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Investigation the impact of chess play on developing meta-cognitive ability and math problem-solving power of students at different levels of education

  • Islamic Azad University, Iran, Sanandaj Branch

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The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of learning of chess play on developing meta-cognitive ability and mathematical problem-solving capability of students at various levels of schooling. To this end, 86 school-boy students were randomly selected and they taught chess for six months, and another group of 94 students randomly selected for control group. The subjects were assessed via meta-cognitive questionnaire of Panaoura, Philippou, and Christou (2003) and mathematics exams. The results indicated that chess player students showed more achievement in both meta-cognitive abilities and mathematical problem solving capabilities than other non-chess player students. In addition, a positive and significant relationship was found between students’ meta-cognitive ability and their mathematical problem-solving power. These results suggest that we can use chess as an effective tool for developing higher order thinking skills.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 4th International Conference of Cognitive Science
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.01.056
4th International Conference of Cognitive Science (ICCS 2011)
Investigation the impact of chess play on developing meta-cognitive
ability and math problem-solving power of students at different
levels of education
Farhad Kazemia, Mozafar Yektayarb, Ali Mohammadi Bolban Abada,*
aDepartment of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Ghorveh Branch, Kurdistan, Iran
bDepartment of Sports Science, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Kurdistan, Iran
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of learning of chess play on developing meta-cognitive ability and mathematical
problem-solving capability of students at various levels of schooling. To this end, 86 school-boy students were randomly selected
and they taught chess for six months, and another group of 94 students randomly selected for control group. The subjects were
assessed via meta-cognitive questionnaire of Panaoura, Philippou, and Christou (2003) and mathematics exams. The results
indicated that chess player students showed more achievement in both meta-cognitive abilities and mathematical problem solving
capabilities than other non-chess player students. In addition, a positive and significant relationship was found between students’
meta-cognitive ability and their mathematical problem-solving power. These results suggest that we can use chess as an effective
tool for developing higher order thinking skills.
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Chess play; metacognitive ability; mathematics; problem solving
1. Introduction
It is claimed that chess is an activity of boundless potential for the mind. Chess develops mental activities which
are used throughout life. We may mention some of these activities such as problem-solving, focusing, critical
thinking, abstract reasoning, strategic planning, analysis, creativity, evaluation and synthesis. As an instrument to
teach problem-solving and abstract reasoning, we can use chess effectively. Learning how to solve a problem is
probably more important than finding a solution for a specific problem. By means of chess, we learn how to
evaluate a context and to this end, we should concentrate on the main factors and omit diversions. We may find
original and imaginative solutions to accomplish the plan. Chess is very influential, since it is self-motivating. The
game has attracted people for about 2000 years and the aims of attack and defense resulting in checkmate encourage
us to penetrate into our mental store (Celone, 2001).
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +989188734486; fax:+0-000-000-0000
E-mail address:
© 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the 4th International Conference
of Cognitive Science Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
Several studies have been done about the advantage of chess in education. The findings of the studies showed
that chess can advance academic accomplishment, particularly problem solving strategies, enhance memory,
focusing, score of IQ tests, critical thinking and creativity, it also augment spatial and visual power, and the ability
to recognize patterns (Frank, 1974; Ferguson, 1995; Liptrap, 1977; Dauvergne, 2000; Thompson, 2003; Stefurak,
2003; Brenda, 2003; Ferreria & Palharse, 2008). Some researchers have endorsed the influence of chess play on
advancing problem solving ability. Having found similarities between mathematical problem solving and chess,
Horgan (1998) pointed out that chess is clearly a problem-solving instrument and the best possible way to analyze
problem-solving and decision-making because it is a closed system with clear and determined rules. The first step in
encountering a problem is to analyze it in an introductory and subjective way. Assessing the problem and perhaps
trying to find patterns or similarities to prior experiences. Just as mathematics is the study of patterns, so in chess
pattern recognition is very important in problem solving. By recognizing similarity and patters, we can formulate a
general strategy to solve the problem which may include developing other choices and a creative process. A skillful
chess player, like a good problem solver, has obtained a great number of relevant schemata; thus making it possible
for good alternatives to come up. We can use a process of calculations- known as decision tree analysis- to assess
these alternatives. Here the chess player or problem solver is calculating future happenings just based on solutions
that are evaluated.
Problem solving capability is a complicated interaction between cognition and meta-cognition. Perhaps the basic
source of trouble in problem solving is that the students can not actively watch, check and regulate the cognitive
process they encounter upon solving the problems (Artzt & Armour-Thomos, 1992). Flavell (1971) developed the
concept of storage of input, intelligent structuring and retrieval activity, notion of intelligent checking, and called
such knowledge as generally a kind of “meta-memory” (p. 227). Meta-cognition is a persons' knowledge about his
or her own cognitive processes and products. It is also active checking, following regulations and assessment of
cognitive activities (Flavell, 1979). Brown (1987) divided meta-cognitive into two main categories: knowledge of
cognition and regulation of cognition.
