Article

The Gendered Nature of Discriminatory Experiences by Race, Class, and Sexuality: A Comparison of Intersectionality Theory and the Subordinate Male Target Hypothesis

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Abstract

Three competing theoretical approaches to social inequalities by gender, race, class, and sexuality are examined. The additive approach assumes that people possessing multiple subordinate-group identities experience the oppressions associated with them as distinct phenomena. The intersectionality-inspired approach suggests that subordinate-group identities such as non-White, lower class, and non-heterosexual interact with gender in a synergistic way, occasioning inordinately pernicious experiences of discrimination for women possessing one or more additional subordinate-group identities. The subordinate male target hypothesis (SMTH) claims that the discrimination experienced by the men of subordinate groups—primarily at the hands of men of dominant groups—is greater than that experienced by the women of the same subordinate groups. In 2009, telephone survey data was collected from 414 women and 208 men in Toronto, Canada and 521 women and 245 men in Vancouver, Canada. Negative binomial regression techniques are applied to these data to determine whether and how gender (male or female), race (White or non-White), educational attainment, household income, and sexual orientation (heterosexual or non-heterosexual), as well as two-way interactions between gender and the other variables, predict scale measures of self-reported major experiences of discrimination and self-reported chronic, routine discriminatory experiences. High levels of both kinds of discrimination reported by men in general are at odds with the additive and intersectionality-inspired perspectives which accord women the gender identity most vulnerable to discrimination. Inordinately high levels of routine discrimination reported by men with a high school diploma or less are consistent with the SMTH-inspired perspective.

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... Past organisational research has also focused on minority males being privileged due to their gender but subordinated as a result of their sexual orientation (Steinbugler, Press, & Dias, 2006). However, much of the intersectionality research related to minority men is focused on the experiences of males at lower levels within organisations (Coston & Kimmel, 2012;Veenstra, 2013) with minimal focus on those in management. One exception is the study of Atewologun and Sealy (2014) that focuses on senior male and female employees' privileges in a UK organisation. ...
... proposes that intersectionality interrogation of subordinate identities should embrace an inequality regime approach at a particular time within a specific historical context. The , 2013;Bursell, 2014;Hankivsky, 2012), subordination and stereotyping of black males in USA organisations (Collins, 2004;Steinbugler et al., 2006), discrimination experienced by minority males in corporate settings in Canada (Veenstra, 2013), and the experiences of minority males in UK companies (Atewologun & Sealy, 2014). ...
... proposes that intersectionality interrogation of subordinate identities should embrace an inequality regime approach at a particular time within a specific historical context. The , 2013;Bursell, 2014;Hankivsky, 2012), subordination and stereotyping of black males in USA organisations (Collins, 2004;Steinbugler et al., 2006), discrimination experienced by minority males in corporate settings in Canada (Veenstra, 2013), and the experiences of minority males in UK companies (Atewologun & Sealy, 2014). ...
Article
This article examines the extent to which minority Indian male managers engage in identity work in their efforts to gain career ascendancy in the private sector in South Africa. Indian male managers occupying diverse management posts at middle management and senior management levels in various sectors were interviewed. Results indicate that Indian men worked and reworked their managerial and cultural identities to form coherent identities which they were comfortable enacting in corporate South Africa. Race hierarchy in some workplaces placed Indian males at a disadvantage related to promotional opportunities. There is no simple solution to the problem as race hierarchy still dominates corporate South Africa, and Western norms still prevail.
... While discrimination should be reduced at all levels and for all populations, clinicians may specifically address discrimination for SU prevention and treatment among male Caribbean Black youth. compared to females [16,[23][24][25][26][27], a phenomenon that can be explained by the subordinate male hypothesis [28]. Based on this hypothesis, the discrimination experienced by the men of subordinate groups is greater than the discrimination experienced by the women of the same subordinate groups [28]. ...
... compared to females [16,[23][24][25][26][27], a phenomenon that can be explained by the subordinate male hypothesis [28]. Based on this hypothesis, the discrimination experienced by the men of subordinate groups is greater than the discrimination experienced by the women of the same subordinate groups [28]. Based on this hypothesis, gender interacts with race/ethnicity in shaping exposure to discrimination. ...
... The same pattern has been found for Arab American adults [43]. This can probably be explained by subordinate male hypothesis [28] which suggests males are the main target of discrimination by the dominant group. This is also supported by a recent study showing that White men hold more implicit bias against Black compared to White women [29]. ...
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Although perceived discrimination in Black youth is a risk factor for a wide range of negative mental health outcomes, recent research has suggested some gender differences in these associations. Gender differences in vulnerability to perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth is, however, still unknown. The current cross-sectional study investigated gender variations in the association between perceived discrimination and substance use (SU) in a national sample of Caribbean Black youth. Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003⁻2004. This analysis included 360 Caribbean Black youth (165 males and 195 females) who were between 13 and 17 years old. Sociodemographic factors, perceived discrimination, and SU were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Among Caribbean Black youth, a positive association was found between perceived discrimination and SU (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02⁻1.29)). A significant interaction was found between gender and perceived discrimination on smoking (OR = 1.23 (95% CI = 1.07⁻1.41)) suggesting that the association between perceived discrimination and smoking is larger for male than female Caribbean Black youth. The interaction between gender and perceived discrimination on SU was not statistically significant (OR = 1.32 (95% CI = 0.94⁻1.86)). While perceived discrimination increases SU in Caribbean Black youth, this effect is stronger for males than females, especially for smoking. While discrimination should be reduced at all levels and for all populations, clinicians may specifically address discrimination for SU prevention and treatment among male Caribbean Black youth.
... This allowed us to check for the possible existence of both gender and socioeconomic inequalities in hypertension-related outcomes. Moreover, gender and SES might also act together in shaping risk profiles as, according to intersectionality theory, the combination of different social categories may unveil interacting mechanisms that noticeably differ from the isolated effects of the same categories [5,32,33]. On the one hand, it is known that socioeconomic inequalities do not necessarily affect men and women to the same extent [32,34,35]; on the other hand, as regards the specific pathology studied, women enjoy the protective effects of oestrogens before the beginning of menopause [9][10][11][12][13], so that this and other innate physiological features [14] might mitigate the presence of stronger SES effects compared to men. Such favourable biological endowment is tangible from the examination of the pathology's rates according to age class, whereby after menopause onset age (which is on average 51) women's rates exceed those of men, and the gap widens with age. ...
... Moreover, gender and SES might also act together in shaping risk profiles as, according to intersectionality theory, the combination of different social categories may unveil interacting mechanisms that noticeably differ from the isolated effects of the same categories [5,32,33]. On the one hand, it is known that socioeconomic inequalities do not necessarily affect men and women to the same extent [32,34,35]; on the other hand, as regards the specific pathology studied, women enjoy the protective effects of oestrogens before the beginning of menopause [9][10][11][12][13], so that this and other innate physiological features [14] might mitigate the presence of stronger SES effects compared to men. Such favourable biological endowment is tangible from the examination of the pathology's rates according to age class, whereby after menopause onset age (which is on average 51) women's rates exceed those of men, and the gap widens with age. ...
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Background This paper aims to assess the presence of gender differences in medication use and mortality in a cohort of patients affected exclusively by hypertension, in 193 municipalities in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy), including Milan's metropolitan area. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted (N = 232,507) querying administrative healthcare data and the Register of Causes of Death. Hypertensive patients (55.4% women; 44.6% men) in 2017 were identified; gender differences in medication use (treatment, 80% compliance) and deaths (from all causes and CVDs) were assessed at two-year follow-ups in logistic regression models adjusted for age class, census-based deprivation index, nationality, and pre-existing health conditions. Models stratified by age, deprivation index, and therapeutic compliance were also tested. Results Overall, women had higher odds of being treated, but lower odds of therapeutic compliance, death from all causes, and death from CVDs. All the outcomes had clear sex differences across age classes, though not between different levels of deprivation. Comparing patients with medication adherence, women had lower odds of death from all causes than men (with a narrowing protective effect as age increased), while no gender differences emerged in non-compliant patients. Conclusions Among hypertensive patients, gender differences in medication consumption and mortality have been found, but the extent to which these are attributable to a female socio-cultural disadvantage is questionable. The findings reached, with marked age-dependent effects in the outcomes investigated, suggest a prominent role for innate sex differences in biological susceptibility to the disease, whereby women would take advantage of the protective effects of their innate physiological characteristics, especially prior to the beginning of menopause.
... Although men and women reported similar levels of exposure to social media discrimination in our sample, the racist/discriminatory content in social media (e.g., memes, videos) may have depicted men more often than women which may lead to greater internalizing among men. This explanation would be consistent with the Subordinate Male Target Hypothesis, which proposes that men who believe they are from a "dominant" social group would be more inclined to develop and/or post racist/discriminatory content that depicts men, rather than women, who they perceive to be from a "subordinate" social group (Veenstra, 2013). Future research studies may consider conducting a qualitative content analysis to empirically characterize and quantify the forms of racist/discriminatory content on social media and examine their effects between gender. ...
... Findings from this study also highlight that investigation of online ethnic discrimination and mental health should consider examining potential gender differences. Furthermore, as research on traditional media uses among Hispanics has shown, ethnocultural (e.g., acculturation) and social (e.g., social status, political affiliation) factors should be examined to provide more context into determinants that influence perceptions of ethnic discrimination and to examine the intersectionality of socially marginalized identities and disadvantaged groups (Seng, Lopez, Sperlich, Hamama, & Meldrum, 2012;Sizemore & Milner, 2004;Veenstra, 2013). ...
Article
Method: Two hundred Hispanic emerging adults from Arizona (n = 99) and Florida (n = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses. Results: Higher social media discrimination was associated with higher symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety. Moderation analyses indicated that higher social media discrimination was only associated with symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety among men, but not women. Conclusion: This is likely the first study on social media discrimination and mental health among emerging adults; thus, expanding this emerging field of research to a distinct developmental period.
... Thus, racial discrimination targets minority men. According to this argument, minority women are subject to gender discrimination, and while they receive some discrimination by their association with minority men, they are not racial discrimination's main target (Veenstra 2013). While subordinate male target theory does not explicitly focus on social interactions (instead focusing on discrimination), it suggests racialized interactions are separate from gendered interactions, with men of color experiencing the former, and all women experiencing the latter. ...
