ArticlePDF Available

An evaluation of argument mapping as a method of enhancing critical thinking performance in e-learning environments


Abstract and Figures

The current research examined the effects of a critical thinking (CT) e-learning course taught through argument mapping (AM) on measures of CT ability. Seventy-four undergraduate psychology students were allocated to either an AM-infused CT e-learning course or a no instruction control group and were tested both before and after an 8-week intervention period on CT ability using the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. Results revealed that participation in the AM-infused CT course significantly enhanced overall CT ability and all CT sub-scale abilities from pre- to post-testing and that post-test performance was positively correlated with motivation towards learning and dispositional need for cognition. In addition, AM-infused CT course participants exhibited a significantly larger gain in both overall CT and in argument analysis (a CT subscale) than controls. There were no effects of training on either motivation for learning or need for cognition. However, both the latter variables were correlated with CT ability at post-testing. Results are discussed in light of research and theory on the best practices of providing CT instruction through argument mapping and e-learning environments.
Content may be subject to copyright.
An evaluation of argument mapping as a method
of enhancing critical thinking performance
in e-learning environments
Christopher P. Dwyer &Michael J. Hogan &Ian Stewart
Received: 21 April 2011 /Accepted: 12 October 2012 /
Published online: 27 October 2012
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012
Abstract The current research examined the effects of a critical thinking (CT) e-learning
course taught through argument mapping (AM) on measures of CT ability. Seventy-four
undergraduate psychology students were allocated to either an AM-infused CT e-learning
course or a no instruction control group and were tested both before and after an 8-week
intervention period on CT ability using the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. Results
revealed that participation in the AM-infused CT course significantly enhanced overall CT
ability and all CT sub-scale abilities from pre- to post-testing and that post-test performance
was positively correlated with motivation towards learning and dispositional need for
cognition. In addition, AM-infused CT course participants exhibited a significantly larger
gain in both overall CT and in argument analysis (a CT subscale) than controls. There were
no effects of training on either motivation for learning or need for cognition. However, both
the latter variables were correlated with CT ability at post-testing. Results are discussed in
light of research and theory on the best practices of providing CT instruction through
argument mapping and e-learning environments.
Keywords Argument mapping .Critical thinking .e-Learning .Disposition .Cognitive load
Critical thinking (CT) is a metacognitive process that focuses on purposeful, self-regulatory
judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as
explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological or contextual
considerations upon which that judgment is based.(Facione 1990, p. 3). According to
Boekaerts and Simons (1993), Brown (1987) and Ku and Ho (2010b), effective learning and
problem-solving often involve the application of metacognitive skills, including CT and
reflective judgment skills (see also Dawson 2008). CT is made up of a collection of sub-
skills (i.e. analysis, evaluation, and inference) that, when used appropriately, increases the
chances of producing a logical solution to a problem or a valid conclusion to an argument
Metacognition Learning (2012) 7:219244
DOI 10.1007/s11409-012-9092-1
C. P. Dwyer (*):M. J. Hogan :I. Stewart
School of Psychology, NUI, Galway, Ireland
(Facione 1990); and are metacognitive in the sense that they involve the ability to think
about thinking (Dawson 2008; Flavell 1979; Ku and Ho 2010b). While cognition is often
used to refer to mental processes associated with thinking, according to Flavell (1979),
metacognition refers to the knowledge and thinking concerning these cognitive processes
and their products. By this definition, critical thinking is largely metacognitive in nature as it
involves the ability to analyse and evaluate ones own cognition or the cognition of others
and infer reasonable conclusions from the associated cognitive and metacognitive products
of thinking in this context.
The teaching of CT skills in higher education has been identified as an area that needs to
be explored and developed (Association of American Colleges and Universities 2005;
Australian Council for Educational Research 2002; Higher Education Quality Control
1996) as such skills allow students to gain a more complex understanding of the information
being presented to them (Halpern 2003). Not only are CT skills important in the academic
domain, but also in social and interpersonal contexts where adequate decision-making and
problem-solving are necessary on a daily basis (Ku 2009). Good critical thinkers are more
likely to get better grades and are often more employable as well (Holmes and Clizbe 1997;
National Academy of Sciences 2005).
Previous research suggests that CT can be enhanced through the intervention of semester-
long training courses in CT (Gadzella 1996; Hitchcock 2003; Reed and Kromrey 2001;Solon
2007). More specifically, recent meta-analyses suggest that CT can be enhanced by academic
courses that directly teach CT or have CT infused in the course (Alvarez-Ortiz 2007), provided
that the instruction makes the teaching of critical thinking explicit to students (Abrami et al.
2008). Though research suggests that CT training can improve CT ability, currently, the
teaching of critical thinking (CT) remains a veritable challenge (Kuhn 1991; Willingham
2007) for both educators and university students alike. For educators, there is often difficulty
in implementing an efficient and effective strategy that targets the teaching and development of
CT skills. The challenge for students is overcoming the difficulty associated with simultaneous-
ly assimilating and critically thinking about text-based arguments.
Harrell (2005) notes that students often fail to understand the gist(Kintsch and van Dijk
1978) of text-based information presented to them; and more often, students cannot ade-
quately followthe argument within a text (i.e. the chain of reasoning and the justification
of claims in the chain), as most students do not even acknowledge that the deliberations of an
author within a text represents an argument and instead read it as if it were a story. Another
reason why students may find it difficult to assimilate text-based argumentation is that texts
often present students with verbose maze-likearguments that consist of massive amounts
of text (Monk 2001). Given that text-based arguments contain many more sentences than
just the propositions that are part of the argument; these sentences may obscure the intention
of the piece and the inferential structure of the argument (Harrell 2004). Though compre-
hension of an arguments structure may often be difficult for students, abstracting the
argument structure from long passages is often necessary, including situations where the
argument is highly complex (Harrell 2004; Kintsch and van Dijk 1978). The failure to
comprehend the structure of text-based arguments makes the task of critical thinking much
harder. Thus, it must be a goal of educators to provide students with the training necessary to
analyse and evaluate both simple and complex argument structures.
The problematic nature of text-based argumentation
Text is presented in a linear fashion, yet text-based arguments are not necessarily sequential
and may contain a substantial quantity of verbiage that is not part of the argument. As a
220 C.P. Dwyer et al.
result, one may need to switch attention from one paragraph or page to another and back
again in order to assimilate the information within the text (van Gelder 2003). This switching
of attention is a cause of cognitive load, which impedes learning by placing added burden on
cognitive resources, such as consuming limited working memory space; thus making less
space available for the assimilation of the argument (Sweller 1988,1999). For example,
research conducted by Tindall-Ford et al. (1997) found that learning is impeded when
instructional materials require a high degree of attention switching. They concluded that
encoding environments that increase the cognitive load placed on the reader tend not only to
slow the learning process, but also reduce overall levels of learning. Presenting information
in a way that reduces the level of attention switching may minimize cognitive load,
enhance thinking and improve learning. One such way of presenting information is
through argument mapping.
Argument mapping
In an argument map (see Fig. 1), a text-based argument is visually represented using a
box-and-arrowstyle flow-chart wherein the boxes are used to highlight propositions and the
arrows are used to highlight the inferential relationships that link the propositions together (van
Gelder 2003). Specifically, an arrow between two propositions is used to indicate that one is
evidence for or against another. Similarly, colour can be used in argument mapping (AM) to
distinguish evidence for a claim from evidence against a claim (i.e. green represents a support
and red represents an objection). As such, AM is designed in such a way that if one proposition
is evidence for another, the two will be appropriately juxtaposed (van Gelder 2001); and the link
explained via a relational cue, such as because, but and however. These AM features have been
hypothesized to facilitate metacognitive acts of critical thinking, both by making the structure of
the argument open to deliberation and assessment; and by revealing strengths and weaknesses
in the credibility, relevance, and logical soundness of arguments in the argument structure.
Computer-based argument mapping (AM) is a relatively recent learning strategy (van
Gelder and Rizzo 2001;vanGelder2007) and as such, there is as yet little research
examining its efficacy. Nevertheless, available research has identified the use of AM as a
strategy that may enhance overall levels of critical thinking (e.g. Alvarez-Ortiz 2007;
Butchart et al. 2009; Twardy 2004; van Gelder et al. 2004; van Gelder and Rizzo 2001;
van Gelder 2001). For example, in a meta-analysis conducted by Alvarez-Ortiz (2007), it
was found that students who participated in semester-long CT courses that used at least some
AM within the course achieved gains in CT ability with an effect size of .68 SD, CI
Fig. 1 An example of an argument mapping created through rationale
An evaluation of argument mapping 221
(.51, .86). In courses where there was lots of argument mapping practice (LAMP) there
was also a significant gain in studentsCT performance, with an effect size of .78 SD,
CI [.67, .89]. Though previous studies of argument mapping have often reported
positive effects on critical thinking, however, no firm conclusions concerning the
efficacy of this technique can be drawn on the basis of many of these results, because
the studies involved have suffered from design limitations. These include the lack of a
control or comparison group (e.g. Twardy 2004; van Gelder 2001; van Gelder et al.
2004); not adequately matching or randomly assigning conditions (e.g. Butchart et al.
2009; van Gelder and Rizzo 2001); and the lack of statistical comparison between
experimental and control groups (e.g. Butchart et al. 2009; van Gelder and Rizzo 2001).
Thus, it is difficult to draw any conclusions about the merit of AM from the studies to
date, given the limitations in study design.
More recently, our own research (Dwyer et al. 2011) compared the CT performance of
participants on an AM-infused CT course with that of participants on a CT course without
AM (i.e. in which instruction utilised traditional means of presentation, such as slideshows
consisting of bullet points and outlines, referred to as a traditionalCT training course) and
a control group. Results indicated that AM training enhanced specific CT sub-skills of
evaluation and inductive reasoning. However, this study was also limited in certain respects.
Due to a large attrition rate and relatively small resulting sample, the power of the statistical
analysis was somewhat diminished.
We suggested that, in order to decrease the problem of attrition, future studies might utilise
online courses instead, given that a key limitation in our own research was students dropping
out due to competing commitments whereas online courses allow improved time-flexibility. We
also minimized instructor feedback in an effort to avoid potential confounds associated with
experimenter bias in the comparison between AM training and traditional CT training. How-
ever, another potential advantage of e-learning environments is that feedback can be provided in
a standardized manner that may circumvent problems associated with experimenter or instruc-
tor bias, and feedback itself may be critical for significant learning gains to be observed in CT
training studies (Butchart et al. 2009; van Gelder 2003). For example, a meta-analysis of the
effects of different methods of instruction on learning, by Marzano (1998) indicated that, across
a number of pedagogical studies, feedback concerning (i) strategy used to improve learning and
(ii) the efficacy of the use of that strategy produced significant gains in student achievement
(d01.31). In addition to the general benefits of feedback on learning, with specific regards to
CT, it may be that feedback on CT performance can provide valuable opportunities to evaluate
and reflect upon ones own thinking.
