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Parkour: Adventure, Risk, and Safety in the Urban Environment

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Abstract

Parkour is a new sport based on athletically and artistically overcoming urban obstacles (e.g., climbing up and vaulting over walls). In this paper, I position parkour as a form of urban adventurism allowing for tests of individual character. This involves what I call rites of risk and rituals of symbolic safety. Together these rites and rituals allow individuals to seek out exciting and dangerous activities while couching their risk-taking in discourses and practices that affirm the value of the self. Thus, although parkour can be dangerous, practitioners use symbolic forms of safety to give their actions meaning and emphasize their ability to handle the risks involved.

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... Skateboarding is sometimes considered an extreme sport and performance art as in the TV channel ESPN's yearly action sport event X Games (Sweeny, 2008). Although skateboarding and other alternative sports are understood as challenging the stereotypical jock or hegemonic masculinity in a sport context, alternative sports are still mainly male-dominated and founded on enduring pain and embracing risk (Kidder, 2013). Skateboarding is now officially considered a sport and will make its Olympic debut at the Tokyo 2020 Games. ...
... Corporal risk is produced by performing advanced and physically difficult skateboarding tricks at high velocity. Here, the articulations are about bravery and taking the risk of bodily injury, which are connected to the excitement of accomplishment and expanding one's skills (Bäckström, 2005(Bäckström, , 2013Connell, 2005;Kidder, 2013). The analysis of risktaking consists of a network of visual signs in the skate video, which involves high jumps, balancing acts, high speed, endurance of pain, vulnerability, aggression and bravery, all of which are signs of a physical practice that puts the body at risk. ...
... Previous research demonstrates that this is a common feature in other high-risk alternative leisure activities such as snowboarding, parkour and windsurfing. These alternative leisure activities are individualistic, leaderless and often non-competitive and anti-authoritarian (Kidder, 2013). Yet, as suggested by previous studies, involvement in high-risk sport activities such as skateboarding is not only linked to "edgework" (i.e. ...
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The current article links masculine leisure with bodily performances and playfulness connected to global neoliberal expressions of gender, class and ethnicity. This study draws from an analysis of a skateboard video of young white middle-class men skateboarding in an urban environment in one of Sweden’s greater metropolitan areas. An interview with the young man who created the video was also conducted. The analysis brings together lines of inquiry that concern young males’ playful use of urban space with the articulation of the visual culture of skateboarding as a homosocial, mainly white middle-class practice where bravery and risk-taking are essential articulations. We argue that the skateboarders articulate masculine subjectivity by a complex amalgam of playfulness, risk-taking, colonization of space and the visual style involved in their skateboarding. The construction and presentation of self in the skateboard video are integrated with the quest for individual identity, self-realization and meaning making that pertain to a global entrepreneurial mindset in which mainly white middle-class men are privileged.
... Currently, despite the development and popularity it is acquiring, the topic continues to have scarce bibliographical references (Atkinson, 2009, Bavinton, 2007, Gilchrist and Wheaton, 2011, Saville, 2008. Facing, in turn, the conceptual ignorance on the subject both by practitioners and by the rest of the people in society, there are few scientific studies regarding the danger of Parkour (Kidder, 2013). Despite this issue, different videos can be watched on the Net, where images of people who perform dangerous jumps are shown. ...
... This entails the acquisition of an uncertain perception concerning the practice of parkour by most of the population which, as Tani (2012a, 2012b) defend, can be a misleading point of view about the true reality of the parkour objectives. Most people relate parkour with danger but, like any other physical discipline, it can be risky if it is executed without taking the necessary precautions and safety measures (Kidder, 2013). ...
... The most common injuries that parkour can cause are slight sprains of ankles, muscle aches or insignificant cuts. All the same, these injuries tend to occur less frequently than in other physical competition disciplines (Kidder, 2013). ...
... Due to the physical demands and divergence from traditional athletics, some sources classify parkour within new genres of action, alternative, or extreme sports [4]. However, practitioners (AKA traceurs) often do not consider parkour a sport, because the classification implies a competitive aspect [5]. Rather, traceurs often view parkour as a philosophy, art, or way of looking at the environment [1,5,6]. ...
... However, practitioners (AKA traceurs) often do not consider parkour a sport, because the classification implies a competitive aspect [5]. Rather, traceurs often view parkour as a philosophy, art, or way of looking at the environment [1,5,6]. ...
... The current paper synthesizes and adds to the limited body of research on injuries caused by participation in parkour. Consistent with previous research, teenage males appear to over represent those injured by parkour [1,2,4,5,[8][9][10][11]. As observed in previous case studies, most parkour injuries presenting to EDs in this sample were the result of landing from jumps, falls, or flips [1,2,[9][10][11]. ...
Article
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Background: Few studies have examined injuries resulting from practicing parkour. The current study provides details on more parkour-related emergency department visits than existed in the combined research literature. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to examine parkour-related injuries presenting to U.S. emergency departments over a seven year period. Results: Most parkour injuries were reportedly caused by landing or from striking objects. Common diagnoses included fractures, sprains/strains, abrasions/contusions, and lacerations. More than half of reported injuries (57.7%) affected the patients' extremities. In this data, there appears to be a trend of increasing parkour injuries over time. Patients as young as 8years old have presented to emergency departments with parkour-related injuries in recent years. Conclusions: Given the relatively severe injuries obtained by youth participants, more research is needed to guide injury prevention efforts. Understanding the nature of parkour-related injuries may help inform prevention efforts. However, more systematic monitoring of participation in parkour and related injuries is needed.
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... (2) Spelunking or urban caving and; (3) bungee jumping. Parkour is when people physically interact with pavements, benches, roofs in a way that such infrastructure becomes a type of 'adult jungle gym' (Kidder, 2013). Urban caving involves exploring urban underground features such as culverts, sewage systems, tunnels, vaults and ruins (North, 1990). ...
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. Bungee jumping is a global phenomenon and is an important sector of the adventure tourism market, acknowledged as an iconic form of hard adventure. Commercial operators are located in North and South America, Asia, Europe and Australasia. In Africa, commercial bungee jumping takes place in Uganda, Zam-bia and South Africa. This paper fills a gap in the international literature by first-ly providing an overview of the global bungee industry, and secondly locating the South African bungee jumping sector within it. Thus, the supply side of the mar-ket is analysed geographically, with a focus on iconic, African and South African jump sites. The study found that bungee jumping takes on a similar form across the globe, notably, a high staff to client ratio; the need for strict safety measures; the provision of additional adventure activities on or near the site and the sale of souvenirs. The paper presents the hither to unknown commercial signature of bungee jumping. Finally, the case for South Africa's commercial bungee jumping industry as a globally being globally competitive one is presented. contents:
... Zejména v lifestylových disciplínách, jako je třeba parkour, je patrný důraz na předvedení sekvence technik (tzv. flow) a posouzení ze strany ostatních spíše než na soutěžní aktivitu (Kidder 2012(Kidder , 2013Svoboda 2016b). Nicméně ani v případě komunity mainstreamového sportu, bazénového plavání, nemusí být úspěch na soutěžích vysoce hodnocen sám o sobě. ...
... Tímto se zároveň autentický traceur (jedinec praktikující parkour) liší od vnějšího pozorovatele (ten tyto techniky neovládá) i od rádoby zkušeného traceura, jehož praktiky jsou však zaměřeny čistě na vnější efekt a ostentativní "předvádění se" (např. skoky z příliš velké výšky, kde již není možné plně kontrolovat bezpečný dopad) (Kidder 2013). ...
Article
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... However, this also presents policymakers and sport institutions with new challenges in terms of developing suitable systems of governance, regulation and funding (Turner 2013, Borgers et al. 2016b. Moreover, the gradual incorporation of lifestyle sports into mainstream organisational structures tends to alter the nature of these activities and the experiences of their practitioners (Thorpe and Wheaton Parkour evolution(s), authenticity struggles and subcultural hierarchies Parkour can be defined as the art of moving in the most fluid and efficient way from one place to another through running, jumping, rolling and leaping over and across any natural or architectural obstacles such as walls, trees, fences, roofs or staircases (Ortuzar 2009, Kidder 2013. Created in a deprived suburb of Paris in the late 1980s, parkour (like other lifestyle sports) is often represented by its participants as a no-competition, no-rules and no-ref practice, thereby marking its difference from institutionalised, achievement-oriented Western sport cultures (Wheaton 2013). ...