Chapter
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At this point, extensive research and data document the myriad ways that gender shapes social interactions. Yet while sociologists have devoted a great deal of attention to understanding how gender informs interactions, most of this work has yet to incorporate an intersectional approach that examines how these interactions are racialized in ways that produce specific outcomes. In this entry, we briefly review the literature that highlights the multiple ways social interactions are gendered. We then consider different approaches that seek to racialize these interactions, and end our paper with discussion of areas for future research.
... gender, ethnicity, migration status) coincide ( [24]. Women in such settings may have to adopt "fluid identities" in order to be successful, knowing how to "present themselves in everyday life" (Goffman, 1978) [25] in roles in which they seek to avoid imposed stereotypes (Afshar, 2012;Veenstra, 2012) [26] [27]. In these accounts the very flexibility of a women's identity in a male-dominated world of industry and commerce allows these women to find niches and avenues of power (Afshar, 2012) [26]. ...
... Perhaps, transwomen experience a double stigma of transphobia and sexism. Intersectionality of diversity dimensions is associated with more experiences of bias and marginalization, especially concerning issues of fair treatment for LGBTC individuals (Griffin, 2016;Veenstra, 2013). For example, this might explain the relatively high prevalence of hate crimes committed against transwomen versus transmen (Witten & Eyler, 1999). ...
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Background: Transphobia studies have typically relied on self-report measures from heterosexual samples. However, there is evidence suggesting the need to use indirect measures and to explore transphobia among other populations. Aims: This study examined how explicit and implicit attitudes toward transwomen and transmen differ between people of different sexual orientations. Methods: Cisgender participants (N D 265) completed measures of explicit feelings toward transmen and transwomen, as well as Implicit Association Tests (IAT) for each group. Comparisons were made between 54 gay, 79 straight, and 132 non-monosexual (asexual, bisexual, pansexual) individuals. Results: An interaction was found between measurement type (explicit, implicit) and sexual orientation (straight, gay, non-monosexual). With regard to transmen, gay respondents' explicit and implicit scores diverged such that they explicitly reported lower bias than their straight counterparts, but their Transmen-IAT showed an implicit preference for biological men over transmen. For attitudes toward transwomen, implicit measurement scores were consistently negative and did not differ by group. Gay participants also reported positive explicit attitudes toward transwomen, similar to non-monosexual people. Discussion: Overall, findings show that gay people tend to report positive attitudes toward transgender people explicitly, but tend to have implicit bias against both transmen and transwomen. Future studies need to explore the origins of these biases and how they relate to the complex interplay of sex, gender, and sexual orientation.
... Scholars have developed theories to account for this health disparity. For example, that the subordinate male target hypothesis posits that dominant group discrimination targeting subordinate males is more harmful than that experienced by the women of the same subordinate groups [44]. Similarly, the male-warrior hypothesis argues that men respond more strongly than women to intergroup threats [45]. ...
Article
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IntroductionThe systematic deprivation of equal access to valued opportunities has greatly harmed the disadvantaged. Discrimination, whether it is based on gender, race, sexual orientation, or physical health exacts a high toll. This is especially true with respect to the role of race and equality in the USA today. This paper attempts to evaluate the significance of perceived discrimination among a multiethnic sample of physically disabled and non-disabled study participants. Methods We employ survey data from a community-based multiethnic sample of study participants to assess whether physical disability increases perceptions of discrimination across racial/ethnic groups. Additionally, we assess whether physical disability impacts the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms and whether this relationship is consistent across race/ethnicity. ResultsDescriptive and multivariate analyses indicate that disabled whites and Hispanics report higher levels of discrimination than their non-disabled counterparts. However, this pattern was not observed among black respondents who report high levels of discrimination regardless of their disability status. OLS models indicate that among Hispanics, physical disability moderates the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Among black and white study participants, physical disability does not moderate this relationship. Conclusion Taken together, the results demonstrate the continuing significance of race as a source of discrimination and a health risk.
... 35 Rather than describing the social construction of race and gender as having an additive effect, intersectionality was generated to draw attention to the synergisms between various forms of oppression and marginali- zation, which accentuate the experiences of discrimination. 36 The application of intersectionality, thus, counters an additive ap- proach to describe oppression, marginalization, and subjugation. Rather than isolating each form and structure of discrimination from one another, intersectionality can be used to demonstrate how these discriminations are intertwined. ...
Article
Background: Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth. Although there are a few First Nations communities in Canada that have re-established community birthing and Aboriginal midwifery is growing, most First Nations communities are still reliant on the evacuation policy for labour and birthing services. In one Canadian province, Manitoba, First Nations women are evacuated to The Pas, Thompson, or Winnipeg but most - including all women with high-risk pregnancies - go to Winnipeg. Aim: To contribute scholarship that describes First Nations women's and community members' experiences and perspectives of Health Canada's evacuation policy in Manitoba. Methods: Applying intersectional theory to data collected through 12 semi-structured interviews with seven women and five community members (four females, one male) in Manitoba who had experienced the evacuation policy. The data were analyzed thematically, which revealed three themes: resignation, resilience, and resistance. Findings: The theme of resignation was epitomized by the quote, "Nobody has a choice." The ability to withstand and endure the evacuation policy despite poor or absent communication and loneliness informed of resilience. Resistance was demonstrated by women who questioned the necessity and requirement of evacuation for labour and birth. In one instance, resistance took the form of a planned homebirth with Aboriginal registered midwives. Conclusion: There is a pressing need to improve the maternity care services that First Nations women receive when they are evacuated out of their communities, particularly when understood from the specific legal and constitutional position of First Nations women in Manitoba.
... A pesar de los esfuerzos y de los avances conseguidos en este ámbito, según el informe más reciente de UNESCO que analiza dicho fenómeno, se observan unos índices superiores de analfabetismo en el caso de la mujer (UNESCO, 2017). La investigación centrada en analizar las desigualdades de género hace décadas que ha acuñado el concepto interseccionalidad como forma de expresar la incidencia que tienen las diferentes variables para agravar la situación de vulnerabilidad de las mujeres ( Anthias 2013;García-Yeste, 2014;Veenstra, 2013;Yousaf y Purkayastha, 2015). De esta forma este enfoque ha sido de utilidad para profundizar en los efectos que tienen variables como la clase social o el origen étnico en la situación de exclusión de las mujeres. ...
Article
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La superación de las desigualdades de género es uno de los principales retos de organismos internacionales como la Comisión Europea. En el marco de los objetivos globales de las Naciones Unidas para superar la pobreza y conseguir la prosperidad para todos los colectivos se plantean una serie de directrices dirigidas a avanzar en la mejora de la situación de la mujer. Si bien dichas estrategias visibilizan la preocupación de los principales organismos internacionales y gobiernos alrededor de las injusticias de género, persisten aún problemáticas sobre las que profundizar. El presente artículo analiza cómo las tertulias literarias dialógicas están permitiendo empoderar a las mujeres inmigrantes y disminuir su situación de vulnerabilidad. Se ha desarrollado a partir de un estudio cualitativo con orientación comunicativa, en concreto se han realizado ocho entrevistas semiestructuradas, un grupo de discusión y observaciones comunicativas articuladas en sesiones semanales durante dos cursos escolares (2014-2015 y 2015-2016). Los resultados muestran que esta actuación educativa de éxito está contribuyendo a mejorar el aprendizaje del idioma, dotando de seguridad a las mujeres, fortaleciendo su auto-estima y reforzando sus relaciones familiares y de amistad.
... In exploring the sociological richness of data on discrimination, we must also take into account the "intersection" of statuses (e.g., gender, ethnicity, religion, educational background) in explaining the phenomenon researched more fully (Veenstra 2013). There may be, for example, less discrimination against well-qualified ethnic minority applicants, who have skills that are in short supply (Baert et al. 2015); this may have been the case with regard to the well-qualified, Muslim, Dutch accountant in our study applying for a senior management position. ...
Article
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We comment on methodological issues in the use of correspondence testing for discrimination in access to employment-that of submitting identical CVs to employers, but differing by the name (implying their ethnicity) of the candidate. After contrasting changing social structures in Britain and The Netherlands regarding ethnicity and Muslim integration, we report two case studies using correspondence testing for discrimination in employment involving a Muslim woman (in Manchester, England) and a Muslim man (in Rotterdam, Netherlands), outlining the recent socio-political situation concerning ethnic relations in The Netherlands. The methods used indicated apparent discrimination in employment involving both applicants. However, the novel methods we have employed require further verification using both traditional and novel methodologies. Findings from the two case studies are discussed and compared, with further research proposed.
... Our study has highlighted the permeating influences of intersectionality from societal context and individual identity to the domain of work, employment, and leadership. Consistent with intersectionality theory, the present study has revealed the ways in which oppressive institutions such as racism and sexism are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another (Phoenix 2006;Veenstra 2013). Racism is linked to sexism in the more direct sense that ethnic minority women are likely to experience racial and gender oppression simultaneously (Castles 2000). ...
Article
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Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women’s inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.
... Differing social identities often give rise to discrimination, inequalities, and oppression. A dominant group may create conditions to where marginalized individuals experience an inordinate amount of pernicious interactions (Veenstra, 2013). For example, Calafell (2014) related that university life is a male dominated environment where males determine the rules and violating them creates troublesome situations. ...
Article
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p>In September 2011, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) announced the Policy on Transgender Inclusion . It provides guidelines for transgender student athletes to participate in sex-separated athletic teams according to their gender identity. The 2012 LGBTQ National College Athlete Report , the first of its kind, provided information to help serve gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (GLBTQ) students. Although the Policy on Transgender Inclusion has been around since 2011 and the 2012 Report provided insights, the extent by which best practices have been implemented has not been adequately explored. This study examined the relationship of athletic directors’ leadership frames to transgender inclusion policies at institutions with NCAA athletics. Athletic directors from active member NCAA schools were contacted: 340 in Division I; 290 in Division II; and 436 in Division III. Leadership was examined according to the Multi-frame Model for Organizations in addition to Intersectionality Theory. The human resource frame was the most common and the political frame was the least. There were no statistically significant differences among NCAA Divisions or between private and public institutions. Although athletic directors acknowledged transgender policies and were aware of the legal parameters, lack of policy presence was prevalent on campuses.</p
... Intersectionality theorists regard being gay or lesbian and being a woman as two disadvantageous characteristics in the labour market that interact in a synergistic manner to reinforce each other (Warner & Shields, 2013). In the language of intersectionality scholars, "multiplicativity" supplants "additivity" (Veenstra, 2013). Our results are important in highlighting that lesbians do not incur a double penalty in the labour market based on their gender and sexual orientation. ...