The current research
AM has been developed with the explicit intention to lessen cognitive load and facilitate
both the learning and the cultivation of CT skills (van Gelder and Rizzo 2001; van Gelder
2003). First, unlike standard text, AMs represent arguments through dual modalities (visual-
spatial/diagrammatic and verbal/propositional), thus facilitating the latent information pro-
cessing capacity of individual learners. Second, AMs utilise Gestalt grouping principles that
facilitate the organisation of information in working memory and long-term memory, which
in turn facilitates ongoing CT processes. Third, AMs present information in a hierarchical
manner which also facilitates the organisation of information in working memory and long-
term memory for purposes of enhancing and promoting CT. In relation to the first reason,
dual-coding theory and research (Paivio 1971,1986), Mayers(1997) conceptualisation and
empirical analysis of multimedia learning, and Sweller and colleaguesresearch on cognitive
222 C.P. Dwyer et al.
load (Sweller 2010), suggests that learning can be enhanced and cognitive load decreased by
the presentation of information in a visual-verbal dual-modality format (e.g. diagram and
text), provided that both visual and verbal forms of representation are adequately integrated
(i.e. to avoid attention-switching demands). Given that AMs support dual-coding of infor-
mation in working memory via integration of text into a diagrammatic representation,
cognitive resources previously devoted to translating prose-based arguments into a coherent,
organised and integrated representation are freed upand can be used to facilitate deeper
encoding of arguments in AMs, which in turn facilitates CT (van Gelder 2003).
The second related reason for why AM is hypothesised to enhance overall learning is that
AM also makes use of Gestalt grouping principles. Research suggests that when to-be-
learned items are grouped according to Gestalt cues, such as proximity and similarity, they
are better stored in visual working memory (Woodman et al. 2003; Jiang et al. 2000). For
example, Jiang et al. (2000) found that when the spatial organisation, or relational grouping
cues denoting organisation (i.e. similar colour, close proximity) are absent, working memory
performance is worse, and that when multiple spatial organisation cues (such as colour and
location) are used, performance is better. These findings suggest that visually-based
information in working memory is not represented independently, but in relation to other
pieces of presented information; and that the relational properties of visual and spatial
information are critical drivers of successful working memory and subsequently, CT
(Halpern 2003; Maybery et al. 1986). Given that related propositions within an AM are
located close to one another, the spatial arrangement complies with the Gestalt grouping
principle of proximity.
In addition, AM adopts a consistent colour scheme in order to highlight propositions that
support (green box) or refute (red box) the central claim, thus complying with the Gestalt
grouping principle of similarity (i.e. greens are grouped based on similarity, as are reds).
Collating items according to grouping cues, such as similarity (i.e. green becauses and red
buts) and spatial proximity (Farrand et al. 2002; Jiang et al. 2000), may simplify the method
of representing information and increase the capacity of visual working memory.
The third reason for why AM is hypothesised to enhance CT is because it presents
information in a hierarchical manner. When arguing from a central claim, one may present
any number of argument levels which need to be adequately represented for the argument to
be properly conveyed. For example, an argument that provides a (1) support for a (2) support
for a (3) support for a (4) claim has four levels in its hierarchical structure. More complex or
deeperarguments (e.g. with three or more argument levels beneath a central claim) are
difficult to represent in text due to its linear nature; and yet it is essential that these complex
argument structures are understood by a student if their goal is to analyse or evaluate the
argument; and to infer their own conclusions. On the other hand, the hierarchical nature of
AM allows the reader to choose and follow a specific branch of the argument in which each
individual proposition is integrated with other relevant propositions in terms of their
inferential relationship.
The current research examined the effect of AM on CT performance in an e-learning
environment in comparison with a no intervention (i.e. neither argument mapping nor e-
learning) control condition. Based on the proposed representational properties of AM
described above, as well as previous research by van Gelder (2001) and Butchart et al.
(2009), we hypothesised that AM training through an e-learning CT course would signifi-
cantly enhance CT performance. Notably, a number of researchers in the field of CT argue
that CT is a domain-general process, in that it can be taught in any educational setting and
applied to any academic subject area (Abrami et al. 2008; Ennis 1998; Halpern 2003). For
example, a recent meta-analysis conducted by Abrami et al. (2008) investigated the effects
An evaluation of argument mapping 223
of different CT instruction methods, using Ennis(1989) typology of four CT course types
(i.e. general, infusion, immersion and mixed).
In the general approach to CT training, actual CT skills and dispositions are learning
objectives, without specific subject matter content(Abrami et al. 2008, p. 1105). The
infusion of CT into a course requires specific subject matter content upon which CT skills
are practiced; however, this can be any subject area. In the infusion approach, the objective
of teaching CT within the course content is made explicit. In the immersion approach, like
the infusion approach, specific course content upon which critical thinking skills are
practiced is required. However, CT objectives in the immersed approach are not made
explicit. Finally, in the mixed approach, critical thinking is taught independently of the
specific subject matter content of the course. Results of the meta-analysis revealed that
courses that made the CT element of instruction explicit to students (i.e. general, infusion
and mixed) yielded the largest CT improvements.
The results of the meta-analysis by Abrami and colleagues indicated that it is the way in
which CT is taught (rather than the subject area content upon which CT skills are applied)
that is the crucial element in aiding students development of CT skills. Therefore, making
CT objectives and requirements clear to students plays an important role in the development
of CT ability. In light of research findings indicating the domain-generality of CT and given
that participants in the current research were 1st Year Arts students, it was decided that CT
course content should cover a variety of topics across academic domains within the Arts
programme (e.g. aggression in society, the challenge of work-life balance, attractiveness and
social preferences, etc.) in order to: (1) avoid alienating any specific group or groups of
students; and (2) maintain the interest of all students (regardless of academic field).
The current research also examined the effects of level of engagement in AM training on
CT performance. Previous research by van Gelder et al. (2004) found that CT performance
and AM practice hours were significantly correlated (r0.31). Therefore, we hypothesised
that students who engaged more with the CT course (as measured using the number of AM
exercises they completed) would perform significantly better on CT performance than those
who did not engage as much.
The current research also examined the relationship between disposition towards thinking
and CT ability. A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of this relation-
ship (e.g. Ennis 1998; Halpern 2003,2006; Ku and Ho 2010a,b; Dwyer et al. 2011).
According to Valenzuela et al. (2011), while some conceptualisations of disposition towards
thinking focus on the attitudinal and intellectual habits of thinking, many others emphasise
the motivational features associated with a positive disposition towards CT. That is, these
motivation-focused conceptualisations emphasise the importance of motivation as a process
used to activate the metacognitive resources necessary to conduct good CT (Ennis 1996;
Norris 1994; Perkins et al. 1993; Valenzuela et al. 2011).
Though few empirical studies have examined the motivational aspects of CT dispositions,
research by Valenzuela et al. (2011) revealed that motivation to think critically is a more
significant correlate of CT ability (r0.50) than is a general positive disposition toward
critical thinking (r0.20). Similarly, research by Garcia et al. (1992) found a significant,
positive correlation between CT ability and motivation towards intrinsic goal orientation
(r0.57), elaboration (r0.64) and metacognitive self-regulation (r0.64)three sub-scales of
the Motivated Strategies towards Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich et al. 1991). In addition,
research has also shown that motivation to learn positively influences CT and learning in
general (Hattie et al. 1996; Robbins et al. 2004). Hence, the current research sought to clarify
the impact of studentsmotivation to learn and behavioural engagement with course
materials on subsequent training-related CT performance outcomes.
224 C.P. Dwyer et al.
Studentsperceived need for cognition (Caciappo et al. 1984) was also examined, as
research suggests that, in addition to motivation to learn, dispositional need for cognition is
also significantly correlated with CT performance (Halpern 2006; Jensen 1998; King and
Kitchener 2002; Toplak and Stanovich 2002). Thus, we hypothesised that CT performance
would be positively correlated with both dispositional need for cognition and motivation
towards learning at both pre-and-post-testing. We also examined whether or not any
increases in need for cognition or motivation, from pre- to post-testing might account for
gains in CT ability over and above the effects of training.
Participants were first year psychology students, aged between 18 and 25 years, from the
National University of Ireland, Galway. Two-hundred and forty-seven students (173
females, 74 males) expressed an interest in participating and attempted the online pre-
tests. However, only 156 (108 females, 48 males) completed pre-testing; and only
74 (47 females, 27 males) completed post-testing. Non-completers reported not having
enough time, principally as a result of having a heavy workload in other mandatory courses,
as the primary reason for why they withdrew. There were no baseline differences (i.e. in
either CT, need for cognition or motivation) between completers and non-completers. In
return for their participation, students were awarded academic course credits. To ensure
confidentiality, participants were identified by ID number only.
Materials and measures
The materials made available during the CT course were the online lectures, exercises and
feedback (see Table 2and procedure below for more details). These materials are available
upon request.
The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA; Halpern 2010) was administered at
pre- and post-testing. The HCTA consists of 25 open-ended questions based on believ-
able, everyday situations, followed by 25 specific questions that probe for the reasoning
behind each answer. Questions on the HCTA represent five categories of CT applications:
hypothesis testing (e.g. understanding the limits of correlational reasoning and how to
know when causal claims cannot be made), verbal reasoning (e.g. recognising the use of
pervasive or misleading language), argument analysis (e.g. recognising the structure of
arguments, how to examine the credibility of a source and how to judge onesown
arguments), judging likelihood and uncertainty (e.g. applying relevant principles of
probability, how to avoid overconfidence in certain situations) and problem-solving
(e.g. identifying the problem goal, generating and selecting solutions among alternatives).
For an example of a question on the HCTA and how it is scored, see Fig. 2. Test
reliability is robust; and ranges from 0.79 to 0.88 (Halpern 2010). The internal consis-
tency of the scale in the current study was α0.82.
The Need for Cognition Scale (Caciappo et al. 1984) was administered at pre- and post-
testing. The Need for Cognition (short form) consists of 18 items coded on a seven-point
likert scale that assess ones willingness to explore and engage in relatively complex
cognitive activities (e.g. I would prefer complex to simple problems; and I prefer to
think about small, daily projects to long-term ones). The estimates of test reliability range
An evaluation of argument mapping 225
Suppose that you are a first-year student in a dental school. You realize that your new friend, who is also a
first-year student in dental school, is getting drunk on a regular basis several times a week. You do not see
any signs of her drinking problem at school, but you are concerned because you will both begin seeing
patients at the school's dental clinic within a month. She has not responded to your hints about her drinking
problem. As far as you know, no one else knows about her excessive drinking.
