ArticlePDF Available

Courageous Leadership For The Twenty-First Century


Abstract and Figures

Today's the biggest problems such as hunger, poverty, unemployment, inequality, corruption, terrorism and wars, lack of liberty and justice, unfair globalization, and environmental destruction are threatening the lives of many people throughout the world and putting future generations under a great risk. These problems have reached such a level that their solutions require urgent and radical changes. Most people, many academicians and scholars argue that contemporary leadership practices will not be able to solve these problems. Contemporary leadership practices are either preserving the status quo or not making the necessary changes to solve them.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
1877-0428 © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Second International Conference on Leadership, Technology and Innovation
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.011
2nd International Conference on Leadership, Technology and Innovation Management
Courageous Leadership For The Twenty-First Century
a, Kamil Erkan Kabaka b
aDepartment of Industrial Engineering, Beykent University, Istanbul, 34396,Turkey
nd wars,
lack of liberty and justice, unfair globalization, and environmental destruction are threatening the lives of many
people throughout the world and putting future generations under a great risk. These problems have reached such a
level that their solutions require urgent and radical changes. Most people, many academicians and scholars argue that
contemporary leadership practices will not be able to solve these problems. Contemporary leadership practices are
either preserving the status quo or not making the necessary changes to solve them.
This paper argues that the courageous leadership practices could make such changes for solving the current problems
in the twenty-first century. The courageous leaders are brave, and they have heart, spirit and exceptional intellectual
and emotional capacity to make drastic changes. They take risks to face and deal with difficult problems instead of
overtaking them to move organizations and nations forward. They are creative so that they can make objective
analysis, select the most effective strategies, motivate people at their maximum capacities and act under high
uncertainties. Great courageous political leaders of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries such as Ataturk, Mao,
Lenin, Castro, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr. and the others made drastic changes. They solved many difficult
problems through utilizing again some of those courage-related characteristics. Also, business leaders like Bill Gates,
Steve Jobs, Jorma Ollila and others used some of those courage-related characteristics for building new and
successful business organizations.
In this study, we analyze the courage characteristics of these leaders including intellectual (knowledge) courage,
moral courage, creativity courage, biological courage, and fo
framework of strategic management process. The insights are gathered from their leadership experiences that may
provide some perspectives for the leaders of the twenty-first century to solve current problem
2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of 2nd International
Conference on Leadership, Technology and Innovation Management
Keywords:Courageous leadership, courage characteristics, radical changes.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-212-867-1887; fax: +90-212-867-5066.
E-mail address:
Available online at
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Second International Conference on Leadership, Technology
and Innovation Management
92 Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
1. Introduction
wars, lack of liberty, justice, unfair globalization and environmental destruction are generating crises,
distress and anxieties in the societies. Such problems threaten the lives of many people throughout the
world and put next generations under a great risk. The contemporary leadership practices failed to solve
these problems. Most people, many academicians and scholars argue that current political and economic
policies of contemporary leadership practices will not be able to solve the current problems; and they
should be changed (Toffler, 1990; Drucker, 1993; Senge, 1993; Gibson, 1997; Sachs, 2008; Marber,
2009; Collis, 1998; Sharp, 2011; Kellerman, 2012; Ross, 2011; Stiglitz, 2012).
Many leaders around the world mostly protect their own interests, and the interests of the political and
economic groups that brought them into these positions. The leaders elected by the board of trustees of
the stockholders, or the leaders appointed by the owners in many organizations favour the interests of
their supporters (Derber, 1998; Estes, 1996; Galbraith, 1998; Thurow, 1989; Reich, 2010). Also, many
government leaders support their own interests, the interests of the corporations and political groups that
supported them financially and politically for their elections (Batra, 1996; Blair, 1994). Their political and
economic policies focused mainly on the short-term objectives for quick results and neglected to address
difficult problems that may even be more harmful for the society in the long-term (Sacks, 2008; Marber,
2009; Collis, 1998).
The economic policies of contemporary leadership practices generated unequal groups of 1% and 99%
in many countries based on income and wealth figures (Stiglitz, 2012). In addition, the political policies
provided disproportionate voice to those at the top. As a result of these policies, the vision of democracy
of many people became the democracy of 1%, by 1%, for the 1% of the people at the expense of the
remaining 99 % (Stiglitz, 2012).
Many people express dissatisfactions with their leaders throughout the world due to unfair and
inappropriate contemporary leadership practices. They march and chant on the streets of New York,
Madrid, Athens, London, Moscow, and in many other cities of the world. The protesters in Spain were
were even louder in expressing their anger and dismayed with the economic and political policies of the
current leaders. People in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Iran, Jordan, Bahrain and some other countries
resisted and even risked their lives for opposing the policies of dictatorial leaders. In some other
countries, many writers, academicians, soldiers, students, and others were suppressed, terrorized and even
jailed for their criticisms of the current leadership practices and demands for the change of those policies.