Article
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Employing longitudinal data, we examine how income mediates, and sexual identity moderates, the gender-job satisfaction relationship using the theoretical lens of human capital theory. We find that income does mediate the gender-job satisfaction relationship and that the mediated relationship between gender and job satisfaction is moderated by sexual identity. Our main result is that income is a stronger driver of the gender-job satisfaction relationship for lesbians than it is for straight women. Theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.
... That is why, according to this theory, men tend to favor young and fertile partners while women seem more indifferent to these criteria. Other studies rely on the intersectional approach (Cole, 2009;Poiret, 2005;Veenstra, 2013), which is used as a conceptual framework that aims at understanding and articulating the multiple oppressions faced by marginalized groups. The most frequently tested hypothesis is the double or multiple jeopardy hypothesis (Beal, 1970;Bergman & Drasgow, 2003;Buchanan & Fitzgerald, 2008;Cotter, Hermsen, Ovadia, & Vanneman, 2001;Dowd & Bengtson, 1978;King, 1988;Landau, 1995;Sanchez-Hucles, 1997), according to which the more stigmatized groups the individuals belong to, the more these individuals will be penalized. ...
Article
This research aims at comparing the way gender-based and age-based discriminations are expressed in recruitment settings. It takes into account how the social ingraining of non discriminatory policies influences the expression of discrimination. Concretely, given the long-term existence of non-sexist legislations, it can be assumed that gender-based discrimination would be expressed implicitly rather than explicitly. Conversely, since non-ageist policies are fairly recent, it can be supposed that age-based discrimination would be expressed either implicitly or explicitly. To validate this hypothesis, 140 participants were asked to rate the hiring chances (scale measurement) of applicants, who were either male or female and younger or older, and to provide a written justification of their decision (discursive measurement). The results generally validate the hypotheses and show that if participants rate male and female applicants similarly when using scales, their discourses reveal marks of gender-based discrimination. In the case of younger and older applicants, participants express age-based prejudices explicitly and implicitly. The discussion deals with the ways discrimination is expressed and how individuals inhibit their gender-based prejudices in a normative context.
... In other words, a key premise of intersectionality is that racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are both simultaneous and interactive (Ailshire and House 2000;Brown and Hargrove 2013;Landry 2007), that is, "interlocking" (Dill and Zambrana 2009). Thus, rather than examining the effects of different social statuses separately, or assuming that the total disadvantage experienced by people with multiple disadvantaged statuses is equivalent to the sum of their disadvantages, intersectionality highlights the importance of examining the multiplicative effects of several social statuses on health (Choo and Ferree 2010;Veenstra 2013). Thus, an intersectionality hypothesis would predict that race-ethnicity, gender, and SES have nonadditive effects on health such that the health consequences of each of these social status dimensions are conditional upon each other. ...
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This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses.
... Informed by intersectionality theory, it may be argued that the Cape Times portrays the victims and perpetrators of school violence in the WC as people with multiple subordinate-group identities that are subjected to powerful forces of oppression and forms of inequality, namely race, class and gender (cf. Veenstra, 2013). School violence in the WC is predominantly portrayed as a problem in schools located in the gang infested, impoverished areas of the Cape Flats. ...
Article
This study explores the Cape Times’s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC. © 2016, Foundation for Education Science and Technology. All rights reserved.
... Post-secondary education, particularly human service training programs such as CYC, are increasingly being understood as responsible for preparing citizens to participate in our world of unbalanced internationalization, legacies of colonialism, and ideologies that support inequity (Jorgenson & Shultz, 2012). In Canada, visible minority, Indigenous, and immigrant populations are consistently, yet differentially, found to be impacted on health and economic outcome measures (Pendakur & Pendakur, 2011;Veenstra, 2013;Wu, Noh, Kaspar, & Schimmele, 2003), disproportionately involved with foster care (Assembly of First Nations, 2008;Statistics Canada, 2011a), and underrepresented in political decision-making processes (Black & Erickson, 2006). Given the rapidly growing diversity of children, youth, and families in Canada, spurred in part by increasing immigration from outside Europe and high birth rates in Indigenous and racialized minority groups (Statistics Canada, 2010, 2011b, attending to disparities is critical. ...
Article
This article maps various conceptualizations of the self and praxis in child and youth care theory. With specific reference to the curriculum and pedagogy developed at the School of Child and Youth Care at the University of Victoria, the shift from the knowledge, skills, self (KSS) model to the praxis framework is argued to exemplify a move to a more dynamic and politically nuanced rendering of the concept of the self relative to its more canonical expressions. The canonical self of CYC is proposed here as an aggregate of the writings of a small group of CYC theorists that together constitute the dominant conceptualization of the self in the field’s literature. Historical and philosophic context is provided for the articulation of the self in the canonical literature and a brief review of this literature is provided. The concept of politicized praxis builds on White’s (2007) Praxis Framework, as well as the work of other CYC theorists and practitioners (e.g., de Finney, Dean, Loiselle, & Saraceno, 2011; Gharabaghi & Krueger, 2010; Skott-Myhre & Skott-Myhre, 2011), to propose an avenue of theoretical development that might more adequately respond to the realities and experiences of diverse children, youth, and families. As a review this paper critically reflects on CYC’s theoretical traditions; as an opening gambit it proposes a way forward in theorizing a praxis that is responsive to the realities of contemporary society.
... Intersectional research illuminates overlapping systems of inequality and discrimination that are applied to theory, analytic frameworks, and social activism (Warner & Shields, 2013). Beginning with research primarily focused on the intersection of race and gender (Crenshaw, 1993), this research has expanded to include other aspects of identity such as sexual orientation, class, and ethnicity (Diamond & Butterworth, 2008;Parent et al., 2013;Veenstra, 2012), to name a few. Intersectionality theory typically focuses on the experience of marginalization from a social justice approach (Warner & Shields, 2013). ...
Article
Gender and sexuality intersect in different ways for transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. In the present study, intersectionality theory is applied to understand the overlapping levels of stigma and privilege associated with gender and sexual identities among transgender individuals. Participants included 45 individuals who identified as transgender and gender nonconforming. The grounded theory approach was used to build theory from qualitative data. Two broader themes of codes were identified, including conflation —encounters and reactions to stigmatization of transgender individuals based on the confounding of sexual orientation and gender identity. The second theme included interdependence —experiences and identity changes associated with the intersecting relationship of gender and sexuality among transgender individuals. Implications for future research on transgender resilience and clinical care are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
... For instance, in Livingston, Rosette, & Washington (2012) the authors found that Black (i.e., subordinate) men experienced a backlash for exhibiting masculine/agentic-leadership behaviors, but Black (i.e., subordinate) women did not. Veenstra (2013) reported similar findings in their study of the intersectionality of race, class, and sexuality, finding the discrimination experienced by the men of subordinate groups was greater than that experienced by women of the same subordinate groups. Additional evidence of the subordinate male target hypothesis can also be found in Navarrete, McDonald, Molina, & Sidanius (2010) and Sesko & Biernat's (2010) work on racial and gender stereotyping. ...
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Our research contributes to the understanding of the complexities that women face in business by investigating through a series of three experimental studies (N = 192, N = 160, and N = 320) how a number of factors (e.g. personal reputation, supervisor, employee, and rater age) impact perceptions of justice of female and male supervisors. Our findings revealed that female supervisors benefited most when there was a significant mismatch in age between the supervisor and employee (in either direction) and when they were judged by older workers. Further, supervisors (both males and females) who had a reputation for being friendly and approachable were perceived as more fair than those who had a reputation for being impersonal and distant, with one exception - when there were significant age incongruities between supervisors and their employees. In this case, female supervisors actually benefited from being perceived as more impersonal and distant. Our results have practical implications for understanding supervisor-employee interactions and their potential impact in today’s age-diverse workplace, especially as it relates to the future success of female leaders. In particular, our findings suggest that with time, as more organizations encounter diversity in their workforce, the obstacles that women face may actually lessen.
... Much of the research that documents the gender gap in perceived discrimination interprets this gap as reflecting the underlying experiences of African Americans; that is, men are the primary targets of anti-Black discrimination (e.g., Ferguson 2001;Gary 1995;Navarrete et al. 2010;Pieterse and Carter 2007;Veenstra 2013). Social psychologists argue that prejudice and discrimination are driven largely by the perception of group threat, as opposed to intergroup animosity or negative affect (Blumer 1958;Bobo and Tuan 2006). ...
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Studies show that African American men report more personal experiences with discrimination than do African American women. According to the subordinate male target hypothesis, this gender difference reflects an underlying reality in which African American men are the primary targets of anti-Black discrimination. From the perspective of intersectionality theory, African American women and men experience racial discrimination differently, and therefore greater reports of discrimination among African American men might be a result of measurement bias that favors the experiences of African American men vis-à-vis African American women. To assess these perspectives, the authors analyze data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life. The authors use multiplegroup confirmatory factor analytic models with latent means and categorical outcomes to observe the degree to which gender bias in measurement accounts for disparities in perceived discrimination among African American women and men. The results show that gender bias in the measures most often used to assess unfair treatment in social surveys is responsible for the gender gap in certain kinds of perceived discrimination among African Americans. Measures of everyday discrimination are mostly gender balanced, but measurement bias is responsible for a large portion of the gap in perceptions of major life discrimination and the entire gap when major life discrimination is attributed to race. The results highlight the importance of intersectionality theory for assessing discrimination, and the authors argue that revisions in the measurement of perceived discrimination are required to better reflect the experiences of African American women.
... En l'occurrence, le fait d'appartenir simultanément à deux catégories sociales stigmatisées dans la société, comme peuvent l'être les femmes seniors, pénalise encore plus que le seul fait d'être senior. La pénalisation des femmes seniors amène donc à considérer la dimension sexoâgéiste de la stigmatisation et à tenter d'en appréhender les contours en se référant à l'approche intersectionnelle des catégories d'appartenance (Cole, 2009;Poiret, 2005;Veenstra, 2013). L'approche intersectionnelle des catégories repose sur le postulat selon lequel l'identité et le concept de soi sont structurés par la variété des catégories sociales auxquelles ils appartiennent. ...