... Parkour Generations' approach to parkour is strongly underpinned by (and contributes to shaping) normative discourses around the nature of the discipline and the moral status of its practitioners. From this perspective, the importance of healthy lifestyle and physical conditioning assumes a moral significance, since building the 'body armour' is considered a necessary prerequisite to enable responsible riskmanaging (in line with the authentic ethos of parkour) and promote both the safety and the reputation of the practice (Kidder 2013). Hence the rigour of the ADAPT teaching/coaching programme, which is structured in different levels (1 for Assistant Coach, 2 for Coach and 3 for Master Coach) entailing both residential courses and certified traineeships. ...
Article
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... Materiality extends to the physical space around us and the built environment where we live, and Kidder (2013) has explored how young male parkour athletes "transform the urban environment into a structural resource for asserting masculine gender identities" (Kidder, 2013, p. 6). Such gender performances are not simply about doing gender but also about spatializing gender, perpetuating (not always intentionally) inequalities in sporting worlds (Kidder, 2013). ...
... Materiality extends to the physical space around us and the built environment where we live, and Kidder (2013) has explored how young male parkour athletes "transform the urban environment into a structural resource for asserting masculine gender identities" (Kidder, 2013, p. 6). Such gender performances are not simply about doing gender but also about spatializing gender, perpetuating (not always intentionally) inequalities in sporting worlds (Kidder, 2013). Thus not only is parkour itself gendered, but so are the ways it is enacted by bodies in public spaces. ...
Chapter
We are intimately caught up in a material world, and things of the world surround us at all times. Sometimes these are engaged with, sometimes they demand attention, at other times they are taken-for-granted, or overlooked. Historically, materiality has been largely disregarded by social science disciplines, except archaeology and anthropology. However, recently there has been increasing interest in material things and material culture, most strongly within sociology and cultural studies (Hicks & Beaudry, 2010; Woodward, 2007). This chapter examines the value of considering materiality and using material objects in qualitative sport and exercise research. We outline the meanings and complexities of materiality in research and some ways different scholars have approached materiality. We examine illustrative sport and exercise research using materiality, and outline some research methods for involving materiality. We conclude with some observations on future directions for involving materiality in sport and exercise research.
... While riding jumps can be extremely dangerous, the riders are not careless in their assessment of such obstacles. With linkages to sports such as Parkour, the dangers of the discipline are symbolically mitigated through various rituals of safety (Kidder, 2013). There are various processes in place to ensure that jumps are safe on most well established downhill tracks. ...
... As Raphael describes his favourite sections of the track, he also acknowledges that these are often the most likely places for crashes. In keeping with Parkour traceurs (Kidder, 2013), or skydivers (Laurendeau, 2006), the riders acknowledge the danger associated with their involvement, and with added speed. ...
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... Perhaps due to the perception of adventure tourism as a rural activity associated with "the great outdoors", there is only a small body of work on urban adventure (Cloke, Perkins, 2002;Foley et al., 2003;Swarbrooke et al., 2003;Beedie, 2005;Marinho, Bruhns, 2005;Kidder, 2013). These studies examine the rise of urban adventure where people explore and interact with urban spaces such as walls, abandoned buildings, brownfield sites and storm water drains for example. ...
... (2) Spelunking or urban caving and; (3) bungee jumping. Parkour is when people physically interact with pavements, benches, roofs in a way that such infrastructure becomes a type of 'adult jungle gym' (Kidder, 2013). Urban caving involves exploring urban underground features such as culverts, sewage systems, tunnels, vaults and ruins (North, 1990). ...
Article
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The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires 'wild' and outdoor spaces. With many adventure tourism enterprises located in South Africa's metropolitan areas, it is a hither too unknown sub-sector of the South African urban tourism market. Urban settlements with large populations and a strong general tourism sector form a significant support base for adventure tourism operators. Cape Town is the dominant adventure tourism destination , making it the adventure capital of South Africa. A few small settlements were found to be highly dependent upon the sector for survival.
... Leur mise en place est techniquement encadrée par l'aménageur et la ville qui finance l'installation, pour autant l'initiative peut venir des pratiquants comme d'une impulsion des services municipaux et/ou des concepteurs de l'espace public. Ils accompagnent l'évolution contemporaine de la pratique et favorisent son développement en proposant un espace accessible et socialisant à l'attractivité croissante : découverte de l'activité par visualisation, construction de repères stables et localisation rassurant les parents dans un environnement sécuritaire (Shannon et Werner, 2008 Les espaces dédiés permettent d'encadrer voire de contrôler les actions des traceurs, notamment du fait de la question du risque, mentionnée dans la littérature scientifique (Kidder, 2013) et par les acteurs du terrain s'inquiétant de « la prise de risque inhérente à la pratique » (Entretien T2). Le parkour-park peut ainsi devenir un outil sécuritaire, à l'image du Royaume-Uni où son développement a été accompagné d'une mesure législative : la volenti non fit injuria (Gilchrist et Osborn, 2017). ...
... A travers le jeu qu'il introduit, le parkour produit un rapport différent à l'espace urbainplus « fort » (Entretiens P1a et P1b) et plus « corporel » (Entretien P4)et amène une dimension ludique plus aventureuse dans l'utilisation de la ville (Kidder, 2013). Il construit ainsi une urbanité ludique (Adamkiewicz, 2002) (Figure 7). ...
Article
Parkour is a ludo-sport that occupies open spaces and differs from urban society in both its subversive and juvenile dimensions. As it engages an alternative experience of space, it invites to reinvent the relationship to the city from a spatial point of view, by overcoming its functional division and reintroducing recreation, but also from a social point of view, as practitioners claim a place in the decision-making system and a more participative democracy. The analysis of the institutional treatment of this practice shows that urban projects can be tools for this renewal. By mobilizing the concept of recreational dissidences, deviance becomes a positive element in urban diversity. In this perspective, parkour is thought to participate in the emergence of a renewed citizen engagement that is specific to young people.
... Similar to other researchers (Kidder 2013;Strauss et al. 1964), I use standard quotation marks for narrative examples and quotes that are verbatim and that derived from my occasional impromptu use of a recording device during unstructured conversations when the informant was providing a fascinating, detailed narrative. Due to the unplanned nature of these recordings, consent forms were not provided to informants. ...
... Single quotations are used for quotes that are approximately verbatim. When I was not able to capture in my fieldnotes exact sentences and words, but rather only the kernel of what was said, I use no quotations (Kidder 2013). As the fieldwork was conducted among native Persian speaking young men and women, all of the quotes in this paper are my own English translations of the original Persian. ...
Article
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Studies of marginalized youth in the Islamic Republic of Iran have focused almost exclusively on how structural constraints operate to thwart these young people’s transition to adulthood. There has been comparatively little work that has examined how disadvantaged youth actually cope with precarious structural conditions. The result has been unbalanced hypotheses that argue that youth become stuck in long stretches of time during which they wait with uncertainty for an autonomous life, all the while neglecting the productive micro quests that youth engage in to resolve this uncertainty. The pursuit of face by lower-class youth in Iran speaks to this gap in existing studies. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in two cities in Iran, this study finds that through their engagement in this face system, some young people create an alternative basis of social differentiation to improve their lives. By following the four moral criteria governing face behavior—self-sufficiency, hard work, purity and appearance—these youth are able to accrue moral capital, which subsequently enables them to win incremental gains in the social and economic spheres. These findings have important implications for research on youth mobility in the Middle East.
... is often contradictory and does not always reflect the in-situ practice of parkour. Ethnographies, usually with participant observation [13][14][15][16][17] allow for a more situated and embodied analysis. ...