Knowledge of cognition is the information that is fixed, uncertain, late developing that human thinkers have as
objects of consideration. Regulation of cognition is the activities used to check and monitor learning. These
activities consist of planning activities (predicting outcomes, setting time strategies, and different forms of indirect
trial and error, etc.) before solving the problems; checking activities (monitoring, testing, revising and resetting
one’s strategies for learning) in the process of learning and controlling outcomes (assessing the outcomes of
strategic actions with the criteria of effectiveness and efficiency).
It has been shown that these activities are not usually stable, though in the past adults have used them on simple
problems and are not fixed (knowing how to do something does not necessarily mean that one can bring the action
to the level of conscious awareness and reporting to others). They are also independent of age, that is, task and
situation dependent (Brown, 1987). One basic aspect of learning which has also been ignored is that students have
the necessary knowledge and skills to do complex tasks but they don’t use them. Perhaps the reason is that students
don’t have motivation or confidence to use them and they do not accept that the situation demands using those skills
(Hartmen, 2001). The different meta-cognitive skills are necessary for successful solution of any complicated
problem-solving task. It is clear that people, who have higher level of meta-cognitive ability, do much better in
problem-solving. They do their best to find out the relationship among the facts in a problem. They may check their
accuracy, take apart complex problems toward simpler steps, and may ask themselves questions, and look for
answers to make their thought clear (Panaoura et al., 2003).
Some evidence shows that chess play can enhance meta-cognitive skills and some other tasks that may be
important for success during challenging tasks, such as mathematical problem-solving. About the influence of chess,
Milat (1997) says:
xChess increases intelligence creativity, enhances strategic thinking skills and enriches problem-solving
ability. Furthermore, it increases self-esteem.
xChess improves and develops higher order thinking skills (that is meta-cognitive skills); in addition
youngsters evaluate the actions and results and predict future possibilities.
xWhen chess is highly practiced in specific countries, practicing students show ability to be among the top in
math’s and science and recognize complicated patterns as well.
374 Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
Given the academic benefits of chess, Meyers (2005) asserts that “we have brought chess to school because we
believe that it can directly contribute to academic performance. Chess makes children smarter. It does this function
by teaching following skills:
xFocusing: children are taught to learn about the advantages of observing and focusing. In addition, children
cannot respond to what is happening unless they watch it.
xVisualizing: children are encouraged to imagine a series of actions before it occurs by training and asking
them to visualize and to move pieces in their mind, first one move, then several moves ahead.
xThinking ahead: children are taught, first of all, to think and later to move on or act. We educate them to
ask themselves “if I do this, what may happen later and how can I respond? Chess helps to develop calmness or
xWeighing options: children may learn they don’t have to express whatever first occurs to their mind, they
learn to find out other choices and take into account the advantages of different actions.
xAnalyzing concretely: children learn to assess the results of particular actions and arrangements. Does this
sequence help me or hurt me? It is better to make a decision based on logic instead of impulse.
xThinking abstractly: children are taught to move back occasionally from details and pay attention to the
whole pictures. They learn to apply patterns to various or related situations especially when they discover them in
one specific context.
xPlanning: children are taught to define long-term goals and do their best to achieve them. They feel the
need to re-evaluate their plans particularly when new improvements change the situation. So our objectives in this
study are to investigate the impact of chess play on developing meta-cognitive ability and math’s problem-solving
powers of students at different levels of education.
2. Method
The statistical population of this study was the male students of fifth, eighth, and ninth grade at primary and
junior high schools in Sanandaj, in west of Iran. The statistical sample includes 180 students who were selected
randomly among the schools. Having explained the research aims to the participants, 86 students were randomly
selected and they were taught chess for 6 months along with routine activities of the school (experimental group or
chess player students). The rest of the students who were 94 people, were put in control group or non-chess player
students. The frequency of participants is showed in table 1.
Table 1. Frequency of the participants
non-chess player students chess player students
29 28 Fifth grade
32 27 Eighth grade
33 31 Ninth grade
94 86 Total
The questionnaire of meta-cognitive ability measurement, that is, Panaoura, et al. (2003), was used for all
participants. The questionnaire consists of 30 metacognitive items designed on the basis of five-choice Likert-scale
ranging from always, often, sometimes, rarely, to never and they are given points 5, 4, 3, 2,1 respectively. Maximum
meta-cognitive score of the students was set at 150 and the minimum was 30. The reliability of the questionnaire,
based on Cronbach's alpha is 0.82. The researcher-made math test was also applied to measure problem-solving
ability of students at different educational grades. To design researcher-made tests, third international mathematics
and science study questions (TIMSS), textbooks and non-textbooks, and math teacher experiences were targeted. In
the end, three tests were selected and applied to participants based on their respective grades (educational levels).
