nationality on the link between technology in relationships and satisfaction. In a cross-sectional study of 658 American and 503 Austrian adults (n = 1161), participants who were in a committed relationship for at least 6 months completed a survey assessing their use of technology, how their use of technology affected their relationships, their nationality, and their relationship satisfaction. Results indicated a significant effect for nationality on couple satisfaction. Implications for cultural understandings of technology in relationships and their effect on couple satisfaction include the therapist developing an understanding of each person’s future around technology use and to inform their assessment around how each member’s use of technology supports or detracts from relationship satisfaction.
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Internet of things conversational agents (IoT-CAs) are making human–computer interactions ubiquitous. In this study, we experimentally examined the effects of IoT-CA use on face-to-face conversations between close partners. A total of 136 participants (68 close relationship dyads) participated in the experiment. We prepared an IoT chat environment and provided chat topics for each dyad. The dyads were randomly assigned into one of two IoT-CA use pattern groups (joint use: two persons using an IoT-CA together; individual use: one person using an IoT-CA alone) and three interaction conditions (no IoT-CA use, conversation content-relevant IoT-CA use, conversation content-irrelevant IoT-CA use). The results showed that compared with no IoT-CA use, IoT-CA use did not have negative effects on conversation experiences but produced feelings of greater closeness to the IoT-CA in the partners. Furthermore, joint IoT-CA use in the content-relevant condition (IoT-CA made comments relevant to interpersonal interactions) helped increase interpersonal self-disclosure.
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A growing number of studies have suggested that partner phubbing is negatively associated with marital satisfaction. However, little is known about the mediating mechanisms between this relationship. The current study investigated whether marital interaction and marital conflict mediate the relationship between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction. A sample of 470 Chinese married adults completed questionnaires regarding demographics, partner phubbing, marital interaction, marital conflict, and marital satisfaction. The results suggested that (a) partner phubbing was negatively associated with marital satisfaction; (b) both marital interaction and marital conflict partially mediated the association between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction; and (c) marital interaction and marital conflict sequentially mediated the association between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction. These findings promote our understanding of how partner phubbing is associated with marital satisfaction.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı sosyotelizm davranışının çift ilişkilerindeki yansımasını alan yazın derlemesiyle ortaya koymaktır. Sosyotelizmin çift ilişkilerine yansıması ise “partner sosyotelizm” olarak isimlendirilmektedir. Partner sosyotelizm kavramı romantik ilişkilerde çiftlerin birlikteyken karşılıklı ilgi göstermeleri gerektiğinde bunun yerine cep telefonlarıyla ilgilenmeleri ve muhatabını görmezden gelmeleridir. Bu davranışsal problem romantik ilişkilerde gittikçe büyük bir sorun haline dönüşerek çift anlaşmazlıklarının önemli bir nedeni olarak belirmektedir. Bu davranışı sergileyen birey partneriyle birlikteyken sık sık cep telefonunu kontrol eder. Telefonları her zaman görebilecekleri bir yerdedir ya da telefonunu ellerinde tutarlar. Ayrıca çiftler arasında kıskançlık kaynaklı problemlere de neden olur. Bu konuda problem yaşayan çiftlerin ilişkilerinden sağladıkları doyum da zamanla azalabilmektedir. Ayrıca yaşanan gerginlikler bireylerin iyilik halini de negatif etkilemektedir. Ortaya çıkardığı olumsuz sonuçlar partner sosyotelizmin ciddi bir problem olarak ele alınması ve her bir bireyin kişisel sorumluluk alması gerektiğini göstermektedir. Telefon ve internet kullanımını hayatımızdan çıkaramasak da bu teknolojileri nasıl doğru kullanacağımızın bilincinde olmak gerekiyor. Ayrıca olumsuz etkilerinden dolayı telefon kullanım alışkanlıkları ve ortaya çıkardığı sosyal sorunlarla ilgili farkındalık oluşturulmalıdır. Aile dinamiklerini de etkileyen bu problemin çiftler tarafından görmezden gelinmemesi gereken bir problem olarak da algılanması gerekmektedir. Oluşan bu farkındalık çift ilişkilerinde yaşanabilecek olumsuzlukların önüne geçebileceği gibi bu yanlış kullanımın ortaya çıkarabileceği diğer riskleri de azaltabilecektir. Böylelikle hayatımızın bir parçası haline gelen ve kullanmanın zorunlu hale geldiği telefonlarımız sorun oluşturmayan bir boyuta taşınabilir.
