ArticlePDF Available
Behavioral effects of auditory stimulation
on kenneled dogs
Lori R. Kogan, Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher, Allen A. Simon
Clinical Sciences Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.
Abstract Dogs are kenneled in professional facilities for a variety of reasons; however, the kennel
environment, even for short periods, is a potential psychogenic stressor for most dogs. Continual stress
and the resultant anxiety are undesirable for both ethical and physiological reasons. One growing area
of research pertaining to the welfare of kenneled dogs is environmental enrichment, including auditory
stimulation. The current study investigated the impact of music (classical, heavy metal, and specifically
designed/altered classical) on activity level, vocalization, and body shaking of 117 kenneled dogs.
Results suggest that classical music leads to kenneled dogs spending more time sleeping (F
12.24, P.0.0001) and less time vocalizing (F
53.61, P.0.0005) than when exposed to other
music types or no music. Heavy metal music, compared with other music types, appears to increase
body shaking (F
596.97, P.0.0001), a behavior suggestive of nervousness. It is suggested that
playing classical music in a shelter environment may help mitigate some of the stress inherent for many
kenneled dogs.
Ó2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Countless dogs are kenneled, either short term or long term,
for a variety of reasons (Hubrecht and Turner, 1998). Some
dogs are kenneled for short-term boarding, whereas others,
including strays or those relinquished by owners, are ken-
neled in a rescue setting for varying amounts of time,
some indefinitely. Other dogs are bred as laboratory ani-
mals and spend their entire lives in a kennel environment
(Wells, 2004).
The kennel environment, even for short periods, is a
potential psychogenic stressor for most dogs owing to its
novel surroundings and separation from social attachment
figures (Beerda et al., 2000; Hennessy et al., 2002; Pullen
et al., 2010). A kennel is spatially and socially restrictive,
and as a result, many dogs show signs of acute stress
when housed in kennels (Hiby et al., 2006; Rooney et al.,
2007). Social isolation or restriction, a major stressor for
many dogs, can lead to the development of both physiolog-
ical and behavioral problems (Bergamasco et al., 2010;
Hubrecht and Turner, 1998).
Continual stress, and resultant anxiety, is undesirable
for both ethical and physiological reasons. Stress in
animals has both short-term and long-term effects on
health and life span (McEwen, 2005). A recent study
(Dreschel, 2010) found that increased stress in dogs is cor-
related with shorter life spans and increased skin disorders.
Anxiety, demonstrated through physical and behavioral
manifestations, is a growing welfare concern in veterinary
medicine (Overall and Dyer, 2005), and as a result, there
Address for reprint requests and correspondence: Lori R. Kogan, PhD,
Clinical Sciences Department, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery
1601, Fort Collins, CO 80523; Tel: 11 (970) 491-7984; Fax: 11 (970)
1558-7878/$ - see front matter Ó2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2012) 7, 268-275
has been increasing awareness and concern for the welfare
of kenneled dogs and the development of potential strate-
gies to improve their environment (Bergamasco et al.,
The primary means that have been used to assess stress
are physiological measures and behavioral observations
(Bergamasco et al., 2010). Physiological measures to assess
stress include immune functions, heart rate, sympathetic
nervous system activation monitoring, and hormonal indi-
cators (Bergamasco et al., 2010; Rooney et al., 2007). Be-
havioral observations include lowered body posture,
panting, vocalizing, paw-lifting, body shaking, and repeti-
tive or stereotypic behaviors (pp. 49-62, Beerda et al.,
2000, 1997;Hetts et al., 1992).
One growing area of research pertaining to the welfare
of kenneled dogs is the idea of environmental enrichment.
Environmental enrichment can be defined as any technique
designed to improve the functioning of an animal through
modifications to the environment (Newberry, 1995). The
goals of environmental enrichment for kenneled animals
include helping these animals to handle the inherent
challenges in kennel environments (i.e., lack of control
and unpredictability), encouraging more species-specific
behaviors, and reducing abnormal or stereotypic behaviors
(Wells, 2009; Young, 2003). One area of environmental
enrichment that has started to receive more attention is
that of sensory stimulation. This stimulus type is presented
to trigger one or more senses (i.e., vision, smell, and/or
hearing) as a method of environmental enrichment. This
line of inquiry, however, is still new and sporadic
(Wells, 2009), and conclusive evidence on effectiveness is
still unclear.
Auditory stimulation
Auditory stimulation is one aspect of sensory stimula-
tion that has received increased attention in current years
with a variety of species. Listening to music has been found
to be a mood-regulatory behavior (Saarikallio and Erkkila
2007), and several studies involving humans have found
mood regulation and emotional management to be among
the most important reasons for music consumption
(North et al., 2000;Saarikallio and Erkkila, 2007;
Sloboda, 1992; Wells and Hakanen, 1991).