... People often see parkour as a spectacular exercise that is practiced on rooftops, in a continuous run through the city, jumping over gaps and vaulting over any obstacle. But in reality, practitioners spend most of their time at ground level, rehearsing movements in a spatially limited zone [15,31].Parkour is usually multi-site: traceurs train in a multitude of "spots", i.e. places with interesting features for parkour: walls, trees, rails, benches, etc. [43,48]. Parkour is different from most mainstream sports in that it uses non specific structures, rather than functionally designated and separated spaces. ...
Article
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Parkour is a growing sport that mostly involves jumping, vaulting over obstacles, and climbing in a non-dedicated setting. The authors gathered all known relevant literature across miscellaneous academic fields in order to define parkour with regard to other sports disciplines. Parkour is a lifestyle sport, and as such provides an alternative to mainstream sports, away from strict rules, standardized settings, and necessary competitions. Traceurs (parkour adepts) consider the city as a playground and as an outlet for their creativity, but they also have a strong taste for hard and individualized challenges. They usually train on non-specific structures, at ground level. Although their social background is not clear, they are mostly young and male. Traceurs are stronger than recreational athletes, especially in eccentric exercises. However, their endurance skills may be below average. One of the core specificities of parkour is its precision constraint at landing, which turns a standing long jump into a precision jump, regulated in flight so as to prepare for landing. The running precision jump follows the same landing pattern, and its flight phase contrasts with long jump techniques. Injuries, which are not more frequent than in other sports, often occur at landing and to lower limb extremities. This risk is mitigated by targeting the landing area with the forefoot instead of letting the heel hit the ground like in gymnastics, or with rolling in order to dissipate the impact. Overall, parkour focuses on adaptability to new environments, which leads to specific techniques that have not yet been extensively addressed by the literature.
... Parkour can be considered a sport of high risk for injuries [19] Nevertheless, comparing our results with studies of other non-extreme sports, we observed that parkour showed similar rates of musculoskeletal injuries. For example, in a study with professional and amateur gymnasts, was found an injury rate of 76.7% [20]. ...
Conference Paper
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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. Abstract Background & Study Aim: Parkour is a sport (extreme forms of physical activity) which consists in transposing barriers using body skills. Few
... Parkour can be considered a sport of high risk for injuries [19] Nevertheless, comparing our results with studies of other non-extreme sports, we observed that parkour showed similar rates of musculoskeletal injuries. For example, in a study with professional and amateur gymnasts, was found an injury rate of 76.7% [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. Abstract Background & Study Aim: Parkour is a sport (extreme forms of physical activity) which consists in transposing barriers using body skills. Few
... Street-games and street pursuits such as skateboarding, rollerblading and free running have been held up as exemplary of forms of escapism and risky playfulness sug- gestive of streetlife (e.g. Borden, 2001;Kidder, 2013;Mould, 2009). These expressive body-practices are of course subject to regulations which often curtail their potential as a means of changing the dominant uses of streets (i.e. as spaces of commerce and exchange), and modernist planning principles of 'clean sweep' urbanism certainly dis- courage all but the most functional uses of street spaces. ...
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The street has long been a key laboratory for studies of social life, from the roots of urban sociology in the ethnographies of the Chicago School to the diverse range of contemporary studies which consider the performative, affective and non-representational nature of street etiquette and encounter. For all this, the street remains only loosely defined in many studies, and sometimes disappears from view entirely, with social action often privileged over material and environmental context. This Special Issue is intended as a spur to take the street more seriously in contemporary sociology, and explores the importance of the street as a site, scale and field for sociological research. Recognising that the street is both contradictory and complex, the Introduction to this Issue draws out emerging themes in the shifting sociologies of the street by highlighting the specific contribution interdisciplinary work can make to our understanding of streets as distinctive but contested social spaces.
... En mettant à disposition des installations en accès libre pour la pratique, la collectivité locale restreint La deuxième partie de l'analyse des projets de parkour-park au regard de l'objectif de maitrise de la pratique vise à étudier la logique comportementale de la démarche, donc de comprendre dans quelle mesure les espaces dédiés peuvent devenir un outil d'encadrement, comme la fresque peut l'être pour le graffiti (Pradel, 2005), ou de contrôle des actions des traceurs. La question du risque est prégnante dans la pratique et se retrouve dans la littérature scientifique (Kidder, 2013) comme dans les discours des acteurs du terrain qui s'inquiètent de « la prise de risque inhérente à la pratique » (Entretien T2). Aussi, il est possible de voir dans la production des parkour-parks la volonté de mettre à disposition des espaces caractérisés par un certain encadrement sécuritaire. ...
Thesis
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Alors que le parkour est une pratique ludosportive investissant les espaces urbains et étant de plus en plus visible, dans le contexte de massification des pratiques sportives libres qui évoluent sur les places publiques, dans les espaces verts et tous les autres espaces ouverts de villes, il présente un enjeu contemporain en aménagement. En partant de la pratique et de ses caractéristiques que sont ses dimensions ludo-récréative, juvénile, subversive et la particularité de sa forme d’occupation de l’espace, l’enjeu de ce travail de recherche est de comprendre comment le parkour est en mesure d’entrainer un renouvellement de l’approche des pouvoirs publics. En mobilisant des terrains d’études sur les villes de Nantes et de Rennes à travers des phases d’observation et des entretiens avec divers acteurs, la démarche s’intéresse tout particulièrement à l’outil d’aménagement émergent qu’est le parkour-park. Le parkour tend finalement à faire bouger toute la ville, et si les municipalités traitent désormais avec les enjeux du détournement de l’usage des espaces, d’une demande croissante de ludisme et de récréatif dans l’espace public, de l’émergence d’une forme originale de citoyenneté de jeunes qui s’investissent par des modèles alternatifs, c’est la société urbaine toute entière qui est impactée par un plus large changement social auquel participe le parkour.
... One of Bavinton's conclusions is that parkour practitioners' interactions with obstacles promote their sense of agency as individuals. Kidder (2013) focuses on fear in relation to parkour and states that the sport involves an ever-present risk of physical injury. Kidder describes parkour as a form of urban adventurism, which revolves around what Kidder calls 'rites of risk' (i.e., actions that put one's corporeal self on the line) and 'rituals of safety' (i.e., following a set of progressive steps). ...
Article
In the present paper, we highlight the potential role of parkour in school-based health promotion. In a school setting,it is often difficult to promote health and healthy behaviour in ways that make sense and appeal to pupils. Researchsuggests that initiatives incorporating a focus on identity and on presenting health in new and different ways aremore likely to succeed in generating engagement, participation and involvement and thereby to affect learningoutcomes and behaviour change. In the present paper, we explore and discuss parkour as just such a new anddifferent approach. We do this using an empirically and theoretically tested concept of health identity as our maintheoretical and analytical component. We present our findings in three main themes: 1) Changed self-images provideopportunities for social inclusion, 2) New observations of others force pupils to reconsider roles and hierarchies and3) Togetherness and non-competitiveness generate a sense of belonging. The paper provides teachers and schoolhealth practitioners with important knowledge about why they may wish to incorporate parkour into school healthpromotion and equally important knowledge about how a focus on health identity is essential if they are to ensureconditions that facilitate significant health-promoting effects for all pupils – not just for those who are already healthy.
... S tímto souvisí i nabádání nováčků k opatrnosti a nepřeceňování sil. Celá disciplína je tak prezentována jako bezpečná -reflektující a předcházející rizika (Kidder, 2013b). ...
