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Projects have become popular work form in modern organizations. Megaprojects can be seen as the wild beasts in the project world, they are hard to tame, known for their complexity, vast size, expensive cost, and long time frame. These projects bring big changes in the geography of countries and life of people. Some of these megaprojects become landmarks for a country and bring significant prosperity, but some become unforgettable catastrophes. One of the definitions of megaprojects is that they are the projects in which the cost exceeds one billion US dollars. Examples of megaprojects include, “Channel tunnel”, “London Olympics 2012” and “Ormen Lange offshore project”. Though several pitfalls and challenges have been pointed out with respect to managing megaprojects, the relevance and the need of carrying out this kind of projects attract both the industries (practitioners) and academics. There are many significant issues that must be addressed in connection with managing megaprojects. This paper focuses on the different initiatives taken to date, presents them and tries to find the area of the missing expertise to understand the characteristics and the management of megaprojects.
Initiatives over the last ten years Here is some background information on the initiatives stated in Figure 2. 1999 -NORSOK: was a project intended to reduce completion time and costs for construction and operation of petroleum installations on the Norwegian shelf. NORSOK established a new implementation model based on new work processes between the actors and the changing framework conditions. The goal was to reduce resource usage by 40-50%, and maintain a high level of security. 1999 -IMEC: The research program "International Program in the Management of Engineering and Construction" was launched in 1995 at the University of Quebec and Montréal. The program was eventually supported by many organizations, including the Norwegian contribution from the Norwegian Hydro and PM 2000. The mandate of IMEC grew out from projects experienced challenges in the eighties and nineties. The program had as a main purpose to facilitate the exchange of information between industry, government and research on large-scale engineering projects. IMEC defined, in 1995, largescale projects as projects with a budget of 500 million dollars or more. 2000 -Office of the General Auditor of Norway for the examination of the leading university hospital of Norway (Rikshospitalet Oslo): General Auditor was created in 1816. It is through the audit, control and supervision ensure that community assets and values are used and managed as Parliament has decided. General Auditor reviewed the project "New National Hospital" several times in the period between 1996 and 2000. The project experienced many changes, including the increase in cost by 89%. The audit went through many large government projects each year and thus has great expertise in review of such projects. The projects are mainly examined by analysis of project documents, but it is supplemented with interviews. 2003 -Bent Flyvbjerg has devoted much time to research the phenomenon of megaprojects and he published the book "An Anatomy of Ambition ", together with Nils Bruzelius and Werner Rothengatter. The book presents a study based on major projects around the globe. The study is conducted by extensive investigations of some megaprojects, like tunnel under the English Channel, Great Belt Railway Bridge and the bridge over Øresund. In addition, 113 projects analyzed using quantitative method. 2004 -The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): In 2000, FHWA sent a description of a concept
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 74 ( 2013 ) 349 – 357
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of IPMA
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.03.041
26th IPMA World Congress, Crete, Greece, 2012
Megaprojects - Challenges and Lessons Learned
Youcef J.-T. Zidanea, Agnar Johansenb, Anandasivakumar Ekambaramb,*
aNTNU, Trondheim, Norway
bSINTEF, S.P. Andersens vei 5, NO-7465 Trondheim, Norway
Abstract
Projects have become popular work form in modern organizations. Megaprojects can be seen as the wild beasts in the
project world, they are hard to tame, known for their complexity, vast size, expensive cost, and long time frame.
These projects bring big changes in the geography of countries and life of people. Some of these megaprojects
become landmarks for a country and bring significant prosperity, but some become unforgettable catastrophes. One
of the definitions of megaprojects is that they are the projects in which the cost exceeds one billion US dollars.
Examples of megaprojects include, "Channel tunnel", "London Olympics 2012" and "Ormen Lange offshore project".
Though several pitfalls and challenges have been pointed out with respect to managing megaprojects, the relevance
and the need of carrying out this kind of projects attract both the industries (practitioners) and academics. There are
many significant issues that must be addressed in connection with managing megaprojects. This paper focuses on the
different initiatives taken to date, presents them and tries to find the area of the missing expertise to understand the
characteristics and the management of megaprojects.
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of IPMA
Keywords: Megaprojects; iniviatives
1. Introduction
According to Flyvbjerg (2003) megaprojects cost more and accumulate less revenue. Others express
uncertainty and complexity in megaprojects due to their huge size and longtime duration. Because of
these pitfalls and many others; this type of projects attracts more researchers from different fields within
the project management area.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +47-404-78-174;
E-mail address: siva@sintef.no
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of IPMA
350 Youcef J.-T. Zidane et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 74 ( 2013 ) 349 – 357
In this paper, the focus is on exploring the foundations of megaprojects and their characteristics based
on the existing theory. There have been many initiatives to understand the management of these projects.