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The paper focuses on a new phenomenon of modern digital society — phubbing, that is, the manifestation of partner neglect through distraction to a gadget during real communication. The analysis of foreign psychological approaches to its research has been carried out: phubbing is understood as dependence on a mobile phone / Smartphone and social networks; as a result of Internet addiction and problems with self-control; as a new social norm. We present the results of an empirical study of phubbing in close relationships (N=46). Hypothesis: intimacy and attachment to a romantic partner as close relationships` qualitative characteristics increase the sensitivity to a partner`s phubbing. Methods: Partner phubbing (Roberts, David, 2016; Ekimchik, Kryukova, 2019); Multi-Item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment (Brennan, Shaver, 1995; Ekimchik, Kryukova, 2009); Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale (Aron, Aron, Smollan, 1992; Ekimchik, Kryukova, Zakharchenko, 2018). Results: men more often than women estimate the partners` phubbing negatively. It is found that adult romantic attachment characteristics predict the level of partners` phubbing.
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Role-identity theory supports the position that marital satisfaction is influenced by shared identities to a salient recreation role and by role support provided by a spouse for a salient recreation role identity for her or his partner. In addition, some previous studies have suggested that these effects are more prominent among women, but other research indicates that the effect is stronger among men. This study examined the relationship among the congruence of spouse's commitment to running, perceived role support, and gender to marital satisfaction among a population of married adult runners. Participants were 85 married runners and 75 of their spouses sampled from a list of participants in an annual marathon in a western U.S. city. Questionnaires were administered to runners and their spouses that measured commitment to running, role support, marital satisfaction, and the type of recreation participation within the marriage. A significant main effect for role support was found in the regression analysis, indicating that as the runner's perceived role support decreased, marital satisfaction also decreased. No significant interaction effects involving gender or level of congruence in commitment to running were identified. In an exploratory analysis, it was found that participation in shared activities, or commitment to the same activities, was not essential to marital satisfaction if the spouses perceived that their partners supported their recreational choices.
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The study explores relationships between differentiation of self and marital satisfaction among 121 Israeli men and women at various stages of married life. Marital satisfaction was found to be inversely correlated with emotional cutoff, so that lower cutoff was associated with greater satisfaction. An interesting gender finding was that satisfaction was connected to emotional reactivity, emotional cutoff and I-position among men, but only related to emotional cutoff among women. Another gender difference was that level of marital satisfaction and duration of the marriage were negatively correlated for women and positively correlated for men. The present study sheds light on several notions of Bowen's (1978; Kerr & Bowen, 1988) theory, and is the first to indicate a relation between differentiation and marital satisfaction among Israeli participants at various stages of marriage. Results suggest that a crucial balance of separation and closeness provides an optimal context for meeting the needs of spouses and promoting the healthy development of marital life.
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This study demonstrates the usefulness of the KMSS and RDAS in distinguishing between the maritally distressed and nondistressed. For conceptual and statistical clarity, many marital interaction and marital therapy research measures, use a single cutoff score. It was determined that the cutoff score is 17 for the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (KMSS) and 48 for the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) for husbands, wives, and couples. An equivalency table of mathematical formulas is also presented, allowing the conversion of individual and couple scores from one measure of marital quality to another. It is now possible to convert a score from any one of a number of instruments (KMSS, RDAS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Marital Adjustment Test, Revised Marital Adjustment Test) to an equivalent score as measured by another instrument.