Article
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Cet article actualise des éléments théoriques et empiriques développés dans le cadre d'une thèse sur les préjugés et les discriminations subis par les seniors au travail. La revue de la littérature proposée s'attache à mettre en évidence le niveau de stigmatisation des seniors dans la société ainsi que ses effets sur le sort professionnel qui leur est réservé, tant en matière de recrutement que de promotion. Le cas particulier des femmes seniors, et des mécanismes de la double pénalisation dont elles sont l'objet, est abordé selon une perspective intersectionnelle, qui permet également d'envisager les modalités de la régulation des discriminations sexo-âgéistes.
... For instance, in Livingston, Rosette, & Washington (2012) the authors found that Black (i.e., subordinate) men experienced a backlash for exhibiting masculine/agentic-leadership behaviors, but Black (i.e., subordinate) women did not. Veenstra (2013) reported similar findings in their study of the intersectionality of race, class, and sexuality, finding the discrimination experienced by the men of subordinate groups was greater than that experienced by women of the same subordinate groups. Additional evidence of the subordinate male target hypothesis can also be found in Navarrete, McDonald, Molina, & Sidanius (2010) and Sesko & Biernat's (2010) work on racial and gender stereotyping. ...
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Older workers make up a substantial portion of today’s labor force. Yet little is known about the beliefs held by this age group. Our study offers some much needed insights into intersectionality around this group, by investigating how older workers’ perceptions of supervisors performing a gendered leadership behavior are impacted by a supervisors’ sex, age, and gendered attributes. The results show that these supervisors are perceived most favorably when they possess communal qualities and/or when they are depicted as being older than their direct reports. Our results also reveal that, when these supervisors are not perceived as communal, male but not female supervisors, experience a backlash. Within this context, young female leaders appear to be at an advantage when compared to young male leaders. This study advances the literature on the ‘think manager-think male’ stereotype and has the practical benefit of offering insights into leader-follower interactions in today’s aging workplace. Citation: Scheuer, C., & Loughlin, C. (2018). Could the aging workforce reduce the agency penalty for female leaders? Re-examining the think manager–think male stereotype. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2018.41 (Copyright owned by Cambridge University Press)
... Power and privilege literature refers to the differences between those who enjoy dominant status versus those who maintain subordinate positions. Dominance affords the privilege of seamless transition through life while subordinate statuses increase scrutiny, questioning and oppression (Veenstra, 2013). Accordingly, the position one holds in the world influences the relationship dynamics in supervision. ...
Article
This article is aimed at raising critical consciousness, accountability and empowerment in the supervisory relationship in graduate field education. As more clinicians with intersecting identities navigate rigorous Master’s degree programs, there is a growing need for field instructors to utilize cultural humility in their supervision approach and style. In addition, burgeoning clinicians need to be affirmed, empowered and aware of the intra/inter-cultural dynamics inherent in the supervision process, giving specific attention to power and privilege. In order to navigate culturally relevant supervision for new therapists with a level of humility, field instructors and supervisors face a tall order; it is essential they address cultural differences, validate cultural identities and experiences, and explore power, privilege and intersectionality in the supervisory space while concurrently supporting clinical growth. These difficult dialogues require specific skills, self-awareness and vulnerability on the part of the supervisor. As supervisors attempt to initiate this transformative process, it is important to consider similarities and differences in how supervisors and supervisees experience efforts to engage in difficult dialogues. The authors utilized an anonymous online survey to explore the experiences of supervision among supervised clinicians (n=51) and supervisors (n=39). Qualitative data reflect beneficial supervision regarding clinical content, with a consistent lack of discussion and recognition of power and privilege dynamics; lack of affirmations regarding cultural identities; and superficial exploration of cultural nuances in the supervisor dyad. Findings suggest supervisees need authentic, validating, process oriented exchanges in clinical supervision, especially in field internships where they are learning how to manage clients, their own lived experiences and authenticity in supervision. Recommendations for initiating transformative supervisory practices are included.
... Focusing on a broad set of interacting factors produces evidence that more accurately captures the complexity and diversity of health [2,27,31]. Accordingly, intersectionality is now well established as a key and leading framework for accurately understanding and responding to health inequities and for improving health [29,[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. ...
Article
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Background Understanding sex and gender in health research can improve the quality of scholarship and enhance health outcomes. Funding agencies and academic journals are two key gatekeepers of knowledge production and dissemination, including whether and how sex/gender is incorporated into health research. Though attention has been paid to key issues and practices in accounting for sex/gender in health funding agencies and academic journals, to date, there has been no systematic analysis documenting whether and how agencies and journals require attention to sex/gender, what conceptual explanations and practical guidance are given for such inclusion, and whether existing practices reflect the reality that sex/gender cannot be separated from other axes of inequality. Methods Our research systematically examines official statements about sex/gender inclusion from 45 national-level funding agencies that fund health research across 36 countries (covering the regions of the EU and associated countries, North America, and Australia) and from ten top-ranking general health (the top five in “science” and the top five in “social science”) and ten sex- and/or gender-related health journals. We explore the extent to which agencies and journals require inclusion of sex/gender considerations and to what extent existing strategies reflect state of the art understandings of sex/gender, including intersectional perspectives. Results The research highlights the following: (a) there is no consistency in whether sex/gender are mentioned in funding and publishing guidelines; (b) there is wide variation in how sex/gender are conceptualized and how researchers are asked to address the inclusion/exclusion of sex/gender in research; (c) funding agencies tend to prioritize male/female equality in research teams and funding outcomes over considerations of sex/gender in research content and knowledge production; and (d) with very few exceptions, agency and journal criteria fail to recognize the complexity of sex/gender, including the intersection of sex/gender with other key factors that shape health. Conclusions The conceptualization and integration of sex/gender needs to better capture the interacting and complex factors that shape health—an imperative that can be informed by an intersectional approach. This can strengthen current efforts to advance scientific excellence in the production and reporting of research. We provide recommendations and supporting questions to strengthen consideration of sex/gender in policies and practices of health journals and funding agencies.
... Et gjennomgangstema i forskningen på feltet er at skeive som tilhører etniske eller rasialiserte minoriteter, kan ha vansker med å finne tilhørighet i sosiale nettverk. Dette fordi man kan møte usynliggjøring og rasistisk diskriminering i skeive miljøer, og homofob og transfob diskriminering i miljøer basert på felles landbakgrunn, etnisitet og/eller religion (Avrahami 2007;Bowleg 2013; El-Tayeb 2012; Følner med flere 2015; Lee og Brotman 2011;Petzen 2004;Riggs 2013;Veenstra 2013). Flere amerikanske studier av svarte homofile og lesbiske viser at mange prioriterer tilhørighet til de (primaert streite) svarte miljøene til fordel for deltakelse i skeive nettverk og organisasjoner dominert av hvite. ...
Article
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Denne artikkelen presenterer funn fra en undersøkelse om levekår blant skeive med innvandrerbakgrunn i Norge. Med utgangspunkt i et interseksjonelt perspektiv analyserer vi 251 respondenters erfaringer med diskriminering og sosial ekskludering. Resultatene viser at over halvparten rapporterte om negative kommentarer eller handlinger fordi de bryter med normer for kjønn eller seksualitet, og noen flere på grunn av innvandrerbakgrunn. Om lag 1 av 3 rapporterte om opplevelser av ekskludering fra minoritetsmiljø fordi de er skeive, og 1 av 5 om eksklusjon fra skeive miljøer på grunn av innvandrerbakgrunn. Disse sammenhengene mellom sosial ekskludering og den doble minoritetsstatusen til skeive med innvandrerbakgrunn har i liten grad blitt undersøkt systematisk med kvantitative data tidligere. Kvantitative undersøkelser basert på selvrekrutterte utvalg – slik denne studien er et eksempel på – utgjør et viktig supplement til kvalitativ forskning på den ene siden og representative undersøkelser på den andre. Basert på de empiriske analysene i artikkelen drøfter vi hvordan kontekstsensitive interseksjonelle perspektiver kan kombineres med kvantitative metoder som tradisjonelt har vært rettet mot generaliserbare funn.
... All in all, over 20% of all hate crimes in the UK are thought to be associated with more than one protected characteristic (Creese and Lader, 2014), suggesting that multiple minority statuses might have an additional effect on the likelihood of experiencing discrimination, harassment and violence. Similarly, class is an important intersecting factor, with studies suggesting that individuals from working-class backgrounds might have fewer resources to protect themselves from such negative experiences (Veenstra, 2013). While potentially differential effects of these identities (with the exception of gender) across L, G, B, T individuals are beyond the scope of this article, we look at the effects of these factors on LGBT people as a whole and document how class, ethnicity, disability and age shape experiences of DHV. ...
Article
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This article examines the incidents of discrimination, harassment and violence experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals in Germany, Portugal and the UK. Using a large cross-national survey and adopting an intra-categorical intersectional approach, it documents how the likelihood of experiencing discrimination, harassment and violence changes within LGBT communities across three national contexts. Moreover, it explores how individual characteristics are associated with the likelihood of experiencing such incidents. The results show that trans people are more at risk compared to cisgender gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals to experience discrimination, harassment and violence. However, other factors, such as socioeconomic resources, also affect the likelihood of individuals experiencing such incidents. The three countries in our study show some nuanced differences in likelihood levels of experiencing discrimination, harassment and violence with regard to differential categories of sexual orientation and gender identity.
... This study also highlights the permeating influence of intersectionality as the socio-historical-political context intersected with race, ethnicity, culture, gender and organisational elements to produce different and certain similar experiences for older and younger participants. Consistent with intersectionality theory, this study highlights how oppressive institutions such as race inferiority, sexism and patriarchy cannot be examined separately (Veenstra, 2013). This is evident in older participants' experiences of career choice restrictions, the submissive behaviour demanded by their culture, their fear of white managers and their own insecurities that stunted their growth in preparing them for management roles. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges Indian women managers face in their career ascendancy. Design/methodology/approach: Using a qualitative approach, to gain an in-depth understanding of the intersectional issues and challenges younger and older Indian women managers face in their career progress towards senior- and top-managerial positions. Findings/results: The results indicate that the intersection of the socio-historical-political contexts, together with racial, gender, cultural and workplace impediments, produces both different and converging outcomes for older and younger Indian women managers in their upward career mobility. Compared with their older counterparts, the career ascendancy of younger participants is more challenging, as they have to compete against a bigger pool of qualified black candidates. A research limitation is that the study did not compare the experiences of Indian women with Indian men regarding their career ascendency. Practical implications: Practical implications include managers needing to implement targeted succession planning, eradicate sexism and patriarchy and introduce formal mentorship, coaching and networking programmes. Originality/value: The article compares the experiences of younger and older Indian women managers in a changing political landscape. The findings of the study indicate that the experiences of women across generations differ, as their career ascendancy is dissimilar.