However, most of the initiatives do not cover all the project management knowledge in managing them;
the reason why we summarize most of the researches from the Norwegian and the international
perspectives. We end up this paper by suggesting some focus area where more researches should be
conducted in the future.
This paper contains five parts. They are:
1. Introduction
2. Research Methods
3. Megaprojects - A literature study
4. Reflections and Discussion: Megaprojects - What are the Characteristics
5. Recent Research Initiatives
6. Positioning the research intiatives
7. Conclusion
2. Research Methods
The method for this study is exclusively literature review and analysis. A preliminary review found
that most of studies on megaprojects cover their characteristics. In addition to that, different approaches
have been used by researchers to understand megaprojects in diverse knowledge areas of project
management. Our study focuses at first on common megaprojects characteristics, then summarize the
different initiatives and their areas of researches on managing megaprojects. The targeted literature
sources are not limited to only academic journals; but also to some reports, books, which are published in
English or Norwegian and dating before 2009.
3. Megaprojects - A literature study
Going through most of the definitions given to megaprojects, one can find that they are varying from
one author. Also the label megaproject is not used by all authors and still the characteristics differ from
definition to another. Grün (2004) calls them the “giants” among the projects; he puts the emphasis on the
aspect of multi-organizational enterprises (MOEs) and characterizes these by (i) singularity, (ii)
complexity, (iii) goal-orientation (technical, financial, time) and (vi) the nature and the number of project
owners. Also called large scale engineering projects as described by Hassan et al. (1999) based on five
attributes: (i) “high” capital cost, (ii) “long” duration but program urgency, (iii) technologically and
logistically demanding, (vi) requiring multidisciplinary inputs from many organizations, and (v) leading
to a “virtual enterprise” for the execution of the project. Miller & Lessard (2000) have researched sixty
large scale engineering projects and in their sample the average capital cost is US$ 985 million, the
average duration is six and a half years with a construction period of four years; this implies high capital
cost and long duration. Fiori et al. (2005) define them as a large scale project with a price tag in excess of
one billion dollar; or the “new animal” that have a strikingly poor performance in terms of economy,
environment, and public support. Also, they lead to cost overruns and lower-than-predicted revenues that
hinder economic growth instead of advancing it (Flyvbjerg et al., 2003). Ruuska et al. (2009) define
megaprojects as significant undertakings which are characterized by multi-organizations, seeking success
on different objectives; subject to socio-political impacts. The Federal High Way Administration
(FAHWA) defines megaprojects as: “Major infrastructure projects that cost more than US$ 1 billion or
projects of a significant cost that attract a high level of public attention or political interests because of
substantial direct and indirect impacts on the community, environment, and state budgets”. Capka (2004)
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describes megaprojects as expensive projects that require the management of numerous, concurrent, and
complex activities while maintaining tough schedules and tight budgets. More elaborate definitions
describe megaprojects as large scale complex projects that often fail to meet costs estimations, time
schedules, and anticipated project outcomes. Brockmann (2009) defined Megaprojects as unique
construction projects known for their complexity, vast size, expensive cost, and long time frame
compared to conventional construction projects. The size and complexity are reflected by a price tag that
exceeds one billion dollar and by a time frame that may exceed the five year limit. Marrewijk et al.
(2008) describe megaprojects as projects that contain a large element of technological innovation
associated with high risk and characterized by conflict, uncertainty, and poor cooperation between
partners. All the definitions describe the megaprojects broadly. These definitions could apply to any
project that may lack megaproject‘s characteristics. In other words, the definitions do not clearly define
megaprojects and differentiate them from other projects.
Unfortunately, the researches on megaprojects seldom cover all aspects and challenges in managing
these types of projects. most of the researches on megaproject‘s are focusing on poor managerial
performance. In addition, no practical means were developed to improve their performance in order to
meet time and cost constraints. The list of projects with cost overruns reads like a “who is who” in
megaprojects (Flyvbjerg et al., 2003), between these are the Suez Canal (1,900%), the Sydney Opera
House (1,600%) or more recently the Boston Artery Tunnel (196%), the Great Belt Rail Tunnel (110 %)
and the Channel Tunnel (80%). On the other hand, some megaprojects should not exist; thus the
importance to enlarge the research on this project to their effects, impacts, relevance and sustainability.
4. Reflections and Discussion: Megaproject – What are the Characteristics?
We start our discussion based on most definitions of megaprojects presented in the theory part of this
paper. It is thinkable to realize that they converge to a common definition. The divergences between the
different definitions come from the focus point of the researchers and from their approaches to analyze
these projects. Based on all the characteristics taken from the definitions, a sum-up is made for those we
think are most aim (Table 1).
Table 1. Megaproject Characteristics and Descriptions
Element Characteristic and Description
Size Large scale project (huge scope)
Technologically and logistically demanding
Cost Exceeds one billion US dollar
Time Exceeds 5 years Long” duration
Program urgency
Success Different objectives.