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Four studies apply self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) in investigating motivation for computer game play, and the effects of game play on well-being. Studies 1–3 examine individuals playing 1, 2 and 4 games, respectively and show that perceived in-game autonomy and competence are associated with game enjoyment, preferences, and changes in well-being pre- to post-play. Competence and autonomy perceptions are also related to the intuitive nature of game controls, and the sense of presence or immersion in participants’ game play experiences. Study 4 surveys an on-line community with experience in multi-player games. Results show that SDT’s theorized needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness independently predict enjoyment and future game play. The SDT model is also compared with Yee’s (2005) motivation taxonomy of game play motivations. Results are discussed in terms of the relatively unexplored landscape of human motivation within virtual worlds.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for 8 standard statistical tests: (1) the difference between independent means, (2) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (3) the difference between independent rs, (4) the sign test, (5) the difference between independent proportions, (6) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (7) 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (8) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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The purpose of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the pattern of video game and internet use among college students and to examine how electronic leisure was related to risk behaviors (i.e., drinking, drug use, sex), perceptions of the self (i.e., self worth and social acceptance), and relationships with others (i.e., relationship quality with parents and friends). Participants included 813 undergraduate students (500 young women, 313 young men, M age = 20, SD = 1.87) who were mainly European American (79%), unmarried (100%) and living outside their parents' home (90%). Results suggested that (a) video game use was linked to negative outcomes for men and women, (b) different patterns of video game and internet use existed for men and women and (c) there were different relations to risk behaviors, feelings about the self, and relationship quality based on the type of internet use, and based on gender. The discussion focuses on the implications of electronic leisure on the overall health and development of young people as they transition to adulthood.
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There is growing concern about excessive Internet use and whether this can amount to an addiction. In researching this topic, a valid and reliable assessment instrument is essential. In her survey of Internet addiction, Young designed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), which provides a basis for developments. The IAT has high face validity, but it has not been subjected to systematic psychometric testing. This study sought to replicate and expand Young's survey, and to examine the IAT more systematically. A questionnaire that existed as a Web page was devised, consisting of the IAT and 15 other questions regarding the respondents' demographic information and Internet usage. Participants were recruited through the Internet, yielding 86 valid responses (29 males and 57 females). Factor analysis of the IAT revealed six factors--salience, excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. These factors showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity, with salience being the most reliable. Younger and more recent users reported more problems, mainly concerning the neglect of work and social life. We expected interactive Internet functions to be more addictive; however, this was not found to be so. Overall, the IAT is a valid and reliable instrument that may be used in further research on Internet addiction.
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This study was conducted to explore the lifestyles of online game players who have adopted the virtual world as part of their life. An online survey was conducted on players of an Internet-based game, Lineage. Lineage is the largest online game where people assume new identities and play various roles in a virtual environment, accommodating over 6 million users worldwide. A total of 4,786 game players participated in this survey, and their lifestyles were compared with their values and attitudes in the virtual world. Upon classification of their real-world lifestyles, their tendencies and desires were compared to lifestyles in the virtual world. This study showed that game players have developed their own distinctive lifestyles, and their lifestyles were a strong criterion for explaining behavior patterns and desires in the virtual world. Lifestyles were classified into three general categories: (1) single-oriented player, (2) community-oriented player, and (3) off-Real world player. Each group displayed distinct differences in their values and game activities, as well as in their anti-social behavior tendencies. The differences reflected not only their personality but also their socio-economic status within the virtual world, which is constructed through game activities. This study serves as a model to understand how players from different real-life backgrounds will behave in various game features and how they adopt the virtual world for their new social identities.
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As computer and Internet use become a staple of everyday life, the potential for overuse is introduced, which may lead to addiction. Research on Internet addiction has shown that users can become addicted to it. Addiction to the Internet shares some of the negative aspects of substance addiction and has been shown to lead to consequences such as failing school, family, and relationship problems.
