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A Pilot Study on Professionalism of Future Medical Professionals in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre


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Professionalism a is multidimensional concept but there are core professionalism issues which are unique for all professions. A pilot study was conducted in 2011among 50-UKM-medical students chosen randomly from year 1-5 to investigate their professionalism. Data was collected using a developed instrument concerning 40 items, assessed using 5-point Likert scale under nine core issues. Total mean professionalism score for all nine issues in year-1 students was 178/220 and in the subsequent years were 169/220, 173/220, 171/220 and 175/220. Internal consistency of the instrument was adequate. Educators especially the faculty should emphasize on core professionalism issues to promote professionalism in future professionals.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer reviewed under responsibility of the UKM Teaching and Learning Congress 2011
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.419
UKM Teaching and Learning Congress 2011
A pilot study on professionalism of future medical professionals in
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre
Abdus Salam
*, Chew Ooi Song
, Nur Farhana Mazlan
, Hayati Hassin
Lim Soon Lee
, Muhammad Hazwan Abdullah
Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Fifth Year Medical Students, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Professionalism is a multidimensional concept but there are core professionalism issues which are unique for all professions. A
pilot study was conducted in 2011among 50-UKM-medical students chosen randomly from year 1-5 to investigate their
professionalism. Data was collected using a developed instrument concerning 40 items, assessed using 5-point Likert scale under
nine core issues. Total mean professionalism score for all nine issues in year-1 students was 178/220 and in the subsequent years
were 169/220, 173/220, 171/220 and 175/220. Internal consistency of the instrument was adequate. Educators especially the
faculty should emphasize on core professionalism issues to promote professionalism in future professionals.
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer reviewed under responsibility of the UKM Teaching and Learning
Congress 2011.
Keywords: Academic medical centre; future medical professionals; pilot study; professionalism
1. Introduction
Professionalism is an umbrella concept used to describe many different aspects of a profession (Wilensky 1964).
A profession is an occupation that requires prolong training and formal qualification (Cruess et al., 2004; Freidson,
2001). ‘Professions’ are groups, which announce in a public way that their members will act in certain ways, and
that the group and society may discipline those who fail to do so; people who choose the profession had history of
doing ‘good’ or one can say ‘good’ people had chosen the profession (Faiz, 2003). Moloney (1986) describes
professionalism as commitment to ones work and the orientation towards service rather than personal profit.
Members of a profession are governed by codes of ethics to the promotion of public good within their domain
(Cruess et al., 2004). Customer service, work ethics and business integrity are often grouped together with
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +6-03-9145-7973; fax: +6-03-9145-6678
E-mail address:
Available online at
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer reviewed under responsibility of the UKM Teaching and
Learning Congress 2011
Abdus Salam et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
Many people think they are professionals and used the word ‘professionalism’ differently for different reasons
(Swick, 2000). Professional proficiency is of utmost importance to accomplish the practice of a profession
efficiently (Salam et al., 2008c; Villegas-Alvarez et al., 2007). Professional proficiency comprises a set of core
values or fundamental elements in addition to mastery of broad scientific knowledge and skills of a profession and
these are the aspects of humanism. Professionalism although is an umbrella or multidimensional concept, its core
values or humanistic aspects such as respect, accountability, responsibility, caring, leadership, altruism, compassion
etc. (Maryland, 2002) are unique and equally applicable to all professions.
Medicine is a profession that requires high standards of behavior in terms of core values of professionalism, such
as who can communicate effectively with patients, patients’ families and colleagues; act in a professional manner,
be aware of socio-cultural diversities, values, prejudices, and provide care with understanding of those values and
various dimensions of patient’s lives (Salam & Rabeya, 2009; Litzelman & Cottingham, 2007). The corporate
transformations of health care system erode the professionalism of physician (Sullivan, 1999; Swick et al., 1999).
