Arthroscopic Repair of Large U-Shaped Rotator Cuff Tears Without Margin Convergence Versus Repair of Crescent- or L-Shaped Tears
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 10/2013; 42(1). DOI: 10.1177/0363546513505425
BACKGROUND:For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. HYPOTHESIS:The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. RESULTS:On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. CONCLUSION:Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the findings did not indicate significant differences in retear rates between the repair of crescent- or L-shaped tears and that of U-shaped tears either overall or at a particular time point.
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ABSTRACT: The healing failure rate is high for partial-thickness or small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. To retrospectively evaluate and compare outcomes after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears and factors affecting rotator cuff healing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 57.9 ± 7.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for high-grade partial-thickness (n = 34) and small full-thickness (n = 21) rotator cuff tears. The study patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at least 6 months postoperatively, and their functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>24 months). All partial-thickness tears were repaired after being converted to full-thickness tears; thus, the repair process was almost the same as for small full-thickness tears. The tendinosis of the torn tendon was graded from the MRI images using a 4-point scale, and the reliabilities were assessed. The outcomes between high-grade partial-thickness tears that were converted to small full-thickness tears and initially small full-thickness tears were compared, and factors affecting outcomes were evaluated. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the tendinosis grade were good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.706 and 0.777, respectively). Failure to heal as determined by CTA was observed in 12 patients with a high-grade partial-thickness tear (35.3%; complete failure in 4 and partial failure in 8) and in 3 patients with a small full-thickness tear (14.3%; complete failure in 1 and partial failure in 2). The patients with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed a higher tendinosis grade than did those with small full-thickness tears (P = .014), and the severity of the tendinosis was related to the failure to heal (P = .037). Tears with a higher tendinosis grade showed a 7.64-times higher failure rate (95% CI, 1.43-36.04) than did those with a lower tendinosis grade (P = .013). All functional outcome scores improved after surgery (all P < .001); however, there was no difference between groups. The high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed more severe tendinosis compared with the small full-thickness tears in this study. Contrary to previous impressions that tear size or fatty infiltration is the factor that most influences healing, tendinosis severity assessed by preoperative MRI was the only factor associated with failure to heal, given the numbers available for analysis, in patients with partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Surgeons should pay more attention to tendon quality during repair surgery or rehabilitation in smaller rotator cuff tears, especially in high-grade partial-thickness tears with severe tendinosis. © 2014 The Author(s).
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of suture configuration, repair method, and tear size on rotator cuff (RC) repair healing. We conducted a literature search of articles that examined surgical treatment of RC tears published between January 2003 and September 2014. For single-row (SR) repairs, we calculated rerupture rates for simple, mattress, and modified Mason-Allen sutures while stratifying by tear size. All double-row repairs-those using 2 rows of suture anchors (DA) and those using a suture bridge (SB)-were performed using mattress sutures, and we compared rerupture rates by repair method while stratifying by tear size. A random-effects model with pooled estimates for between-study variance was used to estimate the overall rerupture proportion and corresponding 95% confidence interval for each group. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. A total of 682 RC repairs from 13 studies were included. For SR repairs of tears measuring less than 3 cm, there was no significant difference in rerupture rates for modified Mason-Allen sutures versus simple sutures (P = .18). For SR repairs of tears measuring 3 cm or more, there was no significant difference in rerupture rates for mattress sutures versus simple sutures (P = .23). The rates of rerupture did not differ between SB and DA repairs for tears measuring less than 3 cm (P = .29) and 3 cm or more (P = .50). For SR repairs, there were no significant differences in rerupture rates between suture techniques for any repair method or tear size. All DA and SB repairs were secured with mattress sutures, and there were no differences in the rates of rerupture between these methods for either size category. These findings suggest that suture technique may not affect rerupture rates after RC repair. Level IV, systematic review of Level I through IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.