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This study examined links between emotion expression in couple interactions and marital quality and stability. Core aspects of emotion expression in marital interactions were identified with the use of naive observational coding by multiple raters. Judges rated 47 marital discussions with 15 emotion descriptors. Coders' pooled ratings yielded good reliability on 4 types of emotion expression: hostility, distress, empathy, and affection. These 4 types were linked with concurrent marital satisfaction and interviewer ratings of marital adjustment as well as with marital stability at a 5-year follow-up. The study also examined the extent to which naive judges' ratings of emotion expression correspond to "expert" ratings using the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF). The unique advantages of naive coding of emotion expression in marital interaction are discussed.
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Sport and leisure roles contribute to health and to the quality of life. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of the commitments to these roles have gained in importance. This paper analyzes the commitments of the Israeli long distance runner. The study draws upon the theory of personal and structural commitment. These two concepts were operationalized and tested on a sample of 284 runners. The seven factors of commitment which are used in this study partly help to explain the running levels of the runners. Identification and the rewards of running are the two most salient factors in predicting the training levels of a runner. Competitive levels are explained by the cost of running, by the need to win, and by the social pressures which other people exert on the runner.
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This study examined whether spouse support moderates the relation between serious leisure (Stebbins, 1992) and spouses' perceived leisure-family conflict. Buchanan's (1985) perspective on leisure commitment as affective attachment, side bets, and behavioral consistency was used to measure commitment to serious leisure. Subjects were 342 spouses of runners who responded to a survey. Results of hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed the relationship between runners' commitment and leisure-family conflict was moderated by spouses' level of support for running. Implications of spouses' support for leisure interests are discussed with recommendations that future research address balance between leisure and family.
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The present study explored how ideologies of femininity and romantic love are played out in heterosexual romantic relationships and how they influence and structure women's leisure. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the leisure lives of 13 women who were between the ages of 19 and 24 and who had been involved in heterosexual romantic relationships of at least six months duration. Analysis showed that the women valued their romantic relationships and placed a high priority on leisure with their partners. This emphasis often resulted in satisfying couple leisure for the women. However, it also led to conflicts in their romantic relationships over leisure with friends and family, and constraints to their non-couple leisure. The women typically responded to these conflicts through accommodation of their partners' needs and wishes. Nevertheless, some of the women attempted to resist constraints on their non-couple leisure. The study provides evidence to suggest that while leisure can facilitate meaningful relationships between intimate partners, involvement in romantic relationships can also constrain women's leisure.
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This paper investigates the relationship between the proportion of time husbands and wives spend in individual, joint, and parallel leisure activities and marital satisfaction over five marital career periods. A probability sample of upper-middle-class families in a moderate-sized Southeastern city yielded 216 husbands and 226 wives for the study. The results suggest that the three leisure activity patterns are differentially related to marital satisfaction, that husbands and wives are not influenced alike by leisure, and that the marital career period is a most critical variable in determining the influence of leisure.
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Despite a substantial amount of leisure research, little is known about the leisure activity patterns and satisfaction of couples and their influence, if any, on relationship satisfaction. Further, satisfaction and leisure activity research has been limited to married dyads and has not included a range of romantic partners. Leisure research has focused primarily on individual data, and this impedes fully understanding the joint construction of leisure in a couple and its outcomes. The present research extends efforts by examining the perceptions of dyads in diverse relationships and their effect on their leisure and relationship satisfaction. The model in this study is that gender, joint leisure time, and individual leisure satisfaction affect the relationship satisfaction of both an individual and his or her partner: the partner effect model. Questionnaires self-administered to both members of romantic dyads obtained information on the variables of interest. Results indicated moderate participant leisure satisfaction and a near-significant relationship between gender and relationship satisfaction. However, the model that individual leisure satisfaction would influence both an individual and a partner's relationship satisfaction was not supported by the data. Nonetheless, dyadic research remains a rich area for conceptual and methodological advancement, and therefore subsequent research suggestions are presented.