Poor communication aspects of physicians (Salam et al., 2008a) and lack in practice of core issues of
professionalism .make general public and patients even colleagues, more dissatisfied than deficiency in any other
clinical competencies in the medical profession. Medical educators are already concerned about the erosion of
medical professionalism because of the attitudes and behaviors of practicing physicians, particularly by the faculty
(Swick et al., 1999). Students who are the customers of medical educational industry are seldom aware of the core
issues or humanistic aspect of professionalism (Project professionalism, 1995). Medical students often receive
contradictory messages between what they hear in the class room and what they see in the real setting about core
values to demonstrate (Inui, 2003; Hafferty & Franks, 1994; Reynolds, 1994). If faculties are responsible for
teaching professionalism but fail to demonstrate its core issues before their students by not doing so, then clearly
professionalism is missing in the students’ education; so the contemporary medical student tends to become less
idealistic by his or her fourth medical year (Christian, 2008; Hilton & Slotnick, 2005) even though they read by
themselves and hear formally about core issues of professionalism. Students tend to do so as their teachers do
(Christian, 2008; Feudtner, 1994; Hafferty & Franks, 1994). As such, there is growing consensus among medical
educators to promote professionalism in medical students (Litzelman & Cottingham, 2007) especially to expand the
core humanistic aspects. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of research in order to identify the
conceptual understanding of professionalism with emphasis on its core issues among medical students in the UKM
Medical Centre aimed at professional development of future medical professionals.
2. Methodology
This was a cross sectional study on core values of professionalism, piloted in early 2011 among medical students
of UKM Medical Centre. A sample of 50 students comprising of 10 students from each year of 1-5 of academic
session 2010-2011 was chosen randomly, using stratified sampling technique. An instrument on professionalism
was developed through extensive review of literature, which contained nine core professionalism attributes such as
honesty, accountability, confidentiality, respectfulness, responsibility, compassion, communication, maturity and
self-directed learning. There were a range of statements under each professionalism issues which was assessed using
a 5-point Likert scale. Mean of all nine attributes’ scores represented the professionalism of respondents as a whole.
The instruments also contained four open ended questions researching about respondents’ opinion on what
professionalism meant to them, how professionalism should be taught, how they learnt professionalism and how
professionalism should be assessed. The data was then compiled and analysed using SPSS version 17.
3. Results
Out of 50 respondents, 40% were male and 60% were female (Fig-1). Scores of different elements of
professionalism between male and female respondents are shown in Table-1, which are almost similar. Scores of
different elements of professionalism among the respondents of different study-years are shown in Table-2, which
are also almost similar. Of a maximum total professionalism score of 220, mean score of first year students was 178
and subsequent years were 169, 173, 171 and 175 respectively (Fig-2).
Research on what professionalism is meant to the respondents, how it should be taught, how they learnt and how
professionalism should be assessed are shown in Table 3. This table revealed that professionalism means positive
536 Abdus Salam et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
attitude and behaviour towards job as expressed by 46% respondents while 8% respondents were unaware of
professionalism and the rest defined it in other ways. Thirty four percent of the respondents stated that
professionalism should be taught through experience and more than that (38%) felt that they learnt professionalism
through experience. Half of the respondents reported that professionalism should be assessed formally.
Figure 1. Gender distribution of the respondents
Table 1. Gender-wise scores of elements of professionalism as well as mean scores of all elements, n=50
Element of
Gender-wise scores of core elements of
Male (n=20)
Self-directed learning
Mean scores of all
Abdus Salam et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
Table 2. Year-wise scores of core elements of professionalism as well as mean scores of all elements, n=50
Elements of
Year-wise scores of core elements of professionalism
First year
Second year
Third year
Fourth year
Fifth year
Self-directed learning
Mean score of all
1st year
2nd Year
3rd Year
4th Year
5th year
Figure 2. Mean professionalism scores among the respondents of different study-years (maximum score 220)
538 Abdus Salam et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
Table 3. Respondents’ opinion through open ended questions on researching what professionalism is meant to them, how it should be taught, how
they learnt professionalism and how it should be assessed.
What do you mean by
How professionalism should
be taught?