Some scientists argue that contemporary leadership practices were changed and they came to an end as
the leadership shifted from individual leaders to followers (Ross, 2011; Rifkin, 2011; Kellerman, 2012;
Stiglitz, 2012). It seems that the process of contemporary leadership practices becomes ineffective and
starts a new paradigm shift which requires radical changes of political, economic and social policies of an
organization and a nation (Adzies, 1988; Barker, 1992). Although strong demand of followers and the
scale of problems were developed enough for radical changes, courageous leadership is necessary to
accomplish such transformations.
The aim of this study is to analyze the courageous leadership practices of great leaders that took place
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and focus on major courage characteristics that play an
important role for successful leadership practices. Also, it aims to investigate the nature and the sources
of the courage characteristics and determine how, where, and when they were used in their leadership
Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
courage in leadership practices exclusively and systematically within the strategic management
framework (Thompson, Strickland and Gamble, 2010). Within this framework, this study determines how
The paper is organized as follows. The concept of courage, courage characteristics and strategic
leadership practices are introduced in Section 2. Method of analysis which is made within the framework
of strategic leadership process is given in Section 3. Utilization of courage characteristics is presented
with the examples from experiences of great courageous leaders in Section 4. Finally, the paper is ended
with conclusions and discussions.
2. Literature Review: The Concept of Courage, Courage Characteristics and Strategic Leadership
Courage appears in every aspect of leadership practices through a wide variety of physical and
nonphysical courage characteristics (aspects). Courage is the crucial quality of leaders for determining the
impressive vision and achieving the exceptional outcomes. Typically, the courage characteristics are
rooted in science and the liberal arts domain. There are a variety of courage characteristics that play an
important role in effective leadership practices. This study focuses on courage-related characteristics
2.1. Structure the concept of courage and courage characteristics
In most leadership studies, leadership is defined as a process of influencing relationship among leaders
and followers (Rost, 1993). In this study, strategic leadership is defined as a process of developing shared
vision, analyzing the internal and external environment, designing and implementing strategies for
solving problems and satisfy
elements of this process (Thompson Jr., Strickland, and Gamble, 2010; Daft, 2005). However, most of the
leadership studies indicate that successful leadership outcomes mainly depend on the styles and qualities
of leaders, and followers, and the environmental conditions of the organization and the nation (Daft,
2005; Robbins, 1997; Chemers, 1997; Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, 1997).
The leadership styles play a crucial role in making drastic changes and solving difficult problems for
(Burns, 1972; Tichy and Devenna, 1986), charismatic leadership (Conger and Kanungo, 1988),
participative leadership including stewardship (Block, 1993; Fallet, 1918), servant leadership (Greenleaf,
1977; Sendjaya and Sarros, 2002), visionary leadership (Nanus, 1992), and democratic leadership (Halal,
986; Ackoff, 1994; Sen, 2003).
Qualities of a leader include a broad and deep intellectual intelligence, skills and values such as
honesty, integrity, drive, equality, liberty, collectivity, justice, courage, fairness and these play the key
role for a successful leadership (Stogdill, 1948 and 1974; Locke, 1991). Recent studies pointed out that
such as anger, fear, and love in self and followers are important for leadership success (Goleman, 1995).
The other studies argued that the qualities of followers such as intelligence, knowledge, skills as well as
values including dedication, perception, participation, awareness, courage, independence, dependability,
responsibility and cooperativeness are important for effective leadership (DeVader and Alliger, 1986;
Chaleff, 1995; Hegarty, 1985, Kauzes and Posner, 1993). Most recently, some leadership experts argue
94 Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
that quality followers are not only essential for an effective leadership but also they become the main
power to take over the leadership practices for the outcomes of effective leadership (Kellerman, 2012;
Ross, 2011).
2.2. Courage and successful (effective) strategic leadership practices
mental or moral
strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. Courage is the ability to act in
spite of doubt or fear. Courage means accepting responsibility, being able to go against the grain,
breaking traditions, reducing boundaries, and initiating change. In addition, it means pushing beyond the
comfort zone, asking for what you want and saying what you think, and fighting what you believe (Daft,
Effective leaders must have courage to see difficult situations and accept responsibility for the
outcomes of decisions and actions. It is not hopefulness and not stubbornness. Leaders will work with
others, but if they do not have courage to express their own ideas and feelings they would do injustice to
themselves and their followers. Courage is not a value like a love or loyalty for others, but it is the
foundation of all the values (May, 2012).
Courage is the foundation of physical and nonphysical values which increase capacity of humans for
reaching their maximum limits to do things under risky and difficult conditions. Courage is often
considered as the foundation of human values which influence all other values positively to increase their
effectiveness. Courage is the core of leadership (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Core courage characteristics.