... Prior research, for instance, has revealed the negative status effects of being Black as part of work teams (Walker et al., 2014), while high-status actors are disproportionately rewarded in assessments of their performances (Correll et al., 2017). Most important, the intersection of one's cumulative statuses (e.g., ethnicity, ancestry, gender, wealth, respectability, etc.) relative to others helps determine how interactions unfold (Veenstra, 2013). Such logic anticipated the rise of Collins' (2015, p.2) intersectionality framework: ...
Article
This paper offers an integrated theoretical framework to explain interpersonal, moralistic conflict that combines the logic of the "pure sociology" approach with a social psychological framework that highlights the importance of the human capacity for language, evaluation, and justification. While violations of normative expectations are the root causes of moralistic conflict, the paper argues that one can only determine the emergence of such conflict by assessing the nature of the behavior in question in relation to the social locations of the participants in combination with the justifications invoked. The central question that the theory addresses can be distilled as follows: What explains the emergence of interpersonal, moralistic conflict? The paper specifies three core assumptions, followed by a delineation of a series of propositions designed to explicate the conditions under which moralistic conflicts emerge. The theory identifies the combination of the social geometry of interpersonal encounters along with the mechanisms that typically are used to justify the grievances that individuals express toward one another.
... The intersectional theory was outlined by Crenshaw when she argued that Black women are discriminated against based on both gender and race (Crenshaw 1989). Since then many scholars have used it to examine discrimination (Veenstra 2013;Harnois and Ifatunji 2011;Healy 2009;Hernández 2005) as this perspective deals with several marginalized groups simultaneously (Crenshaw 1991;Collins 2015). The intersectional theory assumes that all people hold concurring multiple social identities where each of these identities is rooted in some form of inequality or power, and these identities of the individuals are characteristics of the social group to which they belong (Else-Quest and Hyde 2016). ...
Article
This study examines discrimination in the workplace in Canada and explores the intersection of marginalized groups. It uses data from the General Social Survey 2016, which collected information from 19,609 non-institutional-ized individuals. Results show that 17 percent of the job applicants and 9 percent of the workers felt discriminated against in the workplace during the 12 months before the survey. Data analysis indicates that a person's identification with two marginalized groups increases the chances of discrimination and augments further with three marginalized identities. However, the incremental effect of four or more marginalized groups is difficult to examine with this dataset due to the depleting sample size with the inclusion of every new group. Results from the logistic regression illustrate that the intersection of two, three, or four selected disadvantaged groups increases workplace discrimination significantly, thus supporting the theory of intersectionality. However, this perspective does not work for some combinations of marginalized groups.
... Insistimos en que para analizar la realidad de los grupos sociales y actuar políticamente con el objetivo de transformarla, es preciso considerar que cuestiones como la orientación del deseo o la subjetividad de género, interactúan de forma compleja con aspectos como el sexo, la clase social, el origen étnico, la edad o el capacitismo (Coll-Planas, 2012;Veenestra, 2013). Como demuestra la experiencia de Iria, resulta indispensable tener en cuenta que es esta interacción compleja la que sitúa y mantiene a las personas en circunstancias de extrema fragilidad. ...
Article
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Resumen En el presente texto se revisan algunos organizadores sociales vinculados al sistema sexo-género-deseo, a partir de los que el poder, el saber y el cuerpo social se apoyan en las sociedades occiden-tales para construir la figura del enfermo/a mental. El análisis toma como referencia un informe clí-nico a través del que se ilustra la intrincada trama de elementos relacionados con la sexualidad y los estándares de género que se ponen en juego de cara a la enunciación diagnóstica. Desde ahí, los relatos biográficos de tres personas catalogadas de esquizofrenia permiten dibujar un mapa de coordenadas en que la violencia heteropatriarcal y la patologización de la diferencia se encuentran y refuerzan mutuamente. El impacto subjetivo de estas múltiples formas de violencia plantea la ne-cesidad de una comprensión compleja e interseccional del sufrimiento psíquico, que ponga en el centro las estrategias de resistencia articuladas por los sujetos de la aflicción frente a la mirada taxo-nómica y punitiva del régimen de la normalidad.
... This approach is damaging to others, as it does not account for LGBTIQ people, Culturally and Linguistically Diverse individuals (CALD), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals (ATSI), or heterosexual men (Workman and Dune 2019). Further, Veenstra (2013) states sexuality continues to evolve as a site of oppression (i.e. they are less likely to receive equal status or experience social justice) in the context of domestic violence, particularly when an individual experiences victimisation. Those in power are more likely to reinforce the margins and barriers which impact one's agency. ...
Article
Partner violence is a well-documented issue within research, policing practices, newspapers, and awareness campaigns both domestically and internationally. These stories appear in newspapers, breaking news stories, and across different social media platforms. However, little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced societal understandings of victim and offender dynamics during this challenging time globally, particularly those who have multiple marginalised identities. Within Australia, partner violence is typically framed in a singular way where heterosexual women are the victims of heterosexual males. Policy documents, newspapers, television campaigns and statistical data reporting underpin this perception. A recent study undertaken by the primary author found that partner violence awareness within grey literature (literature produced by different organisations and not specifically research-based) is substantively heteronormative. Therefore, to investigate if these perceptions have changed and become more inclusive, this current study was further undertaken to inquire into police responses and media reporting of partner violence during COVID-19. This study analysed grey literature (newspapers) using qualitative content analysis to determine how police and the media portray victims and offenders’ experiences of violence during the global pandemic of COVID-19, all within the framework of intersectionality.
... Theory of Gendered Prejudice: A Proposed Intersectional Alternative), it is not supported (see, e.g., Veenstra 2013). Furthermore, there are several findings within the intersectional literature that a DJ framework cannot explain, with the most damning being selective inhibition, or the process by which single stigmatized groups face more discrimination than the doubly stigmatized (Kang and Chasteen 2009;Pedulla 2014;Remedios et al. 2011). ...
Chapter
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Over the last twenty-five years or so, there has been a growing awareness among race and gender scholars that a fully adequate analysis of these two forms of societal oppression cannot be done in isolation from one another. That is, an understanding of racism and sexism is fundamentally incomplete without an appreciation of how race and gender intersect and interact with one another in the creation and maintenance of group-based hierarchy and oppression. This chapter argues that while intersectionalist and critical race theorists have qualitatively (and occasionally quantitatively) drawn attention to the fact that the racial and gender dimensions of oppression are both interactively implicated in the maintenance of group-based inequality, a fully satisfactory empirical analysis of the dynamics of racism and sexism has yet to be achieved. Using the theoretical frameworks of evolutionary psychology and social dominance theory (SDT), this chapter offers an alternative understanding of the intersectional entanglement of racism and sexism. This chapter introduces the theory of gendered prejudice, a derivative of SDT, and posits that a satisfactory account of racism, or what social dominance theorists generalize as “arbitrary-set” oppression, is a deeply gendered phenomenon.
... How do they navigate the intersections of these statuses to better serve their clients? (Veenstra, 2013;Smith, 2019b). Research is needed to clarify a hierarchy of linkages. ...
... Whereas male perceivers exhibited greater bias against male racial outgroup members due to concerns about aggression and social dominance, female perceivers exhibited this bias due to concerns about sexual coercion. Similar effects were observed in a telephone survey study in which nonwhite men reported more discrimination than women reported, an effect that was especially pronounced among men with the lowest levels of educational attainment (Veenstra 2013a). Another set of field experiments examining hiring decisions made by recruiters shows further support for a subordinate male target hypothesis (Derous et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Categorization plays a fundamental role in organizing daily interactions with the social world. However, there is increasing recognition that social categorization is often complex, both because category membership can be ambiguous (e.g., multiracial or transgender identities) and because different categorical identities (e.g., race and gender) may interact to determine the meaning of category membership. These complex identities simultaneously impact social perceivers' impressions and social targets' own experiences of identity, thereby shaping perceptions, experiences, and interactions in fundamental ways. This review examines recent research on the perception and experience of the complex, multifaceted identities that both complicate and enrich our lives. Although research has historically tended to focus more on difficulties and challenges associated with multiple identities, increasing attention is being paid to opportunities that emerge from the possession of identities that include multiple distinct or overlapping groups. We consider how these opportunities might benefit both perceivers and targets. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
... This same prediction emerges from the theory of gendered prejudice (McDonald, Sidanius, & Navarrete, 2011), which holds that males' greater size and physical strength (on average) makes them a more salient source of threat and thus a more likely target of race-based anxieties, antipathies, and aspirations for dominance and subjugation. Consistent with this perspective is the fact that racial gaps in incarceration rates are greater among male targets than among female targets and that reports of racial discrimination are more pronounced among Black male respondents than among Black female respondents (Sidanius & Pratto 1999;Veenstra, 2013). Research on automatic forms of race bias has produced converging findings. ...
Chapter
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Scholars have long recognized that successful prediction of behavior on the basis of explicit attitudes depends on the correspondence between the attitude measure and the focal behavior. Fishbein and Ajzen (2010) argued that behaviors vary in terms of their action, target, context, and time, and that the prediction of specific behaviors is greatly enhanced when explicit attitude measures reflect these features of the to-be-predicted behavior. We argue that the same principle applies in the case of predicting behavior from implicit attitudes, and we review relevant evidence relating to each of Fishbein and Ajzen’s parameters. Special attention is paid to the target parameter, given increasing awareness of the intersectional nature of bias. A global race bias may not extend equally to all members of a particular racial identity, and cross-cutting factors such as gender, age, or sexuality may qualify the extent to which global measures of race bias predict discriminatory behavior toward particular individuals.
... Understanding the importance of how identity markers do not exist independently of one another is important, as these markers create a convergence of oppression (Crenshaw 1993;Potter 2016 Further to this, Veenstra (2013) states sexuality continues to evolve as a site of oppression when added to the mix; where one may have multiple subordinate identities, they are less likely to receive equal status or justice. Those in power are more likely to reinforce the margins and barriers which impact ones' agency. ...
... Perhaps the older AA women in this study have a particular resilience to pain following a similar theory as the crossover effect cited above [7,80], which suggests coping methods as well as physical and psychological resilience accumulate over time among minority members. According to the interaction theory of race/ethnicity and gender, older AA women hold multiple subordinate identities in society, and therefore, their experiences of disparities are compounded [82,83]. Perhaps the AA women who have reached older age have accumulated specific skills or resiliencies in order to deal with physical and psychological pain, and therefore, the typical gender differences in pain intensity do not appear in our findings. ...