How do you learn
How professionalism
should be assessed?
attitude and
towards job
Role model
and self-
Can not
4. Discussion
Medicine is a profession that forms the basis of contract between doctors and society (Hilton, 2005; Irvine,
2003). The professional role of physicians involves a commitment to uphold social order by providing good moral
judgment, and ethical practices of medicine (Bryan et al., 2005; Patenaud et al., 2003; ABIM, 2002; Fadar et al.,
1989). The aim of physician is to cure sometimes, relieve often and comfort always (Salam et al., 2008a; Lloyd and
Bor, 1996). To comfort always, medical professionals requires a high standard of behavior that ensures use of core
issues of professionalism in addition to the mastery of a large body of knowledge and clinical skills (Litzelman &
Cottingham, 2007).
This study was about a group of UKM medical students where the number of female students is more than male
students (Fig-1). In terms of scores of core elements of professionalism such as honesty, accountability,
confidentiality, respectful, responsibility, compassion, communication, maturity and self-directed learning between
male and female respondents with varying educational background were found to be almost similar with slightly
high score (173.50) obtained by male respondents than female (Table-1). Nath et al., (2006) expressed that the core
values of professionalism may vary widely with gender, study-year and socio-cultural background. Professionalism
score in its core issues among the respondents of different study-years also were found closely similar (Table-2).
Environment plays a vital role in influencing the development of professionalism (Cruess et al., 2008). The closely
similar scores in core issues of professionalism between different gender and study-years of the respondents in this
study may reflect that a non-threatening collaborative educational environment is maintained in the institution. To
promote any educational development, intradepartmental and interdepartmental support and collaboration is very
much important rather than any competitive efforts. Brown et al., (2009) and Duke et al., (2005) reported that
students’ attitudes toward professionalism tend to deteriorate during their years of training. This study revealed that
out of a total score of 220, first year students scored 178 and the subsequent years scored 169, 173, 171, 175 and 173
respectively (Fig-2), which is consistent with the reports made by Brown et al., and Duke et al.
Answering to an open ended question, what professionalism is meant to them, 46% respondents stated that
professionalism means positive attitudes and behaviour towards job, 8% were unaware of its meaning and the rest
defined professionalism in different ways (Table-3). This finding has similarities with the statement made by Swick
(2000) where it is mentioned that professionalism is easy to recognize but difficult to define as different people use
the word differently for different reasons. Here is the educators’ role to put emphasis on clear understanding and
practice on core issues or humanistic aspect of professionalism. Professional development is difficult if the academy
lacks consensus on clear understanding of the core issues of professionalism (Brown et al., 2009).
Abdus Salam et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 60 ( 2012 ) 534 – 540
Professionalism may be inherent to socio-cultural background and past experience (Nath et al., 2006), but
lecturers play important role in the development of student’ skills during their undergraduate course (Salam et al.,
2011c; Nabishah et al., 2009). Many studies reported that, the personality of a lecturer has a strong effect on the
development of professionalism to their students (Haghdoost & Shakibi, 2006; Gillespie, 2002; Pelaez & Gonzalez,
2002; Kiker, 1973). Thirty four percent respondents in the present study opined that professionalism should be
taught through experience while 38% and 24% respondents felt that they learnt professionalism through experience
and role model respectively (Table-3). Various studies reported that professionalism is best learned from faculty role
models (Salam et al., 2010b; Brown et al., 2009; Cruess et al., 2008; Goldie et al., 2007; Cote & Leclere, 2000;
Reynolds, 1994). Findings of the present study regarding learning professionalism through role models have
similarities with various other study reports. Role models are those who teach by example (Kenny et al., 2003;
Robert, 2001) and it is the educational process through which students learn the skills of observation,
communication and professionalism (Salam et al., 2011b).
Teaching professionalism through formal education is now very much accepted (Hilton, 2005; Irvine, 2003). But
this study found that students ranked the formal education at second position when they were asked “how
professionalism should be taught,” and ranked formal education at fourth position when asked “how do you learn
professionalism”; half of the respondents felt that professionalism should be assessed formally. Students emphasized
on experience and role model in regards to learning of their professionalism (Table-3), which indicates that role
model has great role in teaching professionalism through formal education. Excellent role models always inspire and
ensure simplicity and specificity of an educational programme in order to have a common understanding of the core
concepts and to achieve crystal-clear learning outcomes (Brown et al., 2009).