That is, it is a critical component of the major activities of effective strategic leadership. Courage
enables all the values to work up to their maximum capacity like a heart in human body that pumps blood
to all other parts and enable the whole body to function effectively (May, 2012). Courage characteristics
provide the maximum strength for leaders to use every part of the strategic leadership process effectively.
The courage characteristics are like a motor force at the centre of the values as presented in Fig. 2.
Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
Fig. 2. The impact of courage on effective leadership process.
They provide strength for leaders to take risks under uncertain and difficult conditions; think wisely,
and see future better for difficult and big visions, and decide optimally, analyze objectively, select and
create appropriate strategies accurately, and motivate followers fully to achieve extra ordinary results.
The amount of the courage characteristics and their depth determine the degree of courage of a leader.
Leaders who have more of the courage characteristics are relatively more courageous than the others that
have less of these characteristics.
Apart from the impact on the leadership process, courage characteristics affect values such as honesty,
integrity, equality, liberty, collectivity, justice, fairness and others. However, leaders like Hitler,
Mussolini, Stalin and others who have negative values such as selfishness, arrogance, dishonesty,
environments (Lutwig, 2002).
In this study, only the impact of courage characteristics are considered on the positive values utilized
for successful leadership practices for making positive changes and solving the current difficult problems.
Among these leaders Mustafa Kemal Ataturk of Turkey, Vladimir Lenin of Russia, Mao Zedong of
China, Fidel Castro of Cuba, Mahatma Gandhi of India, and Martin Luther King Junior of America. They
were the founders, liberators, and builders of a nation. Arnold M. Ludwig (2005) listed them the most
successful visionary and innovative leaders among 1941 leaders of 199 countries. Business leaders like
Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Jorma Ollila, Howard Schultz and others also demonstrated great courage
3. Method Of Analysis
There is a continuous change and development in leadership practices (Rost, 1993). The main thesis of
this study is grounded on what happened in the past which provides guidance for the present and the
future. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, some successful leadership practices affected
political and economic practices of many people. Within this period, there were some drastic changes that
played an important role in solving huge problems and achieving great developments for human life.
Analyzing the successful leadership practices of the past may provide some useful lessons for the current
and future leaders in solving similar problems.
96 Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
The successful leadership studies were analyzed within the strategic management process as shown in
Fig. 3. In this process, the main tasks of courageous leaders include the activities of developing
extraordinary visions, missions, and objectives; making the environmental analysis objectively and wisely
within their limits; selecting the superior strategies; motivating followers fully and taking high risks to
execute strategies for achieving exceptional results (Thompson, Strickland and Gamble, 2010).
Fig. 3. Courage and leadership activities.
This study includes many leadership practices covering the most successful leaders selected from
wider geographic areas. The studies including the books, articles, biographies and other related materials
about the successful leadership practices are given in the text and listed in the references (see References).
Particularly, this study takes the book by Arnold Ludwig (2002) - King of the Mountain - as a basis for
the most successful political leaders of nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The leaders listed in this book
include Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Lenin, Castro, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr. The successful
lives drastically. Some of these changes ended up with the establishment of new nations (e.g. The
Republic of Turkey and India). In the business area, the most successful business leaders listed according
utilized courage characteristics for their successful leadership practices for building the best business
corporations of the twenty first-century (see Section 4).
4. Utilization of Courage Leadership Practices For Solving the Current Problems
Courageous leaders use courage characteristics to generate comparative advantages relative to others.
This section analyzes the core courage characteristics such as knowledge courage, moral courage,
rage (see Fig. 1) at length with examples from
the great courageous leaders.
4.1. The intellectual (moral) courage
Intellectual knowledge (IK) provides leaders with the capability of understanding the physical aspects
of what to do, how to do it, and why. The capability of understanding what to do provides confidence for
leaders to select and develop things like products and services. The capability of understanding how to do
it includes all kinds of technologies, capital equipment, process, rules and principles, and activities
(Cooper and Sawaf, 1996). Emotional knowledge (EK) provides the understanding why aspect of the
reasons and means for doing things (Cooper and Sawaf, 1996; Goleman, 1995). It influences every aspect
Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
of decisions, actions of leaders for selecting, producing and distributing goods and services. EK includes
social values, ideas, intuition, imagination and beliefs.
Both IK and EK determine the whole body of knowledge which constitutes the knowledge of
courageous leaders. Knowledge courage is at the centre of every decision and action of a leader. The
visions, missions, and objectives of leaders are rooted from this knowledge (see Fig. 2). The actions of
leaders start and end with this knowledge. Courage knowledge is the source of the highest quality of
power, and it influences all other parts of strategic leadership. Knowledge courage generates the most
very aspect of his leadership activities (Sen, 2009).