Part A: State the problem in two ways.
Scoring: There are two points possible for part A. Please answer the following question(s) in order to score
the respondent’s answers. Sum the scores from both questions.
Does the respondent’s problem statement indicate that the new friend has a drinking problem and will be
dealing with patients? Yes = 1point;No = 0 points
Does the respondent’s problem statement indicate that there are no signs that the drinking problem
impairs performance? Yes =1point;No = 0points
Part B: For each statement of the problem, provide two differed possible solutions.
Scoring: There are 2 sets of questions for part B. Two points are possible for each set of questions. Please
answer the following question(s) in order to score the respondent’s answers.
Set 1: Does the respondent suggest informing an authority figure about the problem? Yes =2points;No
Does the respondent suggest that the friend should not deal with patients? Yes = 2points;No = 0
Set 2: Does the respondent suggest showing the friend how the drinking problem could potentially
impair her performance? Yes = 2points;No = 0points
Does the respondent suggest convincing the friend that she puts others in danger regardless of
whether she knows it or not? Yes =2points;No 0points
Part C: Given these facts, rate each of the following problem statements on a scale of 1 to 7 in which:
1 = extremely poor statement of the problem.
2 = very poor statement of the problem.
3 = poor statement of the problem.
4 = statement of the problem that is medium in quality.
5 = good statement of the problem.
6 = very good statement of the problem.
7 = excellent statement of the problem.
1. The friend may cause harm to patients because she is drunk.
2. You are the only one who knows she has a drinking problem.
3. Your friend's parents do not know she has a drinking problem.
4. You need to find a way to give your friend better hints about her drinking.
5. The friend may flunk out of school if she continues to get drunk so often.
6. The friend may hurt herself if she continues to get drunk so often.
7. You feel responsible for your friend's drinking problem.
Scoring: There are seven points possible in part C; one point is possible per question. If the respondent
selected any number within the correct range they earn one point. If the respondent selected a number outside
the correct range they do not earn a point.
Question 1: Correct range: 5-7; Question 2: Correct range: 2-5
Question 3: Correct range: 1-2; Question 4: Correct range: 1-4
Question 5: Correct range: 4-7; Question 6: Correct range: 4-7
Question 7: Correct range: 4-7
Fig. 2 Question 21 on the HCTA (of the problem-solving sub-scale) with scoring protocol (Halpern 2010)
226 C.P. Dwyer et al.
from 0.85 to 0.90 (Sherrard and Czaja 1999); and the internal consistency of the scale in the
current study was α0.91.
The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al. 1991)was
administered in order to match experimental and control groups on motivation at the pre-testing
stage and to assess differences between groups at the post-testing stage, as it has been speculated
that motivation influences the willingness to engage in metacognitive processes, such as CT
(Ennis 1998; Dwyer et al. 2011;Garciaetal.1992). The version of the MSLQ used in this
research consisted of 43 items (e.g. If I try hard enough, then I will understand the course
material;andI work hard to do well in class even if I dont like what we are doing), each of
which is responded to using a seven-point likert scale (e.g. 10strongly agree, 70strongly
disagree). Eight sub-scales of the MSLQ were used in this study (i.e. motivation towards:
elaboration, critical thinking, effort regulation, metacognitive self-regulation, organisation,
control of learning beliefs, and both intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation). Internal consis-
tency for sub-scales ranged from α00.650.88.
The study took place over a period of 8 weeks. Two groups took part in this study: those
who participated in the e-learning CT course taught through AM (the AM group) and a
control group (i.e. those who received no CT intervention). The AM group completed a
six-week online CT course in which they viewed classes twice per week; completed two
exercise sessions per week; and received detailed feedback for both exercises at the end
of the week. Each class involved presenting the educational material to students through
AMs. The exercises involved the manipulation of AMs and completion of relevant CT
tasks using AMs.
Notably, a number of researchers in the field of CT argue that CT is a domain-general
process, in that it can be instructed in any educational setting and applied to any academic
subject (Abrami et al. 2008; Ennis 1998; Halpern 2003). For example, a recent meta-analysis
conducted by Abrami et al. (2008) investigated the effects of different CT instruction
methods, using Ennis(1989) typology of four CT courses (i.e. general, infusion, immersion
and mixed). In the general approach to CT training, actual CT skills and dispositions are
learning objectives, without specific subject matter content(Abrami et al. 2008, p. 1105).
The infusion of CT into a course requires specific subject matter content upon which CT
skills are practiced. In the infusion approach, the objective of teaching CT within the course
content is made explicit. In the immersion approach, like the infusion approach, specific
course content upon which critical thinking skills are practiced is required. However, CT
objectives in the immersed approach are not made explicit. Finally, in the mixed approach,
critical thinking is taught independently of the specific subject matter content of the course.
Results revealed that the typologies that made the CT element of instruction explicit to
students (i.e. general, infusion and mixed) yielded the largest effects.
The results indicated that it is the nature in which CT is instructed (rather than the
subject area in which CT is applied), that is the crucial element in aiding students
develop CT skills. According to Ennis (1998) and Abrami and colleagues (2008), in
order to optimally teach CT, the CT element of instruction must be made explicit to
students (e.g. through a mixed or infused approach; Abrami et al. 2008; Ennis 1998);
that is, making CT objectives and requirements clear to students plays an important role
in the development of CT ability. Thus, given both the domain-generality of CT and
that participants used in this research were 1st Year Arts students, it was decided that
presenting topics subject to CT application should vary across academic domains within
An evaluation of argument mapping 227
the Arts programme (e.g. English, Philosophy, Psychology and Sociology) in order to:
(1) avoid alienating any specific group or groups of students; and (2) maintain the
interest of all students (regardless of academic field).
Students who participated in the course used the RationaleAM software made
available to them for purposes of completing their exercises, and they were also encouraged
to practice using the Rationaleprogramme outside of the course environment. The
conceptualisation of CT taught in our course was largely based on findings reported by
Facione (1990) in the Delphi Report. The Delphi panel overwhelmingly agreed (i.e. 95 %
consensus) that analysis, evaluation and inference were the core skills necessary for CT
(Facione 1990; see Table 1for the description of each skill provided by the Delphi Report).
Notably, questions on the HCTA reflect the need for CT skills of analysis, evaluation and
inference. Like the AM group, the control group attended their 1st year Arts lectures (e.g.
History, English, Psychology, Philosophy and Sociology), but did not participate in the CT
course in any manner (i.e. control group participants did not partake in any CT exercises or
view any CT lectures, feedback or course materials).
In Week 1, the Need for Cognition Scale, the MSLQ, and the HCTA were administered
prior to the commencement of the course. Participants were then randomly assigned to either
the experimental or control groups. The course began in Week 2.
The e-learning classes were voice recorded and dubbed over a PowerPointslideshow
using CamTasiarecording software. Classes lasted a maximum of 15 min each, as
research has shown that didactically teaching students for longer than 15 min can substan-
tially decrease attention to the source of instruction (Wankat 2002). In each class, students
were taught to use CT skills via worked examples (in the form of AMs). Students were able
to pause, rewind, and restart the class at anytime they wished. Immediately after each class,
students were asked to complete a set of active learning AM exercises and email the
completed exercises back to the primary investigator. Engagement in the course was
measured according to the number of exercises emailed to the primary investigator. Again,
the course outline and what was taught in each class is presented in Table 2. Feedback was
provided to students at the end of each working week, that is, after they had completed and
returned two set of exercises. Feedback focused on the structure of arguments provided by
students; inferential relationships among propositions in their arguments; and the rele-
vance and credibility of the propositions they used. Sample feedback (for exercises from
Lecture 3.1) can be found in Appendix A. In Week 8, after the completion of the CT
course, the HCTA, the MSLQ and the Need for Cognition Scale were administered as
Table 1 Core CT skills according to the Delphi Report (adapted from Facione 1990)
Skill Description
Analysis To identify the intended and actual inferential relationships among statements, questions,
concepts, descriptions or other forms of representation intended to express beliefs, judgments,
experiences, reasons, information, or opinions.
Examining ideas: to determine the role various expressions play or are intended to play in the
context of argument, reasoning or persuasion; to compare or contrast ideas, concepts, or
statements; to identify issues or problems and determine their component parts, and also to
identify the conceptual relationships of those parts to each other and to the whole.
Detecting arguments given a set of statements or other forms of representation, to determine
whether or not the set expresses, or is intended to express, a reason or reasons in support of or
contesting some claim, opinion or point of view.
228 C.P. Dwyer et al.
Table 1 (continued)
Skill Description
Analysing arguments: given the expression of a reason or reasons intended to support or contest
some claim, opinion or point of view, to identify and differentiate: (a) the intended main
conclusion, (b) the premises and reasons advanced in support of the main conclusion, (c)
further premises and reasons advanced as backup or support for those premises and reasons
intended as supporting the main conclusion, (d) additional unexpressed elements of that
reasoning, such as intermediary conclusions, non-stated assumptions or presuppositions, (e) the
overall structure of the argument or intended chain of reasoning, and (f) any items contained in
the body of expressions being examined which are not intended to be taken as part of the
reasoning being expressed or its intended background.
Evaluation To assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions
of a persons perception, experience, situation, judgment, belief, or opinion; and to assess the
logical strength of the actual or intended inferential relationships among statements,
descriptions, questions or other forms of representation.
Assessing claims: to recognize the factors relevant to assessing the degree of credibility to ascribe
to a source of information or opinion; to assess the contextual relevance of questions,
information, principles, rules or procedural directions; to assess the acceptability, the level of
confidence to place in the probability or truth of any given representation of an experience,
situation, judgment, belief or opinion.
Assessing arguments: to judge whether the assumed acceptability of the premises of an argument
justify ones accepting as true (deductively certain), or very probably true (inductively
justified), the expressed conclusion of that argument; to anticipate or to raise questions or
objections, and to assess whether these point to significant weakness in the argument being
evaluated; to determine whether an argument relies on false or doubtful assumptions or
presuppositions and then to determine how crucially these affect its strength; to judge between
reasonable and fallacious inferences; to judge the probative strength of an arguments premises
and assumptions with a view toward determining the acceptability of the argument; to
determine and judge the probative strength of an arguments intended or unintended
consequences with a view toward judging the acceptability of the argument; to determine the
extent to which possible additional information might strengthen or weaken an argument.
Inference To identify and secure elements needed to draw reasonable conclusions; to form conjectures and
hypotheses; to consider relevant information and to deduce the consequences flowing from
data, statements, principles, evidence, judgments, beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions,
questions, or other forms of representation.
