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Abstract

Previous research reports positive effects of yoga on health. The physical and psychological outcomes of participation in Bikram yoga are under-researched despite its increasing popularity, and this type of yoga may be significant with regards to stress management due to its unique method of practice. This study was designed to assess changes in levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, and physical fitness after participation in an 8-week Bikram yoga program. Fifty-one participants aged 20–54 years (mean, 31.57 years) were recruited by word of mouth from a large university located in the Northwestern United States. Participants attended a minimum of 20 Bikram sessions over 8 weeks. Changes in mindfulness (Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and physical fitness (resting heart rate, 1-mile walk, sit-and-reach, total-body rotation, and single-leg balance) were measured. Eight weeks of Bikram yoga improved mindfulness, perceived stress, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility and balance (p < 0.01). Mindfulness was negatively correlated with perceived stress (r=−0.43, p < 0.01) and resting heart rate (r=−0.30, p < 0.05). The results show that Bikram yoga positively affected psychological and physical health in the sample population. This information can be used to further the understanding of mind-body based programs, and how Bikram yoga may give people the tools to decrease perceived stress, potentially having an effect on chronic stress-related illnesses.
... Moreover, exercising in a hot and humid environment is mentally and physically challenging. As such, hot yoga is thought to help participants promote focus and awareness on breathing (Hewett et al., 2011), thereby boosting mindfulness, calmness, determination, and peace of mind. For the above reasons, hot yoga is often advertised as a way to improve one's physical health and mental well-being, despite the lack of a scientific basis for such claims. ...
... However, to the best of our knowledge, no RCT studies with a sufficiently large sample size have evaluated the effects of hot yoga on a comprehensive range of indicators of well-being, including mindfulness, peace of mind, mental health, flourishing, satisfaction with life, general health, and hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Some research efforts have been made to examine the relationship between hot yoga and psychological wellbeing, including its effects on mindfulness and perceived stress (Hewett et al., 2011), mood (Mace & Eggleston, 2016), positive-/ negative-affect and state-anxiety (Szabo et al., 2017), emotions and psychological resources (Park et al., 2020), as well as life satisfaction and core self-evaluation (Rissell et al., 2014). There are also studies that focus on the physical benefits of hot yoga, such as its effects on sleep quality (Kudesia & Bianchi, 2012), cardiovascular disease risk factors (Hunter et al., 2013), bone density (Sangiorgio et al., 2014), and general physical fitness (Tracy & Hart, 2013). ...
... According to the most widely-proposed physiological mechanism, certain yoga techniques (e.g., poses, breathing, focus, etc.) may down-regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system at multiple levels (Ross & Thomas, 2010). On the other hand, research on the psychological mechanisms is sparse, although some have suggested that yoga may improve stress management skills through enhanced mindfulness (Hewett et al., 2011;Jansen, 2005). It has also been proposed that the cognitive benefits of yoga can be attributed to the development of focus (Gothe et al., 2016), and the improved self-esteem can be mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy (Golec de Zavala et al., 2017). ...
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Practicing hot yoga may bring significant psychological benefits, but it is largely unstudied. We examined the effectsof hot yoga on multifaceted well-being indicators with 290 healthy yoga-naïve volunteers partaking in a six-weekrandomized controlled trial. Participants completed questionnaires pre- and post-intervention, and reported theiremotional experiences four times per day throughout an experience-sampling study. Results revealed that the hot yogagroup (n = 137) improved their well-being from pre- to post-treatment, comparing to the wait-list control group (n = 153).These improvements included life satisfaction, general health, mindfulness, peace of mind, and eudaimonic well-being(ΔR2 ranging from .01 to .08)—but not flourishing, which describes major aspects of social-psychological functioning.Multilevel analyses demonstrated that momentary positive emotional experiences increased significantly throughoutthe trial in the yoga group only (conditional R2 = .68), particularly when attending a yoga class (conditional R2 = .50).Interestingly, this increase in momentary positive emotion explained the improvement in post-intervention mindfulness,peace of mind, and general health by 21%, 31%, and 11%, respectively. Finally, the benefits of hot yoga were more notablein individuals with lower levels of baseline eudaimonic well-being (conditional R2 = .45), flourishing (conditional R2= .61), and mental well-being (conditional R2 = .65), even after ruling out any possible ceiling effects. To sum up, thisstudy demonstrated multiple psychological benefits of hot yoga and its potential to be an effective positive psychologyintervention. Future research—especially considering an active control group—is warranted.