4.2. Moral Courage
Moral values such as honesty, integrity, care, humility, beliefs, liberty, equality, quality and others are
the main sources of human decisions, behaviours and actions in an organization or a government. The
quantity of moral values and its effective use for the welfare of people depend mainly on the moral
courage of leaders. Leaders who have these values and use them for the welfare of the people in
organizations and nations are called moral leaders (Gini, 1997). Moral leaders distinguish right from
wrong, do right things, have honesty and integrity, seek justice, take responsibility, fulfil commitments,
possess humility, show respect and serve, show courage to stand up for what is right, encourage and
develop others (Zauderer, 1992).
Gandhi and Martin Luther King Junior demonstrated moral courage for gaining independence, liberty
and equality for their followers. All courageous leaders including Ataturk, Lenin, Mao, Castro
demonstrated moral courage for solving difficult problems and satisfying the needs of followers (Ludwig,
2002). Business leaders such as Henry Ford (Ford Co.), Arthur Blank and Bernie Marcus (Home Depot
Co.) made their corporations very successful through utilizing moral courage for putting the customer
On the other hand, immoral leaders are arrogant, dishonest and self-serving, practice deception, deal
y, focus on their self-
interest excessively, and exploit others in order to enhance themselves (Zauderer, 1992; Kouzes and
Posner, 1993). Some leaders who harm others, such as Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini are examples for
immoral leaders (Kunich and Lester, 1997). Most people believe that many contemporary business
leaders are involved in immoral leadership practices, and less than only one-third of leaders are honest
(Wallington, 2003).
4.3. Creativity courage
Creative (inventive) courage is a process of finding new ways, ideas, symbols, models, methods,
techniques, discoveries to make radical changes and solve difficult problems. Some creations are
destructive in nature. They generate radical changes and destruction of the status quo and lead to demise
of old products, technologies, political, economic and social conditions (Schumpeter, 1961). When a
creative process results in radical and destructive change of an entire organization or nation, it is called a
paradigm shift or revolution (Adzies, 1988; Barker, 1992; Howie, 2011). It means the birth of a new
ideology, the birth of a new political, economic, and social system. It also means the evolution of a new
type of education, law, medicine, organization and nation.
98 Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
Creative leaders know the past, see the present and predict the future. They establish a vision for
changing and creating a new ideology, new political, economic and social systems, and new educational,
organization and a nation. They strongly believe that they can do it and take risks to achieve it. Leaders
utilize their creative courage to create a shared vision, identify direction, inspire and motivate people in a
common effort and align the values of followers to make radical changes.
independence formulating the new strategies for winning the Independence War and transforming
economic and social systems (Sen, 2009). Other creative leaders like Lenin, Mao,
Castro, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Junior utilized creative courage without fear for their successful
leadership practices. Business leaders like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Jack Welch, and Josef W. Wilson were
4.4. Biological courage (talent)
All the personal courage characteristics can be obtained through learning, doing and training. But,
some of them are given through with birth as an inherited IK. These biological characteristics provide
exceptional advantages for leadership practices (Colvin, 2010). The biological courage characteristics
provide the main personality of leaders and make them different from other leaders. Biological courage
such as being smart and visionary enables leaders to select the right vision and the right strategies, and
implement them successfully for effective leadership. Biological courage provides leaders superior
competitive advantages for understanding, thinking and analyzing.
Ataturk demonstrated his biological courage when as a child he insisted on attending a school of his
became a Hodja. Another case for his biological courage was in Canakkale and Independence Wars. He
stood up and fought against improper policies of Sultans, and against much stronger enemies with poor
s courage to die for
these changes were the other good examples of biological courage. According to the business area,
biological courage played crucial role for Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and many others to build up great
il, 2004).
4.5. Followers courage
Leadership cannot exist without followers (Bennis, 1999; Goffee and Jones, 2001). However,
followers should have the necessary courage for effective leadership practices. Robert E. Kelly (1992)
argued that followers should be independent critical thinkers and active to participate fully in an
organization. They should be willing to engage in behaviours beyond the limits of their jobs, demonstrate
a sense of ownership, and initiate problem solving and decision making. Followers should be critical
thinkers to be aware of the significance of their own actions and actions of others. On the other hand,
followers are neither critical and independent thinkers nor active participants in administration without
courage. Followers without courage leave thinking to their leaders and do what they are told to do.
Effective followers should not try to avoid risk or conflict. They should have the courage to put
themselves at risk or to fall into conflict with others and even with their leaders. Courageous followers
should have the will to accept responsibility, take risk to challenge authority and participate in change
(Chaleff, 1995).
Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
Courageous followers supported Ataturk and even died for him in Canakkale and Independence Wars
to defend their country. The courageous followers supported him for transforming the old and
inappropriate political, economic, and social policies of the Ottoman Empire. Courageous followers were
also the key for Lenin, Mao, Castro, M.L.K. Jr., Gandhi, and others in tra
political, social, and economic policies (Ludwig, 2002).