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Anecdotal reports indicated that some on-line users were becoming addicted to the Internet in much the same way that others became addicted to drugs or alcohol, which resulted in academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, research among sociologists, psychologists, or psychiatrists has not formally identified addictive use of the Internet as a problematic behavior. This study investigated the existence of Internet addiction and the extent of problems caused by such potential misuse. Of all the diagnoses referenced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1995), Pathological Gambling was viewed as most akin to the pathological nature of Internet use. By using Pathological Gambling as a model, addictive Internet use can be defined as an impulse-control disorder that does not involve an intoxicant. Therefore, this study developed a brief eight-item questionnaire referred to as a Diagnostic Questionnaire (DQ), which modified criteria for pathological gambling to provide a screening instrument for classification of participants. On the basis of this criteria, case studies of 396 dependent Internet users (Dependents) and 100 nondependent Internet users (Nondependents) were classified. Qualitative analyses suggest significant behavioral and functional usage differences between the two groups such as the types of applications utilized, the degree of difficulty controlling weekly usage, and the severity of problems noted. Clinical and social implications of pathological Internet use and future directions for research are discussed.
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As part of a large study concerned with various aspects of marathon running 24 marathon runners and 17 of their spouses or partners were interviewed in depth. The interviews which lasted an hour or more explored in particular the degree of involvement, the motives for taking part in full or half marathon events and the impact which participation had on the runners and their families. The data showed a complex relationship existed between a desired level of involvement and what was achieved within the constraint of family and work commitments.The data also suggested that for the runners with families a number of different strategies were adopted in order to secure the necessary time to train for full or half marathon events. Three broad strategies were identified, taking time, buying time and sharing time, and each of these notions is discussed.
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Marital satisfaction has been psychometrically measured using many different instruments not soundly based on theory. The Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS), consisting of 14 items, is commonly accepted by researchers and practitioners to measure marital satisfaction but was not specifically designed to measure marital satisfaction. The Satisfaction with Married Life Scale (SWML), consisting of five items, is a short scale specifically targeted toward measuring marital satisfaction. An online sample collected from 1,187 couples throughout the United States was used to compare these instruments' correlation (r = .782), factor structures, reliability (SWML, α = .958; RDAS, α = .943), theoretical foundation, and validity. These instruments are on parity with each other when measuring marital satisfaction; however, each instrument yields implications for practitioners and researchers desiring to measure marital satisfaction.
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Fifty-three married couples were randomly assigned to engage in activities for 1.5 hours each week for 10 weeks that were self-defined as (a) exciting or (b) pleasant, or couples were in a (c) no-special-activity control group. Pretest and post-test data were obtained on a standard marital satisfaction measure (adjusted for scores on a social desirability index). A planned linear contrast comparing the two activities groups to the control group was not significant and had a small effect size; thus the theory that any kind of activity enhances marital satisfaction was not supported as an explanation for the well-established association of time together and satisfaction. However, the other planned orthogonal contrast found significantly higher satisfaction for the exciting than the pleasant group, a difference that had a moderate effect size. This finding is consistent with views emphasizing habituation as an obstacle to relationship maintenance - for example, Aron & Aron's (1986) prediction from their self-expansion model that sharing stimulating activities will enhance marital satisfaction.
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This study examined the relationship between marriage and psychological well-being using a sample from the National Survey of Families and Households panel data. Eight different marital status groups were identified and used to test two competing perspectives explaining the relationship between marriage and individual psychological well-being (protection vs. selection). Findings confirmed the strong effects of marital status on psychological well-being, supporting the protection perspective. The effect of the quality of marital (cohabiting) relationship on psychological well-being was significant, but the strong effect of marital status remained unchanged after controlling for relationship quality. Findings also indicated that the transition to cohabiting did not have the same beneficial effects as marriage for psychological well-being, suggesting that the protective effects of marriage are greater than those of cohabiting relationships. The selection effects of psychological well-being were found to be weak and inconsistent. The findings generally did not vary by gender.