Maximum possible score for each student in the math test was 6.
Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
3. Results
The results obtained from analysis of meta-cognitive questionnaires applied to the participants along with two
independent samples suggest that there is a significant difference at the level p < 0.01 between meta-cognitive scores
means of the chess player students and the non-chess player students (t[178] = 5.08, p < 0.01). These results are
shown in tables 2.
Table 2. Results of independent samples t-test for comparing meta-cognitive score means between two groups
groups n M SD tdf p (2-tailed)
Chess player 86 132.75 7.23
5.08 178 0.000
Non-Chess Player 94 125.56 9.93
According to table 2, we can see that the meta-cognitive scores mean of chess player students was
more than non-chess players (as much as 7.19) and this suggests that chess play, as an independent
variable, has significant role in developing meta-cognitive ability of the students. In addition, the results
suggest that the difference was significant for meta-cognitive scores mean of chess player students at p <
0.01 (for fifth grade), p < 0.05 (for eighth grade) and p < 0.01 (for ninth grade) students when
compared with non-chess player students. The results summarised in table 3.
Table 3.Results of independent samples t-test for comparing meta-cognitive score means of students at different
educational levels
Education level Groups nM SD t df Significance
Fifth grade
Chess players 28 134.80 7.73 2.71 55 Level 99%
p = 0.009
Non- chess players 29 124.57 10.49
Eighth grade Chess players 27 133.26 6.81 2.36 57 Level 95%
p = 0.02
Non- chess players 32 126.67 10.26
Ninth grade Chess players 31 133.10 7.31 3.76 62 Level 99%
p < 0.001
Non- chess players 33 125.09 9.30
Although the result of the current study is indicative of positive effects of chess play on developing
meta-cognitive ability of the students, there is little or no study in this respect to challenge our results or
to support it even more.
Another result of this study is that, as Pearson Correlation test shows, there is a positive and
significant relationship between meta-cognitive ability of students and their problem-solving power at p
< 0.01 level. The Pearson correlation was 0.719 which signifies a strong relationship. This result is
consistent with other research done in mathematics and meta-cognitive domain. Here, some of these
studies are addressed briefly.
376 Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
The results of various studies show that there is a positive and significant relationship between
mathematical problems solving and meta-cognitive elements, that is, the more the students gain the
power of meta-cognitive ability of problem-solving, the more the prospect of their success in solving
challenging problems (Lester, Garofalo, & Krool, 1989; Schoenfeld, 1985; Gooya, 1992; Lucangli &
Cornoldi, 1997; Pape & Smith, 2002; Kazemi, Fadae, & Bayat, 2010). According to Silver (1982) any
learner and math teacher agrees that problem-solving ability involves more than just the accumulation of
skills and techniques; in fact the capability to monitor the progress or process of problem-solving and
knowing the limitation and ability of the individuals are also important. Silver called these "meta-
cognitive abilities" (cited in Gooya, 1992).
Gooya (1992) pointed out that many researchers believe that the ability to make managerial or
executive decisions may signify whether the person can be a problem-solver or not. She asserted that
meta-cognition has an effect on problem-solving and the failure to assess individual strategies may result
in failing to reach a reasonable conclusion. In this way, the behaviour or response of the person who
knows the required and right strategies to solve a problem is justifiable or rational, though she/he may
not be able to solve it. Schoenfeld (1985), in the process of observing beginner problem-solver, reports
that such students have real knowledge and right strategies to solve the problems but their possible
inability to find the answer to the problems is mainly due to their weak executive decisions. Panauora et
al. (2003) believe that, those who have higher meta-cognitive power, are more meticulous and attentive
in discovering or understanding the reality of problems. These people would evaluate their possible
solution easily, analyze complicated problems in a detailed and specific ways and control their own
thinking processes by self-asking.
The result of the researcher-made math test and applying T-independent samples test suggest that
there is a significant difference at p < 0.01 between the mean of problem-solving score of chess player
students and the non-chess player students (t[178] = 2.89, p < 0.01). Table 4, summarizes the results.