Fail to meet costs estimations, time schedules, and anticipated project outcomes
Goal-orientation (technical, financial, time)
Poor performance in terms of economy, environment, and public support.
Leads to cost overruns and lower-than-predicted revenues that hinder economic growth
instead of advancing it.
Complexity Requires the management of numerous, concurrent, and complex activities.
Contains a large elements of technological innovation
352 Youcef J.-T. Zidane et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 74 ( 2013 ) 349 – 357
Element Characteristic and Description
Impacts Impacts on the community, environment, state budgets.
Socio-political impacts
Singularity Unique, no megaproject looks like another
Stakeholders and shareholders Attracts a high level of public attention or political interests.
The nature and number of project owners
Conflicts, poor cooperation between partners
Uncertainty Associated with high risk.
Implementation owner Requiring multidisciplinary inputs from many organizations
A “virtual enterprise” for the execution of the project.
Knowledge New subject of research
Table 1 represents the characteristics and elements describing megaprojects, but when trying to
represent them as show in Figure 1 below, we may notice that the illustration cover all the types of project
from smallest to mega one.
Fig. 1. Megaprojects among projects
The figure above represents general illustration of projects and among them megaprojects. This
illustration includes the stakeholders, complexity, uncertainty, cost, time, size and the number of the
organizations involved in the realization of the project.
5. Recent Research Initiatives
The last ten years there has been undertaken a key initiatives, both in research and education. The
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literature focused on Norwegian and international initiatives, which are primarily intended as a basis for
further Norwegian research work. A review of the literature shows that it was carried out numerous
studies of megaprojects. These studies are mainly performed until 1990, after which fewer initiatives
were taken. The initiatives are presented in chronological order (Figure 2). Among the eleven presented
initiatives in this paper, the last six are not completed. This research presented in this paper was done in
2009, that is why the presented research papers here are till 2009.
Fig. 2. Initiatives over the last ten years
Here is some background information on the initiatives stated in Figure 2.
1999 - NORSOK: was a project intended to reduce completion time and costs for construction and
operation of petroleum installations on the Norwegian shelf. NORSOK established a new implementation
model based on new work processes between the actors and the changing framework conditions. The goal
was to reduce resource usage by 40-50%, and maintain a high level of security.
1999 - IMEC: The research program "International Program in the Management of Engineering and
Construction" was launched in 1995 at the University of Quebec and Montréal. The program was
eventually supported by many organizations, including the Norwegian contribution from the Norwegian
Hydro and PM 2000. The mandate of IMEC grew out from projects experienced challenges in the eighties
and nineties. The program had as a main purpose to facilitate the exchange of information between
industry, government and research on large-scale engineering projects. IMEC defined, in 1995, large-
scale projects as projects with a budget of 500 million dollars or more.
2000 - Office of the General Auditor of Norway for the examination of the leading university hospital
of Norway (Rikshospitalet Oslo): General Auditor was created in 1816. It is through the audit, control and
supervision ensure that community assets and values are used and managed as Parliament has decided.
General Auditor reviewed the project "New National Hospital" several times in the period between 1996
and 2000. The project experienced many changes, including the increase in cost by 89%. The audit went
through many large government projects each year and thus has great expertise in review of such projects.
The projects are mainly examined by analysis of project documents, but it is supplemented with
interviews.
2003 - Bent Flyvbjerg has devoted much time to research the phenomenon of megaprojects and he
published the book "An Anatomy of Ambition ", together with Nils Bruzelius and Werner Rothengatter.
The book presents a study based on major projects around the globe. The study is conducted by extensive
investigations of some megaprojects, like tunnel under the English Channel, Great Belt Railway Bridge
and the bridge over Øresund. In addition, 113 projects analyzed using quantitative method.
2004 - The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): In 2000, FHWA sent a description of a concept
354 Youcef J.-T. Zidane et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 74 ( 2013 ) 349 – 357
for project office about megaprojects. The project office was established as headquarter and would ensure
that megaprojects will no longer attain low achievement as before. From this concept description in 2000
until 2004, a number of megaprojects reviewed and megaprojects were an area of increase attention.
IPA / UBIC: One of the largest studies conducted by major projects carried out by Independent Project
Analyst Institute (IPA). IPA is an organization that offers both consulting and training in project
management. IPA developed in 1977 a tool for analysis and evaluation of project. This tool is called the
Project Evaluation System (PES). In the years 1999 to 2007 the tool had been used to analyze 10 000
large projects with a total budget of 500 billion dollars, by benchmarking of 362 upstream oil and gas
projects. The results of this benchmarking were published in 2007 under the title of "Upstream Industry
Benchmarking Consortium" (UBIC 2007).