Numerous studies on humans have found listening to
relaxing or classical music to be beneficial in a variety of
areas (Bechtold et al., 2009), including a decrease in
anxiety (Dubois et al., 1995), increase in prosocial behav-
iors (Gueguen et al., 2010), improvement in satisfaction
with medical procedures, decrease in blood pressure and
heart rate (Chlan et al., 2000), increased tolerance for un-
comfortable procedures, reduction in pain perception
(Bampton and Draper, 1997; Nelson et al., 2008), and de-
creased need for sedative medications (Nelson et al.,
2008; Schiemann et al., 2002).
Within other nonmedical settings, music has been found
to positively affect various behaviors (Magnini and Parker,
2009), including the amount of time spent by customers in
an establishment (Milliman, 1982, 1986) and how much
money people spend (Areni and Kim, 1993).
The recognition of the effect music can have on humans
has generated interest in investigating the effect of music
on other species. A limited number of studies have
explored the effects of music on nonhuman animals. For
example, classical music has been suggested to enhance
the well-being of chickens (Gvaryahu et al., 1989), carp
(Papoutsoglou et al., 2007), Asian elephants (Wells and
Irwin, 2008), western lowland gorillas (Wells et al.,
2006), and domestic dogs (Wells et al., 2002). Other types
of auditory stimulation that have been studied include the
effects of country music on cattle (Uetake et al., 1997;
Wisniewski et al., 1977) and ponies (Houpt et al., 2000).
Exactly why music affects animal stress and behavior is
not thoroughly understood.
Despite the uncertainty regarding what causes the
positive effects seen with music, the fact that some studies
have found that music can positively affect animal stress
and behavior has stimulated the development of a growing
number of music selections, created and marketed specif-
ically to enhance companion animal well-being. Despite
the growing popularity of music tailored toward dogs,
there remains a dearth of studies to investigate these
claims. The only study published in a peer-reviewed
scientific journal to date that has investigated the effect
of music on dogs was done by Wells et al. (2002). Given
that the study by Wells et al. (2002) involved only 1 expo-
sure to each type of auditory stimulation, further explora-
tion of the effect of music on dogs was thought to be
important. Therefore, the current study investigated the
effect of auditory stimulation on activity, vocalization,
and body shakingda behavior suggestive of anxiety or
Material and method
The study was conducted within a building, in Northern
Colorado, that housed both a dog shelter and boarding
facility (a place where dogs are temporarily housed for a
fee). The shelter had space for approximately 160 dogs. It
consisted of 2 long runs, with kennels on each side of the
concrete walkways. The kennels were rectangular concrete
enclosures with a wire mesh front gate. The dogs were
housed either singly or in pairs. Two populations of dogs
were studied: dachshund rescue dogs and dogs of all breeds
housed for short-term boarding. The boarding dogs and
rescue dogs were placed randomly in kennels in both long
lines of runs. The dogs were let outside twice a day and
fed once daily in the late afternoon. The kennels were
cleaned in the morning and then again as necessary
throughout the day.
Kogan et al Effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs 269
The sample consisted of 117 dogs. There were 34 rescue
dogs with a mean age of 5.27 years (SD: 3.65) and a mean
time of 155.97 days (SD: 84.72) in the shelter before the
study. The rescue dog group included 12 spayed/altered
females, 1 intact/unaltered female, 21 neutered/altered
males, and 0 intact/unaltered males. The boarding dog
group consisted of 83 dogs with a mean age of 5.92 years
(SD: 3.34) and a mean time of 4.27 days (SD: 2.96) in the
shelter before the study. This group included 38 spayed/
altered females, 4 intact/unaltered females, 31 neutered/
altered males, and 10 intact/unaltered males. The rescue
dogs were either pure breed dachshund or mixed dachs-
hund, whereas the boarding dogs were a variety of pure and
mixed breeds. All dogs were healthy with no identifiable
hearing impairments. Owing to the fact that some dogs
were boarded for short periods, not all dogs were exposed
to all music selections. Boarded dogs were exposed to the
auditory stimulation presented on the day(s) they were
present in the facility.
Auditory variable
The dogs were exposed to 3 general types of music:
classical (4 selections), heavy metal (3 selections), and a
modification of classical music designed specifically for
dog relaxation (1 selection), as well as a control period, in
which no music was played. The specific classical and
heavy metal songs were chosen based on most popular
songs within each genre (Table 1). The modified dog relax-
ation track was one created and marketed for the purpose of
calming and soothing dogs in shelter and home conditions.
The creators of the modified music explained that the music
has been psychoacoustically designed with the specific goal
of creating soothing music for dogs (Leeds and Wagner,
2008). The music is selected and arranged to create a sim-
ple sound, defined by Leeds and Wagner (2008) as music
that minimizes the amount of auditory information
(Leeds and Wagner, 2008). Volume 1, Music to Calm
Your Canine Companion was used in the current study.
Multiple selections from the classical and heavy metal gen-
res were used to help determine whether any potential
differences in dog behavior were due to the specific song
or the music genre. Additionally, beats per minute (BPM)
for each song was noted to assess whether any differences
in dog behavior were due to music genre or BPM. There-
fore, a variety of songs with different BPM were used
within each genre. In addition to BPM, it is possible that
other elements of music might affect psychological and
physiological states of dogs, including rhythm, melody,
pitch, harmony, and interval (Murrock, 2005). Because of
the exploratory nature of this study, however, these ele-
ments were not assessed. Follow-up studies to assess these
other elements of music are seen as important next steps.