Table 4. Results of independent samples t-test for comparing math score means between two groups
Groups nMSD t df
Chess player 86 4.41 .93 2.89 178 0.008
Non-Chess player 94 3.74 1.01
From the table 4, it is clear that the mean of the math scores of the chess player students was more
than the non-chess player students; suggesting that chess play, as an independent variable, has a positive
role on developing problem-solving ability of the students. Furthermore, the results suggest that the
mean difference of math scores of chess player students was significant at p < 0.05 in fifth grade
students, p < 0.05 in eighth grade and p < 0.01 in the ninth grade students when compared with non-
chess player students. Table 5 summarizes the result.
Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
Table 5. Results of independent samples t-test for compare of math scores means in different educational level
Groups nMSDtdfSignificance
Fifth grade
Chess players 28 4.44 0.9 2.13 55 Level 95%
p = 0.03
Non- chess players 29 3.79 0.83
Chess players 27 4.39 0.99 2.25 57 Level 95%
p = 0.01
Non- chess players 32 3.71 1.08
Chess players 31 4.37 0.95 2.72 62 Level 99%
p = 0.004
Non- chess players 33 3.68 1.11
The result of this study is consistent with other research done in this respect. Here we review some of them
briefly. In a study carried out by Gaudreau (1992), in New Brunswick, Canada, it was shown that there is a
significant and extensive relationship between math skill and chess play. In this study which was done on 437 fifth
grades of elementary students, chess was injected in the curriculum of concerned groups. The result of this study
suggests that the students, who had participated in chess play, got higher scores in problem-solving activity. Thus
the role of chess play was accepted as an instrument to enhance problem-solving among students. Accordingly, the
researchers started to publish the texts called “challenging mathematics” and utilized chess for logical teaching of
math to students from second grade to eighth grade of junior high school. By applying this program the score mean
of student's problem-solving increased from 62% well up to 81%. In province of Quebec, Canada, when this
program was first started, applying this program improved the students’ math score when compared with the scores
of other Canadian students in other parts. Furthermore, math mean score of Canadian students was higher than those
of American peers in international mathematics exams (cited in Ferguson, 1995).
Celone (2001) tried to answer the question whether notional or conceptual teaching of chess can develop
student’s abstract thinking and their problem-solving ability or not. To answer this question he did a research on 19
students of elementary school who voluntarily participated in a one-week program that lasted 20 hours. Students
were tested just before and after this program and by using equivalent forms of the TONI-3 Test of Non-Verbal
Intelligence, a valid and reliable instrument associated with abstract reasoning and problem-solving and by using the
Knight’s Tour, a domain-specific instrument measuring overall chess problem-solving ability. The result of this
study suggests that significant increase between scores just before and after the test was observed and the
improvement was both in their problem-solving ability and intelligence quotient (IQ).
In another study done in New York on 3000 students in 100 public schools, the efficacy of chess programs on
developing problem-solving ability and reading comprehension was observed (Margulies, 1993). The result of
another study done by Ferguson (1995) shows that by including chess in the curriculum, math teachers could detect
significantly improvement of math scores of students and their problem-solving power when compared with those
students who had not taken part in these programs. Ferguson goes on to say that in 1989 only 120 students were
enrolled and trained in chess clubs but in three years, that is, in 1992, the number of students in chess schools
amounted to 19000. The increase was owing to appraising the results of relevant studies and convincing the families
and educational personnel of usefulness and effectiveness of chess play and its pedagogical and social effects.
378 Farhad Kazemi et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 32 ( 2012 ) 372 – 379
5. Conclusion
The results of the present study and other relevant researches in this area suggest that chess teaching to students
at different educational levels, improves significantly their mathematical problem-solving ability. Furthermore, the
result of this study suggests that chess play has the potential to increase meta-cognitive ability of the learners. As we
already mentioned, no documented or compelling research has yet been done. in this regard. So, there is much room
for interested researchers and scholars to do new similar studies with the hope that they may contribute to this field
of study.
Pedagogical implications of the current study is directed to educational administers, educators, professors and
all those who are interested in developing mathematics teaching and instruction. The question or suggestion is, “why
should not we introduce chess teaching along with teaching of other subjects? Should we use chess as a useful
educational tool, in improving math teaching or enhancing problem-solving strategies?” If we apply the above-
mentioned suggestions, we hope to achieve the following objectives:
xThe students would be able to think on problems reasonably and plausibly and would find the ability to
analyze the problems correctly. In fact, they would learn the main framework and approaches of solving the
xEnhancing perception, creativity and reasoning of the students by analysis and practice of different chess
xWhen students experience the subtlety and sophistication of chess play, upon encountering complex and
subtle matters, they often associate or link these two elements and discover the logic and subtlety of mathematics. In
reality, this complexity may take tangible or real forms for students.
xChess play enhances thinking and abstract thought.
xChess play can create an impression or the sort of thinking in the students to the effect that they might not
get disappointed or frustrated on facing a difficult problem. The students do their best to sort out the problem in an
optimistic or persistent way.