Querying evidence: in particular, to recognize premises which require support and to formulate a
strategy for seeking and gathering information which might supply that support; in general, to
judge that information relevant to deciding the acceptability, plausibility or relative merits of a
given alternative, question, issue, theory, hypothesis, or statement is required, and to determine
plausible investigatory strategies for acquiring that information.
Conjecturing alternatives: to formulate multiple alternatives for resolving a problem, to postulate
a series of suppositions regarding a question, to project alternative hypotheses regarding an
event, to develop a variety of different plans to achieve some goal; to draw out presuppositions
and project the range of possible consequences of decisions, positions, policies, theories, or
Drawing conclusions: to apply appropriate modes of inference in determining what position,
opinion or point of view one should take on a given matter or issue; given a set of statements,
descriptions, questions or other forms of representation, to educe, with the proper level of
logical strength, their inferential relationships and the consequences or the presuppositions
which they support, warrant, imply or entail; to employ successfully various sub-species of
reasoning, as for example to reason analogically, arithmetically, dialectically, scientifically, etc.;
to determine which of several possible conclusions is most strongly warranted or supported by
the evidence at hand, or which should be rejected or regarded as less plausible by the
information given.
An evaluation of argument mapping 229
With respect to group differences in CT, need for cognition, and motivation, a series of 2
(time: pre-and-post-testing) x 2 (condition: AM group and control group) Mixed ANOVAs
Table 2 e-Learning CT course outline
Class no. Title What was taught
1 Pre-testing Students completed the HCTA, MSLQ and Need for Cognition post-test
2 Classes 1 and 2:
Introduction to
Critical Thinking
1. We think in order to decide what to do and what to believe.
2. We ultimately decide what to believe by adding supports or
rebuttals to our own arguments (i.e. questioning our own beliefs).
3. Arguments are hierarchical structures. We can continue to
add more levels if we like.
3 Classes 3 and 4:
(analysing and
evaluating) a
1. In order to analyse an argument, we must extract the
structure of the argument from dialogue or prose.
2. Identifying types (sources) of arguments and considering the
strength of each type is another form of analysis.
3. The evaluation of the overall strengths and weaknesses of an
argument can be completed after adequate analysis.
4 Classes 5 and 6:
Analysis &
1. Evaluation includes the recognition of imbalances, omissions
and bias within an argument.
2. Evaluative techniques can aid recall.
3. Examining whether or not the arguments used are relevant or
logically connected to the central claim is also an important factor
in evaluation.
5 Classes 7 and 8:
We must evaluate:
1. Types (sources) of arguments based on credibility
2. The relevance of propositions to the central claim or intermediate
conclusions within the argument
3. The logical strength of an argument structure
4. The balance of evidence within an argument structure
6 Classes 9 and 10:
1. Evaluation and inference are intimately related.
2. Inference differs from evaluation in that the process of
inference involves generating a conclusion from previously
evaluated propositions.
3. In larger informal argument structures, intermediate conclusions
must be inferred prior to the inference of a central claim.
7 Classes 11 and 12:
1. Reflective judgment is our ability to reflect upon what we know
and the knowledge the world presents us; and our ability to think
critically and reflectively in this context.
2. Ones understanding of the nature, limits and certainty of
knowing and how this can affect our judgment.
3. Recognition that some problems cannot be solved with absolute
certainty (i.e. ill-structured problems).
4. The importance of structure and complexity in reflective judgment.
8 Post-testing Students completed the HCTA, MSLQ and Need for Cognition
230 C.P. Dwyer et al.
were conducted to examine the effects of both time and CT training condition on need for
cognition and motivation. A series of independent sample t-tests was used to compare the
intervention and control groups on CT gain from pre-to-post-testing. A series of matched
sample t-tests examined the effects of the CT intervention on CT and CT sub-skills ability
from pre-to-post-testing. With respect to high-engagement versus low engagement differ-
ences in the AM group, a series of independent sample t-tests compared the gains in CT
performance, from pre- to post-testing, of those who had a high level of engagement with the
CT intervention with those who had a low level of engagement. Furthermore, Pearson
correlations among CT performance, need for cognition and motivation sub-scales (i.e. at
both pre- and post-testing) were also conducted.
Means and standard deviations for performance scores of the AM, control, high engage-
ment and low engagement groups on overall CT, all CT sub-scales, motivation and need for
cognition are presented in Table 3.
Group differences in critical thinking, need for cognition, and motivation
A series of 2 (time: pre-and-post-testing) x 2 (condition: AM group and control group)
Mixed ANOVAs were conducted to examine the effects of both time and CT training
condition on need for cognition and motivation. Results revealed that there was no effect
of condition or time on need for cognition, and no condition x time interaction effect.
Similarly, there was no effect of condition on motivation, and no condition x time interaction
effect. However, there was a main effect of time on motivation, F(1, 65)08.63, p0.005,
partial η
0.12, with total motivation scores decreasing from pre-test (M0175.15; SD027.20) to
post-test (M 0168.73; SD031.00) in the sample as a whole. Post-hoc analyses also revealed that
there was a significant decrease from pre-to-post-testing in two of the eight subscales: meta-
cognitive self-regulation (t02.13, df066, p0.039, two tailed, d0.21) and effort regulation
(t04.21, df066, p<.001, two tailed, d0.34).
A series of independent sample t-tests was used to compare the intervention and control
groups on CT gain from pre-to-post-testing. Results revealed that students in the AM group
showed significantly higher gain than controls for overall CT ability (t02.43, df068, p
<.018, two tailed, d0.60) and for the sub-scale argument analysis (t02.29, df 068, p0.025,
two tailed, d0.54). There were no differences in gain between the groups on any other CT
A series of matched sample t-tests examined the effects of the CT intervention on CT and
CT sub-skills ability from pre-to-post-testing. Results revealed that students in the AM group
scored significantly higher on post-testing compared with pre-testing on overall CT ability
(t06.65, df042, p<.001, two tailed, d0.81) and all CT sub-scales: hypothesis testing
(t03.89, df041, p<.001, two tailed, d0.55), verbal reasoning (t02.97, df 041,
p0.005, two tailed, d0.49), argument analysis (t02.14, df042, p0.038, two tailed,
d0.40), likelihood/uncertainty (t04.64, df041, p<.001, two tailed, d0.67) and problem-
solving (t04.47, df 041, p<.001, two tailed, d0.64). Results further revealed that students in
the control group scored significantly higher on the post-test than on the pre-test on overall CT
ability (t03.01, df030, p0.005, two tailed, d0.55) and also for the sub-scale of problem-
solving (t03.77, df 027, p0.001, two tailed, d0.65).
High-engagement versus low-engagement differences in the AM group
A series of independent sample t-tests compared the gains in CT performance, from
pre- to post-testing, of those who had a high level of engagement (exercises
An evaluation of argument mapping 231
Table 3 Means and standard deviations for CT performance by condition
N Pre-test Post-test
Overall critical thinking
AM (High engagement) 19 96.26 10.98 110.21 15.16
AM (Low engagement) 23 96.54 12.83 106.88 14.23
AM (total) 42 98.00 11.01 109.12 13.83
Control 28 94.50 12.54 99.79 13.66
Hypothesis testing
AM (High engagement) 19 21.74 3.83 24.58 4.32
AM (Low engagement) 23 22.70 4.29 24.65 4.65
AM (total) 43 22.26 4.07 24.44 4.55
Control 31 21.10 4.53 21.90 5.96
Verbal reasoning
AM (High engagement) 19 6.74 1.52 7.74 2.58
AM (Low engagement) 23 6.13 2.30 7.43 2.86
AM (total) 43 6.40 1.99 7.56 2.68
Control 31 5.71 1.94 6.03 2.35
Argument analysis
AM (High engagement) 19 22.26 4.28 25.16 4.91
AM (Low engagement) 24 23.00 3.50 23.63 3.91
AM (total) 43 22.67 3.83 24.30 4.40
Control 31 22.00 5.01 21.00 4.58
AM (High engagement) 19 9.53 3.70 11.53 3.79
AM (Low engagement) 23 10.52 3.51 13.35 3.55
AM (total) 43 10.07 3.59 12.44 3.73
Control 31 9.07 3.44 10.29 4.02
AM (High engagement) 19 36.00 3.71 41.21 5.71
AM (Low engagement) 24 37.00 4.37 38.74 5.26
AM (total) 43 36.42 4.10 39.36 3.70
Control 31 36.21 4.69 39.61 5.75
Need for cognition
AM (High engagement) 19 66.16 14.69 68.00 16.53
AM (Low engagement) 24 67.67 15.29 66.67 16.73
AM (total) 43 67.00 14.87 67.26 16.45
Control 26 65.85 19.10 65.08 15.65
AM (High engagement) 19 176.16 30.75 173.16 27.29
AM (Low engagement) 24 166.50 26.22 157.73 37.66
AM (total) 41 170.98 28.46 164.88 33.77
Control 26 181.73 24.15 174.81 25.49
232 C.P. Dwyer et al.
completed, range: 1224; M020.67) with the CT intervention with those who had a
low level of engagement (exercises completed, range: 011; M06.82). Results
revealed that students in the high engagement group exhibited a significantly higher
gain in CT performance from pre- to post-testing when compared with the low
engagement group on the CT sub-scale of problem-solving (t02.95, df 040,
p0.005, two tailed, d0.91). There were no other differences on CT performance,
need for cognition or motivation observed between the two engagement groups.
There was a significant correlation between need for cognition and motivation at pre-testing
(r0.52, p<.001) and at post testing (r0.60, p<.001), but neither need for cognition nor
motivation were correlated with CT performance at pre-testing. There was a significant
correlation between CT performance and both need for cognition (r0.47, p< .001) and
motivation (r0.28, p0.017) at post-testing. The full set of correlations among CT, need
for cognition and motivation sub-scales at pre-testing and post-testing are presented in
Tab le 4. Results from a regression analysis revealed that change in need for cognition
(β0.09 p0.510) and motivation (β0.08 p0.541) from pre-to-post-testing did not
account for any variance (adjusted r
0.02) in CT gains over and above the effect
of experimental condition, F(2, 62)0.71, p0.749.
Interpretation of results
The current study set out to examine, first, whether AM training delivered using an e-
learning CT course would significantly enhance CT performance in comparison with a
control condition; second, we tested the hypothesis that students who engaged more with
the course would perform significantly better on CT performance than those who did not
engage as much; and third, we examined the claim that CT performance would be positively
correlated with both dispositional need for cognition and motivation at both testing times.
The results of the current study revealed that students in the AM group scored signifi-
cantly higher on post-testing than on pre-testing on measures of overall CT ability and on all
CT sub-scales. Results also revealed that those in the control condition improved from pre-
to-post-testing on overall CT ability and the problem-solving sub-scale of the HCTA. It is
possible that overall CT and problem-solving performance might improve over time due to
maturation. Alternatively, it could be that improvements in the control group (and likewise
the AM group) were as a result of practice effects (i.e. repeat administration of the HCTA).
