ArticlePDF Available


Students are encouraged to actively participate in classroom. Nevertheless, many of them are still reluctant to speak up. This paper discusses the reasons for students to speak up in the class. Discussion is based on focus group interviews conducted on three groups of active students and three groups of passive students identified through a five weeks observation on three classrooms at the Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, The National University of Malaysia. The study found that the size of a classroom, personalities of the instructor and students and the perception of peers influenced the students to speak up in class.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Ayşe Çakır İlhan
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.199
Student’s participation in classroom:What motivates them to speak
Mohd. Yusof Abdullahª**, Noor Rahamah Abu Bakarª & Maizatul Haizan Mahbobª
ª Faculty of Social Science & Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Students are encouraged to actively participate in classroom. Nevertheless, many of them are still reluctant to speak up. This
paper discusses the reasons for students to speak up in the class. Discussion is based on focus group interviews conducted on
three groups of active students and three groups of passive students identified through a five weeks observation on three
classrooms at the Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, The National University of Malaysia. The study found that the size
of a classroom, personalities of the instructor and students and the perception of peers influenced the students to speak up in
Keywords: active participation, passive participation, learning process, verbal engagement, learning environment.
1. Introduction
In any formal education, most of learning activities take place in a classroom. Classroom is a built-in environment
where formal learning process takes place. It is an important context where both students and instructor come into
contact to share information in their quest for knowledge. For the instructor, classroom time is a golden opportunity
to meet face to face with the students, delivering the teaching material effectively with the aim to ensure that
students are learning what is being taught. On the other hand, the students are expected to be presence on time and
participate actively to absorb, seek and apply the skill and knowledge shared in the classroom or other learning
activities. These complementing engagements between lecturers and students do generate conducive classroom
A conducive classroom environment involved two-way interaction between students and instructors. This type of
classroom environment will stimulate learning and makes both the instructor and students feel satisfied, which
eventually leads to effective learning process. According to Wade (1994), most students can obtain the benefits such
as the enjoyment of sharing ideas with others and learn more if they are active to contribute in class discussion.
Effective learning process occurred when both instructors and students interact and actively participate in the
learning activities. Nevertheless, as we often hear from the academic world, students still do not actively participate
or become passive in the classroom despite encouragements and use of various teaching methods by the instructors
to stimulate active participation from the students. The concern on the students participation leads a study to
investigate the culture of student participation in the learning process. The objectives of the study are to identify
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-603-89215809; fax: +0-603-89213542.
E-mail address:
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Ayse Cakir Ilhan
Available online at
© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Ayşe Çakır İlhan
Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
forms and level of participation and to examine the factors influenced students to actively participate in classroom.
This paper highlights the reasons that motivate students to speak up in classroom. The discussion is based on the
information gauged from the students during focus group interviews.
2. Literature Review
Simply defined, learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, skills or behaviours. Therefore, if
learning is defined as quest for knowledge, skills or behaviours, then students need to be active in that quest.
Students must be proactive to seek the knowledge by seeking as well as receiving information in an outside
classroom. How the students seek and receive information are usually reflected in their behaviours in the
classroom. The behaviours of students in classroom may range from passive to active participations. They may just
sit quietly, taking notes, listening, doing something else, or asking questions, giving opinions, or answering
questions posed (Mohd Yusof, et al 2011; Hussein, 2010; Bas, 2010). The first four is a passive type of behaviours
while the latter is an active type of classroom behaviours.
Liu (2001) elaborated four types of student behaviours in the classroom as full integration, participation in the
circumstances, marginal interaction, and silence observation. In full integration, students engage actively in the class
discussion, know what they want to say and what they should not say. Their participation in class is usually
spontaneous and occurs naturally (Zainal Abidin 2007). Participation in the circumstances occurs when students
influenced by factors, such as socio-cultural, cognitive, affective, linguistic, or the environment and these often lead
to student participation and interaction with other students and instructors become less and speak only at appropriate
time. In marginal interaction, students act more as listeners and less to speak out in the classroom. Unlike the
students who actively participate in the classroom discussions, this category of students prefer to listen and take
notes than involved in the classroom discussion. Lastly, in silent observation, students tend to avoid oral
participation in the classroom. They seem to receive materials delivered in the classroom by taking notes using
various strategies such as tape-recording or writing.
Based on the various types of classroom behaviours, to be an active learners, whenever in the classroom, students
must engage actively by playing the roles of information seekers. The acts of asking questions, give opinions or
simply answering questions posed by the instructor or fellow students are examples of active type of classroom
participation. According to Davis (2009), student’s enthusiasm and willingness to participate in a classroom through
these verbal engagements will create a conducive classroom environment.
Past studies have shown that there are several factors influenced the student’s participation in the process of
learning. The first factor lies in the personality of the students. Students with high self efficacy showed better
academic achievement and participating more in the classroom (Pajares, 1996 & Schunk, 1995). Self-efficacy trait
with displaying more of that curiosity and exploring urge would motivate students to become more active and
positive reciprocity (Rahil, Habibah, Loh, Muhd Fauzi, Nooreen, Maria Chong, 2006). Thus, if students’ self
efficacy is high, it will enhance their confident level to become more active and speak more in the classroom. They
will show higher interest to learn more and know more with asking questions, giving opinions and discussing the
topics in the classroom. Students can become passive in classroom discussion due to the self-limitations, such as
cannot focus during lecture or learning time, fear of offense (Siti Maziha, Nik Suryani & Melor, 2010), low levels of
self-confidence, do not make preparations before class, fear of failing to show their intelligence, fear that their
answers will be criticized by the lecturers and the feelings of confusion, thus becoming less engaged in classroom
discussions (Fassinger, 1995; Gomez, Arai & Lowe, 1995).