5. Conclusion and Discussion
Everyone whether he or she lives in a rich or poor country or whether he or she belongs to the 1% or
the 99% will be affected negatively from the current mega problems. The inequality and unemployment
problems divide people and nations into different camps. Some of them are mostly unfriendly, and in
some cases are enemies of each other. They do not trust each other and cannot cooperate effectively to
solve common problems. Environmental problems are destroying the planet, harming many people and
putting future generations at a great risk. Terrorism and wars are hurting many homes and coming closer
to all the others. Variety of corruptions in many organizations and governments of many nations are
becoming unstoppable and generating unfair opportunities and competition for many people,
organizations and nations. Unfair opportunities for working, education, health care, business and political
practices and globalization are causing severe inequalities. These inequalities cause injustice, economic
and political crisis for many people. Lack of justice, liberty, equality, and quality life are still the
privileges of some special groups and the main reason for many people to lose their hope of a fair life.
It is neither morally right nor politically feasible to ignore these problems. In fact, not only is it
politically infeasible but also economically, socially, technologically and environmentally so. They hurt
many people currently and will harm everyone in the long-term. It is clear that, economic and political
policies deriving from contemporary leadership practices which are the main source of these problems
will not be able to solve them. The continuation of contemporary leadership practices may even make an
already bad situation even worse. Therefore, contemporary leadership practices should be changed
urgently and drastically.
However, the courageous followers are essential for effective leadership practices. They should also
have the knowledge and moral courage to understand the need for change as well as the strong will to
demand it. The followers with knowledge and courage should be able to understand and question the
wrong doings and have responsibility and commitment to make change and the will to solve big
The great leaders like Ataturk, Lenin, Mao, Castro, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Junior had a
variety of courage-related characteristics including knowledge, moral, creative and biological. They used
them for every part of the strategic leadership process by developing the most impressive and difficult
visions, analyzing environment objectively, designing strategies creatively, and motivating their followers
fully for their exceptional successes. The great leaders also had an exceptional biological courage (talents)
quality that played the crucial role for their successes.
The experiences of great courageous leaders demonstrate that leaders can utilize courage-related
characteristics to make radical changes and solve difficult problems. Contemporary leaders and followers
in every organization and government should learn, utilize courage-related characteristics and commit
themselves to solving the current difficult problems for a better human life and a better future.
100 Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
Adizes, Isak. (1988). Corporate Life Cycles. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Barker Arthur Joel. (1992). Paradigms: The Business of Discovering the Future. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Batra, Ravi (1996). The Great American Deception. New York: John Wiley.
Bennis, Warren. (1999). The end of Leadership: Exemplary Leadership Is Impossible Without Full Inclusion, Initiatives, and
Cooperation of Followers, Organizational Dynamics. 76-78.
Blair, Margaret M. (Winter, 1994). CEO Pay: Why Such Contention Issue? (p.23). Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations
(Translat k).
Chaleff, Ira. (1995). The Courageous Follower: Standing up To and For Our Leaders. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Schumpeter, J. (1961). The Theory of Economic Development. Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Cooper, Robert K. and Sawaf, Ayman. (1996). Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations. New York:
Berkley Publishing group.
Collis, W. John. (1998). The Seven Fatal Management Sins. Boca Raton, Florida: St. Lucie Press.
Conger, J. A. and Kanungo, R. N. (1988). Charismatic Leadership in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Daft, L. Richard. (2005). The Leadership Experience. Ohio: South-Western.
Danziger, S., and Gottshcalk, P. (1995). American Unequal. New York: Harvard Business Press.
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of Crisis. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Drucker, P.F. (1993). Post Capitalist Society. New York: Harper Business.
Erickson, J. Estes, R. (1996). Tyranny of the Bottom Line. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publisher.
Erickson, J. Edward (2001).Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Estes, R. (1996). Tyranny of the Bottom Line. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publisher.
French Jr. R. P. John and Raven Bertram (1960)
Rander, eds. Evanston, ILL.: Row Peterson. pp. 607-623.
Freeman, E. R. (1984).Strategic Management: A stakeholder Approach. Boston: Pitman.
Galbraith, K. J. (1998).Created Unequal: The Crisis of American Pay. New York: The Free Press.
Gibson, R. (1997). Rethinking the Future. London: NichlasBrealey Publishing.
Gini, Al. (1997). Moral Leadership and Business Ethics. The Journal of Leadership Studies. No 4, pp. 64-81.
Goffee Robert Too. Harvard Business Review, p. 148.
Goleman, Daniel. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.
Goldbahar M. Gerald (1980). Organizational Communication. 4th. Ed. Dubuque IA: Wm. C. Brown.
Greenleaf K. Robert. (1977). Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New Jersey:
Paulist Press.
Halal, W. E. (1996).The New Management: Democracy and Enterprise are Transforming Organizations. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press.
Howie H. Patrick (2011). The Evolution of Revolution. New York: Prometheus Books.
Isaak, Robert A. (2005).The Globalization Gap. New York: Prentice Hall.
Kellerman, Barbara. (2012). The End of Leadership. New York: Harper Collins Publisher.