In sum, we may claim that chess will create a strong belief system in the individuals as problem-solvers.
This paper has been selected from a research project, with the same title, in the Islamic Azad University,
Ghorveh branch, Kurdistan, Iran. We are grateful to the Mr. Saman Saedi in Sanandaj who kindly helped us to
collect data for this research.
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... In problem solving, previous experiences are used. Therefore, it can be stated that chess has a positive effect on mathematical success since it improves students' meta cognitive skills (Kazemi et al., 2012). Like a good problem-solving student, a talented chess player creates many schemes in their mind, both of whom make predictions for the future using their existing schemes and the possibilities of solutions that have already been tried and were successful (Kazemi et al., 2012). ...
... Therefore, it can be stated that chess has a positive effect on mathematical success since it improves students' meta cognitive skills (Kazemi et al., 2012). Like a good problem-solving student, a talented chess player creates many schemes in their mind, both of whom make predictions for the future using their existing schemes and the possibilities of solutions that have already been tried and were successful (Kazemi et al., 2012). ...
... The positive effect of chess on academic achievement means students better understand concepts, develop memory and problem-solving skills (Kazemi et al., 2012) . Having these skills in the younger generation supports them to be more competent, controlled citizens in the future. ...
Full-text available
... Several studies found that the advantages of chess in education (Ferguson, 1995;Ferreira & Palhares, 2008b;Liptrap, 1998;Thompson, 2003). The results show that chess can advance academic achievement, especially problem-solving strategies, improve memory, focus, IQ test scores, critical thinking and creativity, as well as improve spatial and visual power, and the ability to recognize patterns (Farhad Kazemi, Yektayar, & Abad, 2012). This shows that the abilities needed in solving mathematical problems can be improved through chess games. ...
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Mathematics is the study of patterns, so in chess pattern recognition is very important in problem solving. Chess is a problem-solving instrument and the best way to analyze problem-solving because chess has clear rules in decision making, thus a skilled chess player becomes a good problem solver. Metacognitive activity and problem-solving processes are intimately intertwined. The purpose of this research is to describe the metacognition profiles of students who play chess and students who do not play chess in solving mathematical problems. This research is a qualitative-research. The research subjects in this study were students who could play chess and students who could not play chess. The criteria are students who have participated in chess matches as low as possible at the sub-district level and regularly play chess, while students who cannot play chess are students who do not understand the basics of playing chess. This research carried out in class VIII at a junior high school in Surabaya. The instruments in this study were math ability tests, problem-solving tests and interview guidelines. The data collection procedure was carried out by giving students a math problem-solving test and interviews. The data analysis technique in this study was carried out in the following steps; transcribing the subject's answers, examining the subject's answer data from interviews, data reduction, data categories, analyzing students' metacognition profiles, and drawing conclusions. The results of the study stated that the metacognitive abilities in solving problems of chess students were better than those of non-chess students. The ES subject achieved 80% of metacognitive activity indicators, while the MI subject only achieved 54.25% of metacognitive activity indicators. ABSTRAK. Matematika adalah ilmu yang mempelajari pola, maka dalam catur pengenalan pola sangat penting dalam pemecahan masalah. Catur adalah instrumen pemecahan masalah dan cara terbaik untuk menganalisis pemecahan masalah karena catur memiliki aturan yang jelas dalam pengambilan keputusan, sehingga pemain catur yang terampil menjadi pemecah masalah yang baik. Proses pemecahan masalah terkait erat dengan aktivitas metakognitif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan profil metakognisi siswa yang bermain catur dan siswa yang tidak bermain catur dalam menyelesaikan masalah matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Subjek penelitian dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa yang dapat bermain catur dan siswa yang tidak dapat bermain catur. Kriterianya adalah siswa yang pernah mengikuti pertandingan catur serendah-rendahnya di tingkat kecamatan dan rutin bermain catur, sedangkan siswa yang tidak dapat bermain catur adalah siswa yang tidak memahami dasar-dasar bermain catur. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas VIII pada salah satu sekolah menengah pertama di Surabaya. Instrumen dalam penelitian ini adalah tes kemampuan matematika, tes pemecahan masalah dan pedoman wawancara. Prosedur pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan memberikan siswa tes pemecahan masalah matematika dan wawancara. Teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut; mentranskrip jawaban subjek, mengkaji data jawaban subjek dari wawancara, reduksi data, kategori data, menganalisis profil metakognisi siswa, dan menarik kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa kemampuan metakognitif dalam memecahkan masalah siswa pecatur lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siswa non-pecatur. Subjek ES mencapai 80% indikator aktivitas metakognitif, sedangkan subjek MI hanya mencapai 54,25% indikator aktivitas metakognitif.