The second important factor that affects the students to participate actively in the classroom is the traits and skills
of the instructor. Traits that have been shown by instructor, such as supportive, understanding, approachable,
friendliness through positive nonverbal behaviour, giving smiles and nodded for admitting the answers that are
given by students (Siti Maziha, Nik Suryani & Melor, 2010), affirmative and open-mindedness (Dallimore,
Hertenstein & Platt, 2004; Fassinger, 1995; 2000) also contributed to the students active participation in the
518 Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
classroom. These positive traits give a motivational effect on students to actively participate in classroom. A study
conducted by Siti Maziha, Nik Suryani & Melor (2010) which aims to examine the influence of factors that make
the participation of undergraduate students in Malaysia found that the traits shown by instructors play an important
role in providing incentives for students to participate in class discussions.
Apart from the positive qualities shown by instructor to encourage active students participation in classroom
discussion, the skills of the instructor may also affect the classroom environment. For example, a study by
Nurzatulshima, Lilia, Kamisah & T Subahan (2009) on three experienced science teachers through observation in
classroom, interview with students and analysis of students’ documents for the purpose to explore the way teachers
managing their students in order to increase their participation in science practical work showed that student
participation in science practical class is high when the teacher divided the students into three to five in a group and
delegating the work, patrolling and checking the students’ progress during practical session, giving out positive
rewards and friendly cooperation from lab assistant in monitoring students. The variety of teaching techniques
employed by the teachers will encourage the students to be more active, not feel bored or depressed during the class.
Another important factor that influenced the students to speak up in class is the perception of classmates. One
important finding from the study by Siti Maziha, Nik Suryani & Melor (2010) on undergraduate students in the
classroom of a university in Malaysia found that the traits shown by peers or classmates play an important role in
providing incentives for students to participate in class discussions. Besides that, Cayanus & Martin (2004) found
that students who are open-mindedness, give a motivational effect on other students to actively participate in class.
Environmental factor such as the size of classroom also affect the motivation of students to engage verbally in
classroom. A study conducted by Shaheen, Cheng, Audrey & Lim (2010) aims to explore the perceptions of 172
postgraduate students from three graduate programmes in the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication &
information, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore found that 90% of students felt that they prefer to
participate in discussions in small group as compared with in bigger classroom. A classroom equipped with proper
lights, fan or air conditioning, and other basic facilities will make students to feel comfortable and may encourage
them to participate in the learning activities.
Based on these selected past studies and literature, it can be conclusively proven that being active in classroom
discussion will make the students to learn more. However, the instructor and the education provider must take into
consideration the factors that stimulate or hinders the students to be active learners in the classroom.
3. Methodology
This study aims to investigate the culture of student participation in the learning process. The focus of the study is
on the issue of students’ involvement in the classroom. The study was conducted on students of Faculty of Social
Sciences and Humanities, at the National University of Malaysia. The research design employed in the study was
observation on classrooms and focus group discussion or FGD. Observation was done on three classes, namely two
undergraduate classes at second year (Class 1) and third year (Class 2) respectively and one postgraduate class
(Class 3). The number of students in each class are 39, 31, and 29 respectively. The purpose of observation is to
identify the forms and level of participation and subsequently to categorized students from those classrooms for
focus group discussion. Observation was done for a period of 5 weeks lectures. Their forms and frequency of
participation are recorded throughout the lecture hours.
The focus group discussions were then conducted on six groups of students, comprising three groups each of
active and passive students from the three classes. Active and passive students were identified by their number of
participations in the classroom throughout the five weeks observation. Each group comprised of six students. Each
of the discussions lasted for between one to two hours. The students are asked questions on the factors that motivate
them to speak up or not to speak in the classroom. The discussions were led by the researchers and recorded.
Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
4. Findings And Discussion
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted for one to two hours for each group of active and
passive students. Aspects discussed in FGD are related to personality and traits of instructors, students and peers,
culture and environment. These variables were selected with reference to some past studies which showed that all of
these aspects were related to the participation of students in classroom.
4.1 Personality factor
In group one (Year 2 undergraduates), the students highlighted responsibility as part of personality that motivates
them to speak. They feel that it is the responsibility of the students to ask if they do not understand, want to know or
need further clarifications from the instructor. Students in group two (Year 3 undergraduates), mentioned the
personalities such as like to read, like to ask to friends or instructors, prepared before entering the class and have a
high curiosity attitude that drive them to speak up in classroom. While students in group three (postgraduates), cited
personality traits include make early preparations, like to talk and asking questions, like to read, and loves to get
attention in class. Generally, students who have the characteristics of responsibility, like to read, high curiosity,
always be prepared, and like to ask questions will form an active personality. These traits will facilitate the
formation of self efficacy, as stated by Rahil (2006), with a high degree of self efficacy and thus will increase
confidence level and motivate them to speak up in classroom. Personality traits of passive students were found to be
opposite to the active students and it distinguishes the degree of participation in classroom. The personality
characteristics of passive students for the first group is that, they afraid to ask and the fear getting scolded by
instructor. They are also not confident with their selves and just sit still and listened.