The 9 experimental conditions of auditory stimulation
(4 tracks of classical, 3 tracks of heavy metal, 1 track of
psychoacoustically designed music, and no music (used as a
control) were presented using an iPod (Apple Store) music
player and Eos wireless speakers (Eos Wireless, San Diego,
CA). The speakers are rated at 15 W total root mean square
@ 4_(3 !%W).0.01% total harmonic distortion. Each
speaker had 2 !1’’ neodymium tweeters and a 3’’ ported
subwoofer. The long kennel runs were divided into half, and
speakers were placed in the center of each half of each run to
ensure even distribution of sound to all sheltered dogs. A
total of 4 speakers were used for the 2 runs. The sound level
was gauged by 2 experimenters and a shelter worker who
agreed that the sound seemed equal in each kennel.
Dogs were exposed to each of the 9 conditions of
auditory stimulation over the course of 4 months (July-
October). Exposure consisted of 45 minutes for each
condition, followed by 15 minutes of no music/silence.
Three conditions (including the control condition) were
tested each day between 9 AM and 12 PM on Tuesday,
Table 1 Type of music, artist, and BPM
Artist Songs BPM
Classical (average BPM 5121)
C1 Beethoven Fu¨r Elise 111
C2 Beethoven Moonlight Sonata 143
C3 Strauss Blue Danube Waltz 130
C4 Bach Air on a G String 100
Heavy metal (average BPM 5131)
HM1 Motorhead Ace of Spades 140
HM2 Slayer Angel of Death 102
HM3 Judas Priest Turbo Lover 151
Psychoacoustically designed (BPM 595)
Psych Through a dog’s ear Song 1 95
BPM, beats per minute.
270 Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Vol 7, No 5, September/October 2012
Wednesday, and Thursday. Monday, Friday, Saturday, and
Sunday were not used as research days owing to the fact
that these days involved more activity within the shelter,
as boarding dogs were more frequently dropped off or
picked up by owners on these days. The time frame
between 9 AM and 12 PM was used to eliminate confounds
associated with cleaning, feeding, and outdoor times. The
presentation order of auditory conditions was randomly
assigned each day to eliminate any potential order effects.
The dogs’ behaviors were recorded by 1 observer (used
throughout the study) every 5 minutes over the course of
the exposure to auditory stimulation using instantaneous
time sampling. After the first 5 minutes of each exposure
period, the experimenter would begin observing each
dog’s behavior every 5 minutes. Therefore, each 45-minute
exposure led to 9 behavior recordings. The observer began
the music exposure in one run (separated by concrete walls
and 2 separate heavy metal doors from the second run),
waited 5 minutes to record behaviors, and then began music
exposure in the second run. It took approximately 2 minutes
for the observer to complete the behavior assessments in
each run.
Three aspects of behavior were recorded at each obser-
vation. These included activity, vocalization, and body
shaking. For each of these behaviors, the number of times
the dog was observed performing the behavior in each
category was recorded (e.g., silent, barking, other). A
checklist was used by the observer for each behavior.
The 3 categories of behavior measured included the
a. Sleeping
b. Other (i.e., moving standing, sitting, lying down)
c. Silent
d. Barking
e. Other (i.e., whining or yipping)
Body movement
f. Shaking
g. Not shaking
A mixed model analysis of variance was used to control for
multiple readings from the same dog and the fact that some
dogs received more exposures to the auditory stimulus than
other dogs, based on how long they were kenneled. The
statistical significance level was accepted at P,0.05.
Because there was no significant interaction between audi-
tory stimulus type and type of dog (i.e., rescue or boarding)
or type of housing (singly or housed with other dogs) for
any of the 3 categories of assessed behavior, data from
all dogs were analyzed together. Two-tailed ttests were
used for post hoc analysis, with significance level accepted
at P,0.05. The percentage of time dogs were seen
displaying each of the behaviors analyzed (sleeping vs.
not sleeping, vocalizing vs. silent, and shaking vs. not
shaking) is presented in Tables 2-4.
A significant difference was found in the number of
observations of sleeping behavior versus other activity
behavior based on auditory stimulus (F
P.0.0001). Although there was a significant difference
Table 2 Percentage of time spent sleeping for each music
Music Percent SE
C2 4.8 1.5
C3 4.7 1.9
C4 6.0 1.3
C1 3.7 0.9
Control 1.1 0.3
Psych 1.4 0.6
HM2 1.2 0.4
HM3 1.2 0.4
HM1 0.8 0.2
C1, Beethoven, Fu¨r Elise; C2, Beethoven, Moonlight Sonata; C3,
Strauss, Blue Danube Waltz; C4, Air on a G String; HM1, Motorhead,
Ace of Spades; HM2, Slayer, Angel of Death; HM3, Judas Priest, Turbo
Lover; Psych, Through a Dog’s Ear, Song 1; SE, standard error.