Article
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Background: Although social, behavioral, and health factors influence prevalence and intensity of pain, very few studies have investigated correlates of pain among economically disadvantaged older African American (AA) adults. Objective: This study explored social, behavioral, and health correlates of pain intensity among community-dwelling AA older adults in an economically disadvantaged area of Los Angeles. Methods: A cross-sectional study on 740 AA older adults (age ≥ 55 years) was conducted in South Los Angeles between 2015 and 2018. Exploratory variables were age, gender, educational attainment, financial difficulties, living alone, marital status, smoking, drinking, pain-related chronic medical conditions (CMCs), and depressive symptoms. Dependent variable was pain intensity. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Results: Age, financial difficulties, living alone, smoking, pain-related chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms were associated with pain intensity. Individuals with lower age, higher financial difficulties, those who lived alone, those with a higher number of pain-related chronic medical conditions, more depressive symptoms, and nonsmokers reported more pain intensity. Gender, educational attainment, marital status, and drinking were not associated with pain intensity. Conclusion: The results may help with the health promotion of economically disadvantaged AA older adults in urban areas.
... The results could also be explained by the Subordinate Male Target hypothesis [54,55] and Social Dominance Theory (the Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression) [56], as well as Curry's black male vulnerability thesis [47], and the work on black masculinity by Wizdom Powell [57,58] and Derek Griffith [59][60][61][62]. ...
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Background: Recent research has shown smaller health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment for African Americans as compared to whites. However, less is known about diminished returns based on gender within African Americans. Aim: To test whether among African American men are at a relative disadvantage compared to women in terms of having improved mental health as a result of their education attainment. This study thus explored gender differences in the association between education attainment and mental health, using a representative sample of American adults. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2003) recruited 3570 African American adults (2299 females and 1271 males). The dependent variables were depressive symptoms and psychological distress. The independent variable was education attainment. Race was the focal moderator. Age, employment status, and marital status were covariates. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample that included both male and female African American adults, high education attainment was associated with lower depressive symptoms and psychological distress, net of covariates. Significant interactions were found between gender and education attainment with effects on depressive symptoms and psychological distress, suggesting stronger protective effects of high education attainment against depressive symptoms and psychological distress for female as compared to male African Americans. Conclusion: A smaller gain in mental health with respect to educational attainment for male African American males as compared to African American females is in line with studies showing high risk of depression in African American men of high-socioeconomic status. High-SES African American men need screening for depression and psychological distress.
Article
The effects of verbal accents on intergroup attitudes are well documented. This study aims to enrich our understanding by exploring how those effects vary according to the speaker's gender and the political context. We conducted two online survey experiments in which South Korean citizens were randomly exposed to speakers exhibiting one of four accent conditions – South Korean male and female accents and North Korean male and female accents – a week before and two days after the 2018 Singapore summit between North Korea and the United States, in order to test hypotheses based on literatures from political science, social psychology and evolutionary biology. The results indicate that only exposure to a North Korean male accent, not a North Korean female accent, strengthened stereotypes about North Koreans among South Koreans prior to the summit. Further, this negative effect disappeared immediately after the summit.
Article
en Political tolerance, defined as a willingness to grant civil liberties to disliked groups, has historically been viewed as necessary for liberal democracies. Canada is known as a tolerant country, but very little research exists on political tolerance in Canada. Using the “least-liked” measure of political tolerance, I show that Canada has lower levels of political tolerance than the U.S., and that religiosity—particularly committed and conservative religiosity—is unrelated to political tolerance. RÉSUMÉ es La tolérance politique, définie comme la volonté d'accorder des libertés civiles aux groupes qui ne sont pas appréciés, a toujours été considérée comme nécessaire aux démocraties libérales. Le Canada est connu comme un pays tolérant, mais il existe très peu de recherches sur la tolérance politique au Canada. En utilisant la mesure de la tolérance politique " la moins aimée ", je montre que le Canada a des niveaux de tolérance politique inférieurs à ceux des États-Unis, et que la religiosité - en particulier la religiosité engagée et conservatrice - n'est pas liée à la tolérance politique.
Book
Feminist Pedagogy, Practice, and Activism: Improving the Lives of Girls and Women is an anthology which examines the importance of integrating feminism and women’s studies into lives of young adults. Women’s studies and feminist programming provide vital opportunities for young women and men to acquire leadership skills and the confidence to challenge the status quo and create sustainable social change. This text illuminates the multiple methods through which feminist pedagogy is achieved, and provides a mechanism with which the reader may develop their own sense of feminist agency.
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Identity politics (often dubbed political correctness: PC) victim categories (protected characteristics) are shown to be false. Negative attitude is specifically towards males, and evoked by any form of significant difference. Previous findings that misogyny has no scientific basis, with the evidence instead of philogyny and misandry, extend to apply across all victim categories, trumping race or sexual orientation. This is revealed in the predominance of males as hate crime victims, the harsher attitude towards apparently more masculine subsets of sexual minority and race, and experimentally. Supposed homophobia is revealed to be a far wider phenomenon, encompassing all victim categories, manifest culturally in male initiation and scientifically evidenced across fields. It functions to gate-keep male full admission to the group, serving to police male sexual access, maximising reproductive efficiency, not to deal with out-group threat, nor to oppress (least of all females). Identity politics is extreme misrepresentation of social and inter-personal reality.
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This report presents key findings from the Queer Migrants in Norway research project. The aim of the research project has been to investigate living conditions and quality of life among lesbians, gays, bisexuals, trans and intersex persons (LGBTI persons) with migrant backgrounds living in Norway
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Intersectionality has recently gained traction in health inequality research emphasizing multiple intersecting dimensions of inequality as opposed to the traditional unidimensional approaches. In this study inequalities in mental health were estimated across intersections of gender, income, education, occupation, country of birth, and sexual orientation. The outcomes and inequalities of intersectional strata were disentangled analogously to the possibilities described by intersectionality theory; as a result of either of the two inequality dimensions, as a result of the sum the dimensions, or as a unique outcome not equaling the sum. Furthermore the study examined the discriminatory accuracy of the six inequality dimensions as well as the intersectional space comprising 64 strata. The study population (N = 52,743) consists of a yearly random sample of the Swedish population 26-84 years between 2010 and 2015, from The Health on Equal Terms survey. Mental health was measured through a self-administered General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12, and sociodemographics through survey and linked register data. Intersectional inequalities in mental health were estimated for all pairwise combinations of inequality dimensions by joint inequalities, excess intersectional inequalities and referent inequalities. The findings of the study found that the sum of dimensions contributed to the overall (joint) inequality in mental health rather than a reinforced adverse effect of multiple disadvantages or the contribution by a single dimension. Nevertheless, the dimension of income was found to be the most important in terms of relative contribution. The discriminatory accuracy was low indicating that policy action targeting mental health should be universal rather than focusing on particular groups. The results highlight the unpredictable inequality patterns revealed by an intersectional approach, even for a single health outcome and within one country, and illustrate the need for empirical investigations into the actual population patterns in health that appear in the intersections of multiple disadvantages.
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This paper explores the representations of two of Disney’s Africana royals, Phiona from the Queen of Katwe and Princess Shuri from Black Panther. Taking into consideration the pedagogical impact of media to reinforce ideologies of White supremacy and privilege, the depictions of these alternative royals in Disney’s royal realm are analyzed using intersectionality theory. The girls’ intersecting identities are juxtaposed with Collins’ matrix of domination concept. The analysis revealed that, while both Phiona and Shuri are challenged by the legacy of colonialization, capitalism, and globalization that constitute the matrix of domination, their approaches to these challenges are different as a result of the unique ways that their identities intersect. The author stresses that while it is commendable of Disney, and Hollywood, to allow for the affirming portrayals of these Africana girls on screen, the gesture is baseless unless a tipping point is reached where such films, and those depicting other non-dominant groups, become the norm rather than the exceptions. In other words, the challenge for those in the industry is not to resist the matrix of domination that stymies the creation of films that reflect the spectrum of the lived and fantastical experiences of Africana, and people of color; rather, the challenge is to dismantle it.
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Communicative daily life stories (CDLS) conducted with Other women (without academic background) from migrant or ethnic minority descent are contributing to dismantle existing sexist and racist stereotypes and prevent gender violence. In this article, drawing from a research focused on the effects of nonacademic mothers on learning activities, it is shown how these women's stories on their own participation make them reflect on the intersection of discrimination and the ways in which they are active agents that are already contributing to dismantling them. Through the use of CDLS, under the communicative approach, the present article contributes to the ongoing debate about the implications of the intersectionality at the research methodological level.
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Intersectionality suggests that stigmatization experienced across multiple identities has a demobilizing effect, making people less likely to challenge systemic inequalities through political engagement. Using data collected from a unique survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) respondents, this study analyzes how experience with injustice across racial and sexual identities affects political participation. I find (1) heterosexist stigma is positively associated with political participation; (2) racist stigma is positively associated with participation in the form of political persuasion among both whites and racial minorities; and (3) there is a tipping point after which the compounded effects of stigma across multiple identities negatively affect political participation, but primarily among the most politically active LGBT people.
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This chapter reviews the last 15 years of research inspired by social dominance theory, a general theory of societal group-based inequality. In doing so, we sketch the broad outlines of the theory and discuss some of the controversies surrounding it, such as the “invariance hypothesis” regarding gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) and the effect of social context on the expression of SDO. We also discuss the central role of gender in the construction and maintenance of group-based inequality, and review some of the new research inspired by the social dominance perspective. Finally, we identify and discuss some of the most important theoretical questions posed by social dominance theory that are yet to be researched.
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Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind.
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This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges in sexual minority research are outlined, using the articles in this special issue for illustrative purposes, and suggestions are offered for consideration in future research. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of the ways in which counseling psychologists are uniquely positioned to advance knowledge, practice, and social justice through research on sexual minority issues.