5. Conclusion
This pilot study found that majority of the UKM medical students has common conceptual understanding on core
issues or humanistic aspects of professionalism with insignificant differences between gender and study-years.
Priority has been given to experience and role modeling in order to promote professional development of future
medical professionals. The internal consistency of this research instrument was adequate. It is concluded that
research on core issues or humanistic aspects of professionalism among UKM medical students is feasible.
Educators need to emphasize on the practice of core issues of professionalism, especially by faculty to develop
professionalism to their medical students, ultimate aim of which is to ensure delivery of quality health care system
for the welfare of society.
We would like to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for providing the research grant FF-020-2011.
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... Nghiên cứu của chúng tôi cho thấy nhận thức và thái độ của sinh viên y khoa về tính chuyên nghiệp vẫn chưa cao (3,84/5 điểm). Sự nhận thức các giá trị cốt lõi của tính chuyên nghiệp có thể khác nhau tùy thuộc theo giới tính, năm học và nền tảng văn hóa xã hội [14]. Nghiên cứu của chúng tôi không cho thấy có sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa thống kê trong nhận thức về tính chuyên nghiệp y khoa giữa nam (165,5/220) và nữ (164,4/220) với p > 0,05. ...
... Nghiên cứu của chúng tôi không cho thấy có sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa thống kê trong nhận thức về tính chuyên nghiệp y khoa giữa nam (165,5/220) và nữ (164,4/220) với p > 0,05. Kết quả nghiên cứu của tác giả Abdus Salam cũng cho thấy không có sự khác biệt nhận thức về tính chuyên nghiệp theo giới tính [14]. Tuy nhiên, khi tiến hành so sánh điểm số trung bình về nhận thức những đặc tính cấu thành tính chuyên nghiệp y khoa ở hai nhóm sinh viên tiền lâm sàng và lâm sàng, chúng tôi nhận thấy có sự khác biệt có ý nghĩa thống kê ở hầu hết những đặc tính (8/9), với mức điểm trung bình về nhận thức của nhóm tiền lâm sàng cao hơn so với nhóm lâm sàng. ...
Professionalism has become one of the core competencies in medical education which will shape physicians’s behavior in the future to provide high-quality and patient-centered care services. Objectives: To assess the perceptions and attitudes of medical students regarding professionalism in health care. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out with 717 second-year and fifth-year medical students of Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University. Results: Students’ perception on professionalism was not high, at 3.85 out of 5 points. In which, “respect” was the domain having highest score and “communication skills” was the lowest recognition domain (4.15 and 3.54 out of 5, respectively). Preclinical students had higher perception than students having clinical experiences in all aspects of professionalism (p<0.05). Conclusion: Priority should be given to train professionalism and communication skills through the early clinical exposure program and hidden curriculum across all years of medical education program. Furthermore, the core aspects of professionalism are needed to be consistently identified and evaluated in the training program among medical universities in Vietnam
... En el pregrado lo relacionan fuertemente con la ética, por el contrario, los médicos residentes suelen adoptar una visión más integral, vinculada a aspectos que se presentan en la práctica clínica, como son conocimiento, respeto y empatía hacia los pacientes (9,17). Sin embargo, lamentablemente algunas actitudes positivas se pueden deteriorar con el tiempo por lo que se debe reforzar durante la carrera en pregrado y posgrado (18,19). ...
... La falta de información explicita sobre este tema hace que generalmente no sepan cómo proceder en estas situaciones y no se llegue a denunciar. Esto es especialmente perjudicial cuando los estudiantes se desenvuelven en climas de educación en donde predominen los modelos negativos, haciendo que estos se perpetúen, incluso pueden formar parte del curriculum oculto (3,4,18,30). Una de las fortalezas de este estudio es que permite conocer la percepción de los alumnos del último año de la carrera sobre el profesionalismo como competencia médica, esto permitirá a la facultad poder implementar modificaciones en los contenidos de la malla curricular, e implementar estrategias para conseguir que logren el concepto como parte de sus logros de aprendizaje. ...