2002 - CONCEPT, NTNU: The program conducted a research to monitor large public investment
projects. The purpose behind the creation of the research is to develop knowledge that ensures better
resource utilization and effectiveness of major public investments. The research program CONCEPT has
its primary goal to develop knowledge and expertise on projects in the early phases. The approach of the
research program is that projects are initiated on the wrong or inadequate foundation. This may be
because the projects may not be able to stay within the cost framework, or that the projects are initiated
with the wrong goals. Another challenge that it is pointed out in the program is the difference between a
project results and benefits. The project can achieve the internal goals, but be a failure as a whole, if it did
not achieves the desired effects. The program is still going on
2004 - PETROMAKS: Optimal Management of Petroleum Resources is a research program for
petroleum industry that is supported by the Research Council. The program covers both long-term basic
and more applied practical and technical research. PETROMAKS is the largest research program
supported by the Research Council and it has an annual budget in excess of 30 million euros. The mission
of this program was both in research and to assist in the implementation of government strategies in
petroleum matters. The program optimizes the management of petroleum projects to increase
competitiveness and awareness, safety and security. PETROMAKS focuses on large projects in
challenging and environmentally sensitive areas, mainly in the Barents Sea, projects in Snøhvit field on
the Norwegian continental shelf and the Shtokman field on the Russian shelf.
2004 - Competency Standard for Complex Project Managers: The Australian defense experienced
consistently large excess of costs. In addition, it attained low achievement in other parameters in the most
complex investment projects. This resulted in a growing focus on complex projects and a development
template to competence needs was prepared. The document was developed by the Australian Government
Department of Defense and is called Competency Standard for Complex Project Managers. However, the
document has generally a common approach to project management and it says little about the additional
challenges that entail complex projects.
2006 - Practical Uncertainty management in owner perspective (The PUS project) at the Norwegian
Center for Project Management (NSP) is a research project that looks at how the external uncertainty can
be handled. Behind the project PUS stands companies like Statoil, Telenor, Norwegian Directorate of
Public Construction and Property Management (Statsbygg), the Armed Forces, the Public Roads
Administration and the National Rail Administration, which together manage a project portfolio of
approximately yearly annually project cost of more than 10 billion euros .
2009 - BT Research Center at Oxford Business School: The new center for research on megaprojects
at Oxford Business School is said to be the first research center for research on the phenomenon of
megaprojects. In addition to research, the center will provide teaching and study programs about
megaprojects.
These eleven research initiatives would give us an understanding of what has been looked at when it
comes to managing megaprojects. The number of initiatives may be considered as small. Bu, the
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initiatives present a picture of the resent studies on the topic of managing megaproject.
6. Positioning the Research Initiatives
We suggest in Figure 3, four phases from the lifecycle of a megaproject.
1. Idea and conceptual phase
2. Planning phase
3. Execution phase
4. Operation phase and impacts
Also in Figure 3, the eleven research initiatives are positioned based on their focus area.
Fig. 3. Placement of the initiatives in the management model
The initiatives taken in the past decade pretty well scattered depending on the focus area. The Figure 3
shows the main focus area for each initiative; still, it was necessary to distinguish the work of NORSOK
and CONCEPT (initiative 1 and 7, respectively), their focus is on two areas. It can be seen right away that
356 Youcef J.-T. Zidane et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 74 ( 2013 ) 349 – 357
there are very many of the initiatives dealing with the projects results. Three out of the eleven initiatives
have this as their main their research area (Initiative 1, 3 and 4). Four initiatives have their research area
the early project phase. For research about the realization of social goals, CONCEPT is the only one
positioned in that area in Figure 3. The most important initiative so far is the IMEC (initiative 2), but the
project PUS (initiative 10) has covered three phases (but in a specific area of project management which
is uncertainty management). In the future it will be exciting to follow the development of the research
going-on at Oxford. The center is developing a master in management of megaprojects, thus probably
most knowledgeable will be developed in the near future. It is necessary to complete the existing
knowledge about the management of megaprojects to form a more complete picture.
7. Conclusion
We think that there are three trends that will drive the project management field forward in the future.
We believe that in the future they will be more Megaprojects - The trend in Norway shows that those
projects are becoming larger and more complex over the last decade. This trend will drive the
development of the project management field. It means that we have to develop theory that covers this
kind of projects. The second trend is that the project owners will expect more flexible solutions that give a
high delivered functionality. They will demand that the projects should be delivered as effective as
possible. This means that in the future it will not be acceptable to just deliver the result within the time,
cost and quality - project managers must also understand the business case and deliver the required effects
and functionality. The third trend is that we will see more rapidly changing demands from project owners
- not one, but many owners in the megaproject. Also there will be more global competition - not one
company but many companies deliver inputs and share responsibilities to achieve the objectives from and
of megaprojects.
We have stated in Figure 3 that the different previous research initiatives do not cover all the important
areas that need new project management approach and Figure 2 shows some of the aspect that needs
further focus.
We suggest some knowledge areas which need to be developed more as listed below:
The project owner role- how do multiple-owners influence the management of a megaproject?