Table 3 Percentage of time spent silent for each music
Music Percent SE
C2 95.1 1.6
C3 88.4 4.2
C4 92.7 1.8
C1 91.7 2.1
Control 85.9 2.7
Psych 88.8 3.0
HM2 93.5 1.9
HM3 89.5 2.6
HM1 88.6 2.7
Table 4 Percentage of time spent shaking for each music
Music Percent SE
C2 0.5 0.3
C3 2.8 1.2
C4 0.7 0.2
C1 0.9 0.3
Control 1.2 0.3
Psych 0.5 0.3
HM2 71.2 5.3
HM3 49.9 5.8
HM1 37.8 5.1
Kogan et al Effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs 271
in the number of observations of sleeping behavior for res-
cue dogs versus boarding dogs (F
58.58, P.0.004),
where rescue dogs slept more than boarding dogs, there was
no interaction between type of dog (rescue vs. boarding)
and music type for sleeping behavior.
Post hoc ttests indicated that both groups of dogs spent
the most time sleeping during classical music selections
compared with heavy metal, psychoacoustically designed,
or the control. There was no significant difference in the
number of observations of sleep time between any of the
classical selections, but all classical selections resulted in
more sleep time than any heavy metal selections, dog relax-
ation track, or control. There were no significant differences
between the control, psychoacoustically designed, and any
heavy metal selections in the number of observations of
sleep time (Table 5).
Although data collection included 3 potential aspects of
vocalization (silent, barking, and other), a decision was made
to combine ‘‘barking’’ with ‘‘other’’ because of the difficulty
in clearly identifying what constituted a ‘bark’’ versus other
vocalizations that approximated a bark. Therefore, assess-
ment was completed with 2 levels of vocalization: barking/
other and silent. A significant difference was found in
vocalization (silent or not silent) based on auditory stimulus
53.61, P.0.0005). Although there was a significant
difference in the number of observations of silent time be-
tween rescue dogs and boarding dogs (F
P.0.0007), where rescue dogs spent more time silent
than boarding dogs, there was no interaction between type
of dog (rescue vs. boarding) and music type for vocalization.
Post hoc ttests indicated that the dogs spent the most time
silent during the classical 2 (Moonlight Sonata) selection
and least time silent during the control periods. There was
a significant difference between classical 2 and classical 3,
control, psychoacoustically designed, and heavy metal
1 and 3. Classical 2 was not significantly different from clas-
sical 1 and 4 or heavy metal 2. Classical 1 and 4 were only
significantly different from control (more silent time than
control). Control was also different from heavy metal 2
(with less silent time for control). There were no differences
between psychoacoustically designed and other auditory
stimuli, with the exception of classical 2 (Table 6).
Body movement–shaking
There was no significant difference between rescue and
boarding dogs in the number of observations of observed
body shaking. There was a significant difference in the
number of observations of shaking and type of auditory
stimulation (F
596.97, P.0.0001). Post hoc ttests
indicated that the dogs were observed shaking more with
all heavy metal selections. Two selections were signifi-
cantly different from most others. There was a statistical
difference between classical selection 3 and all other stim-
uli, excluding the control. There was also a statistical differ-
ence observed between heavy metal selection 2 and all
other stimuli (Table 7).
Both boarded and rescue dogs responded to all the classical
music selections by sleeping more than during exposure to
any other auditory stimulation type. The number of obser-
vations of silence was greatest during 1 classical selection
(classical 2) and least during the control period (no music).
These results are consistent with human studies, which
have suggested that music can reduce agitation (Sung et al.,
2008), promote sleep (de Niet et al., 2009), improve mood,
and lower stress and anxiety (Cooper and Foster, 2008).
Table 5 Post hoc ttests for music selections and activity
(sleeping or not sleeping)
Music Music Estimate SE df t value Pvalue
C2 C3 0.02 0.48 354 0.03 0.9744
C2 C4 20.23 0.34 354 20.68 0.4946
C2 C1 0.27 0.36 354 0.74 0.4591
C2 Psych 1.30 0.48 354 2.68 0.0076
C2 HM2 1.46 0.41 354 3.59 0.0004
C2 HM3 1.39 0.40 354 3.51 0.0005
C2 HM1 1.89 0.42 354 4.54 ,0.0001
C3 C4 20.25 0.44 354 20.56 0.5791
C3 C1 0.25 0.46 354 0.55 0.5851
C3 Control 1.46 0.44 354 3.29 0.0011
C3 Psych 1.28 0.57 354 2.27 0.0240
C3 HM2 1.45 0.49 354 2.97 0.0032
C3 HM3 1.38 0.49 354 2.81 0.0052
C3 HM1 1.88 0.51 354 3.71 0.0002
C4 C1 0.50 0.29 354 1.74 0.0826
C4 Control 1.70 0.25 354 6.79 ,0.0001
C4 Psych 1.53 0.42 354 3.67 0.0003
C4 HM2 1.69 0.36 354 4.67 ,0.0001
C4 HM3 1.62 0.31 354 5.18 ,0.0001
C4 HM1 2.12 0.35 354 6.03 ,0.0001
C1 Control 1.21 0.27 354 4.44 ,0.0001
C1 Psych 1.03 0.45 354 2.28 0.0232
C1 HM2 1.19 0.39 354 3.09 0.0021
C1 HM3 1.12 0.36 354 3.13 0.0019
C1 HM1 1.62 0.33 354 4.87 ,0.0001
Control Psych 20.17 0.43 354 20.41 0.6853
Control HM2 20.01 0.36 354 20.03 0.9766
Control HM3 20.08 0.33 354 20.25 0.8054
Control HM1 0.42 0.33 354 1.25 0.2128
Psych HM2 0.16 0.50 354 0.33 0.7448
Psych HM3 0.09 0.47 354 0.20 0.8439
Psych HM1 0.59 0.40 354 1.19 0.2338
HM2 HM3 0.07 0.42 354 20.17 0.8662
HM2 HM1 0.42 0.44 354 0.98 0.3281
HM3 HM1 0.50 0.41 354 1.21 0.2281
df, degrees of freedom; ,, less than.