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Objetivo: Describir conceptos, experiencias y perspectivas que alumnos del último año de medicina en una universidad peruana tienen respecto al Profesionalismo Médico. Material y Métodos : Se aplicó una encuesta a alumnos que cursaban la rotación clínica final de su último (7º) año de estudios en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, durante el año 2015. Resultados : El porcentaje de respuestas fue 90,5%. Las tres respuestas más comunes fueron ética (51,2%), buena comunicación médico-paciente (43%) y conocimientos (41,9%). El 81,4 % de los estudiantes estuvo “de acuerdo” o “muy de acuerdo” con el hecho de que profesionalismo puede ser aprendido y enseñado. El contacto con modelos positivos del personal docente de la Facultad (4,26/5,00) fue considerado el método más útil para el aprendizaje sobre profesionalismo médico, en tanto que sólo el 25,6% consideró adecuado el número de actividades dedicadas a la enseñanza del tema. Conclusiones: Los Internos de medicina consideran a la ética, una buena relación médico-paciente, conocimiento, respeto y responsabilidad como principales atributos del profesionalismo médico. Percibieron que su concepto de profesionalismo fue más influenciado por modelos positivos que por actividades académicas formales.
... Professionalism is an essential attribute of contemporary healthcare education and a key element of clinical competency to provide highquality patient care. 1 In general, professionalism is defined as the 'high standard that you expect from a person who is well trained in a particular job'. 2 With regard to the healthcare profession, professionalism is considered to be a multidimensional concept with a commitment to one's work and an orientation towards service rather than personal profit. 3 The American Board of Internal Medicine Monograph identifies six essential attributes of professionalism, which are 'altruism, excellence, duty, accountability, honor and integrity, and respect for others'. 4 Although every domain of professionalism is imperative, academic integrity is one of the essential components of the healthcare education system. ...
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Introduction: Professionalism and academic integrity are important components of dental education as they influence not just the present-day learning process but also the practice of dentistry in the future. This study evaluated self-reported professional lapses, academic dishonesty behaviors among peers, and recommended sanctions for such lapses. Materials and methods: Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity questionnaire was administered to BDS students of a private dental institution in Malaysia. Differences in the level of recommended sanctions were assessed by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: There was unanimous agreement that all 34 statements of lapses of academic integrity as unacceptable. The highest agreement (95.6%) was related to threatening or abusing university employees or students and involvement in paedophilic activities, whereas the lowest agreement was observed for getting or giving help for coursework against rules (47.3%). The most frequent behaviors observed among peers were lack of class punctuality (55.1%) and providing and receiving proxy attendance services (49.3%). About 36% admitted to not being punctual themselves, 26.8% for accepting or providing help for course work, and 22.9% for receiving and providing proxy attendance. Female students displayed stricter recommended sanctions, with the most significant difference relating to joking disrespectfully about body parts (p<0.001). More lenient recommended sanctions were observed among Year 1 students compared to other years, with the most significant difference (p<0.001) observed for exchanging information about the exam, forging a signature, plagiarizing, and cut-pasting materials without acknowledgment. Conclusion: The majority of academic lapses were well comprehended. Significant differences were observed in sanctions imposed in terms of gender and year of study.
... Professional skills include a set of core values or fundamental elements in addition to mastering the broad scientific knowledge and skills of the profession, and these are aspects of humanism. Professionalism is a multidimensional concept that includes core values or humanistic aspects such as respect, responsibility, care, leadership, altruism, compassion, etc. (Salam et al., 2012). ...
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The business culture in the educational system remains conservative, despite the fact that the values of tolerance are wide-spread in the world. This affects the transformation of ideas about the profession of teachers. The article establishes the relationship of ideas about the profession and satisfaction with the profession with the values and meanings of university teachers. It is assumed that in modern conditions of higher education, values and life meanings may differ among teachers with different ideas about the profession. The study sample consists of 270 university teachers aged between 25 and 65 years, work experience from 3 to 25 years, 150 women and 120 men. We used the questionnaire of professional satisfaction (Kissel), the method of measuring values (Schwartz), the semantic differential (Osgood), and the method of identifying life meanings (Kotlyakov). We defined groups of teachers with a neutral view and a positive view of the profession, with varying degrees of satisfaction with the profession. As a result, it was found out that the group of teachers with a neutral attitude to their profession has the most manifested values: conformity, hedonism, security, and meanings: hedonistic, status, and family. The group of teachers with a positive view of the profession, has the values of independence, achievement and security, combined with the meanings: altruistic, self-realization, family and cognitive. It is concluded that university teachers with positive ideas about the profession are more altruistic about their activities, and teachers with neutral ideas about the profession are pragmatic about it.