For the second group, the personality of passive students is that, they are difficult to focus in class, no interest in
learning, no interest in the topic being studied, was ashamed to ask, lack of knowledge, and not confident with
themselves. Students prefer to ask in person with a lecturer or do some reference from the Internet if they do not
understand or want to seek more information. Furthermore, for the third group, the personalities of passive students
are more into listening, do not like reading books and talking only when necessary.
Generally, for these three passive groups of students, they had little knowledge of the topic being taught because
they do not like to read or no interest in the topic. These traits caused them to feel no confident with their selves and
ashamed to ask. This shows that the characteristics of low self-efficacy will cause them to be passive in the
classroom. These findings are consistent with Fassinger (1995) and Gomez (1995), that low levels of self-
confidence, do not make preparation before class, fear of failing to show their intelligence while in the classroom
and the feelings of confusion, will cause students to become passive, thus becoming less engaged in classroom
discussions. This is also supported by Siti Maziha (2010), who found that students become passive in classroom
discussion due to the self-limitations, such as cannot focus during lecture or learning time and fear of offense.
Passive students also come from different cultural backgrounds. For group one, students who are less vulnerable
to knowledge, less reading and not ready before entering the class will lead them to become passive. They do not
know what to ask and would rather sit and writing notes. Possibly, this attitude has been embedded since childhood
through family socialization. One of the passive students said that he did not like to ask since childhood. If there are
things that are not understood, he would rather ask a friend to ask the question on his behalf. There are also among
those who are not skilled with the language used in the classroom. To not laugh at by others, they prefer to keep
quiet and just listen.
4.2 Environmental factor
The elements that associated with this factor such as size of a classroom, seating positions in class, condition of
classroom, lecture time and the use of technology were asked to the students during FGD. The group of active
520 Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
students provides a different view on the influence of size of classroom on participation in classroom. Some are
concerned about size and choose a small size as a conducive environment for learning. With the small size of
classroom, students feel not ashamed to ask and instructors are able to focus more on the students. However, there
are students who are not so concerned with the size because big or small, they will ask questions to get more
The finding indicates that seating positions in the classroom does not affect student participation. Whether sitting
in front or at the back, these active students still participate actively. Lecture time, however, is important and can
influence participation. Students who attend classes in the evenings usually feel tired and this may reduce their
interest to actively involved in the classroom.
Overall, among the active students, environmental factors such as size of classroom and seating positions in the
class, are not so clearly affect their participation. For those who are extrovert, environmental elements do not
significantly affect their willingness to ask questions and giving opinions. For passive students, the views expressed
by this group are different from active students. Passive students in group 1 said they are more comfortable with
smaller class. This could be related to their introvert personality. They do not like to be in big audiences and difficult
to assimilate themselves with bigger crowd compared to active students.
Similarly, the second group also prefers small class size and seating position in the front row. In their view, these
two elements can influence active participation in classroom. For group 3, the views given by the students in this
matter are mixed. They are more comfortable sitting in the front and some do not mind sitting at the back.
Respondents who choose to sit at the back claimed that this seating position will facilitate them to ask a friend if
they do not understand the topic being studied. Overall, the size of a classroom and seating positions in classroom
are important to encourage passive students to be active in class. This accorded with their personality traits which
are quiet, shy, fearful and less confident.
4.3 The influence of instructor in classroom
The study found that both passive and active students agreed that instructors play a major factor in any
classrooms. Positive traits of instructors and the method or style of teaching employed are important motivating
factors to stimulate verbal engagements among students in the classroom. An instructor’s traits that favored by
students are friendly, know each student well, do not criticize the students, always show a good mood, and
approachable. With these traits, students do not feel afraid and ashamed to speak up in class. Students also do not
feel left out when everyone is given equal opportunity to participate. Preferred teaching methods to encourage
students to participate actively in classroom are provide notes before the class start, so that they can prepare before
coming to the class, conducting activities in the classroom, and always inviting students to speak in a Q & A
In conclusion, the instructors’ traits chosen by both passive and active students are friendly, openness,
professional, and able to know the students well. A skilled instructors will employed the best method or style that
will stimulate students to be responsive, not bored and idleness in the classroom.
4.4 The influence of classmates or peers
Classmates may also influence the learning process. Fassinger (1995), refers peers as a class trait and categorized
them into two, firstly interaction norms (pressure from peers not to speak, the pressure to keep comments brief, peer
discouragement of controversial opinions, peers’ attention, and peers’ lack of respect), and secondly, emotional
climate (friendships, students’ supports of each other, and students’ cooperation). FGD results for the first active
group found that classmates influenced students to be active in classroom. Passive students usually will ask active
students to ask questions on their behalf. Active students preferred to sit with their counterparts, so that they can be
as active in in the class.
Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
Similar to group 1, group 2 and 3 of active students also said that classmate did influence them to be active in
class. Active students will be asked to be an intermediary for other students to ask questions. More active students in
class is better because they will be competing to seek knowledge through discussion and participation in classroom.