However, positive effects of the AM training course were observed over-and-above any
possible maturation or practice effects. Specifically, results revealed that those in the AM
group showed a significantly larger gain from pre- to post-testing than those in the control
group on overall CT ability and the CT sub-scale of argument analysis. Given that there were
no significant differences between the control and AM groups at the pre-testing stage on
either overall CT or on any CT sub-scales, these findings suggest that the two groups were
adequately matched on CT ability prior to the intervention and that participation in an e-
learning CT course taught through AM significantly enhances CT performance.
We did not find strong evidence in favour of our second hypothesis. Specifically, there
was no difference between those who engaged more (i.e. those who completed 1224 CT
An evaluation of argument mapping 233
Table 4 Correlations among CT performance, need for cognition and motivation sub-scales at pre-testing (below diagonal) and post-testing (above diagonal)
CT performance (CT) r0.47 r0.28 r0.24 r0.07 r0.02 r0.24 r0.15 r0.36 r0.40
p<.001 p0.016 p0.045 p0.556 p0.812 p0.039 p0.201 p0.002 p<.001
Need for cognition (NFC) r0.17 r0.66 r0.44 r0.20 r0.29 r0.46 r0.47 r0.49 r0.57
p0.167 p<.001 p<.001 p0.094 p0.013 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
Intrinsic Goal Orientation (IGO) r0.01 r0.50 r0.52 r0.20 r0.48 r0.57 r0.46 r0.67 r0.60
p0.944 p<.001 p<.001 p0.098 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
Control of learning beliefs (CoLB) r0.12 r0.40 r0.56 r0.34 r0.29 r0.40 r0.40 r0.38 r0.48
p0.340 p0.001 p<.001 p0.004 p0.015 p<.001 p<.001 p0.001 p<.001
Extrinsic goal orientation (EGO) r0.03 r0.21 r0.30 r0.37 r0.28 r0.16 r0.15 r0.13 r0.12
p0.801 p0.091 p0.013 p0.002 p0.016 p0.193 p0.208 p0.262 p0.302
Organisation (Org) r0.14 r0.30 r0.38 r0.18 r0.16 r0.67 r0.56 r0.53 r0.68
p0.237 p0.013 p0.001 p0.133 p0.177 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
Metacognitve self- regulation (MSR) r0.03 r0.36 r0.50 r0.30 r0.20 r0.65 r0.73 r0.72 r0.71
p0.828 p0.003 p<.001 p0.012 p0.094 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
Effort regulation (EffReg) r0.02 r0.33 r0.37 r0.24 r0.35 r0.50 r0.63 r0.59 r0.64
p0.866 p0.006 p0.002 p0.046 p0.003 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
Motivation towards CT (MotCT) r0.04 r0.54 r0.52 r0.29 r0.12 r0.54 r0.62 r0.33 r0.67
p0.746 p<.001 p<.001 p0.017 p0.317 p<.001 p<.001 p0.006 p<.001
Elaboration (Elab) r0.14 r0.39 r0.48 r0.32 r0.16 r0.67 r0.71 r0.51 r0.73
p0.265 p0.001 p<.001 p0.007 p0.198 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001 p<.001
234 C.P. Dwyer et al.
exercises) or less (i.e. those who completed 011 CT exercises) on overall CT ability.
However, those in the high-engagement group did show a greater gain from pre-test to
post-testing in problem-solving ability than those in the low-engagement group. According
to the HCTA manual (Halpern 2010, p. 7), problem-solving involves the use of multiple
problem statements to define the problem and identify possible goals, the generation and
selection of alternatives, and the use of explicit criteria to judge among alternatives.
Notably, problem-solving, as defined by Halpern (2010), is akin to the CT sub-skill of
inference as defined in the Delphi Report (Facione 1990; again, see Table 1).
Although we found an effect of engagement on problem-solving in the AM group, this
effect did not transfer to the overall CT ability. These results do not conform with the pattern
of results reported in van Gelder et al. (2004), where it was found that level of AM practice
in a computer-supported learning environment positively correlated with CT ability. How-
ever, one difference between our study and the study of van Gelder and colleagues is that the
students in their training course did not view pre-recorded AM training lectures prior to
practicing AM exercises; rather they logged into a practice portal and spent time working
independently on AM projects. One possible explanation for the results in our study (i.e. an
overall positive effect of AM training condition but a weaker effect of exercise engagement)
may be due to the high quality of the lectures and/or the feedback (provided to all students in
the AM group, regardless of whether or not they completed more or less exercises), which
may have provided students with sufficient engagement with AM to improve CT ability.
Also, given that the average level of engagement among all students who participated in the
course was 11.67 (out of 24), with only 20.93 % of sample engaging with none of the
exercises, it is important to note that the majority of students engaged beyond simply
viewing online lectures, including the majority of students in the low-engagement group.
It is also important to note that findings regarding level of engagement should be interpreted
with caution given that engagement was not an experimentally manipulated variable.
Upon further analysis, the CT performance of those in the high engagement group was
positively correlated with motivation (r0.38; p0.037), as well as with need for cognition
(r0.49; p0.005). In addition, though it was found that the CT performance of those in the
low engagement group was positively correlated with their need for cognition (r0.38;
p0.022), CT performance was not correlated with motivation. These findings indicate that
motivation was a key feature of performance in the high engagement group, with motivation
and performance being more closely coupled in the high engagement group but not in the
low engagement group.
We also explored the relationship between need for cognition, learning motivation, and
CT ability in the sample as a whole. We observed that neither a significant relationship
between CT performance and need for cognition existed, nor a significant relationship
between CT performance and learning motivation existed, at pre-test. However, on post-
test both need for cognition and learning motivation were significantly correlated with CT
performance, suggesting that, consistent with previous research and theory (e.g. Ennis 1998;
Halpern 2003,2006; Ku and Ho 2010a), there is some inter-dependency between a positive
or motivated disposition toward thinking and learning and CT ability.
While we observed a correlation between overall motivation to learn and CT ability, this
positive interdependence was accounted for by five of the eight subscales: intrinsic goal
orientation, control of learning beliefs, metacognitive self-regulation, motivation towards
critical thinking, and motivation towards elaboration. Motivation towards elaboration (i.e.
motivation to elaborate on information via paraphrasing, summarisation and/or creating
analogies to build connections between different items of information; Pintrich et al.
1991) was the motivation sub-scale with the highest correlation with CT performance at
An evaluation of argument mapping 235
post-test, possibly due to good critical thinkers choosing to conduct a deeper analysis of the
structure of arguments. Motivation towards CT (i.e. motivation to apply knowledge to new
situations in order to make evaluations, solve problems and/or reach decisions) was the
motivation sub-scale with the second highest correlation with CT performance, which is
perhaps unsurprising, given that the HCTA requires the application of knowledge to problem
situations in order to make evaluations and reach a decision in relation to key probe
questions. However, results also indicated that motivation towards elaboration had a higher
correlation with CT ability in the control group (r0.60) than with the AM group (r0.35), as
did motivation towards CT (control: r0.37; AM: r0.35); which suggests that CT
training was not the critical factor binding motivation and CT ability over time. Outside
of the pre-screening experience itself, or a post-screening reflection period, the novel
learning experience of the first year at university was the only other significant factor
that may have caused the increased coupling of motivation and ability over time, and
this is perhaps unsurprising as most first year (i.e. freshman) courses challenge students
to think in new and different ways, and critically, about information that is being
presented to them in lectures.
Although the relationship between need for cognition, learning motivation, and CT ability
changed from pre-test to post-test, the results of the current study revealed that there was no
effect of AM training on average levels of need for cognition or learning motivation. This
finding suggests that differences between the AM and control groups on CT performance
were not caused by changes in studentsdispositional need for cognition or motivation to
learn. The results of regression analysis further clarified that change in need for cognition
and motivation from pre-to-post-testing did not account for any variance (adjusted r
in CT gains over and above the effect of experimental condition.
Results further indicated that though studentsneed for cognition did not change
over time in either the experimental or control groups, their motivation to learn
significantly decreased over time. Upon closer analysis it was found that this global
reduction in motivation was accounted for by a significant reduction in two of the eight
motivation sub-scales: effort regulation and metacognitive self-regulation. Notably, effort
regulation was not correlated with CT ability. In addition, though metacognitive self-
regulation was correlated with CT ability, the correlation was moderate at best (i.e.
r0.24). Given that the experimental and control groups did not differ in this regard, the
decrease in motivations may not be indicative of the CT training course and may have
been a result of some factor outside of the course itself. This may simply be an effect
of time, with a general decrease in motivation observed in first year Arts from early to
late in the first semester. Specifically, it may be that in general, studentsworkload
demands had a negative influence on effort regulation over time; or perhaps the novelty
of being in college wore offand students began to lose interest in maintaining their
initial levels of effort.
Limitations of the current research
Though this study revealed that CT performance can be significantly enhanced by partici-
pation in an e-learning CT course taught through AM, there are some limitations that must be
considered. One limitation of the current study was the sample size available for analysis
after completion of the intervention. With a prospective pool of approximately 1,200 first
year undergraduate students, 720 of whom were psychology students, only 156 students
participated in the pre-testing session and only 74 completed post-testing after the interven-
tion period. However, it is also worth noting that there were no differences between
236 C.P. Dwyer et al.
completer and non-completers on need for cognition or on motivation scores at the pre-
testing stage. These findings indicate that a lack of motivation or dispositional need for
cognition was not accounting for attrition and that attrition may be more dependent on other
personal factors (e.g. personal reasons, not having enough time to take part, or preferring to
use any extra time between mandatory lectures for study). We speculate that the relatively
small sample size (the result of attrition) may have impacted on the power of our statistical
analysis and may also have accounted for the null findings associated with level of
engagement (i.e. the sample size of the engagement analysis in the AM group was only
43). In addition, the attrition of students from pre- to post-testing resulted in differences
between the groups with regard to the post-intervention sample sizes available for analysis
(i.e. AM group: N043, Control group: N031) and this in turn might have been at least
partially responsible for the differences in CT abilities at post-testing.
In order to overcome problems of attrition, future research might aim to implement and
evaluate CT interventions in the context of a mandatory course, as opposed to a voluntary
course (as in this research). Although psychology students who participated in this study
were promised credits towards their overall 1st Year Psychology mark, and all study
participants were offered a certificate of completion and the possibility of winning a cash
prize, it seems that this was not enough to keep all participants involved in the study. By
making our CT intervention mandatory, attrition would have been significantly reduced and
motivation (i.e. metacognitive self-regulation and effort regulation) may have increased
rather than decreased over time.