... There is evidence that short-term (8-weeks) yoga results in increased lower body strength and flexibility and improvements in arterial stiffness and glucose tolerance (Hunter et al., 2013a,b;Tracy and Hart, 2013). Most previous studies have focused on physical outcomes however, one uncontrolled study showed improvements in mindfulness scores after 8 weeks of yoga (Hewett et al., 2011). ...
... Yoga interventions have been infrequently studied among those with ADHD (Jensen and Kenny, 2004;Peck et al., 2005). Results from studies investigating the effects of yoga training in adults without ADHD have found both physical and mental health benefits (Cramer et al., 2013(Cramer et al., , 2014Gothe, 2015), such as improvements in anxiety, cognition, and increased mindfulness (Hewett et al., 2011;Cramer et al., 2013;Gothe, 2015). Mindfulness meditation, in the absence of yoga, has been shown to activate the brain (Chambers et al., 2009;Hölzel et al., 2011;Lomas et al., 2015) and improve several psychological outcomes, especially stress and anxiety (Hofmann et al., 2010). ...
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Purpose Little is known about the effects of yoga training in adults with ADHD symptoms. This pilot study sought to determine the feasibility and selected psychological effects of 6 weeks of yoga training in women screening positive for adult ADHD compared to a wait-list control group. Methods A randomized trial was conducted with 32 adult women (18–24 years) who volunteered after screening positive for adult ADHD as assessed by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Participants were randomized to 6 weeks of Bikram yoga training or to a wait-list control group. The yoga intervention consisted of two 90-min classes per week. Multilevel models were used to test hypothesized interactions of yoga-induced improvements compared to controls across time (baseline, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks). The primary outcomes assessed inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility and working memory using the NIH Toolbox. Separate models with trait mindfulness, trait anxiety and expectations for change in either attention or working memory as covariates tested whether these variables mediated the changes in the three measures of executive function. Secondary outcomes included mood, perceived functional impairment and motivation for, and hyperactivity during, the cognitive tests. Results No adverse events were observed. Attendance averaged 91.7% among the 69% of the sample that did not dropout. No significant Group X Time interactions were found for any of the psychological outcomes and the null executive function findings were unchanged when including the covariates. Conclusion Six-weeks of yoga training twice per week is potentially feasible for women experiencing ADHD symptoms, but an exercise stimulus of this duration and magnitude yields no beneficial cognitive or mood outcomes.
... This is similar to McCraty et al. (1998) who found that positive emotions can reduce HR and have positive physiological effects. Further, these findings might help explain why past research has had conflicting results when examining the relationships between heart rate and perceptions of stress (Dishman et al. 2000;Hewett et al. 2011). Thus, since the overall correlation was not significant, hypothesis 5 was accepted. ...
Article
Understanding the effects of travel on the health of travelers could have profound effects on the tourism industry and behaviors of tourists. While psychometric analyses have suggested travel has the ability to relieve stress and improve one’s overall well-being, scant research has utilized physiological data to examine the effects of travel on health. The current study, guided by the cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS), compared self-reported diaries and physiological data (using heart rate monitors) to examine the effects cruising has on both perceived and actual stress. Results empirically validate the use of CATS as a theoretical framework for understanding travelers’ perceived and actual stress. Findings also inform specific guidance to both cruise management, on how to engineer cruise experiences based on stress, and individuals, on how to experience positive stress while traveling.
... et.al (2011) examined the consequence of 8 week practice of Brikram Yoga on mindfulness in healthy male (n=10) and female (n=41) adult subjects (mean age = 31.57 years), where they measured before and after the yoga practice 314 . They found significant improvement in mindfulness after practicing bikram yoga for 8 months. ...