The project management role in megaproject - what kind of skills and knowledge do they need?
How to deal with culture differences - a lot of cultures are involved, with different skills, knowledge
and training in project management.
Contact and legal issues - with the involvement of different countries and with different legislations
and institutions.
Stakeholder management.
Change management - external and internal changes of megaprojects, how to control them?
Uncertainty management - how to focus on opportunities in megaproject.
Megaproject will always exist, and we need to provide theory that reflects the challenges that they may
face. The history tells us that they were not always successful, but they have always huge impacts on the
society and therefore we should be interested in how to make them successful in the future.
Megaprojects can be considered as wild beasts in the sense that they are unpredictable and complex.
However, there are ways to deal with the challenges that megaprojects present. In this paper, we
positioned megaprojects with respect to other projects, and described research work that has been done
within the field of managing megaprojects. By doing this, we tried to obtain some understanding on
possible knowledge areas that could be considered in order to deal with the challenges of megaprojects.
We do not claim that the study presented in this paper is the final one. But we call it a start of a
journey; a journey that can shed more light on the field of managing megaprojects.
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... Megaprojects are "large-scale manufacturing or infrastructure undertakings which transform landscapes rapidly and profoundly in very visible ways" (Kardes et al., 2013, p. 906). For megaprojects, the cost usually exceeds 1 billion United States (US) dollars and the period of the project usually exceeds five years (Zidane et al., 2013). The organization considered in this study is based in Qatar and had contracts with several joint ventures/consortiums to undertake megaprojects. ...
... There are few studies that address the importance and implementation of these frameworks in understanding the project manager leadership competencies (Varajão et al., 2017;Vukomanovi c et al., 2016;Evans and Farrell, 2021;Takagi and Varajão, 2022). A majority of studies focusing on leadership development in projects are context specific and do not consider standards like PMBOK 6th and IPMA ICB 4.0 (Zidane et al., 2013;Maduka et al., 2018). Therefore, the present study is an important addition to the literature for project manager competencies development using well-established project management standards and aligning them with industry requirements. ...
Article
Purpose Effective leaders have emerged as the cornerstone of project success. The major purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to categorize and prioritize leadership competencies for project managers in megaprojects. Design/methodology/approach In the first stage, this study utilizes PMBOK 6th Edition, IPMA ICB 4.0 frameworks to develop a hierarchy-based four clusters of leadership competencies. In the second stage, a Fuzzy-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) approach was employed to prioritize the leadership competencies for an organization dealing in megaprojects. Finally, using ordinal priority approach (OPA), the results of Fuzzy-AHP method are validated. Findings Based on PMBOK, IPMA and literature, the proposed framework deduced twenty-four leadership competencies and grouped them in four clusters. The Fuzzy-AHP results indicate that among clusters, people competencies cluster is ranked most important, followed by perspective, practice, and innovation competencies. Considering the sub-categories and global weights, culture/values, governance, interpersonal skills, and development and growth emerged as the most important leadership competencies. The results from OPA corroborate the findings of Fuzzy-AHP method. Practical implications Megaprojects are characterized by massive investments and extensive economic and social impact. The proposed framework would be an important aid for policymakers to develop suitable strategies and programs to inculcate leadership competencies that would lead to successful project managers and improved project performance. Originality/value The need for this research stems from the need to integrate popular project management frameworks in leadership competencies development in project based organizations. The proposed integrated framework, based on PMBOK 6th Edition and IPMA ICB 4.0 competency frameworks, is an original contribution to understand and prioritize leadership competencies for megaproject success.
... In 2019, a study from Chulalongkorn University's Faculty of Medicine determined that positive mother-child interactions were associated with low screen consumption by children in early childhood [76], and we believe that this is the case with the 80.9% of the children diagnosed with autism, as mentioned above. ...
... In principle, they take many years to develop [26], carry high levels of risk [17], involve multiple public and private stakeholders [54], are transformational and impact millions of people [58]. They have been described as 'wild beasts' of the construction industry [76], owing to their unpredictable nature, and were once considered 'privileged particles' of the development process [52]. The level of risk associated with megaprojects grows, as their outcome becomes ever more critical and more complex, as their scale expands [26], [27]. ...