Kelly, Robert. (1992). The Power of Followership. New York: Doubleday.
Kouzes M. James and Barry Z. Posner. (1993).Credibility: How Leaders Gain And Lose It, Why People Demand It. San Francisco:
Journal of Leadership Studies. 4,
3, pp. 5-19.
Lebow, R., and Simon, W.L. (1997).Lasting Change: The Shared Values Process that Makes Companies Great. New York: Bantam
Ludwig M. Arnold. (2002). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. Lexington. Kentucky: The University
Kentucky Press.
Marber, Peter. (2009). Seeing The Elephant. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
May, Rollo (2012) .The Courage to Create. Translated by Alper Oysal (Yaratma
Muhammed, Yunus. (2010). Building Social Business. New York: Public Affairs.
Nanus, Burt (1992). Visionary Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Quin, J. B. (1992).Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry. New York: The Free Press.
Reich B. Robert. (2010).
Renesh, J. (1992). New Traditions in Business: Spirit and Leadership in the 21st Century. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler
Rifkin, Jerome. (2011). The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, The Economy, and The
Asim Şen et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 75 ( 2013 ) 91 – 101
World. New York: Palgrave McMillan.
Ross, Carney. (2011). The Leaderless Revolution: How Ordinary People Will Take Power and Change Politics in the 21st Century.
New York: Penguin Group.
Rost C. Joseph. (1993). Leadership for the Twenty-First Century. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2008). Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet. New York: Oxford University Press.
Salancik R. Gerald and Pf
Schumpeter, J. (1961). The Theory of Economic Development. Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Sen, A. (1999). Democracy as Universal Value. Journal of Democracy, 3-17.
-First Century:
Senge, P. (1993). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday.
Sesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M., and Beckard, R. (1996). Leader of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Sharp Gene. (2011).
Stewart, Thomas A. (1997). Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organizations. New York: Doubleday.
Stiglitz E. Joseph and Andrew Charlton. (2005). Fair Trade for All. How Trade Promote Development. New York: Oxford
University Press.
& Company, Inc.
Thompson Jr., A. Arthur, Strickland, A.J., and Gamble E. John (2010). Crafting and Executing Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Thurow, Lester C. (1996). The Future of Capitalism. New York: William Morrow and Company, Ing.
Tichy, N.M., and Devenna, M. A. (1986). The Transformational Leader. New York: John Wiley.
Toffler, A. (1990).Power Shift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the Twenty First-Century. New York: Bantam
int. Springfield, MASS.: G. &C.Merriam Company.
Yunus, Muhammad (2007). Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and Future of Capitalism. New York: Public Affairs.
ness Forum. pp. 12-16
... Values are the guiding principles in our lives. Leaders guide and facilitate others to make a positive difference in their own lives and to contribute to a larger good (Sen et al., 2013). Values inform the application of leadership qualities as the competencies of leadership are activated -learned, developed, and practiced -within the set of core values (Keyser, 2011). ...
... Possessing a strength of self to act with intention on behalf of the common good; taking a stand in the face of adversity; acting boldly in the service of inclusion and justice (Sen et al., 2013). ...
... 10.2478/arhss-2018-0005 Applied Research in Health and SocialSciences, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2018 50 work they do. All people want to feel valued -not just for their work, but as individuals.The presence or absence of that feeling of being valued impacts how they feel about the organization, and their role in it(Sen et al., 2013). On the part of the employee, it is perhaps wise to consider that leadership is a complex matter and, like all humans, leaders don't always get it right, and sometimes need time to figure out the right course of action and support in implementing that action(Clarke, 2018).Leaders must know what they value and exhibit their core values in their leadership style(s) and actions. ...
Full-text available
The article is based on descriptive theoretical research and focused on two notions such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’. These two concepts are not compared, but every of them is described separately by highlighting general characteristics and showing their broad complexity. Both notions are not related to ethics and / or morality, as the aim the literature review was to provide insights on leadership values and values based leadership. The research question was the following: What aspects include two concepts such as ‘leadership values’ and ‘values based leadership’? Fourteen leadership values are provided and in the summary the three unifying aspects are presented and discussed – personality, interaction(s) and relationship(s), and action(s) / work. The common and flexible leadership values are presented. Values based leadership is discussed generally and four principles of this leadership are distinguished – self-reflection, balance, true self-confidence, and genuine humility. Also positive and limiting values based leadership shortly is discussed. The conclusion is focused on the idea that the leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Positive values based leadership goes beyond leveraging strengths and making meaning. Values based leaders who engage their employees and help them flourish in life. And for their organisations they boost productivity, creativity and financial returns. Leading and evaluating success based on values is the best way to build a high-performance culture in organisation.