Thesis
Objective: We intended to evaluate the efficacy of yogic exercise on cardio-respiratory fitness; memory, stress, mental health and plasma nitric oxide level in healthy adult subjects. We also aimed to find out the correlation between change in cardiorespiratory fitness & mental health and nitric oxide level due to yoga practice. Methods: In this yoga interventional study, the most prevalent yoga exercise model (Asanas, Pranayama and Meditation) was used. The study samples (n=200) were healthy male (n=120) and female (n=80) adults (mean age=39.95 years) were recruited by taking written consent. Subjects with any systemic and/or psychological disorders or under specific medications, pregnant women were excluded. Subjects who have never practiced or practicing yoga or other type of physical exercise and willing to practice yoga (1 hr per day; 6 days per week for 6 months) were included in the study. Data was collected at baseline (pre-yogic exercise) and after 6-months of yoga training (post-yogic exercise). The following parameters were measured at baseline and after yoga practice for 6 months: Cardio-respiratory parameters and fitness: Resting HR, resting BP, HR and BP after Harvard Step Test (HST), vital capacity, FEV1, PEFR, VO2max, physical fitness index (PFI); Mental health: memory, perceived stress (PSS), anxiety, depression, emotional balance, loss of behavioral or emotional control, general positive affect, life satisfaction, psychological distress & well-being, mental health index (MHI); and plasma nitric oxide level (NOx). The collected data was statistically analyzed with SPSS (24th version). Paired t-test was applied to determine the significance difference between baseline and post-yogic data values. The p-value was established at 5% level of significance. vii Results: We found significant decrease in resting heart rate (p<0.0001) and resting SBP and DBP (p<0.0001); significant increase vital capacity (p<0.0001), FEV1 (p<0.0001), PEFR (p<0.0001) and increase in VO2max (p<0.0001) by 14.43%, NOx (p<0.001) after yoga regimen. We found significant increase (p<0.0001) in physical fitness index by 56%. Yogic exercise for 6 months resulted in significant increase in memory score ((p<0.0001) and significant reduction in perceived stress score (PSS); anxiety (p<0.0001), depression (p<0.0001), and loss of behavioral or emotional control (p<0.0001) and psychological distress (p<0.0001) scores. Further, we found significant increase in general positive affect (p<0.0001), emotional ties (p<0.0001), life satisfaction (p<0.0001) scores. Regular practice of yoga for 6 months have resulted in significant increase in mental health index (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Significant improvement in cardio-respiratory fitness and mental health due to yoga practice suggests the extremely positive health benefits on physiological as well as psychological health. The results indicate the effectiveness of yoga as mind and body work out modality to improve the cardio-respiratory and mental health, if practiced regularly.
... This pattern is found to be more beneficial in calming the mind thus reducing stress, anxiety and depression. [5,37,38] while bikram yoga is a set of 26 asanas, standing pranayama, floor asanas and savasanas performed in a constant heat of 40° Celsius and 40% humidity [39], Iyengar yoga is more focused on asanas and breathing with supporting equipments of duration 90 min [40]. Majority of the studies are done on Indian population and the similar effect on other population needs evaluation. ...
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systematic review and metaanalysis: Effect of yoga on glycemic control and oxidative stress in people with T2DM
... Of these, mindfulness-sustaining awareness and acceptance without judgment-has most often been linked with yoga practice. [5][6][7] However, few studies have examined whether increased mindfulness mediate yoga's beneficial effects 4 and results are inconsistent. 8 For example, in a small study of participants in a residential yoga program, increases in mindfulness mediated effects on perceived stress and quality of life. ...
Article
Objectives Yoga demonstrates beneficial effects in many populations, yet our understanding of how yoga brings about these effects is quite limited. Among the proposed mechanisms of yoga are increasing psychological resources (mindfulness, body consciousness, self-transcendence, spiritual peace, and social connectedness) that may bring about salutary effects on emotional wellbeing. Further, yoga is a complex practice comprising meditation, active and restorative postures, and breathwork; however little is known about how different components may affect mechanisms. We aimed to determine how an acute session of yoga (and its specific components) related to pre- to post- session changes in proposed mechanisms (psychological resources) and whether those changes were associated with positive changes in emotions. Design 144 regular yoga practitioners completed measures of mindfulness, body consciousness, self-transcendence, social connectedness, spiritual peace, and exercise-induced emotions (positive engagement, revitalization, tranquility, exhaustion) immediately before and after a yoga session (N = 11 sessions, each a different type of yoga). Perceived properties of each yoga session, exercise exertion and engagement with the yoga teacher were assessed immediately following the session. Results Pre-to post- yoga, levels of positive emotions (engagement, tranquility and revitalization) increased while exhaustion decreased. Further, all psychological resources increased and closely tracked improved emotions. Additionally, aspects of the yoga session correlated with changes in psychological resources (mechanisms) and emotions. Conclusions Yoga may influence multiple psychological mechanisms that influence emotional well-being. Further, different types of yoga may affect different mechanisms. Results can inform yoga interventions aiming to optimize effects through specific mechanisms such as mindfulness or spirituality.