Article
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SYMBOLIC CAPITAL OF ACTORS OF SPORTING ON-LINE COMMUNITIES: STUDY OF FOOTBALL, SWIMMING AND PARKOUR The article is based on a sociological perspective of contemporary mass-mediated sport. It analyses and compares three types of sport, distinct in level of organisation, professionalisation, mass-mediation or popularity: football, swimming, and parkour. Using qualitative methods, the paper investigates texts and practices of actors of three sports on internet pages. The analysis is anchored in sociological theory of symbolic and cultural capital of Pierre Bourdieu, as it is further applied in sub-cultural studies by Sarah Thornton, Becky Beal or Belinda Wheaton. The article aims to employ themes identified in analysed documents to give account of establishment of symbolic (sporting) capital of virtual environment's actors in each of the sporting fields. Simultaneously, it pays attention to degree of autonomy of the particular sports, that means the extent of being subject to adjacent influences (e.g. mass-media or economy) SYMBOLICKÝ KAPITÁL AKTÉRŮ SPORTOVNÍCH ON-LINE KOMUNIT: STUDIE FOTBALU, PLAVÁNÍ A PARKOURU Článek vychází ze sociologického pohledu na soudobý mediálně prezentovaný sport. Analyzuje a porovnává tři typy sportů, odlišné co do organizovanosti, profesio- nalizace, medializace či popularity: fotbal, plavání a parkour. S využitím kvalitativní metody jsou zkoumány texty a praktiky aktérů těchto tří sportů na internetových strán- kách. Analýza je zakotvena v sociologické teorii symbolického a kulturního kapitálu Pierra Bourdieu, dále aplikované v subkulturních studiích Sarah Thornton, Becky Beal nebo Belindy Wheaton. Cílem textu je využití témat identifikovaných v textech k popi- su způsobu utváření symbolického (sportovního) kapitálu aktérů virtuálního prostředí jednotlivých sportů. Zároveň si všímá míry autonomie jednotlivých sportů, a tedy míry, do jaké podléhají okolním vlivům (např. mediálním nebo ekonomickým).
... Fear can, instead of just restricting movement, sometimes encourage imaginative and playful forms of movement, and, according to Saville, in parkour fear is to be considered a playmate rather than a coping strategy. Kidder (2013) also focuses on fear in relation to parkour, but with a different perspective than Saville. According to Kidder there is an ever-present risk of physical injury in parkour, and therefore a great deal of parkour revolves around fear. ...
Article
In this paper we highlight the potential role of parkour in school-based health promotion for children and adolescents. The popularity of parkour has increased significantly in recent years and has attracted a lot of new participants. Health promotion initiatives in schools face challenges, when it comes to generating a high level of participation among children and adolescents. Parkour has only sporadically been introduced to the school setting, and it is therefore relevant to study whether parkour contains the elements that can generate a high level of participation within health promotion activities in school. The paper reports on an empirical study of how parkour generates different kinds of participation. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how it is important to use parkour in school health promotion in order to provide participatory conditions that create a significant health promoting effect for all adolescents – not just for those who are already healthy.
... Parkour is a form of anarchic free running that disturbs the order of public spaces. Parkour has emerged as a subversive act of re-imaging space (Saville 2008), overcoming urban obstacles and physical structures with athletic and artistic movements (Kidder 2013). Samy's documentary takes this element of global youth culture and uses it to narrate the extreme challenges faced by Yemenis in their daily lives as a result of the war and to convey their determination to reclaim the city. ...
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The current civil war in Yemen has been largely ignored by mainstream media, with the majority of coverage spotlighting the military aspect of the conflict. Yemeni artists challenge this absence of narratives reflecting the suffering of thousands of Yemeni men, women, and children by exposing the actual situation to the outside world through various artifacts shared on digital media platforms. Despite the significance of contemplating creative endeavors in conflict zones and the burgeoning interest in cultural production both during and after the Arab Spring in the Middle East, contemporary Yemeni creative expressions have been largely neglected by scholars working on the Middle East. This article traces how Yemeni artists have intervened in the representation of the conflict and war in Yemen since 2011. It analyzes the heterogonous artistic forms, contents, and representational strategies that Yemeni artists and filmmakers have employed to express their collective concerns over war and destruction. The constraints and limitations imposed by the conflict have also shaped the creative expressions of Yemeni wartime artists, especially in terms of sharing their work both with their own communities and with the wider world. While their creative work manifests the suffering of a nation, it also constitutes a refusal to live under weakness and lack of hope for the future. The concepts of tactical and participatory media and socially engaged art are used to refer to the production and dissemination of a variety of creative responses to the ongoing crisis in Yemen, as illustrated through selected art media forms.
... Au même titre que le skate (Michenaud, 2016), il est vecteur d'une urbanité ludique (Adamkiewicz, 2002) en réintroduisant du jeu dans l'espace urbain. En effet, tous deux sont caractérisés par une « imprévisibilité » (Gasnier, 1994) (Kidder, 2013). Avec une dimension corporelle renforcée par l'absence d'outil extérieur, le corps du traceur est d'autant plus générateur et producteur d'espace (Lefebvre, 2000 ;Di Méo, 2010 ...
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Skating sports have dominated the field of studies in human and social sciences regarding sports-leisure practices for a long time, particularly because of their visibility in cities by the establishment of open spaces: skate parks. However, since the 1990s, these activities that invest in urban spaces have been diversifying. Parkour is one of them and presents the originality of questioning the (skate and/or parkour) parks, as it is an urban planning tool and it is also dedicated to the development of open and public facilities for this activity. Based on a literature review and a study conducted in Rennes and Nantes, we question this fact of the park and show that, beyond its urban planning issues, it constitutes (1) a lever of the emergence of renewed youth citizenship; and (2) a vehicle for building not only a sporty, but more broadly recreational, urbanity.
... As Priya and Cresswell (2008) contend, elements of the masculinity of the 'Grand Tour' are still found in tourist mobilities in the modern Western world. Masculinity still predominates adventure mythology (Kane, 2013;Kidder, 2013). For example, Ong and du Cros (2012: 750) study discursive spaces of online Chinese backpacking forums, noting that these 6 backpacker communities are highly gendered: "male and female backpackers were expected to fulfil their gender roles: men to be assertive, adventurous and rugged and women to be submissive, domestic and gentle." ...
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Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning opens up new avenues in tourism studies for critical research into the geographies of freedom in mundane, everyday contexts.
... Among the many themes addressed are the factors that influence young people's risk-taking (Graham et al., 2018), including their decisions to engage in risky recreational activities (Creyer et al., 2003), the quality of the experience and the risk perception associated with high-altitude rock climbing (Delle Fave et al., 2003), changes in risk perceptions of adventure recreation over time (Morgan & Stevens, 2008) and subjective perceptions of risk (Pereira, 2005). In several studies, risk was considered an important concept due to the choice to participate in activities despite the risk of accidents and/or injuries; such studies focused on various adventure recreation activities, including parkour (Kidder, 2013), scuba diving (Dimmock, 2009;Morgan & Stevens, 2008), high-altitude mountaineering (Pereira, 2005), various forms of downhill skiing (Pawelec, 2013) and mountain biking (Creyer et al., 2003). ...
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Cable wakeboarding can be defined as a risky adventure recreation activity in which young people are the primary participants. Based on interviews and observations focusing on cable wakeboarding in Sweden, young people’s understanding of the risks associated with this activity was analysed. According to the thematic content analysis of the interview transcripts and field notes, the participants’ interpretations of risk were related to the social/spatial context of the adventure recreation activity. Furthermore, the analysis resulted in the identification of two themes: the content of the cable wakeboarding information and procedures, and the city beach community. Overall, the participants’ sense-making of risk in adventure recreation was explored and found to be framed by local attachment and a combination of individualistic and collectivistic perspectives of risk.
... En esta línea se encuentran los estudios sobre la homosocialidad masculina alrededor del skate, como el trabajo de Carolyne Ali Khan (2009) por el cual el skate forma parte de toda una relación de la masculinidad con la materialidad del cuerpo, la representación de género, la virtuosidad técnica. También se encuentran aquí estudios sobre el Parkour como prácticas masculinizadas y profundamente ligadas a la performance de género masculina por la cual la resistencia, la virtuosidad corporal y la capacidad de apropiarse de los espacios a voluntad son claves fundamentales de un perfil de hombre joven-adulto que busca la reafirmación corporal y psicológica a partir del rendimiento físico (Kidder, 2013a;2013b). ...
