Carbonic anhydrase IX is strongly overexpressed in adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri
Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.45). 09/2013; 64(4). DOI: 10.1111/his.12288
Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) or high grade cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia comprises approximately one percent of cervical in situ lesions and is well accepted as precursor of invasive adenocarcinoma.(1) High-risk human papilloma virus infection has been demonstrated as the most important causative agent of AIS. At present, however, we still know far less about metabolic features of these lesions This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), which regulates cellular proliferation and the acid-base balance, is known as prognostic factor in various types of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical implications of CA9 expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining for CA9 was performed on tissue microarrays of hepatocellular carcinoma and paired non-neoplastic liver tissue from a training cohort of 838 patients and a validation cohort of 225 patients. Membranous staining in more than 5 % of the tumor cells was considered to indicate CA9 positivity. The prognostic value of CA9 expression was statistically evaluated. In the training cohort, CA9 positivity (181 cases, 21.5 %) was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (OS; p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS; p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, CA9 positivity was independently associated with reduced OS (p = 0.023), but not significantly associated with RFS (p = 0.384). These results were validated in an additional cohort (CA9 positivity in 35 cases, 15.6 %; OS, p = 0.015; RFS, p = 0.979). Pooled cohort analysis showed that this predictor was independently associated with higher mortality (OS; p < 0.001). These data indicate that CA9 expression is a poor prognostic factor in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic microenvironment is a common situation in solid tumors. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) is one of the reliable cellular biomarkers of hypoxia. The role of CA9 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be clarified. CA9 inhibitor such as sulfonamides is known to block CA9 activation and reduce tumor growth consequently. Here, we aimed to investigate the CA9 expression in serum and tumor from different stages of CRC patients and utilize sulfonamide derivative with indium-111 labeling as a probe for CRC nuclear imaging detection in vivo. The serum CA9 was correlated with the tumor CA9 levels in different stages of CRC patients. Hypoxia increased cell viability and CA9 expression in colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells. Sulfonamide derivative 5-(2-aminoethyl)thiophene-2-sulfonamide (ATS) could bind with CA9 in vitro under hypoxia. Moreover, tumor tissues in HCT-15-induced xenograft mice possessed higher hypoxic fluorescence signal as compared with other organs. We also found that the radioisotope signal of indium-111 labeled ATS, which was utilized for CRC detection in HCT-15-induced xenograft mice, was markedly enhanced in tumors as compared with non-ATS control. Taken together, these findings suggest that CA9 is a potential hypoxic CRC biomarker and measurement of serum CA9 can be as a potential tool for diagnosing CA9 expressions in CRC clinical practice. The radioisotope-labeled sulfonamide derivative (ATS) may be useful to apply in CRC patients for nuclear medicine imaging.
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