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Conference Paper
This study was conducted to determine the dietary phenylalanine for fingerling Oreochromis niloticus by conducting an 8 weeks experiment in a flow-through system (1-1.5L/min) at 28°C water temperature. Phenylalanine requirement was determined by feeding six casein-gelatin based amino acid test diets (350 g kg– 1 CP; 16.72 kJ g–1 GE) with graded levels of phenylalanine (4, 6.5, 9, 11.5, 14 and 16.5 g kg–1 dry diet) at a constant level (10 g kg–1) of dietary tyrosine to triplicate groups of fish (1.65±0.09 g) near to satiation. Absolute weight gain (AWG g fish-1), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein deposition (PD%), phenylalanine retention efficiency (PRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio was found to improve with the increasing concentrations of phenylalanine and peaked at 11.5 g kg–1 of dry diet. Quadratic regression analysis of AWG, PD and PRE against varying levels of dietary phenylalanine indicated the requirement at 12.1, 11.6, and 12.7 g kg–1 dry diet, respectively and the inclusion of phenylalanine at 12.1 g kg–1 of dry diet, corresponding to 34.6 g kg–1 dietary protein is optimum for this fish. Based on above data, total aromatic amino acid requirement of fingerling O. niloticus was found to be 20.6 g kg–1 (12.1 g kg–1 phenylalanine+8.5 g kg–1 tyrosine) of dry diet, corresponding to 58.8 g kg–1 of dietary protein.
... This suggests that Musk's and VHO's calculations are optimistic. Many project proponents believe low costs and high benefit forecasts fit politicians, stakeholders and the media, which allow the project to be realized by sheer momentum (Flyvbjerg, 2005;Zidane et al., 2013). One can ultimately only speculate on the actual real-life cost of this megaproject, which, are likely underestimated and therefore will probably cost significantly more than the minimum anticipated cost. ...
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Companies globally have been trying to alter existing transportation systems to maximize public transport benefits, especially in the sector of high-speed (HS) ground transportation. The latest invention of such is Elon Musk's ultra-high-speed rail (UHSR), hyperloop. This technology enables a rail service to operate at a potential speed of 1,200 km/h. Hyperloop's ambitious speed goal has the potential to result in time-space shrinkage, which would then make distant cities more accessible with greatly reduced travel times. Since 2013, several companies have been vigorously promoting hyperloop development in various locations worldwide and competing to construct the world's first functional and commercially viable hyperloop. India, a country struggling with existing public transportation and urban mobility needs, agreed to construct a hyperloop through the company “Virgin Hyperloop One.” This paper first investigates the key technical, environmental, economic and human considerations in assessing the applicability of hyperloop to a particular location. It also considers in some detail the likely urban and regional planning and transport policy implications of the hyperloop technology based on the known effects of existing high-speed rail (HSR) systems. The paper concludes that many of the claims about hyperloop are subject to contrary information, meaning that great caution and prudence are currently needed regarding attempts at commercial deployment.
... In principle, they take many years to develop [26], carry high levels of risk [17], involve multiple public and private stakeholders [54], are transformational and impact millions of people [58]. They have been described as 'wild beasts' of the construction industry [76], owing to their unpredictable nature, and were once considered as 'privileged particles' of the development process [52]. The level of risk associated with megaprojects grows, as their outcome becomes ever more critical and more complex, as their scale expands [26], [27]. ...
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There is a real danger that both practitioners and researchers considering risks associated with megaprojects ignore or underestimate the impacts of cultural risk. The paper investigates the potential impacts of a failure to achieve cultural unity between the principal actors executing a megaproject. The principle relationships include the relationships between the principle Contractors and the project stakeholders or the project stakeholders and their principle advisors, Western Consultants. This study confirms that cultural dissonance between these parties can delay or disrupt the megaproject execution and examines why cultural issues should be prioritized as a significant risk factor in megaproject delivery. This paper addresses the practical impacts and potential mitigation measures, which may reduce cultural dissonance for a megaproject's delivery. This information is retrieved from ongoing case studies in live infrastructure megaprojects in Europe and the Middle East's GCC states, from Western Consultants' perspective. The collaborating researchers each have at least 30 years of construction experience and are engaged in architecture, project management and contracts management, dealing with megaprojects in Europe or the GCC. After examining the cultural interfaces they have observed during the execution of megaprojects, they conclude that globally, culture significantly influences their efficient delivery. The study finds that cultural risk is ever-present, where different nationalities co-manage megaprojects and that cultural conflict poses a real threat to the timely delivery of megaprojects. The study indicates that the higher the cultural distance between the principal actors, the more pronounced the risk, with the risk of cultural dissonance more prominent in GCC megaprojects. The findings support a more culturally aware and cohesive team approach and recommend cross-cultural training to mitigate the effects of cultural disparity.
... Megaprojects have been described as the "wild beasts" of the project world [35,36], as they require the investment of plenty of funds and resources during their whole lifecycle. Megaproject management exhibits more unique characteristics than general project management [3,37]. ...