FGD results of the first group of passive students, found that students' perceptions of peer influence on their learning
is mostly negative. They do not perceived an active classmates inspire them to learn, but rather just wanted to show
off. They considered the domination of active students in talking causing them to feel marginalized and inferior,
thus they choose to be passive in the classroom.
For group 3, the views on the influence of peers was mixed. Some agreed that classmates do encourage them to ask
questions. For students who do not agree, the reason is that they have not yet know their classmates well. For those
who agreed, they considered active classmates as spoke persons to ask questions particularly from the matured
students, who are more knowledgeable and experienced. Thus, the passive students will depend on active students to
get more information.
In conclusion, the students agreed on the importance of peers in the learning process. However, students prefer to
be in a group similar to them in term of assertiveness in classroom. Overall, both groups of passive and active
students acknowledged the importance of students to speak up in the class. Thus, it is important for the instructor
to create a conducive learning environment which will stimulate the students to actively participate in the
classroom. Behaviours of students in classroom can be categorized as active and passive. While there are students
who actively participate in classroom and yet there are many more who hesitate to participate. Being inactive or
passive in class is one way to show that the students are not able to express themselves. Students who always
participate in class are the ones that are easily remembered by their lecturers. Therefore, it is important for the
instructors to encourage all students to speak up because speaking is one important way for students to learn more
in the learning process.
In an effort to encourage all students to speak up, the instructors can take several steps such as;
1. Invite the students to speak up
2. Affirming or valued their contributions matter
3. Give marks/grade for every active participation
4. Be skillful in varieties of teaching techniques
5. Reinforce that it is ok to speak up regardless of what is said to be true or not
6. Be approachable and friendly
All these steps are ways towards creating a conducive classroom environment. Its aims are to transform the
classroom into a full integration type of participation whereby majority of the students engaged actively in the
classroom activities.
5. Conclusion
Identifying the factors for purpose of knowing the reasons that motivate the students to speak up in classroom is
beneficial to the instructors in managing their classrooms. The study has revealed useful insights as to what motivate
students to speak up in classroom. With this understanding, the instructors can plan strategies and employ proper
techniques to create a responsive classroom. It is believed that classrooms are richest when all voices are heard. In a
situation where students are less active or passive in the classroom, it is pertinent for the instructors to encourage
active involvement. Thus, it is paramount for the instructor to create a conducive learning environment which will
stimulate the students to be actively involved in the classroom.
522 Mohd. Yusof Abdullah et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 ( 2012 ) 516 – 522
6. Acknowledgement
We would like to thank the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for providing the research grant (PTS-2011-077).
Bas, G. (2010). effects of multiple intelligences instruction strategy on students achievement levels and attitudes towards english lesson. Cypriot
Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(3).
Bravo, E., Enache, M., Fernandez, V., & Simo, P. (2010). An innovative teaching practice based on online channels: A qualitative approach.
World Journal on Educational Technology, 2(2), 113-123.
Cayanus, J. L. & Martin, M. M. (2004). The relationship between instructor self-disclosure with credibility, clarity, relational certainty and
interpersonal attraction. Cleveland: Central States Communication Association.
Chin, C. (2003). Success in investigations. The Science Teacher. Vol. 70(2): 34-40.
Dallimore, E. J., Hertenstein, J. H. & Platt, M. B. (2004). Classroom participation and discussion effectiveness: student-generated strategies.
Communication Education. 53, 103-115.
Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2
.ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Fassinger, P. A. (1995). Professors’ and students’ perception of why students participate in class. Teaching
Sociology. 24, 25-33.
Fassinger, P. A. (2000). How classes influence students’ participation in college classrooms.
Journal of Classroom Interaction. 35, 38-47.
Gomez, A. M. Arai, M. J. & Lowe, H. (1995). When does a student participate in class? Ethnicity and classroom participation. Paper presented
at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association (81
, San Antonio, TX).
Hussein, G. (2010).The Attitudes of Undergraduate Students towards Motivation and Technology in a Foreign Language
Classroom. International Journal of Learning and Teaching, 2 (2) 14-24.
Liu, J. (2001). Asian students classroom communication patterns in U.S. universities: an emic perspective Westport, CT. U.S.A: Greenwood
Publishing Group, Inc.
Mohd Yusof, et al. (2011). The Dynamics of Student Participation in Classroom:
Observation on level and forms of participation. Paper presented at Learning and Teaching Congress of UKM, 18
. December,
Penang, Malaysia.
Nurzatulshima Kamarudin, Lilia Halim, Kamisah Osman & T Subahan Mohd. Meerah. (2009). Management of students’ Involvement in science
practical work). Jurnal Pendidkan Malaysia. Jil. 54 (1): 205-217. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia.
Pajares, F. (1996). Assessing self efficacy beliefs and academic success: the case for specificity and correspondence. Paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.
Rahil Mahyuddin, Habibah Elias, Loh Sau Cheong, Muhd Fauzi Muhamad, Nooreen Noordin & Maria Cheong Abdullah. (2006). The
relationship between students’ self efficacy and thier English language achievement. Jurnal Pendidik dan Pendidikan. Jil. 21: 61-71.
Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Malaya.
