What is the Best Test for Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 2.14). 12/2013; 123(12). DOI: 10.1002/lary.23656
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ABSTRACT: Objective: (1) To determine the incidence and severity of subglottic stenosis on endoscopic evaluation in a pediatric population of patients with recurrent croup. (2) To determine the incidence of abnormal findings on bronchoalveolar lavage and esophageal biopsy in a pediatric population with recurrent croup. Methods: Case series with historical chart review of clinical data for pediatric patients (age ≤18 years) at a tertiary care children's hospital who underwent endoscopic evaluation of the upper aerodigestive tract with a diagnosis of recurrent croup over a ten-year period (2002-2012). Subglottic stenosis was graded on Myer-Cotton scale. Lipid-laden macrophages on bronchoalveolar lavage were noted as none/small/moderate/large with evidence of reflux noted as moderate or large. Esophageal biopsy specimens were evaluated for evidence of esophagitis. Data is expressed as mean±SEM. Results: 1825 charts were reviewed of which 197 met inclusion criteria. Mean age at endoscopy was 53±3 months. Subglottic stenosis was noted in 41 patients (20.8%) with 95.1% being mild or Grade I. Abnormal findings on bronchoalveolar lavage were noted on 9.5% of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Abnormal esophageal biopsies were noted on 19.9% of specimens. Esophagitis was noted on 8.8% of biopsy specimens. Conclusions: Subglottic stenosis is a risk factor for recurrent croup. Evidence suggestive of reflux may be noted on bronchoalveolar lavage or esophageal biopsy, but these findings may not correlate with subglottic stenosis in recurrent croup patients.
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