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Megaproject practices worldwide have triggered increasing research in megaproject management issues and led to an increasing number of papers being published during the last decade. However, it is demonstrated by the literature that there is no systematic examination on research development in the discipline of megaproject management, and consequently it is very difficult for scholars to quickly understand and grasp the research trend. Therefore, a research question naturally comes out, i.e., what is the status quo of megaproject management research and what are the research directions worthy of further investigation? This study aims to answer the question by conducting a systematic examination of the research development in the discipline of megaproject management. A total of 117 relevant articles, identified from six major international journals between 2009 and 2021, were analyzed based on the number of papers published annually, main author contributions, citations, categorization of the research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results indicated that developed countries, such as Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, have enjoyed significant advantages in terms of megaproject management research. It also revealed that more sophisticated views and theory have been used effectively, rather than only basic qualitative methods, in a number of studies on megaproject management. Future studies on megaproject management will be led globally, where megaprojects will remain designed and built to better built environments. In addition, continuous in-depth research on related topics can promote innovation in megaproject management to achieve sustainable megaproject development. Megaproject management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future; in particular, megaproject investment and finance management have emerged as new challenging topics. The findings can be valuable for both industry practitioners and researchers to gain deeper understanding of the current status and future directions of megaproject management research.
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Projects with a minimum cost of US$ 1 billion or a minimum of 0.01% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) are considered megaprojects. MIHAN (Multi-Modal International Passenger and Hub Airport at Nagpur) is one of the megaprojects that envisaged setting up a Multi-Product SEZ adjacent to the Nagpur International Airport with the objective of removing the development backlog of Vidharbha Region and harnessing the potential of existing Airport at Nagpur. The main goal of this project is to restructure the Nagpur airport enabling cargo facility and connecting with railway and integrated roads in the city of Nagpur. The project is also touted to bring some of the best companies in IT, Healthcare, Warehousing and Aviation to change the face of Nagpur and Vidharbha Region. MADC, the nodal agency executing this ambitious infrastructure project has made huge investments in developing the infrastructure in MIHAN. But even after two decades of its existence, the project seems to have lost its sheen. As MADC completes 20 years, this paper tries to find out the reasons for MIHAN's scuffle to attract major companies to its SEZ and airport attached area. Is the project still a bet for the turnaround? Can the best Project Management practices facelift this Megaproject? The answers to these questions can be found in this study.
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This article articulates the prospect of improving megaproject execution and performance via digital project delivery. Various digitalization options, such as cloud computing, automation, artificial intelligence, information modeling, and data analytics and their recent usage in megaprojects, are critically reviewed. Prospective future developments and forthcoming challenges of digitalization in megaprojects have also been identified based on the current progress of these technologies. In terms of theory, we suggest information economics and organizational economics as a starting place to develop a research approach to artificial intelligence and megaprojects.
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Conference Paper
Abstract: The article "Sharing of teaching staff information via QR-code usage" presented at the conference, which has the common name "Information Systems Management and Evaluation ». One of the most famous information systems in user practice is an information system - "Human Resources Information System" (HRIS), which is essentially a database of the HR organization, which in itself does not provide any management decisions and need a special person who to this database is constantly filled and made changes. In this article, based on the analysis of empirical data is offered a specific solution for database management of HRIS remotely by members of the company. The process of personnel management becomes more effective and operational with the help of one of the technologies IoT- QR code. University Information about the instructors are constantly changing and the human resources department is necessary each time to make changes to the database. There are cases when you need urgent information on the teacher, and it is impossible to obtain an instant on a number of subjective reasons. QR code technology offers amazing features such as: 1. Easy access 2. Deeper relationship with customers 3. Bridge online and offline media 4. Real-time information 5. Invoke user's curiosity These technologies can provide information about the teachers for students, undergraduates, doctoral students, researchers and administration. Files using this technology consist of not only text but also videos in 3D animation. This article describes a practical example of the use of IoT technologies - QR code to improve the efficiency of the automated human resource management system (for example, Almaty Management University).The purpose of this work: to show the ways to improve the information system "Human Resources Information System” (HRIS) through the use of user-friendly, intuitive and fast QR code technology. The object of study: the work of the personnel department, IC ‘Human Resources Information System’ (HRIS) 6. Research model: observation, cross sectional model 7. Variables: behavioral variables 8. Methodology: analysis of the usage and importance of QR code for users. 9. The results of studies: the formation of stable opinion of the importance of the QR code. 10. Criteria for evaluation of thinking: creativity, innovation and technological advancement 11. Findings: not fully disclosed the potential of QR code technology has a significant impact on society. Practical implications: all the legal information about the instructors optically encoded from paper, which definitely contributes to the idea of open systems. It provides simplicity and high reading speed and user interaction with the information. Keywords: QR code, human resource information system, new content, IoT and IoE, physical web, file formats 1
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The Olympic and Paralympic Games is a megaproject that involves huge investment and time effort from public and private entities to take place, which has been facing issues to find host candidate cities recently. This paper focus on the private side of the megaproject and discuss the Organizing Committee for Olympic Games (OCOG) project governance and structure taking advantage of Rio2016 case to detail project phases, reporting and governance structures. The paper presents the OCOG as a single purpose entity (SPE) and uses Rio2016 as a case study. A multi-method qualitative research was conducted to understand OCOG project environment and particularities. The role and participation of International Olympic Committee (IOC) in OCOG daily life could be improved to support the pressure for Games cost reduction, as well as, to increase the Games hosting attractiveness. This work contributes for the Olympic Games project environment understanding by future OCOGs
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Back cover text: Megaprojects and Risk provides the first detailed examination of the phenomenon of megaprojects. It is a fascinating account of how the promoters of multibillion-dollar megaprojects systematically and self-servingly misinform parliaments, the public and the media in order to get projects approved and built. It shows, in unusual depth, how the formula for approval is an unhealthy cocktail of underestimated costs, overestimated revenues, undervalued environmental impacts and overvalued economic development effects. This results in projects that are extremely risky, but where the risk is concealed from MPs, taxpayers and investors. The authors not only explore the problems but also suggest practical solutions drawing on theory and hard, scientific evidence from the several hundred projects in twenty nations that illustrate the book. Accessibly written, it will be essential reading in its field for students, scholars, planners, economists, auditors, politicians, journalists and interested citizens.