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En las últimas décadas, el espacio urbano ha sido recuperado por la literatura feminista para poder visibilizar una serie de retos y problemas ligados a la experiencia de la mujer. Si bien los estudios de las masculinidades abordan las prácticas de género y estudian las formas en las que las relaciones de dominio se producen en un contexto de cambio cultural y crisis de los relatos sobre la masculinidad, aún falta una teorización adecuada acerca de la manera en que esas dimensiones de género se localizan espacialmente. Se propone en este artículo un objetivo doble: aportar los elementos teóricos para poder entender la forma en la que género y espacio se entrecruzan y, en segundo lugar, hacer un repaso por las principales líneas de investigación sobre espacios y masculinidad para abrir un debate ausente en el territorio estatal. --- In recent decades, the urban space has been recovered by feminist literature to make visible a series of challenges and problems linked to the experience of women. While studies of masculinities address gender practices and study the ways in which dominance relationships occur in a context of cultural change and crisis of discourses about masculinity, there is still a lack of adequate theorizing about the way in which these gender dimensions are spatially localized. This article proposes a double objective: to provide the theoretical elements to understand the way in which gender and space intersect and, secondly, to review the main lines of research on spaces and masculinity to open an absent debate in the state territory.
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Innovation emblématique de la fin des années 1990, l’aménagement de snowparks a largement participé du renouvellement de l’offre des sports d’hiver dans les années 2000. Rapidement généralisés, ces espaces « nouvelles glisses » représentent désormais un enjeu en termes d’attractivité des stations. Depuis leur création, ils ont connu de multiples transformations sur les plans physique, mais surtout organisationnel et social. Cet article, basé sur une enquête multi-sites mêlant ethnographie, entretiens et approche documentaire, s’attache à l’analyse des deux dernières dimensions. En dépassant une lecture purement technicienne des snowparks, il s’agit de mettre en perspective la dynamique socio-culturelle propre et le virage participatif inédit dans l’univers des sports d’hiver, qui sont à l’œuvre non sans contradictions dans la conception et la gestion de ces espaces de pratique. Typical innovation of the end of the 1990s, the creation of snowparks has widely participated in the renewal of the winter sport offer in the 2000s. They quickly became widespread and are now essential to the attractiveness of mountains resorts. Many transformations occurred, on many plans: spatial, but also organizational and social. This article, based on multi-site fieldwork, combines ethnography, interviews and documentary analysis. It focuses on the analysis of two dimensions: sociocultural and political. Beyond the technical dimension, the paper underlines how the design, the shape, and the maintenance of these practice spaces gave rise to a new management model, both participative (with many stakeholders) and embedded in a cultural context that implies specific stakes and norms.
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Disproportionate levels of youth unemployment and economic marginalization in the Middle East have prompted many regional observers to conclude that socioeconomically disadvantaged Middle Eastern youth are more prone to radicalization and thereby constitute a threat to national and international security. The general consensus in these accounts is that low levels of occupational opportunities leave poor youth more disposed to frustration and fatalism, which in turn are strongly linked to radical politics. Alternatively, scholars in the language of rational choice argue that these young people engage in a deliberate calculation of means and ends in order to attain the power and wealth necessary for upward mobility. These scholars posit poor youth as rational, autonomous agents whose goals are defined by individual interests and preferences. However, these respective theories are unable to account for 1) the absence of political radicalism among poor youth in many countries of the Middle East, and 2) the presence of seemingly irrational acts among these youth that neither maximize self-interest, nor necessarily reflect individual preferences. Given the shortcomings of each of these prevailing theories, this paper, instead, synthesizes these two approaches and assesses the social conduct of poor youth in the Middle East from the perspective of aspirations-bounded rationality. From this vantage point, the behaviors of poor youth are not determined by individual economic interests or by pure emotion, but by aspirations. This paper proposes that these youth struggle and create strategies to improve their lives that are conditioned by experience and observation of those who inform their social worlds.
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Globalization has led to the increased sportization of parkour, one of the world’s newest lifestyle sports. This paper investigates the parkour scene in New Zealand, where attempts to develop and support parkour have resulted in the formation of a national governing body (NGB). Parkour NZ, formed in 2011 by local practitioners and the first NGB for parkour to be registered as a charity, is undergoing increased sportization in both traditional and unique ways. We examine the motivations that inspired its formation, registration as a charity and some of the ways it has negotiated the sportization process while accounting for New Zealand parkour community values. Our case study adds to understandings of glocalization and sportization of informal lifestyle sports, and highlights how parkour practitioner values are negotiated within new organizational spaces.
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The educational and methodological manual is designed to increase the level of readiness of educators to implement social and comprehensive and psychological prevention of destructive behavior of children of adolescent age. In the manual, it is highlighted as a presence of certain types of destructive behavior (bullying and cyberbullying; Internet abuse; suicidal behavior; parkour, roufing, zacheping), as well as recommendations for the prevention of such types of behavior, in particular within the scope of work with children, as well as with their parents and teachers. The manual can be useful and contribute to increasing the relevant competencies of pedagogical workers, specifically teachers, practical psychologists, social pedagogues, students of higher educational institutions, juvenile police officers, school police officers, representatives of interested state and public organizations, etc.
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Basé sur un travail de recherche menée sur Nantes et Rennes, cet article s'attache à réfléchir sur l'urbanité au regard de la pratique du parkour, une activité physique urbaine dans laquelle les traceurs "bougent" avec fluidité, athlétisme, acrobatie et virtuosité dans la ville. C'est parce qu'il s'agit d'une pratique de déplacement dont la finalité n'est pas le point d'arrivée mais l'action elle-même de la mise en mouvement du corps que le parkour interroge le rapport à l'espace urbain contemporain. La réflexion s'articule notamment autour des dimensions corporelle, politique (dans son acceptation de la quotidienneté de la vie en société) et de partage/appropriation de l'espace. La thèse finalement défendue est celle d'une urbanité fondée, par le parkour, sur un habiter récréatif qui renouvelle les rapports au corps, à l'espace, aux institutions et aux normes et représentations sociales dans la ville.
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Action sports have increased in popularity, particularly over the past two decades. Research in the area has also proliferated, as multiple disciplinary perspectives and theoretical and conceptual frames have been applied to understanding and exploring a host of research questions concerning action sports culture, contexts and participants. However, despite this flurry of research activity, not much is known empirically about the learning of action sport participants, and few studies have focused specifically on learning in action sports. A scoping review was, therefore, conducted with the aim of synthesising the work that has been undertaken, and mapping future research agendas. Informed by Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage framework, leading sports and education databases and Google Scholar were searched for empirical literature on learning in action sports published before July 2018. After the results were screened and relevant studies identified, data were extracted and analysed using a frequency and thematic analysis to form both a descriptive and thematic summary. A total of 78 empirical studies both from the peer-reviewed and grey literature were included in the scoping review. The frequency analysis concerned information on publication year, academic field, study design, study tools, sport and population. The thematic analysis led to the development of five main themes, addressing learning in social, physical, cultural, and cognitive/psychological contexts and via various forms of feedback. The majority of articles on learning in action sports were published from 2010 onward, suggesting a growing interest in the area. More theses/dissertations resulted in peer-reviewed publications; however, less than half of all reviewed journal articles were published in education/pedagogy journals. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks were rarely explicitly referenced and/or lacked clarity. There was consensus that learning in action sports is largely informal and self-regulated. With the increasing professionalisation of many action sports and their inclusion in international competition events and also in national curricula, an increase in more formalised learning is predicted. Finally, learning in action sports can be highly individualistic but only a few studies acknowledged this. A greater variety of research questions and methodologies, and more work across disciplinary boundaries will assist in the generation of new knowledge.
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Using Foucault's concept of governmentality vis-à-vis Appadurai's "global ethnoscapes" as frames, I argue for a techno-cultural dimension which brought forth the phenomenon of the "dancing inmates," an argument against the charge of Filipino colonial mimicry of a Hollywood popular entertainment. Albeit the inmates' dance routines indeed depict Foucault's "docile bodies" in his analysis of the modern prison, as pointed out by critics, I am inclined to show how the internet mediation through social media networks awakened a culturally imbibed dance and musical character trait vis-à-vis the jolly cultural disposition of Filipinos. Thus, I view these characteristics as existential responses, hence, 'creative resilience,' to the inhuman incarcerating conditions of the prison life through using the art of dance with the aid of media technology. I argue on the role of the internet as the prisoners' avenue to the outside world that was strategically deprived of them as a form of punishment, and the role of the internet as their last frontier to freedom and to realize their human potentials.
