Mesoporous zeolites as efficient catalysts for oil refining and natural gas conversion

Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering 06/2013; 7(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11705-013-1329-2


Zeolites have been regarded as one of the most important catalysts in petrochemical industry due to their excellent catalytic performance. However, the sole micropores in zeolites severely limit their applications in oil refining and natural gas conversion. To solve the problem, mesoporous zeolites have been prepared by introducing mesopores into the zeolite crystals in recent years, and thus have the advantages of both mesostructured materials (fast diffusion and accessible for bulky molecules) and microporous zeolite crystals (strong acidity and high hydrothermal stability). In this review, after giving a brief introduction to preparation, structure, and characterization of mesoporous zeolites, we systematically summarize catalytic applications of these mesoporous zeolites as efficient catalysts in oil refining and natural gas conversion including catalytic cracking of heavy oil, alkylation, isomerization, hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, methane dehydroaromatization, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether, methanol to olefins, and methanol to hydrocarbons.

  • Source
    • "Polat et al. 2004), medicine (Andronikashvili et al. 2009), chemical technology [i.e. desulfurization of fuel (Muzic et al. 2012) or oil refining (Zhu et al. 2013)], and environment engineering [i.e. to remove of ammonium ions (Franus and Wdowin 2010; Liu et al. 2012) or heavy metals from waters and waste water (Merrikhpour and Jalali 2013; Wang et al. 2009) or separation/adsorption of gases such as CO 2 (Walton et al. 2006; Wdowin et al. 2012), SO 2 (Yi et al. 2012) or mercury (Morency et al. 2002), and removal of radionuclides from the mine waters (Chałupnik et al. 2013)]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a sub-pilot scale process of synthesis of Na-P1 zeolite from the coal fly ash. After establishing the appropriate synthesis conditions (20 kg of fly ash, 12 kg of NaOH, 90 dm3 of water, the reaction temperature: 80 �C and reaction time: 36 h), the high purity (81 wt%) Na-P1 zeolite product was obtained. Its chemical, mineralogical, and textural properties were determined (by means of XRD, XRF, SEM–EDS and ASAP 2020). The synthesized material has a specific BET surface area (88 m2/g) c.a. six times higher than the fly ash from which it has been derived (15 m2/g). The pore-size distribution indicates a mesoporous character of the obtained zeolite, with the following pores size contents: micropores (2.76 %), mesopores (61.81 %), and macropores (35.43 %). The presented technological/production line is fully automated and allows to regulate the conditions of the synthesis process, therefore different types of zeolite materials (including: Na-X, Linde-A, and Na-P1) can be obtained using the same equipment.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chemoselective O- versus C-alkylation of substituted phenols such as phenol, p-cresol, and guaiacol with cyclohexene were investigated over various ZSM-5 catalysts with different degree of mesoporosity and external acidity such as mesoporous ZSM-5 synthesized by microwave induced assembly via electrostatic interaction between sulfonic acid, functionalized or non-functionalized ZSM-5 nanozeolites and counter cationic surfactant, and hydrothermal synthesized microporous ZSM-5 with or without sulfonic acid functionalization and surfactant. The selectivity of O- and C-alkylated products varied with different degree of mesoporosity. The selectivity of C-alkylated products increased with increasing mesopore volume and external acid sites, whereas that of O-alkylated product decreased. The mesoporous ZSM-5 synthesized under microwave via sulfonic acid functionalization showed not only the highest mesoporosity and external acid sites but also the best catalytic activity and selectivity of C-alkylated products, whereas the other ZSM-5 catalysts mainly produced O-alkylated products due to diffusion limitation of bulky product.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Applied Catalysis A General
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of BEA zeolite based catalysts have been prepared and characterized by XRD, SEM, surface area, porosity and acidity methods. The catalytic properties of BEA zeolite have been improved through steam assisted dealumination reaction to achieve improvement in crystallinity, surface area, pore volume, mesopores and decrease in total acidity along with increase in strong acidity (>100 kJ/mol) measured by heat of adsorption of ammonia. All these properties collectively contributed to the formation of branched paraffins, where, the sample BEA-2 obtained by steam treatment of BEA zeolite at 500 8C indeed exhibited promising catalytic activity in the production of branched paraffins (responsible for higher research octane number, RON, needed for gasoline applications) from n-heptane model compound and two industrial naphtha mixed hydrocarbon feedstocks. The isomer yields obtained on naphtha-1 and naphtha-2 feedstocks are 49.3 wt.% and 52.1 wt.% respectively. The results suggest that the catalyst is potential for octane boosting (16–39 units increase in RON) of industrial hydrocarbon feedstocks to produce aromatic-free, isoparaffins-rich gasoline blending stock suitable for fuel applications
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Show more