Pvalues in boldface are statistically significant at P,0.05.
272 Journal of Veterinary Behavior, Vol 7, No 5, September/October 2012
Both boarded and rescue dogs exhibited more body
shaking behavior during all heavy metal selections when
compared with any other auditory stimulus. Therefore,
while we found that classical music has a relaxing effect on
kenneled dogs, heavy metal music, in contrast, appears to
have the opposite effect, resulting in increased behaviors
that could be a result of stress and/or add to their stress
level at the same time (i.e., barking, body shaking, and less
sleep time). Research pertaining to the effects of heavy
metal music on humans has shown similar trends (Becknell
et al., 2008).
The psychoacoustically arranged selection, a piece of
classical music that was designed specifically to promote
dog relaxation, was found to have minimal effect on the
dogs’ behaviors. The reason for this is unknown. Certainly
more research into psychoacoustically altered music selec-
tions designed to affect animals’ behaviors is warranted.
Our findings replicate some of the findings by Wells
et al. (2002) in their study of the effect of auditory stimu-
lation on shelter dogs. We found that classical music
promoted more restful behaviors that might be associated
with a reduced stress level. Heavy metal music was found
to have the opposite effect, leading to behaviors that
suggest increased agitation.
Shelters are inherently stressful environments for most
dogs, and results of this study suggest that playing classical
music might help ameliorate some of these negative
aspects. It is also possible that the positive effects that
classical music has been found to have on humans may also
affect both shelter employees and potential adopters. In
Table 6 Post hoc ttests for music selections and
vocalization (silent or not silent)
Music Music Estimate SE df t value Pvalue
C2 C3 0.93 0.46 354 2.04 0.0416
C2 C4 0.43 0.34 354 1.27 0.2048
C2 C1 0.57 0.35 354 1.62 0.1051
C2 Control 1.16 0.31 354 3.74 0.0002
C2 Psych 0.89 0.37 354 2.39 0.0176
C2 HM2 0.30 0.35 354 0.87 0.3864
C2 HM3 0.82 0.35 354 2.38 0.0178
C2 HM1 0.91 0.35 354 2.64 0.0087
C3 Classical 4 20.50 0.40 354 21.24 0.2152
C3 C1 20.37 0.41 354 20.88 0.3792
C3 Control 0.23 0.38 354 0.60 0.5512
C3 Psych 20.04 0.44 354 20.09 0.9290
C3 HM2 20.63 0.41 354 21.51 0.1314
C3 HM3 20.11 0.41 354 20.26 0.7953
C3 HM1 20.02 0.41 354 20.05 0.9624
C4 C1 0.14 0.26 354 0.52 0.6051
C4 Control 0.73 0.21 354 3.54 0.0004
C4 Psych 0.46 0.28 354 1.62 0.0959
C4 HM2 20.12 0.30 354 20.42 0.6763
C4 HM3 0.40 0.24 354 1.63 0.1041
C4 HM1 0.48 0.26 354 1.85 0.0658
C1 Control 0.59 0.22 354 2.72 0.0069
C1 Psych 0.33 0.30 354 1.07 0.2840
C1 HM2 20.26 0.31 354 20.84 0.4012
C1 HM3 0.26 0.28 354 0.93 0.3534
C1 HM1 0.35 0.24 354 1.47 0.1438
Control Psych 20.27 0.26 354 21.04 0.3002
Control HM2 20.86 0.27 354 23.19 0.0015
Control HM3 20.34 0.22 354 21.51 0.1319
Control HM1 20.25 0.21 354 21.16 0.2473
Psych HM2 20.59 0.34 354 21.73 0.0838
Psych HM3 20.07 0.30 354 20.23 0.8198
Psych HM1 0.02 0.30 354 0.06 0.9488
HM2 HM3 0.52 0.31 354 1.69 0.0928
HM2 HM1 0.61 0.31 354 1.97 0.0500
HM3 HM1 0.09 0.27 354 0.32 0.7511
,, less than.