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Relying on empirical data from two research projects on CrossFit and parkour, and adopting mixed methods (enactive ethnography, participant observation, online survey and social media analysis), this article aims at evidencing the role of apparel and gear in some processes engendering a transformation of the two practices. We investigate the making of boundaries – internal and external to the practices – that furnish ways of belonging to practitioners, focusing on how the processes of sportification and commodification are involved in these different ways of belongingness. We link these general processes to their connections with clothing, accessories and their material and symbolic use, showing how informational capital is at stake in this.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way medical education has been delivered. For those in the clinical phase of their training, restrictions on social distancing and the unpredictability surrounding enforced lockdowns has meant face-to-face clinical time is not guaranteed. Virtual clinics can allow the delivery of an educational experience with several benefits. Virtual clinics can be used exclusively for education. Setting a template allowing for four to six new patients over three hours allows time for both the trainee (or student) to observe a variety of expert patients and for senior clinicians to provide effective education. Parents should be informed that their clinic will be a teaching clinic and may operate slightly differently to usual, but with no change to the quality of care. Clinicians may also keep certain patients in mind as future expert patients in the same way that they are kept in mind for clinical exams. Here are some top tips based on our experiences that should ease your foray into using virtual clinics as an educational tool. We’ll lay them out in three stages..
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Навчально-методичний посібник покликаний підвищити рівень готовності освітян до здійснення соціальної та соціально-психологічної профілактики деструктивної поведінки дітей підліткового віку. У посібнику висвітлена як сутність окремих видів деструктивної поведінки (булінг та кібербулінг; зловживання Інтернетом; суїцидальна поведінка; паркур, руфінг, зачепинг), так і рекомендації щодо попередження таких видів поведінки, зокрема у як межах роботи з дітьми, так і з їхніми батьками та з педагогами. Посібник може бути корисний та сприяти підвищенню відповідних компетентностей педагогічних працівників, зокрема класних керівників, практичних психологів, соціальних педагогів, студентів вищих навчальних закладів, ювенальних поліцейських, шкільних офіцерів поліції, представників зацікавлених державних та громадських організацій тощо. Підготовано до друку та надруковано в межах проєкту, що реалізується ГО «Всеукраїнський громадський центр «Волонтер» спільно з Міжвідомчою координаційною радою з питань правосуддя щодо неповнолітніх за підтримки Представництва Дитячого фонду ООН (ЮНІСЕФ) в Україні. Думки, висловлені в публікації, є позицією авторів і не обов’язково відображають погляди ЮНІСЕФ.
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Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of field, this paper explores the particular stakes and struggles that animate both the relationships among adventure racing (AR) participants and the competition among race organizers in order to highlight the social dynamic and power structure of this new “lifestyle” sport. Our investigation relies on a diversity of qualitative data, namely semi-structured interviews with 37 AR participants. Adventure Racing Association Listserve discussion, and participant observation of Eco-Challenge Argentina 1999. Our analysis demonstrates that what is at stake in the AR field is both the definition of the sport practice’s legitimate form as well as its orientation with respect to two dominant delineating forces: “authenticity” and “spectacularization” of the adventure. These two forces currently constitute the specific forms of capital (sources of prestige) that define the AR field.
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As a surfer, I experience and participate with countless rituals, myths, legends, laws, body modifications, feelings and ideas. Riding a wave is more than an act. To ‘become-surfer’ is to undergo a complex lived experience of surging relations. My analysis of surfing in this article shows how male bodies surf with tidal flows of relations. That is, how they reckon with varying, confusing, and moving experiences. I want to provide a mapping of male surfing bodies whereby fibreglass meshes with flesh, wax, fear, excitement, economics, sweat, politics, erotica and representations. I map masculinity fuelled by feelings of moving, relational and paddling bodies.
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Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program of the CPSC should be modified to conduct more-detailed surveillance of choking on food among children. Food manufacturers should design new foods and redesign existing foods to avoid shapes, sizes, textures, and other characteristics that increase choking risk to children, to the extent possible. Pediatricians, dentists, and other infant and child health care providers should provide choking-prevention counseling to parents as an integral part of anticipatory guidance activities. Pediatrics 2010;125:601-607
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What heresy! To show such zeal over these rotten scraps…' -Jean Paul Sartre, 1952 2 I began my fieldwork earlier than expected due to the spontaneity necessary to conduct ethnographic research. I was invited by groups of urban explorers to undertake unique adventures into some of the most outrageous, beautiful and generally unseen places in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe. I have spent the past two years in massive storm drains and tendrilling sewer networks, on top of cranes and construction scaffolding, in derelict mental asylums and decaying Soviet military bases. My research has passed through 200 sites in seven countries with over 80 different people from a wide range of backgrounds, all sharing a desire for eccentric escapades. As a result, I have collected over 12,000 photographs of peeling wallpaper, spider-webbed glass panes, mouldering, broken 1 Creative Commons licence: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2 This quote, as well as the others cited in this story, can be found in a reprinted edition of Jean-Paul Sartre's essay 'A Fine Display of Capuchins' in the August 2009 issue of Harpers Magazine, pp. 22-25.
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This study suggests that successful commercial adventure tourism requires the construction of a “public secret”—something commonly known but not articulated—whereby tourists are able to maintain the contradictory perceptions that they are simultaneously safe and at risk. Previous research has observed that adventure tourism appears to embody a paradox in its attempt to deliver a planned, controlled version of an activity usually defined as dangerous and unpredictable. In order to explain how adventure tourism can succeed despite this paradox, researchers suggested that providers emphasize one aspect of the paradox (risk or safety) while concealing the other. By contrast, the author contends that providers attempt to sell both risk and safety simultaneously, a situation sustained by the fact that the inconsistency between these images, while openly displayed, remains veiled by public secrecy. The author illustrates this analysis through ethnographic research undertaken on whitewater rafting trips in California and Chile.
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Despite an ever-increasing number of alternative sports which have begun encroaching into mainstream sport, the process of commodification of such alternative sports has been little examined. In this article, the author will explore some of the dynamic relationships—the establishment of a “pecking order”—occurring in skateboarding and in-line skating as they become commodified in ESPN's 1995 Extreme Games. The author makes the case that an attempt for mass acceptance of a sport articulates with (a) fan identification with the sport's personalities, (b) modeling behavior of younger participants, (c) corporate sponsorship and embracing of certain sports and individuals over others, and (d) an uneasy, contested dynamic between performers' artistic and competitive impulses.
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This paper utilizes a feminist theoretical framework to explore the contemporary social meanings of sports violence. Two levels of meaning are explored: first, the broad, socio-cultural and ideological meanings of sports violence as mediated spectacle; second, the meanings which male athletes themselves construct. On the social/ideological level, the analysis draws on an emergent critical/feminist literature which theoretically and historically situates sports violence as a practice which helps to construct hegemonic masculinity. And drawing on my own in-depth interviews with male former athletes, a feminist theory of gender identity is utilized to examine the meanings which athletes themselves construct around their own participation in violent sports. Finally, the links between these two levels of analysis are tentatively explored: how does the athlete's construction of meaning surrounding his participation in violent sports connect with the larger social construction of masculinities and men's power relations with women?
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This paper brings the debate on sustainable transport policy into direct confrontation with the embodied Practice of cycling in a highly urbanized environment. Using the example of a regular journey to work the author undertook in Birmingham, UK during the summer of 2003, Lees' notion of a more performative approach to understanding architecture is extended to a performance of the wider city. Tracing in detail the practice of this journey, the paper uses the notion of affect to highlight the sheer physicality of the bike ride and bow the city is thus remade through the cyclist's experiences. This Performative understanding is contrasted with more traditional understandings of the city, illustrating bow the two reinforce each other. Ultimately the question is posed of whether the thrills and chills of urban cycling in the UK will leave it as a marginalized transport mode for the foreseeable future, despite noises from policy makers about using cycling to solve problems of urban congestion and sustainability.