... By gaining the ability to reappraise competitive challenges, athletes should be enabled to simultaneously evaluate psychological re-activity and regulate their physiological arousal response. It is asserted that the MBI may help Wushu athletes to reduce their perception of anxiety before competition, to sustain nonjudgmental awareness during a competitive situation, and to experience a greater level of positive state of mind and act [24,39]. Based on this assumption, the present report also considered physiological stress markers. ...
Article
Objective: Due to the impact of stress and related psychophysiological responses on competitive performance, psychological interventions that reduce stress and may thus increase athletic performance need to be evaluated. In this pilot study, the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on competitive anxiety, self-confidence and mindfulness, and autonomic and endocrine stress responses to a competition in elite athletes were explored. Methods: Twenty-six male elite Wushu athletes (N = 26) were randomly assigned to either MBI (8 weeks) or a wait-list control group. Both groups participated in three competitions at baseline, immediately post intervention, and at a 2-month follow-up. Athletes completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 prior to the competitions. Saliva, from which the stress markers cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA) were determined, was collected prior to and after competitions as well as after awakening and in the evening of competition days. Results: Repeated measures ANOVAs showed that the MBI group, but not the wait-list control group, demonstrated an increase in self-confidence and mindfulness and a decrease in competitive anxiety from baseline to post intervention (all p < .001, all ɳp2 > 0.39). The MBI group exhibited lower sCort daily levels (p = .001, ɳp2 = 0.332) and lower sCort (p = .013, ɳp2 = 0.121) and sAA responses (p = .022, ɳp2 = 0.119) to the competition after the intervention. Daily sAA was unaffected by the intervention (p = .742, ɳp2 = 0.011). These changes remained stable up to the 2-month follow-up. Conclusions: The present pilot study suggested that mindfulness-based intervention might be associated with a diminished physiological and psychological stress responses to competition. Whether this in turn translates to change in performance needs to be examined in future studies with larger samples. Moreover, different sport activities need to be considered before findings can be generalized.
Article
Background: The Hispanic/Latinx population constitutes the fastest growing ethnic/racial minority group in the United States (U.S.). Compared to their non-Hispanic/Latinx White counterparts, Hispanic/Latinx youth experience more depression and anxiety, and have more unmet mental health needs (88% vs 76%). Emerging research supports the psychological and physical benefits of mind-body awareness training to enhance well-being and mental health, but almost no studies have recruited ethnic/racial minority samples. Purpose: The current study examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary impact of a mindfulness-based yoga program among Hispanic/Latinx public high school students. Procedures: Participants (N = 187) were recruited from a local public high school in a large multi-ethnic urban school district in the Southeast U.S. and participated in 6 weekly hour-long sessions of mindfulness-based yoga. Participants completed assessments at pretest and one month after program completion. Main findings: The sample was predominantly Hispanic/Latinx (95%) and female (64%), on average 15.2 years old (SD = 1.3), and 51% were born outside the U.S. Participants reported on average a 14.2% reduction in depressive symptoms (pretest mean = 5.51, posttest mean = 4.73, p = .032, Cohen's d = 0.2), a 14.9% reduction in anxiety symptoms (pretest mean = 9.90, posttest mean = 8.42, p = .005, Cohen's d = 0.2), and a 21.9% reduction in stress (pretest mean = 9.66, posttest mean = 7.54, p < .001, Cohen's d = 0.5). Conclusion: These findings provide support for the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based yoga program for Hispanic/Latinx adolescents, a medically underrepresented group experiencing significant mental health disparities.