Though the AM group was compared with a control group, another limitation of this
study is that it was not compared with another CT training condition. While including a
control group for comparison purposes is important for all CT intervention studies, given the
hypothesized value of AM training as a means of promoting the development of CT skills, it
is important that future research include other active control conditions that involve training
of CT skills using more traditional means, or alternate conditions where AM practice, type of
feedback, or course delivery strategy is manipulated. For example, although Alvarez-Ortizs
(2007) meta-analysis found that courses where there was lots of argument mapping
practice(LAMP) produced a significant gain in studentscritical thinking performance,
with an effect size of .78 SD, CI [.67, .89], students who participated in CT courses that used
at least some argument mapping within the course achieved gains in CT ability with an effect
size of .68 SD, CI [.51, .86]. Thus, while the amount of AM practice may be a significant
variable worth manipulating in future intervention comparison studies, it appears that
researchers will need to think carefully about how to maximize the benefits of AM practice.
One final limitation of the current study that should be considered was the
relatively low internal consistency of some scales on the MSLQ. This may have
potentially influenced some observed correlations and/or reliability of estimates.
Though some caution may be necessary in interpreting these findings, nevertheless,
the correlations reported remain consistent with previous research on the relationship
between motivation and CT (e.g. Garcia et al. 1992; Valenzuela et al. 2011)andcan
be viewed as providing further support for such claims.
Future research
Future research on CT interventions could also move beyond measuring CT performance
according to quantitative assessment, to include qualitative analyses of how students come to
answer CT questions/problems. For example, in research by Ku and Ho (2010b), it was
found that when asked to talk aloudwhen critically thinking about each question on the
An evaluation of argument mapping 237
HCTA, students who were proficient at CT engaged in more metacognitive activities and
processes, including self-regulatory planning and evaluation skills. Future research could
potentially examine the effect of argument mapping on the structure of metacognitive
processing during CT think aloudprotocols and how these processes influence CT
performance. Developing Ku and Hos line of enquiry, this deeper qualitative analysis of
the benefits of AM training may also shed light on the relationship between metacognitive
processes, such as self-regulatory planning, and the increase (or decrease) in disposition
toward critical thinking and the coupling (or decoupling) of disposition and ability over time.
In addition, given that research suggests that feedback provided during AM training can
enhance CT ability (Butchart et al. 2009; van Gelder 2003), future research could also
examine the effects of specific types of AM training feedback on different aspects of critical
thinking ability. For example, future research might examine the effects of feedback focused
specifically on studentsability to analyse the credibility of propositions in comparison with
feedback focused specifically on studentsability to evaluate the relevance of propositions,
or the inferential relationships and logical strength of proposition structures. Moreover,
given that both motivation towards learning and need for cognition were significantly
correlated with CT performance at post-testing, future research should also take care to
control for both of these variables as differences in CT performance that emerge as a result of
interventions, regardless of design, may potentially be accounted for by differences in either
motivation or need or cognition.
Furthermore, given (1) the potentially beneficial effects of AM in e-learning environ-
ments (as observed in the current research), (2) that AM is used to visually represent the
structure of arguments and allows for their manipulation (van Gelder and Rizzo 2001; van
Gelder 2003) and (3) that argumentation is a social activity (van Eemeren et al. 1996), it
seems reasonable to further speculate that the ability of computer-supported AM to enhance
CT may be optimised in collaborative learning settings. It has been argued by Paul (1987,
1993) that dialogue, a fundamental component of collaborative learning, is necessary for
good CT. In the context of CT and computer-based AM, dialogue is advantageous because it
provides thinkers with an opportunity to explain and question their own beliefs and argu-
ments in light of the thinking and opinions of others involved in the dialogue. In this way,
the thinkers involved in the dialogue are actively engaged in collaborative learning. Past
research indicates that the use of mapping strategies (e.g. argument mapping) in computer-
supported collaborative learning environments can facilitate: (1) higher grades on academic
course assessments; (2) reasoned discussion among students; and (3) aid in focusing students
to transfer these dialogic skills to curriculum-based learning (Engelmann et al. 2010;
Engelmann and Hesse 2010; Hwang et al. 2011; Johnson et al. 2000;Ma2009; Wegerif
and Dawes 2004). Research has shown that reasoning and argumentation skills increase if
computer-supported collaborative learning environments is used, given that it aids students
in making their thoughts and solution strategies clear (Kuhn et al. 2008; Wegerif 2002;
Wegerif and Dawes 2004). These recommendations for future research regarding AM are
further supported by recent research which suggests that collaborative learning through
mapping strategies, similar to AM, can enhance learning performance (Engelmann and
Hesse 2010; Engelmann et al. 2010; Hwang et al. 2011; Roth and Roychoudhury 1994).
A more global perspective on the findings from this research suggests that AM can
potentially supplement traditional methods of presenting arguments that are the focus of CT.
For example, based on the findings of the current research and previous research in our
laboratory (Dwyer et al. 2010), it appears that AM can be successfully used: (1) to support
didactic instruction or to potentially replace text-based learning strategies in certain situa-
tions; (2) as a study guide provided by the teacher to be used by the student, (3) as a partially
238 C.P. Dwyer et al.
completed study guide provided by the teacher to be completed by students when reading
text, and/or (4) as a means of providing students with a method of constructing arguments
from scratch using specific, class-based material as the basis for AM construction work.
Specifically, in didactic, instructional settings, instead of presenting studentswith slideshows
filled with bullet points of information that they will need to recall in the future, it may prove
more advantageous to place AMs within the slides as a means of presenting both the target
information and the structure of the reasoning behind it. In this context, AMs may provide
students with the opportunity to gain deeper insight and greater understanding of the subject
being taught, through assimilating the propositions, drawing the necessary connections among
those propositions, and assessing the relevance, credibility and the logical strength of those
propositions and their interconnectivity within an AM. Thus, as a result of potentially greater
understanding and deeper insight, students may be better able to better analyse and evaluate the
class materials. That is, AMs may provide students with a visual scaffold of the information
expected to be learned; and may also aid in their ability to critically analyse and evaluate the
target information for purposes of creating greater understanding.
Presenting information in this hierarchically organised manner may also allow students to
more readily question the importance of propositions and their relationships within class
materials, given that the structure of the information is made explicit; and may possibly
motivate students to seek further justification from sources apart from class-based materials.
That is, if an argument is explicitly laid out for students in class via an AM, it may facilitate
their ability to see the logical flow of the argument more easily, given that they are spared the
need to simultaneously assimilate the argument and take notes. Thus, the use of AMs in the
classroom may promote student engagement in the classroom.
In addition to the benefits of AM in didactic settings, the ability to actively map arguments
could potentially aid students to organise their notes outside of the classroom and more easily
assimilate important information from additional readings. This in turn would allow them to
actively learn information through their own investigation of the given subject area. Further-
more, findings from the current research indicate that AM know-howprovides students with
the opportunity to actively learn, in that students are provided a means of structuring proposi-
tions into arguments, gathered from both classroom-based and extracurricular investigations,
for purposes of analysing and evaluating the materials and inferring their own conclusions; thus
providing them with the opportunity to actively gain a deeper understanding of the subject area.
In conclusion, consistent with reports which highlight the value of using e-learning to
facilitate the development of metacognitive processes and active learning (Huffaker and
Calvert 2003), the results of the current study suggests that CT skills can be enhanced by
participating in an AM training course delivered in an e-learning environment. However,
future research is necessary to further examine the conditions that most positively affect CT
and dispositions towards thinking.
Appendix A: sample feedback from lecture 3.1
Thank you very much to all of you who did the exercises. Below you will find some
feedback on exercises from Lecture 3.1.
Exercise: Ireland should adopt Capital Punishment
Below please find the argument we have extracted from the text you were asked to
analyse. Please compare and contrast your argument map with this one. Also, please take
An evaluation of argument mapping 239
note of where you may have differed in your placement of some propositions and why you
made the analysis decisions you made.
You were also asked to answer a few questions based on this argument map.
Question 1 asked:
Does the author sufficiently support their claims? Are the authors claims rele-
vant? Does the author attempt to refute their own arguments (i.e., disconfirm their
Some of you answered that:
The author did not sufficiently support his/her claims because most of the propositions
used were based on personal opinion (i.e. there was an insufficient amount of evidence to
suggest that Ireland should adopt capital punishment). The author did attempt to refute their
own claims, however, did so poorly in that he/she only used personal opinion or common
The author sufficiently supported their claims as they were sufficiently backed up by
other supports. These claims are all relevant to the argument, specifically the central claim.
The author does not attempt to disconfirm his beliefs because he sticks to his guns that
capital punishment should be adopted.
Families of
victims have
stated that if
theses killers
were dead,
it would give
them closure.
Then the
family of the
killer will be
very upset,
because the
will have
their relative.
If someone has
killed another
person, it is
right that they
too should be
killed, that is,
‘an eye for an
By killing the
murderer, he
won’t learn a
lesson, thus,
it is better to
let him suffer
in prison.
By introducing
populations will
be decreased
by 8%.
Criminals are
far less likely to
kill if they know
that they could
also be killed as
The killer would
have been
aware of the
of committing
murder, so he
made his own
choice when he
first took
another life.
240 C.P. Dwyer et al.
The truth of the matter is that the author did not sufficiently support his/her claims. Of the
8 reasons he provided, only 3 were based on either expert opinion, statistics from research or
research data.
All the arguments made were relevant to the central claim.
The author did attempt to refute his/her claims (i.e. disconfirm their own belief), as on 3
occasions, some form of objection to the reasoning was presented. However, the objections
used were not examples of high quality evidence.
Question 2 asked:
Are there other arguments you would include?
Some of you answered that:
Some argument should be made in terms of when the death penalty should/would be
used, such as in cases of mental problems or a conviction of manslaughter.
Some argument should consider the nature of the crime, such as how the murder took
place details should be considered.
Everyone has a right to life, even murderers.
Law abiding citizens might grow to fear the government as they would now have more
control over you.
Please think about these ideas and claims and also think about how you could possibly
integrate them into the argument map. In addition, think about how you might support or
object to these new propositions.
Question 3 asked:
Does any proposition or any set of propositions suggest to you that the author is biased in
any way?
Some of you answered:
The author is biased because he/she presents more reasons for why we should adopt
capital punishment than for not adopting capital punishment.
The author was not biased because though he/she did present more reasons in favour of capital
punishment, they were mostly based on personal opinion and were adequately objected to.