... Teuku Umar juga memiliki visi dan misi yang kuat dalam perjuangan, sehingga dapat menggugah pengikutnya untuk berjuang sampai titik darah penghabisan. Sen et al. (2013) menjelaskan bahwa praktik kepemimpinan yang berani (courageous leadership) dapat membuat perubahan. Para pemimpin yang berani adalah seorang yang gagah perkasa, memiliki keberanian, semangat, kemampuan intelektual dan emosional yang luar biasa untuk membuat perubahan secara drastis. ...
... Mereka kreatif sehingga mereka dapat membuat analisis objektif, memilih strategi yang paling efektif, memotivasi orang pada kapasitas maksimum mereka dan mereka berani bertindak dalam keadaan ketidakpastian yang tinggi. Di contohkan Sen et al. (2013), pemimpin politik yang gagah berani dari abad ke-19 dan ke-20 seperti: Ataturk, Mao, Lenin, Castro, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr. Di mana mereka berani membuat perubahan secara drastis. Juga pemimpin bisnis seperti: Bill Gates, Steve Jobs dan Jorma Ollila membangun bisnis mereka dengan keberanian dan akhirnya sukses. ...
Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan konsep kepemimpinan Teuku Umar dalam konteks ilmu manajemen kontemporer. Kami melakukan kajian ini melalui teknik reviu literatur secara mendalam, baik melalui telaahan referensi buku yang sangat dipercaya, maupun melalui kajian jurnal ilmiah internasional bereputasi. Kemudian kami melakukan analisis dan mencari keterkaitan atau implementasinya dalam bidang ilmu manajemen kontemporer. Hasil kajian tersebut akhirnya kami telah mencoba mengembangkan konsep kepemimpinan Teuku Umar yang patut untuk diteladani dan relevan untuk diaplikasikan oleh para pemimpin atau manajer dalam berbagai jenis organisasi.
... This connotes that teachers in the study area respected how their principals demonstrated self-assurance in his/her abilities, decisions, actions and also how he/she finished things despite obstacles, difficulties, or discouragements along the way has encouraged the teachers to perform better while discharging their duties. The study corroborated with the study of Sen, Kabak, and Yanginlar (2013) who concurred that courageous leaders are brave, and they have heart, spirit and exceptional intellectual and emotional capacity to make drastic changes. They also said that the leaders take risks to face and deal with difficult problems instead of overtaking them to move organizations and nations forward. ...
Full-text available
Principals’ leadership characteristics cannot be underrated in enhancing teachers’ effectiveness. This study investigated the influence of principals’ leadership characteristics on teachers’ effectiveness in Southwestern Nigerian secondary schools. The study adopted a quantitative approach with a survey research design. The population comprised all 2,596 principals and 53,836 teachers in all 2,596 public secondary schools in Southwestern Nigerian. The sample of this study consisted of 972 respondents that comprised 54 principals and 918 teachers. Two instruments were used and they were: (a) Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire (TEQ); and (b) Personnel Leadership Characteristics Questionnaires (PLCQ). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The outcomes of the study showed that teachers in Southwestern Nigerian public secondary schools were moderately effective. The study further found out that integrity, justice, humanity, courage, humility, collaboration, accountability, and temperance respectively were leadership characteristics exhibited and demonstrated by principals in Southwestern Nigerian public secondary schools. Furthermore, the results indicated that integrity, humanity, courage, humility, collaboration, justice, accountability, and temperance were significant contributors to teachers’ effectiveness in Southwestern Nigerian public secondary schools. The study, therefore, concluded that those principals’ leadership characteristics (integrity, justice, humanity, courage, humility, collaboration, accountability, and temperance) positively influenced teachers’ effectiveness in Southwestern Nigerian public secondary schools. The study implicates that principals of schools are expected to develop and exhibit the leadership characteristics that are consistent and acceptable in situations that would contribute, trigger, and enhance the teachers’ effectiveness toward the achievement of educational goals.
... Courageous leader is a person who is bold enough to look forward to identify new destination of doing things and have ability to communicate and willing to execute it. Sen, Kabak, and Yanginlar (2013) opine that courageous leader is a brave person who has heart, spirit, emotional capacity and exceptional intellectual to make drastically change in the organisation. Such leader equally takes risks and deals with difficult situations instead of overtaking them. ...
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a survey that appraised the leadership characters exhibited by secondary school principals in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative approach of design. Population of the study comprised all 7,767 teachers and sample of 390 was selected using simple random and purposive sampling techniques. An instrument was used to gather data. Data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation (SD) and T-Test. The findings showed that principals demonstrated their accountability (̅=3.09), courageous (̅=3.07), justice (̅=3.02), and, collaborative (̅=2.95) characters. The study further indicated that there was no significant difference between the courageous (t-cal=64.91; df=310; p (0.612) ˃0.05), collaborative (t-cal=71.88; df=310; p (0.736) ˃0.05), accountability (t-cal=72.89; df=310; p (0.594) ˃0.05) and justice characters (t-cal=69.81; df=310; p (0.612) ˃0.05) demonstrated by male and female principals in the study area. The study concluded that both the male and female principals in the study area exhibited their accountability, courageous, justice and collaborative characters.