... 16 Comparable studies showed the same response and state the importance of role models in learning of professionalism. [16][17][18][19][20] Such response highlights the impact of the "hidden curriculum" on learning about professionalism through contact with teachers and patients. ...
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ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study is to reflect on students’ and teaching staff’s perception regarding teaching of professionalism and challenges to its application. Methods This is a descriptive, cross sectional survey. The study included 210 final year medical students and 21 staff members at universities adopting teaching on professionalism and located at Khartoum State. A Five-point Likert Scale was used to assess medical students’ and teaching staff’s perception on general concepts and objectives covered by professionalism courses, teaching and assessment methods. Data was analyzed using Excel sheet and Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Results Students’ perception towards usefulness of professionalism course in achieving general objectives and concepts range from a mean of 1.55 for acquiring knowledge about historical roots and definition of professionalism as the most achieved objective to 3.65 for introduction to the group dynamics as the least achieved one. Main challenges fronting the teaching and assessment of professionalism included that unprofessional behaviors are not well addressed and learning environment is not well controlled to promote professionalism in addition to shortage in trained teaching staff. Conclusions and recommendations Overall perception of both students and staff about the medical ethics, good professional practice as well as communication skills is positive. A supportive and conductive environment for enhancing adoption of good professional practice skills should be created both at the academic institutions and the clinical training sites within the health system whenever possible.
... Personality traits such as increased emotional reactivity, proneness to stress, impulsivity, and negative effect in drug addictions are associated with addictive behaviors [12].The internet has revolutionized the information age, more so with the explosion of wireless communication. It helps students to broaden their academic knowledge, research and assignments by accessing to the information world and also by easy communication to their academic community [10,11]. In another study using the Eysenck personality questionnaire, students addicted to internet had higher neuroticism/stability and psychoticism socialization but lower lie scores, suggesting neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity [13]. ...
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Our study was aimed to examine the association between personality traits and internet addiction among college students. Material and Methods : The sample consisted of (n=120) participants of either sex (Group I, n=74) addicted and (Group II, n=46) Non -addicted age ranging between (18 - 25) years. The subjects were randomly selected. Data was collected by two questionnaires including the Internet Addiction Test and Dimensional personality inventory (DPI). The data was analyzed using Mean, SD, t- test and Chi-square. Results: Findings indicated that there was significant difference in the mean scores (p<0.01) on all the dimensions of DPI between addicted and non addicted group, excluding dimension Assertive- Submissive. Conclusion: Internet addicted were found to be more passive, reserve, shy ,inhibited depressive in current study.
Background: The importance of the role of nursing managersin the effectiveness of patient care and improvement of the nursing care quality is undeniable. In this regard, existence of identical criteria and instructions in nursing care management is crucial. Therefore, the present study was conducted to present a model for selection, recruitment, and training nursing managers. Method: This descriptive-comparative study was carried out in 2017. The study population included common and available models in selecting, training, and employing nursing managers in the UK, the USA, Canada, Turkey, Australia, and Iran. The keywords used were nursing manager, recruitment, selection, and training. Information was collected through online databases, library resources, and other electronic or paper journals. To verify the suggested model, a 50-item questionnaire based on selection, recruitment, and training nursing managers was developed in the second stage of the study. The data analysis method was content analysis. In the second stage, SPSS 21 and Z Test were used for statistical analysis of the findings and for each question, respectively. Results: The findings of the study are presented in three sections including selection, training, and recruitment of nursing managers. In the final model, 30 factors were identified as factors influencing the selection, training, and recruitment of nursing managers. Academic qualifications, professional qualifications of individuals, individual characteristics, human skills of qualified people, management skills of qualified individuals, and ethical qualifications of qualified individuals are among the characteristics that were approved in the present study to select a nursing manager. To train the nursing managers, we can use curricula and hold training courses and congresses in the health sector. In order to employ nursing managers, it is important to pay attention to the role of managers in strategic plans. Conclusion: The need for paying attention to appropriate administrative structures, effective teaching methods, human resources, laws and regulations, and assessment considering the principles of nursing should be taken into consideration in selecting, training, and recruiting nursing managers.