Pvalues in boldface are statistically significant at P,0.05.
Table 7 Post hoc ttests for music selections and body
movement (shaking or not shaking)
Music Music Estimate SE df t value Pvalue
C2 C3 21.79 0.78 354 22.30 0.0218
C2 C4 20.42 0.72 354 20.58 0.5644
C2 C1 20.70 0.71 354 20.99 0.3235
C2 Control 20.93 0.68 354 21.37 0.1721
C2 Psych 20.12 0.86 354 20.14 0.8862
C2 HM2 26.26 0.68 354 29.18 ,0.0001
C2 HM3 25.35 0.68 354 27.83 ,0.0001
C2 HM1 27.86 0.68 354 27.14 ,0.0001
C3 C4 1.37 0.53 354 2.57 0.0107
C3 C1 1.09 0.53 354 2.06 0.0398
C3 Control 0.86 0.48 354 1.81 0.0705
C3 Psych 1.66 0.71 354 2.33 0.0202
C3 HM2 24.47 0.48 354 29.28 ,0.0001
C3 HM3 23.56 0.48 354 27.37 ,0.0001
C3 HM1 23.07 0.48 354 26.36 ,0.0001
C4 C1 20.29 0.42 354 20.68 0.4989
C4 Control 20.51 0.36 354 21.43 0.1530
C4 Psych 0.29 0.63 354 0.46 0.6428
C4 HM2 25.84 0.39 354 215.14 ,0.0001
C4 HM3 24.93 0.35 354 213.92 ,0.0001
C4 HM1 24.44 0.37 354 212.12 ,0.0001
C1 Control 20.22 0.33 354 20.67 0.5027
C1 Psych 0.58 0.63 354 0.91 0.3613
C1 HM2 25.55 0.37 354 214.87 ,0.0001
C1 HM3 24.64 0.36 354 213.00 ,0.0001
C1 HM1 24.15 0.32 354 212.83 ,0.0001
Control Psych 0.80 0.59 354 1.36 0.1751
Control HM2 25.33 0.30 354 217.94 ,0.0001
Control HM3 24.42 0.27 354 216.18 ,0.0001
Control HM1 23.93 0.26 354 215.31 ,0.0001
Psych HM2 26.13 0.61 354 210.03 ,0.0001
Psych HM3 25.22 0.60 354 28.77 ,0.0001
Psych HM1 24.73 0.60 354 27.93 ,0.0001
HM2 HM3 0.91 0.31 354 2.95 0.0033
HM2 HM1 1.40 0.31 354 4.58 ,0.0001
HM3 HM1 0.49 0.29 354 1.73 0.08
,, less than.
Pvalues in boldface are statistically significant at P,0.05.
Kogan et al Effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs 273
addition to creating a more positive work environment for
employees, playing classical music might help potential
adopters feel more comfortable at the shelter, thereby
increasing the likelihood of them finding a suitable animal
to adopt. This would be consistent with research that has
demonstrated that slower-paced music can increase the
amount of time people spend shopping (Milliman, 1982).
Additionally, research conducted on humans suggests that
uplifting music can positively affect helping behaviors
(North et al., 2004), and adopting from a shelter is often
viewed and marketed as a type of helping behavior. For
example, the Humane Society of the United States lists
the top reason to adopt as ‘‘to save a life’’ (HSUS, 2009),
and American Humane indicates that ‘‘one way to start put-
ting an end to pet overpopulation is to adopt your next pet
from your local shelter or breed rescue group’’ (American
Humane, n.d.). Perhaps, therefore, uplifting music in this
context could positively affect adoption rates.
In contrast, it is suggested that playing heavy metal
music might negatively affect dogs’ welfare as well as the
general experience of shelter employees and potential
adopters. Human studies have found that listening to
grunge or heavy metal rock is correlated with increased
hostility, sadness, tension, and fatigue, as well as inappro-
priate behaviors, in addition to significant reductions in
behaviors related to caring, relaxation, mental clarity, and
vigor (Harris et al., 1992; McCraty et al., 1998).
Results from this study suggest that auditory stimulation
can affect kenneled dogs’ behaviors and stress levels, and
therefore, auditory stimulation can be used to enhance the
welfare of shelter dogs. The findings from this study have
potential welfare implications for shelter dogs. As outlined
in the American Veterinary Medical Association Animal
Welfare Principles, ‘‘Procedures related to animal housing,
management, care, and use should be continuously evalu-
ated, and when indicated, refined or replaced’’ (AVMA,
2006). The fact that kenneled dogs can be effected either
positively or negatively by the music played within a facil-
ity offers the opportunity to create a more positive environ-
ment for dogs for relatively minimal cost and effort. The
potential benefits of music on shelter dogs, however, are
likely to be altered by shelters’ level of ambient noise.