Article
Background The current study presents a randomized controlled 8-week trial of Bikram yoga, aerobic exercise, and waitlist for depression. Bikram yoga was chosen specifically for its standardized nature. Further, we examined changes in three stress-related constructs—perceived stress, rumination, and mindfulness—as mediators of antidepressant effects. Method Fifty-three women (age 18–65; 74% White) with a unipolar depressive disorder were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Response was defined as >50% reduction on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Remission was defined as no longer meeting criteria for depression and a HAM-D ≤ 7. Self-reported perceived stress, rumination, and mindfulness were assessed weekly. Results In the intention-to-treat sample (n = 53), response rates were significantly higher in the Bikram yoga (61.1%; χ² = 10.48, p = .001) and aerobic exercise (60.0%; χ² = 10.44, p = .001) conditions relative to waitlist (6.7%). In the completer sample (n = 42), 73.3% (χ² = 11.41, p = .001) of women in yoga and 80.0% (χ² = 13.72, p < .001) in exercise achieved response compared to 8.3% in waitlist. Reductions in rumination significantly mediated HAM-D change for both active treatments, and mindful acceptance was a partial mediator in the exercise condition. Limitations The sample was small in size, consisted of women only, and was ethnically homogenous. Inter-rater reliability was not assessed, aerobic exercise was not standardized, and mediators were assessed by self-report. Conclusions Bikram yoga showed descriptively similar efficacy to aerobic exercise and both may work, in part, by helping individuals interrupt negative thinking.
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Мета: провести огляд наукової літератури, присвяченої впливу йоги на організм людини як у стані здоров’я, так і у пацієнтів з хронічними хворобами. Матеріали і методи. Проведено огляд літератури з обраної теми в наукометричних базах даних Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar. Результати. Серцево-судинні захворювання є основною причиною захворюваності та смертності в країнах, що розвиваються. Фізичні вправи та йога сприяють зменшенню рівня серцево-судинних захворювань і можливих ускладнень, що виникають через них. Доведено, що йога сприяє фізичному і психічному здоров’ю шляхом виконання пози («асан»), регульованого дихання («пранаяма») і медитації («дх’яна»). Численні дослідження показали, що йога має швидкий регулюючий вплив на нервову систему та стрес. Також доведено, що коротка релаксаційна підготовка на основі йоги нормалізує функцію автономної нервової системи шляхом нормалізації як симпатичних, так і парасимпатичних впливів до більш фізіологічного середнього діапазону контрольних значень. Відповідно до літературних даних, під впливом курсів йоги відбувалась нормалізація або зниження артеріального тиску, рівня глюкози в крові, зникала тривожність, покращувався психоемоційний стан онкохворих та вагітних, оптимізувались показники роботи шлунково-кишкового тракту та опорно-рухової системи. Висновки. Згідно з проведеним оглядом літератури, йога має значний позитивний вплив на різні системи органів людини та може використовуватись як допоміжна ланка лікування більшості основних захворювань, зокрема артеріальної гіпертензії. У зв’язку з позитивним впливом йоги на психоемоційний стан людини, її можна рекомендувати з метою профілактики виникнення хронічних стресзалежних станів, починаючи з дитячого віку.
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There has been substantial interest in mindfulness as an approach to reduce cognitive vulnerability to stress and emotional distress in recent years. However, thus far mindfulness has not been defined operationally. This paper describes the results of recent meetings held to establish a consensus on mindfulness and to develop conjointly a testable operational definition. We propose a two-component model of mindfulness and specify each component in terms of specific behaviors, experiential manifestations, and implicated psychological processes. We then address issues regarding temporal stability and situational specificity and speculate on the conceptual and operational distinctiveness of mindfulness. We conclude this paper by discussing implications for instrument development and briefly describing our own approach to measurement.
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S. L. Shapiro and colleagues (2006) have described a testable theory of the mechanisms of mindfulness and how it affects positive change. They describe a model in which mindfulness training leads to a fundamental change in relationship to experience (reperceiving), which leads to changes in self-regulation, values clarification, cognitive and behavioral flexibility, and exposure. These four variables, in turn, result in salutogenic outcomes. Analyses of responses from participants in a mindfulness-based stress-reduction program did not support the mediating effect of changes in reperceiving on the relationship of mindfulness with those four variables. However, when mindfulness and reperceiving scores were combined, partial support was found for the mediating effect of the four variables on measures of psychological distress. Issues arising in attempts to test the proposed theory are discussed, including the description of the model variables and the challenges to their assessment.