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Examines the relationship between shared leisure activities and family bonding. Prior to the 20th century, family bonding was primarily facilitated through shared work activities while shared leisure activities are now integral to promoting family bonds. Research done during the 1980s indicates that co-participation in leisure activities is positively related to family satisfaction, family interaction, and family stability. Even so, research in the area of leisure and family bonding remains wanting in both quality and quantity. The need is stressed for short term longitudinal studies and more qualitative research on leisure and family bonds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews empirical research studies on family and leisure, noting that research in this area has largely been exploratory and descriptive, and presents recommendations for further research. The effects of family factors on leisure behavior and the effects of leisure behavior on marital and family outcomes are discussed. Family factors affecting leisure behavior include the presence of children, spouse/parent employment, and SES. The effects of leisure behavior on the family include quantity of leisure time, leisure activity patterns, and leisure activity forms. It is concluded that leisure behavior is affected by and affects marriage and family factors. Research recommendations include the use of better research methodologies and more sophisticated statistical techniques. (83 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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New research identifies online users who became hooked on chat rooms, interactive games, and even eBay only to see their lives become increasingly unmanageable because of the Internet. Prior research explores the addictive qualities sustaining drug and alcohol abuse, pathological gambling, and even video game addiction; however, given the relative newness of Internet addiction, little is understood about the habit-forming nature of the Internet and its potential for abuse. As the Internet permeates our lives at home, school, and work, this article takes a closer look at how the Internet can create marital-, academic-, and job-related problems. This article outlines a workable definition of Internet addiction and as a clinical new phenomenon, explores the major consequences created by Internet addiction, including online affairs, student Internet abuse, and employee Internet abuse. Future areas for research and practice are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study challenges the prevailing view that marital companionship promotes marital satisfaction. By following a cohort of married couples for over a decade and by incorporating several methodological improvements—such as refining the measurement of marital satisfaction, determining how much spouses enjoy doing the leisure activities they pursue together and apart, and using diary data to portray marital leisure patterns—we found that the association between companionship and satisfaction is less robust than previously believed, and that it depends on how often spouses pursue activities that reflect their own and their partner's leisure preferences. Over time, involvement in leisure liked by husbands but disliked by wives, whether as a couple or by husbands alone, is both a cause and a consequence of wives' dissatisfaction.
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A survey among 1,523 married and cohabiting couples in the Netherlands is used to describe the extent to which couples have lifestyles characterized by separate leisure pursuits. Four types of leisure are examined: visiting friends and family, entertainment, outdoor recreation, and indoor leisure. For these activities, we find that contemporary couples cannot be characterized as highly individualized. Next, we analyze why some couples have a more separated lifestyle than others. Hypotheses are developed about the life cycle of the couple, the couple's work life, social and cultural homogamy, and value orientations. Multivariate analyses show that life cycle factors are an important determinant of separate lifestyles, whereas evidence for the role of values and homogamy is modest. We also present evidence revealing the time constraints that children and work schedules pose for realizing a joint lifestyle, but we do not find that spouses in dual-earner couples generally operate more separately than do other couples.
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Cohabitation and childbearing outside of marriage are increasingly common family arrangements in the United States. Cohabitation is becoming more like formal marriage in that both are childrearing institutions. Attempts to study the meaning of families formed outside of marriage face the challenge of studying a moving target because the rapid rise in nonmarital families contributes to new meanings and institutional supports. Among these institutions are state policies that formalize ties between members of nonmarital families. This review summarizes the changing demography of cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing, considers the causes and effects of these changes, and describes some recent policies that formalize the relationship between members of families formed outside of marriage. These policies may affect family members' behavior.