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Introduction: Humanistic values lie at the heart of medicine. In the wake of professional breaches among health care professionals, the place of humanistic values in medical training has been the subject of much debate and development in the literature. This scoping review aims to map the current understanding of how humanism in the Asian socio-cultural context may be understood and applied, and how the strengthening of humanistic values may be further integrated into medical schools in Asia. Methods: Arksey and O'Malley's approach to scoping reviews was used to guide the study protocol. Databases PubMed, ERIC, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched for articles on humanism and medical education in Asia. Data charting and thematic analysis were performed on the final articles selected. Results: Three hundred and six abstracts were retrieved, 93 full-text articles were analysed, and 48 articles were selected. Thematic analysis revealed four themes on the need to strengthen humanistic values, the challenge of finding a common framework and definition, opportunities in medical school for curriculum design and training, and the need for validated tools in program evaluation in Asia. Conclusion: Themes highlighted in this review show an increasing recognition amongst Asian medical educators of the importance of inculcating humanistic values into medical training. Further research and ongoing discussion are needed to develop culturally relevant, effective, and integrative curricula in order to promote humanistic attitudes and behaviours among medical students and physicians in Asia.
This study explores the influence of education, length of service, professionalism, and ethics on the professional values of public relations practitioners in Malaysia. A total of 427 questionnaires were distributed to public relations practitioners in Malaysia, and 322 questionnaires were returned. The study included 61% female respondents, and 39% male respondents. The study analyzed and identified the influence of professionalism and ethics on professional values of public relations practitioners. Additionally, the study examined whether education and experience influence professional values through professionalism, and code of ethics. Six hypotheses were tested to answer the research questions. The results from this study fully supported the hypotheses indicating that professionalism and ethics had an influence on professional values of public relations practitioners. The results also showed that education influenced both professionalism and ethics, and length of service influenced both professionalism and ethical practice.
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Introduction: In India, with the introduction of the new Competency-Based Medical Education curriculum in 2019, the “Foundation Course” has become mandatory for the newly admitted medical undergraduates. “Professional Development, including Ethics” which is an important part of this course, has dedicated 40 h of teaching. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in August 2019 during the “Foundation Course” for the 1st-year medical students of Army College of Medical Sciences. A well-structured module validated by the members of the Medical Education Unit was used for teaching “Professional Development including Ethics.” At the end of 40 h of teaching, the students' perception about the “Professional development, including Ethics” module was taken with the help of an anonymous validated feedback questionnaire. Results: Most of the students (94.19%) felt that professionalism and ethics are very important for doctors and should be taught. About 90.7% felt that the care of the patient should be the first concern of a doctor. The students (94.19%) also felt that teaching of “Ethics” should be included in the curriculum, 89.53% felt that it will influence and improve the behavior of doctors, and 91.86% felt that it will finally lead to improvement of the patient-doctor relationship. Conclusion: The study concludes that “Professional Development including Ethics” incorporated in the foundation course, is a much-needed necessity for the students entering into the medical profession. The teaching of professionalism and ethics will definitely lead to more awareness of these values in our future doctors.