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I contend that popular representations of heterosexual black men are bipolar. Those images alternate between a Bad Black Man who is crime-prone and hypersexual and a Good Black Man who distances himself from blackness and associates with white norms. The threat of the Bad Black Man label provides heterosexual black men with an assimilationist incentive to perform our identities consistent with the Good Black Man image. The reason for bipolar black masculinity is that it helps resolve the white mainstream's post-civil rights anxiety. That anxiety results from the conflict between the nation's relatively recent determination that some black men merit inclusion into the mainstream and its longer-standing and ongoing belief that most black men should be excluded. Bipolar black masculinity addresses that anxiety by clearly demarcating which black men merit inclusion - only those who fit the assimilationist ideal. Bipolar depictions justify the status quo of the exclusion of most black men into jail or the lower-classes and the inclusion of only a token few white-acting black men into the mainstream. I draw my conclusions by utilizing Critical Race Feminism's intersectionality theory - analysis of the interplay between race and gender narratives. Intersectionality theory is usually applied to the multiply subordinated, such as women of color, rather than the singly subordinated, such as middle-class heterosexual black men. Extending intersectionality theory to heterosexual black men is justifiable when we consider the shared interests of the multiply and singly subordinated in defeating the Western epistemological system of the scaling of bodies. The scaling of bodies is the assumption that we must rank identity characteristics against a norm and organize society according to those hierarchies. Bipolar black masculinity seeks to seduce heterosexual black men into accepting the right to subordinate others as compensation for our own subordination. If heterosexual black men are to disrupt bipolar black masculinity, we must refuse to accept the right to subordinate others and construct an antihierarchical black masculinity.
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The hypothesis that possessing multiple subordinate-group identities renders a person “invisible” relative to those with a single subordinate-group identity is developed. We propose that androcentric, ethnocentric, and heterocentric ideologies will cause people who have multiple subordinate-group identities to be defined as non-prototypical members of their respective identity groups. Because people with multiple subordinate-group identities (e.g., ethnic minority woman) do not fit the prototypes of their respective identity groups (e.g., ethnic minorities, women), they will experience what we have termed “intersectional invisibility.” In this article, our model of intersectional invisibility is developed and evidence from historical narratives, cultural representations, interest-group politics, and anti-discrimination legal frameworks is used to illustrate its utility. Implications for social psychological theory and research are discussed.
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Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310) provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be capable of accommodating axis intersections of multiple kinds and qualities.
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Adopting an evolutionary approach to the psychology of race bias, we posit that intergroup conflict perpetrated by male aggressors throughout human evolutionary history has shaped the psychology of modern forms of intergroup bias and that this psychology reflects the unique adaptive problems that differ between men and women in coping with male aggressors from groups other than one's own. Here we report results across 4 studies consistent with this perspective, showing that race bias is moderated by gender differences in traits relevant to threat responses that differ in their adaptive utility between the sexes-namely, aggression and dominance motives for men and fear of sexual coercion for women. These results are consistent with the notion that the psychology of intergroup bias is generated by different psychological systems for men and women, and the results underscore the importance of considering the gender of the outgroup target as well as the gender of the agent in psychological studies on prejudice and discrimination.
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We examined whether self-reported everyday discrimination was associated with chronic health conditions among a nationally representative sample of Asian Americans. Data were from the Asian American subsample (n = 2095) of the National Latino and Asian American Study conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regression techniques (negative binomial and logistic) were used to examine the association between discrimination and chronic health conditions. Analyses were conducted for the entire sample and 3 Asian subgroups (Chinese, Vietnamese, and Filipino). Reports of everyday discrimination were associated with many chronic conditions, after we controlled for age, gender, region, per capita income, education, employment, and social desirability bias. Discrimination was also associated with indicators of heart disease, pain, and respiratory illnesses. There were some differences by Asian subgroup. Everyday discrimination may contribute to stress experienced by racial/ethnic minorities and could lead to chronic illness.
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Limited data are available on the prevalence and patterns of body weight discrimination from representative samples. This study examined experiences of weight/height discrimination in a nationally representative sample of US adults and compared their prevalence and patterns with discrimination experiences based on race and gender. Data were from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, a 1995-1996 community-based survey of English-speaking adults aged 25-74 (N=2290). Reported experiences of weight/height discrimination included a variety of institutional settings and interpersonal relationships. Multivariate regression analyses were used to predict weight/height discrimination controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and body weight status. The prevalence of weight/height discrimination ranged from 5% among men to 10% among women, but these average percentages obscure the much higher risk of weight discrimination among heavier individuals (40% for adults with body mass index (BMI) of 35 and above). Younger individuals with a higher BMI had a particularly high risk of weight/height discrimination regardless of their race, education and weight status. Women were at greater risk for weight/height discrimination than men, especially women with a BMI of 30-35 who were three times more likely to report weight/height discrimination compared to male peers of a similar weight. Weight/height discrimination is prevalent in American society and is relatively close to reported rates of racial discrimination, particularly among women. Both institutional forms of weight/height discrimination (for example, in employment settings) and interpersonal mistreatment due to weight/height (for example, being called names) were common, and in some cases were even more prevalent than discrimination due to gender and race.
Chapter
This chapter examines the presentation of American men and women in Hollywood World War 2 films. It suggests this presentation revised traditional film constructions of masculinity and femininity because wartime needs forced a major reworking of male and female types. It also argues that the changed gender roles seem to anticipate changes in the post-war world including the corporate-conformist culture of the 1950s and the feminist movement of the 1960s and beyond. Examples of these films include A Guy Named Joe, So Proudly We Hail!, and To Have and Have Not.
Chapter
Although the body of applied intersectionality research literature is large and growing steadily, few studies have explicitly attempted to use concepts from this rich theoretical tradition to predict or explain quantitative differences in health outcomes associated with intersections between gender, race and class. Virtually nothing is currently known about how intersections between axes of inequality are differentially associated with health across national contexts or whether “place” within a national context intersects with axes of inequality to shape health outcomes. Combining analyses of data for 10,898 adult residents from Toronto who completed the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey and 7,508 residents of New York City (NYC) who participated in the 2004 NYC Community Health Survey, this chapter examines the health effects described by statistical interactions between gender, race, class and neighbourhood of residence in these two urban contexts. Multilevel logistic regression modelling in each city allows us to investigate the direction and magnitude of two-way interactions between gender, race and class on the likelihood of fair or poor self-rated health status, providing a rough indication of how the health effects of such interactions might vary by urban or national context. Modelling the neighbourhood-level slopes for gender, race and class additionally allows us to determine whether neighbourhood of residence interacts with these axes of inequality as predictors of self-rated health in the two cities. Our findings highlight the value of integrating quantitative modelling with neighbourhood-level analyses for developing more nuanced understandings of intersecting determinants of health.
Book
Part I. From There to Here - Theoretical Background: 1. From visiousness to viciousness: theories of intergroup relations 2. Social dominance theory as a new synthesis Part II. Oppression and its Psycho-Ideological Elements: 3. The psychology of group dominance: social dominance orientation 4. Let's both agree that you're really stupid: the power of consensual ideology Part III. The Circle of Oppression - The Myriad Expressions of Institutional Discrimination: 5. You stay in your part of town and I'll stay in mine: discrimination in the housing and retail markets 6. They're just too lazy to work: discrimination in the labor market 7. They're just mentally and physically unfit: discrimination in education and health care 8. The more of 'them' in prison, the better: institutional terror, social control and the dynamics of the criminal justice system Part IV. Oppression as a Cooperative Game: 9. Social hierarchy and asymmetrical group behavior: social hierarchy and group difference in behavior 10. Sex and power: the intersecting political psychologies of patriarchy and empty-set hierarchy 11. Epilogue.
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In attempting to analyze the situation of the black woman in America, one crashes abruptly into a solid wall of grave misconceptions, outright distortions of fact and defensive attitudes on the part of many. The System of capitalism (and its afterbirth...racism) under which we all live, has attempted by many devious ways and means to destroy the humanity of all people, and particularly the humanity of black people. This has meant an outrageous assault on every black man, woman, and child who resides in the United States. In keeping with its goal of destroying the black race’s will to resist its subjugation, capitalism found it necessary to create a situation where the black man found it impossible to find meaningful or productive employment. More often than not, he couldn’t find work of any kind. And the black woman likewise was manipulated by the System, economically exploited and physically assaulted. She could often find work in the white man’s kitchen, however, and sometimes became the sole breadwinner of the family. This predicament has led to many psychological problems on the part of both man and woman, and has contributed to the turmoil that we find in the black family structure. Unfortunately, neither the black man nor the black woman understood the true nature of the forces working upon them. Many black women tended to accept the capitalist evaluation of manhood and womanhood and believed, in fact, that black men were shiftless and lazy, otherwise they would get a job and support their families as they ought to. Personal relationships between black men and women were thus torn asunder and one result has been the separation of man from wife, mother from child, etc. America has defined the roles to which each individual should subscribe. It has defined “manhood” in terms of its own interests and “femininity” likewise. Therefore, an individual who has a good job, makes a lot of money and drives a Cadillac is a real “man,” and conversely, an individual who is lacking in these “qualities” is less of a man. The advertising media in this country continuously inform the American male of his need for indispensable signs of his virility: the brand of cigarettes that cowboys prefer, the whiskey that has a masculine tang, or the label of the jock strap that athletes wear. The ideal model that is projected for a woman is to be surrounded by hypocritical homage and estranged from all real work, spending idle hours primping and preening, obsessed with conspicuous consumption, and limiting life’s functions to simply a sex role. We unqualitatively reject these respective models. A woman who stays at home, caring for children and the house, often leads an extremely sterile existence. She must lead her entire life as a satellite to her mate. He goes out into society and brings back a little piece of the world for her. His interests and his understanding of the world become her own and she cannot develop herself as an individual, having been reduced to only a biological function. This kind of woman leads a parasitic existence that can aptly be described as “legalized prostitution.” Furthermore, it is idle dreaming to think of black women simply caring for their homes and children like the middle-class white model. Most black women have to work to help house, feed, and clothe their families. Black women make up a substantial percentage of the black working force and this is true for the poorest black family as well as the so-called “middle-class” family. Black women were never afforded any such phony luxuries. Though we have been browbeaten with this white image, the reality of the degrading and dehumanizing jobs that were relegated to us quickly dissipated this mirage of “womanhood.” The following excerpts from a speech that Sojourner Truth made at a Women’s Rights Convention in the 19th century show us how misleading and incomplete a life this model represents for us: “...Well, chilern, whar dar is so much racket dar must be something out o’kilter. I tink dat ‘twixt de niggers of de Souf and de women at de norf all a talkin’ ‘bout rights, de...