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Scientific study of marital satisfaction attracted widespread attention in the 1990s from scholars representing diverse orientations and goals. This article highlights key conceptual and empirical advances that have emerged in the past decade, with particular emphasis on (a) interpersonal processes that operate within marriage, including cognition, affect, physiology, behavioral patterning, social support, and violence; (b) the milieus within which marriages operate, including microcontexts (e.g., the presence of children, life stressors and transitions) and macrocontexts (e.g., economic factors, perceived mate availability); and (c) the conceptualization and measurement of marital satisfaction, including 2-dimensional, trajectory-based, and social-cognitive approaches. Notwithstanding the continued need for theoretical progress in understanding the nature and determinants of marital satisfaction, we conclude by calling for more large-scale longitudinal research that links marital processes with sociocultural contexts, for more disconfirmatory than confirmatory research, and for research that directly guides preventive, clinical, and policy-level interventions.
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As growing numbers of youth in the United States play video games, potential effects of game playing are being considered. We focused on gender-related aspects of gaming in a study of 206 college students. Men were significantly more likely than women to play video games two or more hours a week and to indicate that video game playing interfered with sleeping and with class preparation. A greater proportion of women than men complained about the amount of time their significant other played video games. Participants rated female video game characters as significantly more helpless and sexually provocative than male characters and as less likely to be strong and aggressive. Gender differences in participation and character portrayals potentially impact the lives of youth in a variety of ways.
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A number of diagnostic scales have been developed in recent years to assess Internet addiction. To better understand the structure, validity, and reliability of such assessment instruments, Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was evaluated using a confirmatory approach.Data collected through a survey of 410 Hong Kong university undergraduates was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and data from a hold-out sample was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IAT scale. Three dimensions, namely, “Withdrawal and Social Problems”, “Time Management and Performance”, and “Reality Substitute” were extracted.These dimensions were then correlated with a number of criterion variables, including academic performance, online activities, gender, and Internet usage. The results show that academic performance was negatively correlated with the Internet addiction scores. The degree of Internet addiction was also found to vary across different types of online activity, with people engaged in cyberrelationships and online gambling having higher Internet addiction scores.
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Online survey data were collected from 30,000 users of Massively Multi-User On- line Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) over a three year period to explore users' demographics, motivations, and derived experiences. Not only do MMORPGs ap- peal to a broad age range (Mage 26.57, range 11- 68), but the appeal is strong (on average 22 hours of usage per week) across users of all ages (r -.04). An exploratory factor analysis revealed a five factor model of user motivations— Achievement, Relationship, Immersion, Escapism, and Manipulation—illustrating the multifaceted appeal of these online environments. Male players were significantly more likely to be driven by the Achievement and Manipulation factors, while female players were significantly more likely to be driven by the Relationship factor. Also, the data indicated that users derived meaningful relationships and salient emotional experiences, as well as real-life leadership skills from these virtual environments. MMORPGs are not simply a pastime for teenagers, but a valuable research venue and platform where millions of users interact and collaborate using real-time 3D avatars on a daily basis.
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This study examines changes in leisure patterns across the transition to parenthood for dual-earner, working-class couples, as well as the relationship between leisure and marital quality. To this end, 147 heterosexual couples were interviewed across the transition to parenthood. Findings indicate that during the transition to parenthood, husbands and wives experience an initial decline in leisure, followed by a gradual incline after the wife's return to work. Overall, wives who reported more shared leisure prenatally also reported more marital love and less conflict 1 year later. Husbands with more independent leisure prenatally reported less love and more conflict 1 year later. Conclusions suggest leisure time is integral to well-functioning marriages, with effects lasting throughout the first year of parenthood.
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Running motivated by an addictive mechanism may overpower the sensible, beneficial approach to exercise. Neglect of family responsibilities and relationships may occur as a result of this addiction. Thirty-five marathon runners and their spouses