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Exercise training programs can increase strength and improve submaximal force control, but the effects of yoga as an alternative form of steadiness training are not well described. The purpose was to explore the effect of a popular type of yoga (Bikram) on strength, steadiness, and balance. Young adults performed yoga training (n = 10, 29 +/- 6 years, 24 yoga sessions in 8 weeks) or served as controls (n = 11, 26 +/- 7 years). Yoga sessions consisted of 1.5 hours of supervised, standardized postures. Measures before and after training included maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee extensors (KE), steadiness of isometric EF and KE contractions, steadiness of concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) KE contractions, and timed balance. The standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV, SD/mean force) of isometric force and the SD of acceleration during CON and ECC contractions were measured. After yoga training, MVC force increased 14% for KE (479 +/- 175 to 544 +/- 187 N, p < 0.05) and was unchanged for the EF muscles (219 +/- 85 to 230 +/- 72 N, p > 0.05). The CV of force was unchanged for EF (1.68 to 1.73%, p > 0.05) but was reduced in the KE muscles similarly for yoga and control groups (2.04 to 1.55%, p < 0.05). The variability of CON and ECC contractions was unchanged. For the yoga group, improvement in KE steadiness was correlated with pretraining steadiness (r = -0.62 to -0.84, p < 0.05); subjects with the greatest KE force fluctuations before training experienced the greatest reductions with training. Percent change in balance time for individual yoga subjects averaged +228% (19.5 +/- 14 to 34.3 +/- 18 seconds, p < 0.05), with no change in controls. For young adults, a short-term yoga program of this type can improve balance substantially, produce modest improvements in leg strength, and improve leg muscle control for less-steady subjects.
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Yoga teachers and students often report that yoga has an uplifting effect on their moods, but scientific research on yoga and depression is limited. To examine the effects of a short-term Iyengar yoga course on mood in mildly depressed young adults. Young adults pre-screened for mild levels of depression were randomly assigned to a yoga course or wait-list control group. College campus recreation center. Twenty-eight volunteers ages 18 to 29. At intake, all participants were experiencing mild levels of depression, but had received no current psychiatric diagnoses or treatments. None had significant yoga experience. Subjects in the yoga group attended two 1-hour Iyengar yoga classes each week for 5 consecutive weeks. The classes emphasized yoga postures thought to alleviate depression, particularly back bends, standing poses, and inversions. Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, morning cortisol levels. Subjects who participated in the yoga course demonstrated significant decreases in self-reported symptoms of depression and trait anxiety. These effects emerged by the middle of the yoga course and were maintained by the end. Changes also were observed in acute mood, with subjects reporting decreased levels of negative mood and fatigue following yoga classes. Finally, there was a trend for higher morning cortisol levels in the yoga group by the end of the yoga course, compared to controls. These findings provide suggestive evidence of the utility of yoga asanas in improving mood and support the need for future studies with larger samples and more complex study designs to more fully evaluate the effects of yoga on mood disturbances.
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To determine the metabolic and heart rate (HR) responses of hatha yoga, 26 women (19-40 years old) performed a 30-minute hatha yoga routine of supine lying, sitting, and standing asanas (i.e., postures). Subjects followed identical videotaped sequences of hatha yoga asanas. Mean physiological responses were compared to the physiological responses of resting in a chair and walking on a treadmill at 93.86 m.min(-1) [3.5 miles per hour (mph)]. During the 30-minute hatha yoga routine, mean absolute oxygen consumption (Vo(2)), relative Vo(2), percentage maximal oxygen consumption (%Vo(2)R), metabolic equivalents (METs), energy expenditure, HR, and percentage maximal heart rate (%MHR) were 0.45 L.min(-1), 7.59 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), 14.50%, 2.17 METs, 2.23 kcal.min(-1), 105.29 b.min(-1), and 56.89%, respectively. When compared to resting in a chair, hatha yoga required 114% greater O(2) (L.min(-1)), 111% greater O(2)(ml.kg(-1).min(-1)), 4,294% greater %Vo(2)R, 111% greater METs, 108% greater kcal.min(-1), 24% greater HR, and 24% greater %MHR. When compared to walking at 93.86 m.min(-1), hatha yoga required 54% lower O(2)(L.min(-1)), 53% lower O(2)(ml.kg(-1).min(-1)), 68% lower %Vo(2)R, 53% lower METs, 53% lower kcal.min(-1), 21% lower HR, and 21% lower %MHR. The hatha yoga routine in this study required 14.50% Vo(2)R, which can be considered a very light intensity and significantly lighter than 44.8% Vo(2)R for walking at 93.86 m.min(-1) (3.5 mph). The intensity of hatha yoga may be too low to provide a training stimulus for improving cardiovascular fitness. Although previous research suggests that hatha yoga is an acceptable form of physical activity for enhancing muscular fitness and flexibility, these data demonstrate that hatha yoga may have little, if any, cardiovascular benefit.