... Contrary to the research results that chess education provides a modest educational benefit (Gobet & Campitelli, 2006;Sala & Gobet, 2017), studies confirming the benefits of this game (Aciego et al., 2012;Kazemi et al., 2012;Sala et al., 2015;Trinchero, 2013) support the view that it has positive cognitive effects on students of normal school age. Most educators who question the concept of general intelligence do not accept the point of view of chess masters that the game improves general intelligence, self-control, analytical skills, and concentration skills (Marguiles, 1991). ...
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Chess, which is a game of intelligence and sports that has been played for centuries, is increasingly important, and many countries are trying to popularize it as an educational tool or sport in schools. In this qualitative study, preschool teachers' experiences of learning the game of chess, their evaluations of these experiences, their teaching practices in preschool classes after learning the game, their self-evaluation, and educational support needs were investigated based on the opinions of teachers. The study was carried out with 12 preschool teachers determined by purposive sampling method in the spring term of 2020. The study was conducted face-to-face with a semi-structured interview form. The descriptive analysis method was used in the analysis of the data obtained from the interviews. The participants believed that they needed educational support in teaching chess. The results will be useful in terms of organizing preschool chess teaching program content and practices in a way that will form the basis for the game. Keywords: Chess; learning; preschool; teacher activity; teaching experience.
... to improved mathematical abilities, to solve problems. For example, in an experimental study, Kazemi et al. (2012) demonstrated the correlation between chess and mathematical ability, in primary-and secondary-level male students in Iran. Their results underline that those who played chess scored significantly higher on their metacognitive abilities and showed higher problem-solving skills in math. ...
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Introduction: The study examines the role of chess in the development of children from the perspectives of parents. The research focused on analyzing the parents' perceptions about chess's role in their children's development, on finding out how the perception of parents differs depending on whether they know how to play chess or not, and on outlining the profile of the parents whose children play chess.The study was conducted in Romania. Methods: In order to conduct the study, a quantitative research method was used, while having as a research instrument a non-standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was applied to parents of chess-playing children who are members of chess clubs from Romania. The sample of the study comprises 774 respondents. Results: The results of our research showed that parents are of the opinion that chess helps children develop their cognitive abilities, their character and their competitive spirit. Most of the parents focused on highlighting the positive effects of chess on the development of their children. Parents also considered that chess helped their children develop positive emotions and helped them overcome negative emotions. The results revealed differences between the opinions of parents depending on whether they know how to play chess or not. Thus, parents who do know how to play chess were more likely to focus on the positive effects of the game on the development of their children, and those who know how to play chess were also more satisfied with their children's accumulated knowledge following chess lessons. Discussion: Findings extend our understanding of how parents perceive the way chess influences the development of their children, it offered us a perspective on the perceived benefits of chess, benefits which should be further analyzed in order to identify under what circumstances chess could be introduced in the school curriculum.
... Students with low cognitive levels have low problem solving abilities. A high cognitive level encourages students to be more dynamic in thinking (Kazemi et al., 2012). The ability to solve problems is more effective when done collaboratively. ...
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Covid-19 has had a huge impact in all sectors. The socio-economic sector experienced the heaviest impact. One of the sectors affected is the world of education. Education is now transforming from face-to-face learning to online learning. Online learning is very helpful for students during covid-19. In addition to having a positive value, online learning also contains a negative value. For example, students' interest in reading increases, but on the other hand, students' reading power is low. Low reading power has an impact on decreasing the cognitive level of students. The purpose of this research is to first identify the cognitive level profiles and students' abilities in solving problems in the synthesis of biodiesel from used cooking oil. Analyzing the correlation between cognitive level and students' ability to solve problems. This research is a correlational descriptive research. This research was conducted on fourth semester chemistry education students who were taking an instrument chemistry course and determining the structure of organic compounds. Cognitive level and problem-solving ability were measured using a rubric for assessing cognitive level and student problem-solving ability. The data obtained is then described in graphical form. The data was then tested for correlation using the SPSS product moment correlation test. In this study, it was found that the cognitive level of most students entered at C2 and C3 levels and the average problem solving ability was 53.84. The results of the correlation test show that the cognitive level is positively correlated with the ability of students to solve problems. This is evidenced by the comparison of the value of r count 0.724> r table 0.44. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the cognitive level and problem solving abilities of students are still low. Cognitive level and problem solving ability are positively correlated.