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Current assessment formats for physicians and trainees reliably test core knowledge and basic skills. However, they may underemphasize some important domains of professional medical practice, including interpersonal skills, lifelong learning, professionalism, and integration of core knowledge into clinical practice. To propose a definition of professional competence, to review current means for assessing it, and to suggest new approaches to assessment. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to 2001 and reference lists of relevant articles for English-language studies of reliability or validity of measures of competence of physicians, medical students, and residents. We excluded articles of a purely descriptive nature, duplicate reports, reviews, and opinions and position statements, which yielded 195 relevant citations. Data were abstracted by 1 of us (R.M.E.). Quality criteria for inclusion were broad, given the heterogeneity of interventions, complexity of outcome measures, and paucity of randomized or longitudinal study designs. We generated an inclusive definition of competence: the habitual and judicious use of communication, knowledge, technical skills, clinical reasoning, emotions, values, and reflection in daily practice for the benefit of the individual and the community being served. Aside from protecting the public and limiting access to advanced training, assessments should foster habits of learning and self-reflection and drive institutional change. Subjective, multiple-choice, and standardized patient assessments, although reliable, underemphasize important domains of professional competence: integration of knowledge and skills, context of care, information management, teamwork, health systems, and patient-physician relationships. Few assessments observe trainees in real-life situations, incorporate the perspectives of peers and patients, or use measures that predict clinical outcomes. In addition to assessments of basic skills, new formats that assess clinical reasoning, expert judgment, management of ambiguity, professionalism, time management, learning strategies, and teamwork promise a multidimensional assessment while maintaining adequate reliability and validity. Institutional support, reflection, and mentoring must accompany the development of assessment programs.
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Introduction: The new curriculum of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia's medical programme uses problem based learning (PBL) as the main teaching-learning strategy. Objective: To evaluate the facilitators' skills in conducting the PBL tutorials by evaluating questionnaires at the end of each PBL case. Materials and Methods: The information gathered from questionnaires was triangulated by structured interview with students PBL group leaders. There were 72 facilitators involved in conducting 13 PBL throughout semester 3. A total of 2951 questionnaires distributed to all students prior to each PBL session. The response rate range from 78 to 97.8%. Overall response rate was 81.5%. The response for each item were rated as strongly agree, agree or disagree. Results: The results show that more than 99% of the students' perceived facilitators have good knowledge on PBL process and 97% of students agreed and strongly agreed that the facilitators show interest in students learning. Regarding students' perception on facilitator giving feedback, 7.7% of students disagreed that facilitators gave feedback to them. During the interview, students described three categories of facilitators; (i) facilitators who are actively involved in the tutorial process, probing students to for the breadth and depth of the knowledge; (ii) facilitators who are dominant and do not allow free discussion among students and (iii) facilitators who appear passive and do not provide any guidance to students. Conclusion: Facilitators' knowledge in the PBL process was satisfactory. However, their skill in probing students to the breadth and depth of knowledge is lacking and needs to be addressed during faculty development. Giving feedback to students was not consistent among facilitators.
Until recently professionalism was transmitted by respected role models, a method that depended heavily on the presence of a homogeneous society sharing values. This is no longer true, and medical schools and postgraduate training programs in the developed world are now actively teaching professionalism to students and trainees. In addition, licensing and certifying bodies are attempting to assess the professionalism of practicing physicians on an ongoing basis. This is the only book available to provide guidance to those designing and implementing programs on teaching professionalism. It outlines the cognitive base of professionalism, provides a theoretical basis for teaching the subject, gives general principles for establishing programs at various levels (undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing professional development), and documents the experience of institutions who are leaders in the field. Teaching aids that have been used successfully by contributors are included as an appendix and are available in downloadable form on our website.
The President's Program at the 2000 Annual Clinical Meeting of ACOG addressed the question of how best to maintain professional values in the current, market‐driven health care environment. The author's presentation during that presidential program provided the basis of this article. In today's corporate environment, the distinction between the practice of medicine and the business of medicine has become blurred. Too often, market values prevail over traditional professional values. As a consequence, physicians face increasing challenges and frustrations. To ease the discomfort of practicing in a new corporate age, physicians must maintain medical professionalism and hence reassert the primacy of professional values in caring for patients. Individually, physicians must exercise professionalism in their roles as educators and practitioners. Collectively, the profession of medicine must exercise professionalism by advocating patients' interests and by accepting accountability for both long‐established and emerging obligations that physicians have to their patients and to society.
doi:10.3329/jom.v10i1.1993J Medicine 2009; 10: 1-2