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BMX bike riding is one of the sports which has enjoyed a resurgence in popularity with American youth due to the creation of ESPN2's X Games. The popularity of the X Games has been instrumental in, if not creating the desire for new 'alternative' sporting activities, at least cultivating the growth and popularity of these athletic pursuits. Like skateboarding and in-line skating in their "extreme" forms, BMX riding is performed on a half-pipe and street course, but unlike the former, there are other forms of BMX competition such as flatland competitions and dirt jumping. BMX has become one of the marquee sports of the summer X Games, with its top performers (TJ Lavin, Matt Hoffman, Jay Miron, Denis McCoy, Ryan Nyquist, and others) some of the central figures frequently used to represent the ethos of "extreme" sports. The ethos of this media-created conglomeration of 'nonmainstream' sporting practices is characterized by the valorization of risk-taking behaviors; the emphasis of creativity, individuality, and marking oneself as "different"; and the participation in activities individually performed but practiced in small groups that value a sense of community.
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In this collection, one of the world's leading scholars in the field of masculinity studies explores the historical construction of American and British masculinities. Tracing the emergence of American and British masculinities, the forms they have taken, and their development over time, Michael S. Kimmel analyzes the various ways that the ideology of masculinity-the cultural meaning of manhood-has been shaped by the course of historical events, and, in turn, how ideas about masculinity have also served to shape those historical events. He also considers newly emerging voices of previously marginalized groups such as women, the working class, people of color, gay men, and lesbians to explore the marginalized and de-centered notions of masculinity and the political processes and dynamics that have enabled this marginalization to occur.
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Parkour is a new, and increasingly popular, sport in which individuals athletically and artistically negotiate obstacles found in the urban environment. In this article, I position parkour as a performance of masculinity involving spatial appropriation. Through ethnographic data I show how young men involved in the sport use the city (both the built environment and the people within it) as a structural resource for the construction and maintenance of gender identities. The focus of my research highlights the performance of gender as a spatialized process.
Article
Following criticism leveled at sociologists by Chris Rojek and Bryan Turner in "Decorative Sociology: A Critique of the Cultural Turn," this article identifies a troubling absence of systematic con textualization in sport sociology. In addressing this issue, I begin by describing the role of history and context in sociology and conclude that the discipline should take history more seriously, not least by giving context greater due. I then engage the debate as to whether radical contextual cultural studies or social history offers the best explanation of context. Here I argue for the latter. In justifying my position, I adapt a model employed by the conservative social historian Arthur Marwick in "The sixties: Cultural Revolution in Britain, France, Italy, and the United States, c. 1958-c. 1974," to contextualize a contemporary cultural phenomenon, the female boarder (i.e., the female surfboard rider, skateboarder, and snowboarder). Ultimately, this paper illustrates that the systematic and transhistorical tools developed by social historians have the potential to facilitate a more all-encompassing contextualization of cultural phenomena, to examine multiple historical conjunctures, and to help sociologists take time and change more seriously.
Article
Recently, a number of researchers have drawn on Lyng's (1990) theorization of the concept of edgework in explorations of voluntary risk activities in late modernity. Unfortunately, a theoretical consideration of how these edgework activities are gendered is underdeveloped in the edgework literature. In this article I outline the theories that have dominated edgework literature, critique the general oversight of a nuanced theory of gender in edgework, and highlight a sample of evidence showing that participation in "risk sports" (as one example of edgework) is a gendered experience. I also outline the concept of a "gendered risk regime" as a tool for exploring risk and gender as ongoing and intersecting constructions.
Article
Parkour is a new sport based on athletically and artistically overcoming urban obstacles. In this paper, I argue that the real world practices of parkour are dialectically intertwined with the virtual worlds made possible by information and communication technologies. My analysis of parkour underscores how globalized ideas and images available through the Internet and other media can be put into practice within specific locales. Practitioners of parkour, therefore, engage their immediate, physical world at the same time that they draw upon an imagination enabled by their on‐screen lives. As such, urban researchers need to consider the ways that virtual worlds can change and enhance how individuals understand and utilize the material spaces of the city.
Article
Based on two years of fieldwork and over 100 interviews, we analyze mixed martial arts fighters’ fears, how they managed them, and how they adopted intimidating personas to evoke fear in opponents. We conceptualize this process as “managing emotional manhood,” which refers to emotion management that signifies, in the dramaturgical sense, masculine selves. Our study aims to deepen our understanding of how men’s emotion work is gendered and, more generally, to bring together two lines of research: studies of gendered emotion management and studies of emotional identity work. We further propose that managing emotional manhood is a dynamic and trans-situational process that can be explored in diverse settings.
Article
This is a report of a field experience in retrospect. An ethnographic study of black streetcorner men, it was conducted in the early 1970s among the patrons of Jelly’s Place, a bar and liquor store on the South Side of Chicago. The 55 men came repeatedly to Jelly’s corner and created a local social stratification system. The focus of the study was the way in which they made and remade their local status system in everyday life. This document describes the field work experience which led me to focus on this particular sociological issue and to represent the social dynamics of the group.
Article
This research examines how deep sea divers learn to expand notions of risk to include practices that violate formal training and may increase vulnerability to injury. Cultural constructions of “normal” or acceptable risk are learned in interaction with experienced divers who define the rules of membership and provide accounts that excuse or justify participation in high risk activities. The research explores how novice divers learn to distinguish categories of formal, normal, and excessive risk as they expand their risk involvement and attempt to achieve membership in the deep diving subculture. The study concludes with a discussion of risk normalization in everyday life and other leisure and occupational subcultures.
Article
Simmel says the content of experience does not make the adventure, the form does! To help clarify this remark, the Simmelian adventurer here is recast, following leads from Mead, Burke, and the pragmatists, as an ephemeral role incumbent engaged in symbolic work. The adventure is presented in terms of symbolic conversions of the content of life's experiences—physical things, social things, events, and persons—into objects of adventure. The form of experiencing engages the adventurer in symbolic work in which she or he symbolically synthesizes, antagonizes, and compromises Simmel's fundamental categories of life: certainty-uncertainty, chance-necessity, and passivity-activity.
Article
Exploring Lyng's notion of "edgework," this article draws on ethnographic data to explore the ways skydivers create and sustain the belief that they can maintain control while working the "edge" in this sport. The article focuses on the ways skydivers construct and maintain the "illusion" that they can exercise control as they negotiate their particular edge. It elaborates the ways this sense of control is constructed and the extent to which it informs the ways risk recreators approach the edge. In the choices jumpers make about how they participate in the sport and the ways they interpret the experiences of themselves and other jumpers, they defend the position that their hazardous environments are within their control. When this position becomes untenable, they often draw on the notion of fate to construct certain hazards as outside of the sport, thereby sustaining their sense of control. © 2006 by Pacific Sociological Association. All rights reserved.
Article
Adventurous outdoor leisure is perceived as those recreational activities that pose either a real or perceived threat to participants. In commercial settings the risks are minimized but for novice consumers adventure often retains the intense emotional component that comes with adventure (e.g., navigating thunderous rapids). Previous discussions of the social-psychological consequences of risk taking have not focused on the novice; yet, social-psychological implications are present as novice consumers increasingly engage in adventure leisure without the necessary skills and competence previously deemed essential to the adventure process. This article provides an ethnographic description of the emotional components of adventure from the viewpoint of a novice consumer. Felt emotions are transformed in a social context and experiences, not otherwise available to novice consumers, are made possible. Interpretations are nurtured and experiences are transformed as instrumental aims of organizations combine with the desire to feel risk in contemporary culture.
Article
Recourse to magic is a universal strategy for trying to resolve intractable social problems. Within the context of white-water river rafting, the authors illustrate the conjunction of elements (condition of the performer, rite, and formula) that make magical experience possible in a constructed consumption setting. They show how “river magic,” like all magic, concerns itself with the relationship between humans and the world, how it activates certain “latent virtues,” and how it consists of ritualized acts directed toward concrete ends. River magic is practical but also performative and rhetorical. It serves to restructure and integrate the minds and emotions of the actors. The authors emphasize the spontaneous evocations of hope, optimism, and confidence common both to traditional magical systems and to river magic. In postmodernity, magic may reemerge from the margins of modern thought to ritualize hope and optimism and to reinscribe us in a meaningful cultural milieu.