Schunk, D. H. (1995). Self efficacy and education and instruction. In Maddux (ed.), Self efficacy, adaptation and adjustment: theory, research and
application. New York: Plenum Press. Pp. 281-303.
Shaheen Majid, ChengWei Yeow, Audrey Chng Swee Ying & Lim Ruey Shyong. (2010).
Enriching learning experience through class participation: a students’ perspective. Wee Kim Wee School of Communication &
Information. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
Siti Maziha Mustapha. (2010). Understanding classroom interaction: a case study of international students’ classroom participation at one of the
colleges in Malaysia. International Journal For The Advancement Of Science & Arts. Vol. 1(2): 91-99.
Siti Maziha Mustapha, Nik Suryani Nik Abd. Rahman & Melor Md. Yunus. (2010). Factors influencing classroom participation: a case study of
Malaysian undergraduate student. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 9: 1079- 1084. WCLTA 2010.
Wade, R. (1994). Teacher education students’ views on class discussion: implications for fostering critical thinking. Teaching and Teacher
Education. Vol. 10(2): 231-243.
Zainal Abidin bin Sayadi. (2007). An investigation into first year Engineering students’ oral classroom participation: a case study. Unpublished
degree dissertation. Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
... Students participated more when they perceived the teacher as respectful and appreciative, open to other opinions and suggestions, and incorporating student questions and comments into discussions. Similarly, Mustapha et al. (2010) and Abdullah et al. (2012) reported that university students feel more likely to actively participate in the classroom when a teacher encourages them to talk by giving them both verbal and non-verbal cues, calls them by their names, does not scold them for their answers, is not impatient, and accepts and even supports differing opinions. ...
... Previous studies (Abdullah et al., 2012;Fisher & Hänze, in press;Mustapha et al., 2010) have proposed several teacher guidelines aimed at improving active student participation in university classrooms. Teachers should actively pose questions, be welcoming and appreciative of all student contributions, and incorporate student contributions into teaching. ...
Full-text available
While learning is most effective when students are actively engaged, student participation in university classrooms is usually dominated by monologic teacher talk. Digital technologies are often seen as a way to enhance active student participation, yet most reports show that the emergency remote teaching that used digital technologies during the COVID pandemic worsened student participation. We look at active student participation in the synchronous online university lessons of two teachers with shared views on the importance of active student participation but differing approaches to online teaching. We employed a range of tools, including multiple lesson observations over time, line-by-line micro-analysis of the lessons, analysis of discourse moves based on Hardman's coding system, network visualizations of interactions, and interviews with the teachers reflecting on their teaching. With these tools, we aimed to link the teachers' views of online teaching with their teaching practices and with the resulting active student participation in their online lessons. The findings of our study indicate that teachers' views of online teaching can significantly influence their teaching practices. We found that the view that online teaching can serve as a substitute for contact teaching has a detrimental effect on teacher ability to employ the practices necessary for active student participation in online settings. We suggest abandoning the idea of online teaching as a substitute for contact teaching. Instead, online and contact teaching should be seen as two distinct entities requiring different teaching practices. We discuss specific teaching practices that we observed in relation to their role in promoting active student participation in online lessons.
... Whereas, affective factor like shyness, fear, mood, introvert-ness, or language barrier can negatively affect their participation in the classroom activity. Past literatures also revealed that fear of letting teachers down (Hargreaves, n.d.), fear of getting scolded by teachers, and uninterested behaviour (Abdullah, Bakar, Mahbob, 2012), level of shyness (Masek & Masduki, 2017), fear, classroom size, low confidence level (Fassinger, 1995), and lack of confidence in oral communication (Medved et al., 2013) are the students' affective factors that inhibits the participation of students. b) Students' Cognitive traits: This trait includes confidence level, awareness on importance of class participation, understanding the concept clearly, high selfesteem are traits that are portrayed by the students when students are well prepared before the class and are aware of teaching and learning process. ...
... Thus, the positive cognitive traits will allow students to open up and speak in the class. The finding is consistent with finding with Gomez et al. (1995), Fassinger (1995), Abdullah, Bakar, Mahbob (2012) that lack of knowledge, low self-confidence and unpreparedness were some passive cognitive behaviour lowering the students' engagement. c) Teachers' Traits: This factor includes teaching style, dislike to subjects, teacher's supportive behavior, critical thinking. ...
Full-text available
This study is a cross-sectional study and finds out class participation as an essential indicator in elevating the performance of the students. It explored the factors affecting the degree of class participation and its effect on science performance. Students of grade IX were selected as the sample for the study. In addition to a structured, self-administered questionnaire, the mid-term exam result was taken as an academic performance of the students. Appropriate inferential statistical tests, like t-test and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were computed to find the gender differences in class participation and academic performances of the students and their relationship respectively. Further, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was performed to explore factors affecting the class participation. The inferential statistics results indicated that while there is no statistically significant difference between the class participation and academic performance in science by gender, there does exist a positive association between class participation and academic performance. The EFA results revealed three principal factors responsible for varying degree of class participation, namely the students' affective traits, students' cognitive traits and teachers' traits.