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Recent studies show that despite their growing popularity, megaprojects – large-scale, complex projects delivered through various partnerships between public and private organisations – often fail to meet costs estimations, time schedules and project outcomes and are motivated by vested interests which operate against the public interest. This paper presents a more benign and theoretically-grounded view on what goes wrong by comparing the project designs, daily practices, project cultures and management approaches of two recent megaprojects in The Netherlands and Australia, showing how these projects made sense of uncertainty, ambiguity and risk. We conclude that project design and project cultures play a role in determining how managers and partners cooperate to achieve project objectives to a greater or lesser extent.
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Megaprojects and Risk provides the first detailed examination of the phenomenon of megaprojects. It is a fascinating account of how the promoters of multi-billion dollar megaprojects systematically and self-servingly misinform parliaments, the public and the media in order to get projects approved and built. It shows, in unusual depth, how the formula for approval is an unhealthy cocktail of underestimated costs, overestimated revenues, undervalued environmental impacts and overvalued economic development effects. This results in projects that are extremely risky, but where the risk is concealed from MPs, taxpayers and investors. The authors not only explore the problems but also suggest practical solutions drawing on theory, experience and hard, scientific evidence from the several hundred projects in twenty nations and five continents that illustrate the book. Accessibly written, it will be the standard reference for students, scholars, planners, economists, auditors, politicians and interested citizens for many years to come.
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In recent years the Large Scale Engineering (LSE) construction sector in Europe has seen profound change. This is mainly due to increasing competitive pressures from the United States and the Asian-Pacific countries which has led in turn to increased pressures to improve competitiveness, productivity and client satisfaction. Lack of understanding of client's requirements hinders achieving such goals especially with the increasing trends of executing LSE projects in a ‘virtual enterprise’ environment. Different parties within the construction process need to understand and fulfil client's business and information requirements. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) vendors and developers also need to understand clients requirements of systems and to align their products to them. This paper reports on findings from a study within the eLSEwise project to identify the emerging clients' business and ICT needs within the LSE construction industry and to identify the changes in clients' relationships with the supply chain and the gaps in ICT provision.
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Mega-projects are the wild beasts of construction: they are hard to tame. This raises the question of how the job can be done. To stay a bit further in the picture, to catch the beast (setting the project up) is just one part, the taming (implementation) proves to be the more complex end. Get-ting the job done focuses attention on the implementation phase. A bundle of tools are available that have been developed in the construction sector over time. Some of these can be considered as hardware, among this group are estimating and cost control as well as scheduling techniques. They belong to the core curricula in an engineering education. For mega-projects these tools have been refined and detailed. They are codified in project manuals. Another set of tools are mental models of the world of mega-projects and they form the software of the management process. These can be described as cognitive maps pertaining to the special environment pro-vided by mega-projects. The better adapted the cognitive maps are and the more widely they are shared by the project management, the more they serve as success factors. Cognitive maps are implicit knowledge. While they are designed by practitioners in response to the demands of their tasks, academicians can help to make them explicit by description and to compare them with pre-scriptive management models. A synthesis between descriptive and prescriptive elements allows to improve the functionality of the cognitive maps.
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This paper proposes that many of the challenges of implementing large multi-firm projects are captured in the multi-dimensional con-cept of distance between firms in a large project's actor network. This paper develops a distance framework that includes three dimen-sions: firm attributes describing actors' characteristics, network attributes describing the distance in the relationships among the actors in the whole project network, and project practices increasing or decreasing distance among project network's actors. Empirical evidence is drawn from the project network of Olkiluoto 3, a nuclear power plant currently being built in Finland. This paper elaborates the distance framework by suggesting content for the framework that describes distance in Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant project. By addressing projects as multi-firm enterprises with specific distance characteristics, our research opens up a path towards novel management of a project that engages several firms in its sphere of governance.