... Complementing the leadership models are the individual styles and behaviors exhibited by successful leaders. Şen, Kabak, and Yanginlar (2013) has proposed a model for courageous leadership that integrates many of the concepts of adaptive leadership and the servant style based on the characteristics of famous leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Another such leader, Ivan Allen, Jr., the former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia (USA) during the 1960s, is memorialized through the Georgia Tech annual award for leadership based on social courage. Seemiller (2013) has sought to capture the competencies expressed in the major leadership models and provide them in a guidebook indexed by career goals. ...
Full-text available
Innovation and leadership have been two key areas of research in the last decades. Various scholars have come up with multiple definitions of the terms, all revolving around the influence notion. Leaders have been reported to influence other individuals to dedicate their efforts to attain a given objective. Leadership, however, is a broad term, possessing many definitions. It includes and affects various approaches, situations, skills, reactions, competencies, and qualities. On the other hand, innovation is a practical implementation of methods or ideas that facilitate introducing new products or improving how services and goods are offered. To clearly understand the real meaning of innovative leadership, it is crucial first to fathom the leadership and innovation concepts. The paper aims to review the innovative leadership style as portrayed in the literature, and combining the two terms, and offering more insight and structural foundation for researching elements of innovative leadership.
During emergency responses, public health leaders frequently serve in incident management roles that differ from their routine job functions. Leaders’ familiarity with incident management principles and functions can influence response outcomes. Therefore, training and exercises in incident management are often required for public health leaders. To describe existing methods of incident management training and exercises in the literature, we queried 6 English language databases and found 786 relevant articles. Five themes emerged: (1) experiential learning as an established approach to foster engaging and interactive learning environments and optimize training design; (2) technology-aided decision support tools are increasingly common for crisis decision-making; (3) integration of leadership training in the education continuum is needed for developing public health response leaders; (4) equal emphasis on competency and character is needed for developing capable and adaptable leaders; and (5) consistent evaluation methodologies and metrics are needed to assess the effectiveness of educational interventions. These findings offer important strategic and practical considerations for improving the design and delivery of educational interventions to develop public health emergency response leaders. This review and ongoing real-world events could facilitate further exploration of current practices, emerging trends, and challenges for continuous improvements in developing public health emergency response leaders.
Leadership competencies consist of several skills and behaviours of leaders that could influence leadership performance. This study aims to explore leadership competencies based on the nature of human being. In doing so, this article discusses the relationship of Qalb (Heart) and leadership as well as the importance of Qalb (Heart) for institutional leadership competencies. This includes examining the nature and functions of Qalb (Heart) which could contribute to the practice of effective leadership in organization. The implication of Qalb (Heart) as the centre for leadership competencies in organization is also presented in this chapter. This is done by breaking down examples of prominent leaders' leadership behaviours in different situations. This article concludes that organizational leadership competencies should never be separated from the the basic source of human being or Qalb (Heart). This is because Qalb (Heart) locates the spiritual centre of human being that very powerful to determine the behaviour of leaders.
Full-text available
This paper reviews literature on sustainable leadership pre- and within the 21st century, using the following nuances: (1) selected dynamics attributable to socio-demographics, (2) implications and barriers that skew gender and leadership bias, and (3) the role of cultural norms and values in leadership practices and processes within organizations. The global challenge for research on sustainable leadership is also discussed, as it must take into account the different cultures, needs and requirements of different organizations within specific environmental contexts. A challenge spoke to the use of international models and strategies in order to achieve semantic interoperability. It is concluded that from the established theoretical framework, a focus on culture and sustainable leadership is needed, as these impact on various aspects of leadership including sustainability. It is suggested that for the future, emerging issues should incorporate sustainability into businesses in order to align environmental and social objectives with business strategies.
In this article, I share my story as a clinical psychologist in academic medicine and as a female leader within organized psychology. I discuss how my sociocultural background impacts and is impacted by the care I provide at an inner-city, safety net hospital and my clinical-research with low-income African American women and families. I offer my thoughts on how my personal and professional identities are informed by my dedication to supervising and mentoring women from diverse backgrounds. I address how these identities led me to embrace a collaborative, transformational, and courageous leadership approach and to engage in social justice advocacy.
Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
The effects of subunit power on organizational decision making and the bases of subunit power are examined in a large midwestern state university. It is hypothesized that subunits acquire power to the extent that they provide resources critical to the organization and that power affects resource allocations within organizations in so far as the resource is critical to the subunits and scarce within the organization. Departmental power is found to be most highly correlated with the department's ability to obtain outside grants and contracts, with national prestige and the relative size of the graduate program following closely in importance. Power is used most in the allocation of graduate university fellowships, the most critical and scarce resource, and is unrelated to the allocation of summer faculty fellowships, the least critical and scarce resource.