... By paying attention to the effectiveness of the classroom-based group discussion method in teaching language (Freeman & Greenacre, 2011;John, 2017;Ur, 2011), this method needs to be trained to teachers and students so that the involvement of all students increases during the teaching and learning process. The training is important for both teachers and students because through the training it can be known personalities of the teachers and students as well as the perception of peers during the implementation of group discussion (Abdullah et al., 2012). It is revealed that effective learning strategies can be trained to less successful language learners to improve their motivation and achievement in language learning (Manurung, 2005;Oxford, 1990). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effective interactions in a classroom can increase involvement of students in teaching and learning process. This paper aims to describe how the application of classroom-based group discussion training for teachers and vocational high school students in speaking teaching and learning process. A training method was applied where the subject consisted of teachers and students selected based on a purposive sampling technique. The training participants were 20 students and three teachers of SMK Mandalasila Palu. Data were collected using observation sheets, documentations, and interviews. Data from observations, documentation, and interviews were analyzed descriptively. The results of the observation data analysis show an increase in the accuracy of the application of the class-based group discussion method to students, from 37.5% (middle) before attending the training to 87.5% (very high) after training, and to teachers, from 68.75% (high) before attending the training to 93.75% (very high) after the training. The results of the documentation analysis in the form of pictures and videos show that the role of observers and monitoring teams motivates students to actively discuss in the group. While the results of the interviews confirm that the professionalism of the teachers on pedagogic competencies is increased after the training. The implications of the results of this study indicate that a training can increase students' interaction and involvement in teaching and learning process, and a training in the use of teaching methods can increase the professionalism of teachers, particularly pedagogic competencies. Effective interactions in a classroom can increase involvement of students in teaching and learning process. One of the methods that can increase student interaction and motivation during the teaching and learning and process is the classroom-based group discussion method (Green et al., 2010). The implementation of group-based learning techniques in the teaching and learning process in Indonesia's educational system has long been recommended. The introduction of this teaching strategy is intended to further stimulate both teachers and students in achieving the specified learning goals. However, there are still many language teaching and learning processes
... It could be noted that the processes of learning activities in the SQ4R technique encourage the participants to take control of their learning process and take part in all processes in pronunciation practicing. Keeping students' attention in-class participation is one of the techniques used to create a learnable learning environment (Abdullah et al., 2012). Regarding the results of the study, further research should also focus on employing instructional techniques that are capable to increase the level of class participation as it is a key leading to learners' satisfaction found in the current study. ...
Full-text available
The ability to pronounce consonant clusters is essential for the communicative processes of a language. The SQ4R teaching model, normally employed in reading comprehension development studies, could be adapted to benefit a speaking classroom. The purposes of the study were 1) to investigate the effects of the SQ4R technique on Thai students’ consonant cluster pronunciation and 2) to study student satisfaction with the SQ4R technique in developing consonant cluster pronunciation. The participants were 40 grade 6 students in a public school in Thailand. The participants were chosen using the purposive sampling method. The criteria emphasize the heterogeneous characteristics of first language, experiences in foreign countries, and dialects. The instruments were 1) a learning management plan designed using the activities of the SQ4R technique in developing the pronunciation of consonant clusters, 2) consonant clusters pronunciation assessment form, and 3) a satisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentages, mean scores, standard deviation, and an effective index with the determining criteria of 75/75. The results of the study indicate the benefits of the SQ4R technique to both in-process and end-product outcomes. Moreover, it was also found that the participants were satisfied with the processes provided by the learning management. The results of the study provide academic implications for further research and pedagogical implication for educational personnel seeking to solve problems in developing students’ pronunciation.
... This could be as a result of the method the teachers use for their lessons which is the traditional method. According to Mohd et al (2012) findings on their study, effective learning process occurs when both teachers and students interact and participate in the learning activities. This, participatory types of learning process encourages mutual exchange of information, stimulate interest as well as recognition of respect among teachers and students. ...
Full-text available
This study examined the methods, techniques, and questioning behaviour teachers adopt in poetry lessons in selected secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State. The survey research design was adopted. Simple random sampling technique was used to select three local government areas from Ibadan metropolis, five schools from each local government and one intact class from each school making a total of 15 schools and their 15 teachers of Literature in English. The instrument used was Poetry Observation Schedule on Methods, Techniques and Questioning Behavior of Teachers in Poetry lessons (r=0.75). Five research questions were answered. Data were analysed using frequency counts and percentage. Results revealed that of the 15 teachers observed, 12 (80%) employed traditional method, while 3 (20%) employed interactive methods in teaching poetry. Teachers who employed the traditional method used the following techniques: questioning (21.87%), expressive/dramatised reading (11.51%), giving notes (9.32%), giving information about the poem (4.96%), paraphrasing (4.44%), while their counterparts that adopted interactive method used learner-centered techniques such as students responding to teacher's question (3.08%), doing expressive reading (2.28%), guessing the meaning based on the title (2.04%), allowing students to read silently (0.20%), teacher using technology or instructional materials (0.12%) and making students to write based on the poem. Besides, results show that teachers emphasize factual content (56.04%), followed by themes (31.33%) and language/style (12.68%) and they use more of lower order questions: questions testing understanding (38.57%), and remembering (36.00%) and less of higher order questions: application (10.41%), evaluation (7.68%) and analytical questions (7.34%).It was recommended that in-service training, seminars and workshops should be organized for teachers of Literature-in-English to acquaint them with current methods and techniques of teaching poetry.