The author does certainly appear to be biased. However, some of you argued that it is
because the author stated that Ireland should adopt capital punishment, thus making it a
biased argument from the outset. This is not true, because the author may have made the
same claim and then simply presented 5 objections at level 1 in the argument structure (as
opposed to 4 supports). Remember, there is more to determining bias than simply assimi-
lating what the central claim is; what is more important is how the author attempts to justify
or refute this claim. The reason why this argument is biased is because the author only
presents some arguably credible evidence (in 3 cases) to support the claim. In other cases
where the author makes a claim and objects to it, both the reasons and objections are based
on personal or common belief. This is done to disguise the authors bias. In the cases where
the author presents credible evidence, there are no objections.
An evaluation of argument mapping 241
Abrami, P. C., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Surkes, M. A., Tamim, R., & Zhang, D. (2008).
Instructional interventions affecting critical thinking skills and dispositions: a stage 1 meta-analysis.
Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 11021134.
Alvarez-Ortiz, C. (2007). Does philosophy improve critical thinking skills? Unpublished thesis. The Univer-
sity of Melbourne.
Association of American Colleges & Universities (2005). Liberal education outcomes: A preliminary report
on student achievement in college. Washington, DC.
Australian Council for Educational Research (2002). Graduate skills assessment. Commonwealth of
Boekaerts, M., & Simons, P. R. J. (1993). Learning and instruction: Psychology of the pupil and the learning
process. Assen: Dekker & van de Vegt.
Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms.
In F. Reiner & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 65116). Hillsdale:
Butchart, S., Bigelow, J., Oppy, G., Korb, K., & Gold, I. (2009). Improving critical thinking using web-based
argument mapping exercises with automated feedback. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,
25(2), 268291.
Caciappo, J. T., Petty, R. E., & Kao, C. F. (1984). The efficient assessment of need or cogntion. Journal of
Personality Assessment, 48, 306307.
Dawson, T. L. (2008). Metacognition and learning in adulthood. Northhampton: Developmental Testing
Service, LLC.
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2010). The evaluation of argument mapping as a learning tool:
Comparing the effects of map reading versus text reading on comprehension and recall of arguments.
Thinking Skills and Creativity, 5(1), 1622.
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart I. (2011). The promotion of critical thinking skills through argument
mapping. Nova Publishing, in press.
Engelmann, T., & Hesse, F. W. (2010). How digital concept maps about the collaboratorsknowledge and
information influence computer-supported collaborative problem solving. Computer-Supported Collab-
orative Learning, 5, 299319.
Engelmann, T., Baumeister, A., Dingel, A., & Hesse, F. W. (2010). The added value of communication in a
CSCL-scenario compared to just having access to the partnersknowledge and information. In J. Sánchez,
A. Cañas, & J. D. Novak (Eds.), Concept maps making learning meaningful: Proceedings of the 4th
international conference on concept mapping, 1 (pp. 377384). Viña del Mar: University of Chile.
Ennis, R. H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research. Educational
Researcher, 18,410.
Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical thinking. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Ennis, R. H. (1998). Is critical thinking culturally biased? Teaching Philosophy, 21(1), 1533.
Facione, P.A. (1990). The Delphi report. Committee on pre-college philosophy. American Philosophical
Farrand, P., Hussain, F., & Hennessy, E. (2002). The efficacy of the mind mapstudy technique. Medical
Education, 36, 426431.
Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: a new area of psychological inquiry. American
Psychologist, 34, 906911.
Gadzella, B.M. (1996). Teaching and learning critical thinking skills (ERIC ED 405 313), U.S. Department of
Garcia, T., Pintrich, P. R., & Paul, R. (1992). Critical thinking and its relationship to motivation, learning
strategies and classroom experience. Paper presented at the 100th Annual Meeting of the American
Psychological Association, Washington, DC, August 1418.
Halpern, D. F. (2003). Thought & knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking (4th ed.). New Jersey:
Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Halpern, D. F. (2006). Is intelligence critical thinking? Why we need a new definition of intelligence. In P. C.
Kyllonen, R. D. Roberts, & L. Stankov (Eds.), Extending intelligence: Enhancement and new constructs
(pp. 293310). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
Halpern, D. F. (2010). The Halpern critical thinking assessment: Manual. Vienna: Schuhfried.
Harrell, M. (2004). The improvement of critical thinking skills. In What philosophy is (Tech. Rep. CMU-
PHIL-158). Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Philosophy.
Harrell, M. (2005). Using argument diagramming software in the classroom. Teaching Philosophy, 28,2.
242 C.P. Dwyer et al.
Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on student learning: a meta-
analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 99136.
Higher Education Quality Council, Quality Enhancement Group. (1996). What are graduates? Clarifying the
attributes of graduateness. London: HEQC.
Hitchcock, D. (2003). The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in critical thinking. Philosophy
department. McMaster University.
Holmes, J., & Clizbe, E. (1997). Facing the 21st century. Business Education Forum, 52(1), 3335.
Huffaker, D. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2003). The new science of learning: active learning, metacognition and
transfer of knowledge in e-learning applications. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3),
Hwang, G. J., Shi, Y. R., & Chu, H. C. (2011). A concept map approach to developing collaborative
mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5),
Jensen, L. L. (1998). The role of need for cognition in the development of reflective judgment. Unpublished
PhD thesis, University of Denver, Colorado, USA.
Jiang, Y., Olson, I. R., & Chun, M. M. (2000). Organization of visual short-term memory. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 26, 683702. 1997.
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Stanne, M.S. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.
Retrieved 21/06/2011, from
King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (2002). The reflective judgment model: Twenty years of epistemic cognition.
In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge
and knowing (pp. 3761). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological
Review, 85, 363394.
Ku, K. Y. L. (2009). Assessing studentscritical thinking performance: urging for measurements using multi-
response format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(1), 7076.
Ku, K. Y. L., & Ho, I. T. (2010a). Dispositional factors predicting Chinese studentscritical thinking
performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 48,5458.
Ku, K. Y. L., & Ho, I. T. (2010b). Metacognitive strategies that enhance critical thinking. Metacognition
Learning, 5, 251267.
Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kuhn, D., Goh, W., Iordanou, K., & Shaenfield, D. (2008). Arguing on the computer: a microgenetic study
of developing argument skills in a computer-supported environment. Child Development, 79(5), 1310
Ma, A. W. W. (2009). Computer supported collaborative learning and higher order thinking skills: A case
study of textile studies. The Interdisciplinary Journal of e-Learning and Learning Objects, 5, 145167.
Marzano, R.J. (1998). A theory-based meta-analysis of research on instruction. Aurora, CO: Mid-Continent
Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved 26/10/2007, from
Maybery, M. T., Bain, J. D., & Halford, G. S. (1986). Information-processing demands of transitive inference.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(4), 600613.
Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychol-
ogist, 32(1), 119.
Mayer, R. E. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across
different media. Learning and Instruction, 13, 125139.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for
processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 814897.
Monk, P. (2001). Mapping the future of argument. Australian Financial Review. 16, March, pp.89.
National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. (2005). Rising
above the gathering storm: Energising and employing America for a brighter economic future. Wash-
ington: Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy for the 21st Century.
Norris, S. P. (1994). The meaning of critical thinking test performance: The effects of abilities and dispositions
on scores. Critical thinking: Current research, theory, and practice. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and verbal processes. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual-coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
Paul, R. (1987). Dialogical thinking: Critical thought essential to the acquisition of rational knowledge and
passions. In J. Baron & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 127
148). New York: W.H. Freeman.
Paul, R. (1993). Critical thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. Rohnert
Park: Foundation for Critical Thinking.
An evaluation of argument mapping 243
Perkins, D. N., Jay, E., & Tishman, S. (1993). Beyond abilities: a dispositional theory of thinking. Merrilll
Palmer Quarterly, 39,11.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated
strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Michigan: National Center for Research to Improve Post-
secondary Teaching and Learning.
Reed, J. H., & Kromrey, J. D. (2001). Teaching critical thinking in a community college history course:
empirical evidence from infusing Pauls model. College Student Journal, 35(2), 201215.
Robbins, S., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A. (2004). Do psychosocial and study
skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 261288.
Roth, W. M., & Roychoudhury, A. (1994). Science discourse through collaborative concept mapping: New
perspectives for the teacher. International Journal of Science Education, 16, 437455.
Sherrard, M., & Czaja, R. (1999). Extending two cognitive processing scales: Need for cognition and need for
evaluation for use in a health intervention. European Advances in Consumer Research, 4, 135142.
Solon, T. (2007). Generic critical thinking infusion and course content learning in introductory psychology.
Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34(2), 95109.
Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 257285.
Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Australian Education Review No. 43. Victoria:
Acer Press.
Sweller, J. (2010). Cognitive load theory: Recent theoretical advances. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & R.
Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive load theory (pp. 2947). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tindall-Ford, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1997). When two sensory modes are better than one. Journal of
Experimental Psychology. Applied, 3(4), 257287.
Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). The domain specificity and generality of disjunctive
reasoning: searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology,
94(1), 197209.
Twardy, C. R. (2004). Argument maps improve critical thinking. Teaching Philosophy, 27(2), 95116.
Valenzuela, J., Nieto, A. M., & Saiz, C. (2011). Critical thinking motivational scale: a contribution to the study
of relationship between critical thinking and motivation. Journal of Research in Educational Psychology,
9(2), 823848.
van Eemeren, F. H., Grootendorst, R., Henkemans, F. S., Blair, J. A., Johnson, R. H., Krabbe, E. C. W.,
Planitin, C., Walton, D. N., Willard, C. A., Woods, J., & Zarefsky, D. (1996). Fundamentals of
argumentation theory: A handbook of historical backgrounds and contemporary developments. New
Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
van Gelder, T. J. (2001). How to improve critical thinking using educational technology. In G. Kennedy, M.
Keppell, C. McNaught, & T. Petrovic (Eds.), Meeting at the crossroads: Proceedings of the 18th annual
conference of the Australian society for computers in learning in tertiary education (pp. 539548).
Melbourne: Biomedical Multimedia Unit, University of Melbourne.
van Gelder, T. J. (2003). Enhancing deliberation through computer supported argument mapping. In P.
Kirschner, S. Buckingham Shum, & C. Carr (Eds.), Visualizing argumentation: Software tools for
collaborative and educational sense-making (pp. 97115). London: Springer.
van Gelder, T. J. (2007). The rationale for RationaleTM. Law, Probability & Risk, 6,2342.
van Gelder, T.J., & Rizzo, A. (2001). Reason!Able across curriculum, in Is IT an Odyssey in Learning?
Proceedings of the 2001 Conference of ICT in Education, Victoria, Australia.
van Gelder, T. J., Bissett, M., & Cumming, G. (2004). Enhancing expertise in informal reasoning. Canadian
Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 142152.