Article
This article lays the ground for a sensuous appreciation of both the human body and the physical world. Drawing on the biographical account of the climber's embodied reflection of rock-climbing, the `climbing body' highlights our overwhelming tactile and kinaesthetic engagement with the phenomenal world. I Begin by emphasizing the need to consider the organic nature of human being, that we should understand how the awareness of death and our consequent sense of mutability provide a significant moment to remember the body. I highlight how this might be achieved through the practice of adventure climbing. The increasing denial of the body's organicity, its mutability - perhaps a key impulse of modernity - is thereby usurped. This is followed by a structure of thought, based around the work of Georg Simmel, conveying the radical materiality of the phenomenal world. In doing so, I highlight the propensity of the environment to inscribe itself upon the human body. This idea is brought alive during the second half of the article, which focuses upon the climbing body and, in particular, the hands of the climber. As they navigate vertical ground climbers are guided by the sense of touch in order to `make sense' of the world. The climbing body orientates itself through tactile navigation: by feeling or grasp-ing its way through the world. To engage with the world tactually is to situate oneself consciously in that world and to have a potentially unmediated relationship with it. In doing so, the climber opens up the possibility for a corporeal reconceptualization of modernity.
Article
Many amateur sportsmen in the West, have today started undertaking long and intensive ordeals where their personal capacity to withstand increasing suffering is the prime objective. Running, jogging, the triathlon and trekking are the sorts of ordeal where people without any particular ability are not pitting themselves against others but are committed to testing their own capacity to withstand increasing pain. Constantly called upon to prove themselves in a society where reference points are both countless and contradictory and where values are in crisis, people are now seeking a one-to-one relationship by redical means, testing their strength of character, their courage and their personal resources. Going right on to the end of a self-imposed ordeal gives a legitimacy to life and provides a symbolic plank that supports them. Performance itself is of secondary significance; it has a value only to the individual. There is no struggle against a third party, only a method for reinforcing personal will-power and over-coming suffering by going right to the limit of a personally imposed demand. The physical limit has come to replace the moral limit that present-day society is failing to provide. Overcoming suffering tempers the individual, providing a renewed significance and value to his life.
Article
As innovated by French “free runners” David Belle and Sébastien Foucan in the1990s, Parkour is a physical cultural lifestyle of athletic performance focusing on uninterrupted and spectacular gymnastics over, under, around, and through obstacles in urban settings. Through the public practice of Parkour across late modern cities, advocates collectively urge urban pedestrians to reconsider the role of athleticism in fostering self—other environment connections. This article taps ethnographic data collected on Parkour enthusiasts in Toronto (Canada). For 2 years, the author spent time in the field with “traceurs” (i.e., those who practice Parkour) and conducted open-ended interviews with them regarding their experiences with the movement. In this article, the author explores Parkour as an emerging urban “anarcho-environmental” movement, drawing largely on Heidegger's critique of technology along with Schopenhauer's understanding of the will to interpret the practice of Parkour as a form of urban deconstruction.
Article
In this article, the author examines the gendered emotional culture of high-risk takers. Drawing on five and one-half years of ethnographic fieldwork with a volunteer search and rescue group, the author details the intense emotions rescuers experienced before, during, and after the most dangerous and upsetting rescues. Lyng's concept of “edgework” (voluntary risk taking) is used to analyze how male and female rescuers experienced, understood, and acted on their feelings. The data reveal several gendered patterns that characterized this emotional culture. The article concludes with a discussion of gender, edgework, and emotional culture, focusing on the theoretical implications of their confluence.
Article
While there seems to be general agreement among members of contemporary American society about the value of reducing threats to individual well-being, there are may who actively seek experiences that involve a high potential for personal injury or death. High-risk sports such as hang gliding, skydiving, scuba diving, rock climbing, and the like have enjoyed unprecedented growth in the past several decades even as political institutions in Western societies have sought to reduce the risks of injury in the workplace and elsewhere. The contradiction between the public agenda to reduce the risk of injury and death and the private agenda to increase such risks deserves th attention of sociologists. A literature review is presented that points to a number of shortcomings in existing studies, most of which are associated with the psychological reductionism that predominates in this area of study. An effort is made to provide a sociological account of voluntary risk taking by (1) introducing a new classifying concept- edgework-based on numerous themes emerging from primary and secondary data on risk taking and (2) explaining edgework in terms of the newly emerging social psychological perspective produced from the synthesis of the Marxian and Meadian frameworks. The concept of edgework highlights the most sociologically relevant features of voluntary risk taking, while the connections between various aspects of risk-taking behaviour and structural characteristic of modern American society at both the micro and macro levels. This approach ties together such factors as political economic variables, at one end of the continuum, and individual sensations and feelings, at the other end.
Article
The essay attempts to provide a theoretical framework for leisure research by concentrating on the conception of adventure as a form of leisure. Adventure is presented as a multidimensional field of experience and investigation. Six dimensions of adventurous activity and experience are introduced: territoriality; duration; transcendence; risk; coping; and routinization. Routinization is a critical dimension which, in contrast to the romantic idealization of adventure, makes it impossible to see adventure as a sphere independent of society.
Article
This paper describes some of the ways in which popular culture may be a site of social resistance. The subculture of skateboarding is described as one form of popular culture that resists capitalist social relations, and the skateboarders’ particularly overt resistance to an amateur contest provides a framework for characterizing their daily and more covert behaviors of resistance. Although social resistance has the potential to change dominant social relations, it is often limited by contradictions and accommodations. In this case, the skateboarders’ sexist behavior is one of their significant contradictions. Finally, some implications of social resistance are addressed.
Article
This paper examines how participation in physically demanding sport, with its potential and actual injurious outcomes, both challenges and reinforces dominant notions of masculinity. Data from 16 in-depth interviews with former and current Canadian adult male athletes indicate that sport practices privileging forceful notions of masculinity are highly valued, and that serious injury is framed as a masculinizing experience. It is argued that a generally unreflexive approach to past disablement is an extraordinary domain feature of contemporary sport. The risks associated with violent sport appear to go relatively unquestioned by men who have suffered debilitating injury and whose daily lives are marked by physical constraints and pain.
Article
It is ultimately through experience that character is formulated and made evident. From an ethnographic examination of an adventure program (Ropes Adventure, Inc.) that attempts to mold the identity of adolescents who have been detained for minor felonies and misdemeanors, we examine how personal challenge can be channeled into moral messages. By evoking and then taming fear (adventure), organizations demonstrate the power of personal accomplishment, trust, and cooperation—each socially legitimated moral virtues. We argue that character building efforts may be hampered when organizational aims and actual implementation of structured adventure collide.
Article
This article engages debates on emotional geography and non-representational theory by considering fear as a distinctly mobile engagement with our environment. Parkour, or freerunning, has exploded into public consciousness through commercial media representations and films. It is depicted as a spectacular urban sport that either can or cannot be done. Through ethnographic research with groups of parkour practitioners I consider what has been excluded from these representations: the emotions involved in trying, experimenting, and gradually learning to be in places differently. In parkour places are ‘done’ or mobilised in tentative, unsure, ungainly and unfinished ways which can be characterised by a kind of play with architecture. I argue that this play is contingent upon an array of fears, which, rather than being entirely negative, are an important way in which practitioners engage with place. Here fears can manifest differently, not only restricting mobility, but in some cases encouraging imaginative and playful forms of movement.
Book
In this incisive book, Michel de Certeau considers the uses to which social representation and modes of social behavior are put by individuals and groups, describing the tactics available to the common man for reclaiming his own autonomy from the all-pervasive forces of commerce, politics, and culture. In exploring the public meaning of ingeniously defended private meanings, de Certeau draws brilliantly on an immense theoretical literature to speak of an apposite use of imaginative literature.