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This collection provides many insights into the condition of African American males, emphasizing educational attainment and achievement, and offers methodologies for documenting how the social and educational worlds of African American males intersect. The essays are: (1) "Teaching Black Males: Lessons from the Experts" (Michele Foster and Tryphenia B. Peele); (2) "The Information Rage: Computers and Young African American Males" (Bernard A. Carver); (3) "The Social Construction of High-Incidence Disabilities: The Effect on African American Males" (Beth Harry and Mary G. Anderson); (4) "Identifying Giftedness among African American Males: Recommendations for Effective Recruitment and Retention" (Donna Y. Ford, Tarek C. Grantham, and Deryl F. Bailey); (5) "Who Am I? The Development of the African American Male Identity" (Saladin K. Corbin and Robert L. Pruitt, II); (6) "Responsive Teaching for African American Male Adolescents" (Peter Murrell, Jr.); (7) "Combating Educational Neglect in Suburbia: African American Males and Mathematics" (Vernon C. Polite); (8) "An Absence of a Talented Tenth" (Joseph A. Hawkins); (9) "Ebony Men in the Ivory Tower: A Policy Perspective" (M. Christopher Brown, II); (10) "What Does Gender Have To Do with the Experiences of African American College Men?" (James Earl Davis); (11) "African American Achievement and Socioeconomic Collapse: Alternative Theories and Empirical Evidence" (Patrick L. Mason); (12) "African American Males and the Struggle toward Responsible Fatherhood" (Vivian Gadsden and Phillip J. Bowman); and (13) "A Cup That Runneth Over: Personal Reflections on the Black Male Experience" (Vernon C. Polite). (Contains 553 references.) (SLD)
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Race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic position are social status categories that predict the differential distribution of disease, disability, and death in society. Prior research has attended to variations in health by each of these categories, considered separately, or by two of them in combination. But health researchers seldom consider how health is distributed when these three social status categories are considered simultaneously. In this chapter, we focus on social disparities in health and underscore the complex interactions among these social categories. We begin by briefly documenting that race, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) each matters in predicting variations in health. We then consider the complex patterns that emerge when we consider race/ethnicity, SES, and gender together. In highlighting some of the paradoxes in the health literature, we draw particular attention to members of the black middle class. We conclude with directions for future research, describing the ways in which intersectionality theory can be used to further our understanding of persistent health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This paper serves as a “best practices guide” for researchers interested in applying intersectionality theory to psychological research. Intersectionality, the mutually constitutive relations among social identities, presents several issues to researchers interested in applying it to research. I highlight three central issues and provide guidelines for how to address them. First, I discuss the constraints in the number of identities that researchers are able to test in an empirical study, and highlight relevant decision rules. Second, I discuss when to focus on “master” identities (e.g., gender) versus “emergent” identities (i.e., White lesbian). Third, I argue that treating identity as a process situated within social structural contexts facilitates the research process. I end with a brief discussion of the implications for the study of intersectionality.
Article
This article examines the extent to which racial differences in socio-economic status (SES), social class and acute and chronic indicators of perceived discrimination, as well as general measures of stress can account for black-white differences in self-reported measures of physical and mental health. The observed racial differences in health were markedly reduced when adjusted for education and especially income. However, both perceived discrimination and more traditional measures of stress are related to health and play an incremental role in accounting for differences between the races in health status. These findings underscore the need for research efforts to identify the complex ways in which economic and non-economic forms of discrimination relate to each other and combine with socio-economic position and other risk factors and resources to affect health.
Article
Sociologists have consistently demonstrated that a rather strong association exists between an individual's social class origin and their social class destination, even after controlling for educational attainment. One explanation for this persisting association which is rarely addressed in research in social stratification and mobility is the extent to which class inequalities in access to advantaged class positions are due to discrimination by employers. I set up a field experiment to test whether employers discriminate on the basis of class origin characteristics. I sent letters of job application for professional and managerial occupations to 2560 large UK companies, so as to compare the prospects of equally matched potential employees differing on a range of characteristics, some related to class of origin. The six treatment conditions in the experiment were: the name of the candidate, the type of school attended, the candidate's interests outside work, their sex, the university that they attended and their achieved degree class. Results suggest that employers do pay attention to the class origin characteristics tested here, and that candidates with a name, school type and interests associated with the social elite are more likely to receive a reply to their application than candidates with the equivalent non-elite characteristics. However, the treatment conditions do not, on the whole, have significant effects on the employers' responses in and of themselves. Instead, employers appear to favour particular combinations of characteristics while penalising others.
Article
This article uses survey data to investigate health effects of racialization in Canada. The operative sample was comprised of 91,123 Canadians aged 25 and older who completed the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. A "racial and cultural background" survey question contributed a variable that differentiated respondents who identified with Aboriginal, Black, Chinese, Filipino, Latin American, South Asian, White, or jointly Aboriginal and White racial/cultural backgrounds. Indicators of diabetes, hypertension and self-rated health were used to assess health. The healthy immigrant effect suppressed some disparity in risk for diabetes by racial/cultural identification. In logistic regression models also containing gender, age, and immigrant status, no racial/cultural identifications corresponded with significantly better health outcomes than those reported by survey respondents identifying as White. Subsequent models indicated that residential locale did little to explain the associations between racial/cultural background and health and that socioeconomic status was only implicated in relatively poor health outcomes for respondents identifying as Aboriginal or Aboriginal/White. Sizable and statistically significant relative risks for poor health for respondents identifying as Aboriginal, Aboriginal/White, Black, Chinese, or South Asian remained unexplained by the models, suggesting that other explanations for health disparities by racialized identity in Canada - perhaps pertaining to experiences with institutional racism and/or the wear and tear of experiences of racism and discrimination in everyday life - also deserve empirical investigation in this context.
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The disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) disease on African American women is devastating to their lives, their families, their communities, and our society. Among AIDS cases in women, 52.5% are black. African American women with HIV disease constitute one of the least powerful and most burdened segments of society. The African American woman whose behavior places her at risk for HIV infection must be the focus of increased prevention and treatment efforts. This article will describe risk factors for HIV infection and AIDS educational needs of women at risk. The interaction of race, gender, and social class will be explored. The controversy over medical manifestations of HIV will be addressed within the context of the social reality of African American women at risk. Reproductive rights and public policy issues will be discussed. Health educators must overcome their fear, class prejudice, and racial bias in order to form the interracial coalition necessary to lead our nation in the struggle to stop the devastation of AIDS among African American women and children.
Article
Increasing social inequalities in health in the United States and elsewhere, coupled with growing inequalities in income and wealth, have refocused attention on social class as a key determinant of population health. Routine analysis using conceptually coherent and consistent measures of socioeconomic position in US public health research and surveillance, however, remains rare. This review discusses concepts and methodologies concerning, and guidelines for measuring, social class and other aspects of socioeconomic position (e.g. income, poverty, deprivation, wealth, education). These data should be collected at the individual, household, and neighborhood level, to characterize both childhood and adult socioeconomic position; fluctuations in economic resources during these time periods also merit consideration. Guidelines for linking census-based socioeconomic measures and health data are presented, as are recommendations for analyses involving social class, race/ethnicity, and gender. Suggestions for research on socioeconomic measures are provided, to aid monitoring steps toward social equity in health.
Article
Investigating effects of discrimination upon health requires clear concepts, methods, and measures. At issue are both economic consequences of discrimination and accumulated insults arising from everyday and at times violent experiences of being treated as a second-class citizen, at each and every economic level. Guidelines for epidemiologic investigations and other public health research on ways people embody racism, sexism, and other forms of social inequality, however, are not well defined, as research in this area is in its infancy. Employing an ecosocial framework, this article accordingly reviews definitions and patterns of discrimination within the United States; evaluates analytic strategies and instruments researchers have developed to study health effects of different kinds of discrimination; and delineates diverse pathways by which discrimination can harm health, both outright and by distorting production of epidemiologic knowledge about determinants of population health. Three methods of studying health consequences of discrimination are examined (indirect; direct, at the individual level, in relation to personal experiences of discrimination; at the population level, such as via segregation), and recommendations are provided for developing research instruments to measure acute and cumulative exposure to different aspects of discrimination.
Article
Higher disease rates for blacks (or African Americans) compared to whites are pervasive and persistent over time, with the racial gap in mortality widening in recent years for multiple causes of death. Other racial/ethnic minority populations also have elevated disease risk for some health conditions. This paper considers the complex ways in which race and socioeconomic status (SES) combine to affect health. SES accounts for much of the observed racial disparities in health. Nonetheless, racial differences often persist even at "equivalent" levels of SES. Racism is an added burden for nondominant populations. Individual and institutional discrimination, along with the stigma of inferiority, can adversely affect health by restricting socioeconomic opportunities and mobility. Racism can also directly affect health in multiple ways. Residence in poor neighborhoods, racial bias in medical care, the stress of experiences of discrimination and the acceptance of the societal stigma of inferiority can have deleterious consequences for health.
Article
Few studies have examined the impact of the frequency of discrimination on hypertension risk. The authors assessed the cross-sectional associations between frequency of perceived racial and nonracial discrimination and hypertension among 1,110 middle-aged African-American men (n = 393) and women (n = 717) participating in the 2001 follow-up of the Pitt County Study (Pitt County, North Carolina). Odds ratios were estimated using gender-specific unconditional weighted logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders and the frequency of discrimination. More than half of the men (57%) and women (55%) were hypertensive. The prevalences of perceived racial discrimination, nonracial discrimination, and no discrimination were 57%, 29%, and 13%, respectively, in men and 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively, in women. Women recounting frequent nonracial discrimination versus those reporting no exposure to discrimination had the highest odds of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 5.02). A nonsignificant inverse odds ratio was evident in men who perceived frequent exposure to racial or nonracial discrimination in comparison with no exposure. A similar association was observed for women reporting perceived racial discrimination. These results indicate that the type and frequency of discrimination perceived by African-American men and women may differentially affect their risk of hypertension.
Article
More than three hundred paired audits at new-car dealerships reveal that dealers quoted significantly lower prices to white males than to black or female test buyers using identical, scripted bargaining strategies. Ancillary evidence suggests that the dealerships' disparate treatment of women and blacks may be caused by dealers' statistical inferences about consumers' reservation prices, but the data do not strongly support any single theory of discrimination. Copyright 1995 by American Economic Association.
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Marxist theory of racism and racial inequality
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Bohmer, P. (2005). Marxist theory of racism and racial inequality. In C. Conrad, J. Whitehead, P. Mason, & J. Stewart (Eds.), African Americans in the U.S. Economy (pp. 94-100). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Race, gender and class: Theory and methods of analysis
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