... A study conducted in Spain in 2012 demonstrated significantly better scores on tests measuring problem-solving performance along with various analytical intelligence indicators by students who attended chess classes than by students who participated in sports events instead [19]. A study conducted in Iran on the same year showed a significantly higher metacognitive ability and mathematics scores among students who received chess instruction than among the control group [20]. A year later, a study was conducted in Italy, showing that chess lessons do not only induce a moderate improvement of problem-solving skills, but that the degree of this improvement is also directly proportional to the amount of chess instruction received [21]. ...
Chess is a game that delicately weaves analytical thinking around artistic experience, yet recent conversions of STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) to STEAM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Art-Mathematics) have omitted adding chess as an elementary coursework to K-12 and higher education curricula. Chess, as per arguments presented in this essay, can be considered as a language and a tool for furthering the development of artistic skills among scientists and analytical, pattern-recognition skills among artists. It can also serve as a missing link between science and art in STEAM curricula thanks to its finding itself halfway between the two. A handful of analogies are drawn here from chess, illustrated sporadically with positions from real-life chess games and converted to lessons in creativity for students in natural sciences. The discussion centered around these analogies is reinforced by a literature review of studies conducted over the past 80 years to assess the effect of exposing students to lessons in chess on their learning in distant domains. Overall, great benefits can emerge from complementing science education with chess and it is hoped that chess will become an integral part of basic education in primary schools and universities worldwide in the near future.
... This further helps in learning mathematics easily (Arani & Mobarakeh, 2012). Problemsolving ability is a complex interaction of cognition and metacognition (Kazemi, Yektayar, and Abad (2012). Perhaps the most fundamental source of difficulty in problem-solving is that students cannot actively monitor, check, and regulate the cognitive processes while solving problems (Artzt & Armour-Thomos, 1992). ...
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This study analysis is aimed at examining the relationship between logical thinking, metacognitive skills, and problem-solving abilities. To accomplish the research purpose, 100 senior secondary school students were surveyed. A descriptive survey method was adopted to examine the study results. Logical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and metacognitive skills scales were used to assess students' skills. These three scales have been pretested and have good reliability and validity. The collected data was analysed using correlation and multiple regression techniques. Pearson product-moment correlation results show a significant relationship between study variables. Further, results of the comparison show that problem-solving abilities differ significantly on the basis of gender and stream of the students. Mediation analysis revealed that logical thinking fully mediates the relationship between metacognition and problem-solving abilities. In the present study, logical thinking accounts for 52.4% of the total effect. Moreover, the result of the interaction of metacognition and logical thinking skills on problem-solving abilities is significant, which leads to the conclusion that logical thinking also works as a moderator between the predictor and outcome variable.
... Chess players showed an improvement in both meta-cognitive and math problemsolving skills compared to pupils who did not practice chess [3]. Playing chess develops the ability to use critical thinking in chess related situations but also in real life tasks. ...
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The role of thinking in practicing chess is obvious because the game is a mental struggle between two opponents, and weapons are the notions previously assimilated. Their operationalization is present both in the training sessions prior to the competition and during the matches. 32 4th grade students were selected and divided equally into two sides, the experimental group and the control group. The Bender-Santucci test (spatial orientation) and the Similarities Test (logical thinking) were used to observe both intellectual and physiological development. The experimental group recorded better marks in both tests, and these results correlate statistically.
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Im Zuge dieser Bachelorarbeit wurden verschiedene Faktoren untersucht, die den Mathematikerwerb sowie den generellen schulischen Erfolg von Kindern und Jugendlichen begünstigen. Dazu wurden verschiedene Studien analysiert, die sich mit IQ, Gedächtnisleistung, Konzentrationsvermögen, Aufmerksamkeit, akademische Problemlösekompetenz, Motivation, sozialverhalten und metakognitive Fähigkeiten beschäftigen. Aus diesen Untersuchungen und fünf Interviews lassen sich folgende Resultate ableiten: Die momentan verfügbaren empirischen Belege deuten darauf hin, dass Schachspieler tendenziell etwas intelligenter sind als Nicht-Schachspieler und dass im Besonderen bei Kindern ein gewisser Zusammenhang zwischen Schachfertigkeit und Intelligenz besteht. Allerdings beruhen diese Ergebnisse rein auf Korrelationsdaten, so dass jede Schlussfolgerung über die Richtung der Kausalität höchst unsicher ist. Studien die sich jedoch mit Gedächtnisleistung, Konzentrationsvermögen, Aufmerksamkeitsspanne und metakognitiven Fähigkeiten beschäftig haben, können einen positiven Effekt von Schachunterricht auf Kinder und Jugendliche nachweisen. Schach hat somit einen positiven Effekt auf kognitive Fähigkeiten wie Aufmerksamkeit, Gedächtnisleistung, Merkfähigkeit, und akademisches Problemlösen. Zusätzlich hat Schachunterricht einen positiven Einfluss auf das Selbstwertgefühl, Motivation und die sozialen Fähigkeiten von Schülerinnen und Schülern. Es ist jedoch sehr stark von der Art des Unterrichts ab, welche Bereiche und Fähigkeiten gefördert werden.