In conclusion, it is suggested that shelters refrain from
playing heavy metal music owing to the detrimental effect it
may have on dogs’stress and anxiety levels. Instead, it is sug-
gested that shelters play classical music as a cost-efficient,
practical way to enhance the environment and, therefore,
the welfare of shelter dogs. Classical music can reduce
dogs’ stress levels and potentially increase the likelihood of
adoption. Limitations to the current study include the fact
that only 1 kennel was used for assessment and other kennels
might show different results. The kennel selected for this
study had a minimal amount of ambient or background noise.
Dogs at shelters with higher levels of background noise might
respond differently to auditory stimulation. Future studies in-
volving settings with varying levels of background noise will
be important to further determine the effects of auditory stim-
ulation in shelters. Additionally, although sound level (of
stimulus or background) was not measured in this prelimi-
nary study, further research should include this information
for more complete understanding of the outcomes of auditory
It should also be noted that only 1 type of rescue breed
(dachshund) was used for this study and other rescue breeds
or other types of boarded dogs might respond differently. It
is also possible that age and sex of dogs might affect how
they react to different types of auditory stimulation. More
research to determine what aspects of classical music help
reduce stress the most (i.e., BPM or tone) would be helpful
in determining which classical music to play. Additionally,
further research investigating effects of classical music in
other stressful environments (e.g., veterinary clinics) would
help advance the field of knowledge pertaining to the use of
sensory stimulation to improve animal welfare.
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Kogan et al Effects of auditory stimulation on kenneled dogs 275
... Previous research has been done on the effects of music on human behavior, including the effect of music on heart rate (1). Additionally, studies have been completed that researched the effect of different types of music on the behaviors of dogs, including research by Kogan, Schoenfeld-Tacher, and Simon (2) and that of Sills and Todd (3). Because music has been found to affect human behaviors and heart rates, this research aimed to determine the impact of music on the heart rate of dogs. ...
... Contrary to both classical and rock music, pop music did not exhibit any reaction from the dogs. These results had therapeutic implications for the treatment of distressed or ill dogs (2). ...
... the heart rate of dogs that could be quantified rather than simply observed qualitatively as in the Kogan study (2). To investigate this, we chose five types of music: classical, jazz, country, rock, and rap. ...
The goal of this project was to determine the effect of different types of music on a dog's heart rate. Six different dogs were tested in their own homes. Each experiment was performed in a quiet room with the dog’s owner present along with the two scientists performing the testing. Five different types of music were used in the experiment. Using a stethoscope, we measured the resting heart rate prior to testing and again immediately following the test. A five-minute break was taken between each test, and two trials were completed for each test conducted. The result was a statistically significant difference in heart rate for rock and rap music (increase) and for jazz music (decrease). A caveat to this study was the relatively small number of dogs tested (six); therefore, future research with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm these results. This information could help calm dogs in potentially stressful situations, such as the veterinary office or when traveling.
... These representations often include overall 'body position', body language, and other validated stress behaviors, which can be used to assign a stress score or value [15]. For example, common behavioral indicators of poor canine welfare include frequent vocalizations, crouching (i.e., heads below the chest line), flattened ears, or a lowered tail [2,[15][16][17][18]. ...
... With this example, the dog undergoes at least one example of acute stress (i.e., daily cleaning) while dealing with the chronic stress of being in a new environment (the shelter). Because chronic and acute stress has adverse health effects on animals [18], understanding the effect of husbandry on stress levels is a priority welfare concern. ...
... Shelter dogs experience both acute and chronic stress in varying degrees [18], which can lead to immune suppression in dogs [19] and illness in cats [20]. This suppression reduces the animal's ability to fight off infections, which can further drain shelter resources. ...
Full-text available
The length of stay for some animals has increased with the recent reduction of animals euthanized in US shelters and animal control facilities. Research examining the effectiveness of different types of enrichment on buffering the effects of acute daily stressors in the shelter environment, such as kennel cleaning, is lacking. In addition, daily known stressors can result in undesirable behaviors that could lead to a need for euthanasia. Ways to effectively reduce the effects of daily stressors while optimizing strained resources is currently a high priority. In this study, we presented shelter dogs with food, tactile, and scent enrichment items to increase (arousing) or decrease (calming) activity during the daily stressor of morning kennel cleaning. We found that calming, rather than arousing, enrichment items were associated with body position scores indicative of lower stress in dogs, with calming scent enrichment (lavender) producing the most significant benefit. In contrast, items that showed the greatest reduction in vocalization were arousing (ball) compared to other arousing conditions. Our findings suggest that different unwanted behaviors in the kennel environment often associated with stress can be reduced using specific types of enrichment during a daily stressful event. Further, the results illustrate that enrichment items other than food might be more effective at decreasing certain undesirable behaviors. Overall, this study provides insight into how shelter workers might effectively use enrichment items during an unavoidable acute stressor. With many shelters keeping dogs longer, addressing events that might cause repeated stress in this population may indirectly help with adopting and lowering euthanasia rates due to unwanted behavior that develops due to repeated exposure to this necessary but acute stressor of morning cleaning.