Summary statement: We performed a systematized review examining the existing literature on undergraduate healthcare students' perceptions and experiences with debriefing methods in simulation-based education. Twenty empirical research articles published in English between 2008 and 2020 were identified during a systematic search of 4 electronic databases. Data derived from these articles underwent critical appraisal and thematic analysis.Students valued the opportunity in debriefing for reflection, raising self-awareness of skills and learning. They preferred structured debriefing for promoting analytic skills and transfer of learning, favored video-assisted debriefing for fast recall and improving communication skills, and benefited most from instructor-led rather than peer-led debriefing. However, students appreciated group debriefing for aiding the construction of new understandings. There was no consensus on the preferred timing of debriefing, and students highlighted their concern about the disclosure of errors across different debriefing methods. Recommendations for educators to improve debriefing experiences and for future research are considered.
Conference Paper
Experts have conducted research on the application of comics in various fields of study. The results showed that the use of comics could support student learning. This research was conducted to expand the study of the application of comics in mathematics learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the activeness of students in learning using comics on social arithmetic material. The research subjects were the 7th grade students of SMP Sunan Kalijaga Malang, which amounted to 26 students. The data in the study were collected through student worksheets, student questionnaires, learning activity observation sheets, and student activeness observation sheets. The results showed that in general the activeness of students in learning social arithmetic using comics was classified as good. Students are only less active at the learning stage which requires communication skills. From the results of this study, it is hoped that teachers will use comics to activate junior high school students in learning mathematics.
Purpose A couple of decades ago, the negotiated syllabus was introduced as an alternative to the predetermined syllabus. The review of the related studies shows the number of studies on the use of negotiated syllabus in English language teaching is scanty. The main purpose of the study was to explore the advantages/merits of employing negotiated syllabus in general English courses that undergraduate students take. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed the phenomenology research method to deeply delve into the undergraduate students' perceptions of the advantages of the negotiated syllabus. The phenomenology method is used for investigating human lived experiences through the descriptions given by the people involved in the study. This qualitative research method is mainly used to study fields with little or no knowledge. The authors collected the data through in-depth interviews with the informants (18 students) who were selected through theoretical sampling. The informants were undergraduate students at Allameh Tabataba'i University who were selected through theoretical sampling. The authors listened to the recordings to transcribe the participants' statements and remarks verbatim. Then, we analyzed the interviews thematically through open, axial and selective coding. This study aimed at exploring the participants' perspectives on the advantages of the negotiated Syllabus. The study's main objective was to investigate the advantages/merits of employing negotiated Syllabus in undergraduate students' general English courses. Findings Findings revealed that employing the negotiated syllabus resulted in many advantages which were reduced into three axial coding: psychological, pedagogical and individual. Generally, the negotiated syllabus reduces the students' anxiety, improves their motivation, affects their language achievement and develops their critical thinking and learner autonomy. Practical implications Teachers are recommended to minimize the constraints and use the negotiated syllabus to optimize language learners' motivation and language achievement in teaching English programs. Originality/value The impact of the negotiated syllabus on language learners has been investigated through quantitative research methods. However, the language learners' perceptions of the negotiated syllabus have not been well explored qualitatively.
Full-text available
Many studies have been carried out on this concept of self efficacy in the academic settings. For example, Schunk (1995) stated that students when engaged in activities are affected by personal (e.g., goal setting, information processing) and situational influences (rewards, feedbacks). These provide students an idea on how well they learn. Self efficacy was enhanced when students perceived they performed well. On the other hand, Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara and Pastorelli (1996), reported that parents' academic aspirations for their children, influence the children's academic achievement directly or indirectly by influencing their self efficacy. Based on the theoretical explanation on self efficacy and findings of past studies, it is therefore the aim of this study to find out the relationship between students' self efficacy and their English language achievement. In Malaysia, English is a second language but since 2003, English is the medium of instruction for mathematics and science subjects for year one, form one and form six students. Based on this scenario, it is therefore pertinent to find out whether performance in the English language is largely determined by their perceived English language efficacy. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 1,146 students from eight secondary schools in the Petaling district, Selangor. The instruments used to measure self efficacy were the Self Efficacy Scale developed by Bandura (1995) and the Self Efficacy Scale developed by Kim and Park (1997). The findings showed that 51 percent of students had high self efficacy while 48 percent showed low self efficacy. Correlational analysis showed positive correlations between several dimensions of self efficacy that is, academic achievement eficacy (r = 0.48, p = 0.001); other expectancy beliefs (r = 0.34, p = 0.005); and self assertiveness (r = 0.41, p = 0.005) with academic performance in English language. In conclusion, achievement in English language will improve when students have high self efficacy in the language. The implications are discussed in relation to teaching and learning within the school settings. Abstrak: Beberapa kajian telah dijalankan dalam bidang akademik tentang konsep efikasi kendiri. Contohnya, Schunk (1995) menyatakan bahawa pelajar yang terlibat dalam aktiviti sering dipengaruhi oleh faktor peribadi (penentuan matlamat, pemprosesan maklumat) dan situasi (ganjaran, maklum balas). Perkara ini memberi idea kepada pelajar tentang sebaik mana mereka telah belajar. Efikasi kendiri akan meningkat apabila pelajar beranggapan mereka telah melakukan yang terbaik. Sebaliknya, Bandura, Babaranelli, Caprara dan Pastorelli (1996) melaporkan bahawa aspirasi akademik ibu bapa untuk anak-anak mempengaruhi secara langsung atau tidak langsung pencapaian akademik mereka melalui pengaruh ibu bapa ke atas efikasi kendiri anak-anak. Berdasarkan penerangan teori tentang efikasi kendiri dan dapatan kajian lepas, maka tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk melihat perhubungan antara efikasi kendiri pelajar dengan pencapaian 61 Rahil Mahyuddin et al. mereka dalam bahasa Inggeris. Di Malaysia, bahasa Inggeris merupakan bahasa kedua tetapi sejak 2003, bahasa Inggeris ialah bahasa pengantar bagi mata pelajaran matematik dan sains untuk murid tahun satu, tingkatan satu dan tingkatan enam rendah. Senario ini membuatkan kajian ini relevan untuk melihat sama ada prestasi dalam bahasa Inggeris ditentukan oleh persepsi pelajar tentang efikasi mereka dalam bahasa Inggeris. Reka bentuk kajian ini ialah deskriptif korelasi dan dijalankan ke atas 1,146 pelajar daripada lapan buah sekolah menengah di daerah Petaling, Selangor. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengukur efikasi kendiri ialah Skala Efikasi Kendiri oleh Bandura (1995), dan Kim dan Park (1997). Dapatan menunjukkan 51 peratus pelajar mempunyai efikasi kendiri yang tinggi manakala 48 peratus mempuyai efikasi kendiri yang rendah. Analisis korelasi menunjukkan perhubungan positif antara beberapa dimensi efikasi kendiri, iaitu efikasi pencapaian akdemik (r = 0.48, p = 0.001); kepercayaan jangkaan yang lain (r = 0.34, p = 0.005) dan ketegasan kendiri (r = 0.41, p = 0.005) dengan prestasi dalam bahasa Inggeris. Kesimpulannya, pencapaian dalam bahasa Inggeris akan meningkat sekiranya pelajar mempunyai efikasi kendiri yang tinggi dalam bahasa tersebut. Implikasinya dibincangkan dari segi pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam bilik darjah.
Full-text available
Effective learning process occurred when both teachers and students interact and participate in the learning activities. Participatory type of learning process will encourage mutual exchange of information's; stimulate interest as well as recognition of respect among the teachers and students. This paper discusses the level of involvement and forms of involvement in three classrooms over a period of five (5) weeks contact hours. The observation was done on two undergraduate classrooms and one postgraduate classroom. The aim of observation is to identify the category of students in terms of active or passive involvement and the types of participation.
Full-text available
Classroom discussion is one of the most frequently used and often embraced pedagogical strategies. In attempting to enhance participation quality and discussion effectiveness, there is concern over what to do about students who are less inclined to participate voluntarily. We examined the context of intensive graduate business classes - in which the instructor had high expectations for participation, placed significant weight on the participation grade, and cold called (i.e., called on students whose hands were not raised). In a questionnaire, we asked students to identify what enhanced the quality of participation and the effectiveness of discussion in this class. Qualitative content analysis indicated that student responses clustered in several areas: (1) required/graded participation, (2) incorporating ideas and experiences, (3) active facilitation, (4) asking effective questions, (5) supportive classroom environment, and (6) affirming contributions/constructive feedback. The results strongly endorse the practice of cold calling. The class instructor utilized student responses to formulate future teaching strategies.
This investigation into classroom interaction uses survey data to assess why students offer comments or raise questions in class. Previous research assumed that instructors shape students' involvement. In this report, classes are recognized as groups able to influence students' participation. I investigate how class traits (e.g., interaction norms, emotional climate) and students' traits (e.g., comprehension, confidence) may encourage participation. Multiple regression analyses of professors' responses suggest that class interaction norms, students' preparation, and student-to-student interactions significantly shape class involvement. In contrast, students' responses highlight their confidence and its effect on class participation. The data suggest that faculty members may play a much less direct role in classroom interaction than has previously been assumed.
The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences instruction strategy and traditional instructional environment on students' achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009 – 2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz Elementary School, Nigde, Turkey. Totally 60 students in two different classes in the 4th grade of this school participated in the study. In this study, an experimental method with a control group has been used in order to find out the difference between the students who were taught by multiple intelligences instruction strategy in the experiment group and the students who were taught by traditional instructional methods in the control group. The results of the research showed a significant difference between the attitude scores of the experiment group and the control group. It was also found out that the multiple intelligences instruction strategy activities were more effective in the positive development of the students' attitudes. At the end of the research, it is revealed that the students who are educated by multiple intelligences instruction strategy are more successful and have a higher motivation level than the students who are educated by the traditional instructional methods.
In an attempt to understand what factors motivate teacher education students to participate in class discussions, questionnaires were administered to students from two teacher education programs in the U.S.A. In addition, 30 students were interviewed. Findings point to the estimation of the worth of one's ideas as a key issue in class discussions. Men and older students believed that their ideas made important contributions more often than other students. Findings revealed that the topic, the classroom climate, and advance preparation are central factors influencing students' participation. The importance of fostering students' reflection about, as well as through, discussion is emphasized.