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p>Purpose. The article aims to reveal the influence of individual psychological characteristics of schoolchildren who studied chess subject on the results of chess test. Method and sampling. The method of free drawing, «My chess lesson», was used, and the method of assessing chess knowledge and skills was also applied using the developed chess test. Based on the school chess curriculum, the test was compiled by a team of experienced specialists in the field of chess education, psychologists, sociologists and professional chess players. The materials of an empirical study on a sample of schoolchildren from all regions of the Republic of Armenia (N=383) are presented. Results and conclusions. Comparing the review of previous studies and empirical data, authors talk about the conditionality of chess skills by individual psychological characteristics of children, such as introversion, intuition, intelligence, reflexivity, etc. Psychological resources and the gender of schoolchildren also determine the development of chess skills. The results emphasize the need to consider individual psychological characteristics both in the preparation of the program and in teaching chess as a general subject at school.</p
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Recent research highlights the importance of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive skills in learning. This chapter reviews some of the recent literature on metacognition in learning and describes some methods of helping students acquire strategic metacognitive knowledge and executive management skills to improve their learning. Topics focused on include reading metacognition, graphic organizers, modeling, self-assessment, self-questioning, and thinking aloud, all of which can be used across content domains.
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This research has focused on the study of meta-cognitive behaviors as one of the important and effective behaviors in mathematical problem solving. The main purpose of this study was to assess the role of meta-cognitive skills in mathematical problems solving (example of combinatorics). Wherefore complexity nature of meta-cognition, there is broad consensus among researchers that all methodologies applied in this area of research are fallible, have strengths and weaknesses, and feel that the strengths of one single methodology can complement the weaknesses of another methodology. Thus, in this study, we used mixed methodology (writing and self-questionnaire) that do not share the same source of error to provide a more reliable picture of the phenomena under investigation. Another aims were, identity of prevalent errors and student's difficulties in combinatorics problems solving, and to assess the role of meta-cognition on routine and non-routine problems. A group of thirty four college students enrolled in discrete mathematics participated in this study. In this research the students were asked to write their total mental processes during solving two problems. Immediately after solving the problems, the students were given a questionnaire to answer the questions accordingly to their mental processes during solving the second problem. The Problem solving protocols were initially analyzed using Foong's model. The results showed, first, the mean difference of successful student's meta-cognitive behaviors was significant in solving both problems compare to unsuccessful students at the 0.05 level, (F[2,31] = 34.015, p < 0.05), (F [2,31] = 65.764, p < 0.05). And second, meta-cognitive skills active on non-routine problems and to facilitate solving of them.
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In this paper we present the context and results from a study, with 3rd to 6th grades children, about the relationship between chess and problem solving involving geometric and numeric patterns. The main result of this study is the existence of a relation between strength of play and patterns involving problem solving. We have included in the beginning an analysis of chess as a context for elementary mathematics problems, also showing its richness historically.
The effect of playing chess on problem solving was explored using Rasch scaling and hierarchical linear modelling. Subjects were 508 students from Grades 6 - 12 in an Australian Independent boys school, with a strong tradition in the game of chess. Of these 508 students, 64 were regular players of competitive chess. Data from the Australian Schools Science Competition were Rasch scaled and placed on a single scale for all the grades. Multilevel analysis using hierarchical linear modelling was employed to test the effects of the hypothesised variables. No significant effect of the playing of chess on the scholastic performance was found, suggesting that previous results showing positive effects may have been due to other factors such as general intelligence or normal development. It is suggested that this combination of Rasch scaling and multilevel analysis is a powerful tool for exploring such areas where the research design has proven difficult in the past.
It is important for pupils to be aware of their strengths and limitations as learners. Last years metacognition has been receiving increased attention in cognitive psychology. Special attention has been focused on metacognition as the interface between cognition and affect and its essential role in self-regulation in achievement settings. The present study, represents the initial phase of instrument development for the measurement of metacognition in mathematics learning appropriate for young children. Almost all items of the inventory loaded as expected. Four factors contained items about metacognitive knowledge and five factors contained items about regulation of cognition. There were high correlations between the nine factors, reflecting the high correlation between the two metacognitive aspects of metacognition. Results of pupilsattempt to solve a non-routine problem indicated that they had a very poor knowledge about their cognitive abilities.