Wankat, P. (2002). The effective efficient professor: Teaching, scholarship and service. Boston: Allyn and
Wegerif, R. (2002). Literature review in thinking skills, technology and learning: Report 2. Bristol: NESTA
Wegerif, R., & Dawes, L. (2004). Thinking and learning with ICT: Raising achievement in the primary
classroom. London: Routledge.
Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical thinking: why is it so hard to teach? American Educator, 3,819.
Woodman, G. F., Vecera, S. P., & Luck, S. J. (2003). Perceptual organization influences visual working
memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(1), 8087.
244 C.P. Dwyer et al.
... Critical thinking (CT) is a metacognitive process-consisting of a number of skills and dispositions-that, through purposeful, self-regulatory reflective judgment, increases the chances of producing a logical solution to a problem or a valid conclusion to an argument (Dwyer 2017(Dwyer , 2020Dwyer et al. 2012Dwyer et al. , 2014Dwyer et al. , 2015Dwyer et al. , 2016Dwyer and Walsh 2019;Quinn et al. 2020). ...
... CT has long been identified as a desired outcome of education (Bezanilla et al. 2019;Butler et al. 2012;Dwyer 2017;Ennis 2018), given that it facilitates a more complex understanding of information Halpern 2014), better judgment and decisionmaking (Gambrill 2006) and less dependence on cognitive bias and heuristic thinking (Facione and Facione 2001;McGuinness 2013). A vast body of research (e.g., Dwyer et al. 2012;Gadzella 1996;Hitchcock 2004;Reed and Kromrey 2001;Rimiene 2002;Solon 2007), including various meta-analyses (e.g., Abrami et al. 2008Abrami et al. , 2015Niu et al. 2013;Ortiz 2007), indicates that CT can be enhanced through targeted, explicit instruction. Though CT can be taught in domain-specific areas, its domain-generality means that it can be taught across disciplines and in relation to real-world scenarios (Dwyer 2011(Dwyer , 2017Dwyer and Eigenauer 2017;Dwyer et al. 2015;Gabennesch 2006;Halpern 2014). ...
... In order to better understand the various barriers to CT that will be discussed, the manner in which CT is conceptualised must first be revisited. Though debate over its definition and what components are necessary to think critically has existed over the 80-plus years since the term's coining (i.e., Glaser 1941), it is generally accepted that CT consists of two main components: skills and dispositions (Dwyer 2017;Dwyer et al. 2012Dwyer et al. , 2014Ennis 1996Ennis , 1998Facione 1990;Facione et al. 2002;Halpern 2014;Ku and Ho 2010a;Perkins and Ritchhart 2004;Quinn et al. 2020). CT skills-analysis, evaluation, and inference-refer to the higher-order, cognitive, 'task-based' processes necessary to conduct CT (e.g., see Dwyer et al. 2014;Facione 1990). ...
Full-text available
Though a wide array of definitions and conceptualisations of critical thinking have been offered in the past, further elaboration on some concepts is required, particularly with respect to various factors that may impede an individual’s application of critical thinking, such as in the case of reflective judgment. These barriers include varying levels of epistemological engagement or understanding, issues pertaining to heuristic-based thinking and intuitive judgment, as well as emotional and biased thinking. The aim of this review is to discuss such barriers and evaluate their impact on critical thinking in light of perspectives from research in an effort to reinforce the ‘completeness’ of extant critical thinking frameworks and to enhance the potential benefits of implementation in real-world settings. Recommendations and implications for overcoming such barriers are also discussed and evaluated.
... Critical thinking (CT) is considered by many an essential 21 st -century skill in society as it allows people to construct a profound understanding and rational judgment of any information presented to them (Dwyer et al., 2012). Basing conclusions on robust and verifiable evidence makes CT a desirable skill in many workplaces (Rear, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, we propose an interdisciplinary activity combining archaeology with mathematical proving developed during a five-iterations design-based research (DBR). The activity is aimed to bring students to the enactment of subversive critical thinking (SCT)-a radical type of critical thinking that consists of (i) opposition to an expert's opinion supported by a backing argument or (ii) an original alternative-an idea, interpretation, or opinion strictly divergent from all experts' views. Results from the three last DBR iterations analyzing the answers of 45 peer groups (104 students) show that most groups (87%) constructed SCT arguments. Notably, 51% opposed both experts, and 42% generated original alternatives. Based on our findings, we suggest three tentative design principles for promoting SCT in STEM education.
... (For recent reviews, see Michelucci & Dickinson, 2016;Klein, 2015;and Quinn & Bederson, 2011. For a survey of argument maps, see Dwyer et al., 2012.) In Klein's (2015), classification, TruthSift may be considered to have a novel means of aggregation of contributions compared to any surveyed methods, combining contributions according to logic, and a novel means of quality control, using the aggregation to compute what is logically established. ...
Full-text available
TruthSift is a cloud-based platform that logically combines members’ contributions into a collective intelligence. Members add statements and directed connectors to diagrams. TruthSift monitors which statements have been logically established by demonstrations for which every challenge raised has been refuted by an established refutation. When members run out of rational objections, the result is a converged diagram succinctly representing the state of knowledge about a topic, including plausible challenges and how they were refuted. Previous computer systems for collaborative intelligence did not have a qualitatively better solution for combining contributions than voting and are subject to groupthink, interest group capture, and inability to follow a multistep logical argument. They did not settle issues automatically point by point and logically propagate the consequences. I review indications that many practically important statements most people believe to be firmly established will be revealed to be firmly refuted upon computer-assisted scrutiny. TruthSift also supports construction of powerful probabilistic models over networks of causes, implications, tests, and necessary factors.
... Critical thinking is at the heart of higher education (Wilson, 2016) and is an important goal in modern schooling. Its implementation provides students with the competencies needed to develop a personality (Veliz & Veliz-Campos, 2019) and to solve problems in a rapidly changing and uncertain world (Facione & Facione, 1996;Ku, 2009;Dwyer et al., 2012;Ghanizadeh, 2017). The demand for critical thinking is growing along with challenges and complex problems in a global, competitive environment (Smith & Stitts, 2013) that have not existed before. ...
Full-text available
This article aims to present the interaction between understanding of critical thinking and teaching and learning of critical thinking skills in higher education in Lithuania. Representative quantitative research was implemented, and 152 teachers and 1512 students took part in the survey. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors – the rigidity and elasticity of the conception of critical thinking – that have an impact on teaching and learning of critical thinking skills.
... Students were expected not only to memorize content but also to make a high-level cognitive contribution (3,4). Critical thinking skills allow students to gain more complex understanding (5). This skill should be a priority for students because it can empower them for life and help for understand themselves (6), improve workability and motivation (7), enable them to understand information and its reliability (8), and involve independent thinking and ability to formulate opinions after considering different perspective (9). ...
Conference Paper
Critical thinking is an essential skill that students should be mastered. However, the majority of studies found that students' critical thinking skills were still considered low. This study aims to explore the effect of STEM-PjBL with TPACK learning on students' critical thinking skills in the static fluid. The method used is quasi-experiment involved 21 students from one of the senior high schools in Tulungagung regency. STEM-PjBL with TPACK was used to teach the experiment group, and conventional learning was used to teach the control group. This study showed that there is no significant difference between students' critical thinking skills in both groups (U=25.00, p>0.05). It was probably because students' didn't work collaboratively during project making and had a low dependency on learning. The result implied that improving students' critical thinking skills are not easy to conduct. Furthermore, more attention and effort are needed when implementing STEM-PjBL integrated TPACK during the online learning environment.
Need for cognition is conceptualized as an individual’s intrinsic motivation to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities. Over the past three decades, there has been increasing interest in how need for cognition impacts and correlates with learning performance. This meta-analysis summarized 136 independent effect sizes (N = 53,258) for the association between need for cognition and academic achievement and investigated the moderating effects of variables related to research context, methodology, and instrumentation. The overall effect size weighted by inverse variance and using a random effects model was found to be small, r = .20, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from .18 to .22. The association between need for cognition and learning performance was moderated by grade level, geographic region, exposure to intervention, and outcome measurement tool. The implications of these findings for practice and future research are discussed.
Critical thinking and second language (L2) critical writing are very important for students at the tertiary level. However, applied linguistics and L2 acquisition research has mostly focused on linguistic knowledge development. Second language research has yet given scarce attention for examining the development of critical thinking and critical writing. This article explores the impact of critical analysis based on augmented reality (AR) technology on developing critical thinking and critical writing. Two groups of L2 undergraduates ( n = 120) participated in this study. The experimental group used critical analysis based on AR, and the control group used online instruction based on a learning management system without AR. The findings showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in critical thinking and writing. Elements of critical thinking were integrated into the experimental group’s critical writing. The findings highlight the importance of connecting critical writing assessment with critical thinking and using critical thinking elements as one of the important predictors of critical writing. Furthermore, the study provides important implications for future research on integrating AR into critical analysis for enhancing L2 learners’ critical thinking and writing.
Today’s global world brought significant changes to our learning and teaching habits, skills, and competencies we need to gain to deal with and make decisions on challenging global issues. One of these essential skills we need to improve is critical thinking skills. Enhancing critical thinking skills and developing an in-depth critical consciousness on challenging issues can be achieved through the improvement of two essential literacy skills, reading and writing. This paper presents a reading course model developed to improve pre-service English language teachers’ critical reading skills within the framework of critical pedagogy. Many English reading courses in higher education level are designed with traditional approaches that aim to improve the basic reading comprehension skills of second language (L2) readers. Unlike these courses, the course model reported in this paper aims to develop pre-service English language teachers’ critical reading skills as well as consciousness on critical global issues by creating a context they experience reading in English as a social act by having a deeper level of engagement with critical global issues such as social justice, gender equality, refugee problems, human rights, and environmental challenges. The paper first provides a detailed description of the theoretical framework behind the design of the course and then presents the course with a focus on learning objectives, course procedure, reading text selection and assessment of students’ works. The pedagogical considerations and implications are provided in the conclusion for instructors who are interested in implementing a reading course enriched with critical pedagogy.
Full-text available
In this paper we describe a simple software system that allows students to practise their critical thinking skills by constructing argument maps of natural language arguments. As the students construct their maps of an argument, the system provides automatic, real time feedback on their progress. We outline the background and theoretical framework that led to the development of the system and then give a detailed example of how a student would work through a particular argument mapping exercise using the software. We then describe how the system was used in a single semester undergraduate critical thinking course. We evaluated the course using a standardised critical thinking test and measured an improvement in critical thinking skills of 0.45 standard deviations from pre-test to post-test; a modest, but encouraging result for a single semester course. We compare these results to those obtained in a number of other critical thinking courses, incorporating a variety of teaching methods. We conclude the paper with some comments on the limitations of the system and ways in which it might be improved and extended.