... Music, especially classical music, seems to exert a beneficial effect as an enrichment method in animal species such as bovines [13], pigs [13,14] and rats [15][16][17]. In dogs, classical music appears to reduce environmental stress both in kennelled [18][19][20][21][22][23][24] and owned dogs during a visit to the veterinary hospital [25]. However, the authors are aware of only four studies that aimed to evaluate the impact of music in domestic animals when anaesthetic agents were administered in dogs under sedation [26], in cats [27,28] and in dogs under general anaesthesia [29]. ...
... It has been suggested that the music genre, rhythm and sound level may affect the impact of music on animal species. Classical music seems to evoke desirable responses in cats under general anaesthesia [27,28] and dogs [18,19,21,23,24]. Dogs seem to prefer slow rhythm music [20,[22][23][24][25], just like humans, to whom slow tempos between 60 and 80 beats per minute elicit beneficial responses [8,12]. ...
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The main objective of this prospective, randomized, blind, cross-over experimental study was to evaluate the effect of classical music on the depth of sedation and propofol requirements for the induction of anaesthesia in dogs. Twenty dogs were involved, and each was subjected to three different treatments with a 3-month gap: Chopin music, Mozart music, and no music, via loudspeakers. The dogs were premedicated with acepromazine and butorphanol by intramuscular injection, and anaesthesia was induced using propofol intravenously. To compare the depth of sedation and propofol requirements for the induction of anaesthesia among the different treatments, we utilized non-parametric tests (Kruskal–Wallis test) for the depth of sedation due to a slight deviation from the normal distribution and parametric (ANOVA) for propofol requirements. When exposed to music (Chopin or Mozart), dogs exhibited deeper sedation and required less propofol for their intubation compared to the no-music treatment (p < 0.05). Exposure to classical music had a positive impact on the level of sedation, and more profound central nervous system depression seemed to contribute to approximately 20% lower propofol dose requirements for tracheal intubation. Therefore, classical music during the preoperative period appeared to exert a beneficial effect, at least when applying the specific pre-anaesthetic medications used in the present study.
... Environmental enrichment can be attained by playing classical music in the kennel which encourage relaxed behaviours that are frequently linked to lower levels of stress. This minimises some of the unfavourable characteristics of the kennel environment with comparatively low expense and effort (Kogan et al., 2012). ...
Full-text available
The purpose of ears is to receive and transmit sound information to the brain. All ears have a dynamic functioning range but if sounds are excessively loud, it may harm the auditory system whereas those that are too low in intensity are simply not processed. One-third of canine population suffers from noise aversion. Dogs are frequently startled by loud noises like gunshots, thunder, or fireworks. Research indicates that some dog breeds are significantly less likely to experience loud noise phobia. Older dogs are more prone to react emotionally negatively to loud noises. Extreme phobic reactions can result from a single traumatic encounter as well as recurrent exposure to frightful stimuli. While phobic responses might include panic, acute agitation, and/or destructive activity, mild fear responses can include panting, pacing and hiding attempts. Sudden, loud noises are one of the most common triggers for fearful behaviours in dogs and many companion dogs suffer from noise sensitivity. This review deals with physiology of canine ear, breed differences in hearing capacities, frequencies of sound that affect dogs and the physiological and behavioural responses of dogs to noise stress. The effect of music on canine welfare and strategies for noise abetment is also elucidated. To protect the wellbeing of dogs and to limit the emergence of anxiety-related behavioural stress issues, a better understanding of interpreting canine responses to noise is imperative. ABSTRACT Breed, dogs, health, sound, noise, noise sensitivity, welfare KEY WORDS: Open Access
... For example, studies in laboratory-housed dogs have demonstrated that provision of chew toys was successful in decreasing inappropriate chewing and time spent inactive [20], while the provision of a treat-stuffed toy contributed to more variable behavioral patterns, including decreased inactivity and barking and increased appetitive behaviors [21]. In shelter dogs, enrichment provided in the form of training sessions and food-filled toys increased sitting, lying, and quiet behavior, as well as decreased jumping [22], while the provision of classical music resulted in more time sleeping and less time vocalizing [23]. A study examining assistance dogs identified that enrichments were successful in increasing relaxation behaviors and reducing alert and stress behaviors in the hour after the enrichment was provided [24]. ...
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Simple Summary Dogs are a social species and may experience negative emotions when left alone even for short periods of time. This study explored the effectiveness of different food-based enrichments on engaging dogs, and alleviating potential negative emotional states caused by social isolation. The results indicated that dogs spent the most time interacting with a long-lasting chew. They also responded to this enrichment with the most positive and calm emotions when compared to a treat-dispensing toy and a smart treat-dispensing device. Long-lasting chews should be further explored as an enrichment for improving dog emotional wellbeing during periods of separation from their caregivers. Abstract Dogs may experience negative emotional states when isolated from human caregivers and conspecifics. This study aimed to evaluate how dogs interact with different enrichments during a short period of social isolation, as a first step towards identifying methods for improving their emotional wellbeing. Using a cross-over design, dogs (n = 20) at the Waltham Petcare Science Institute were exposed to four different food-based enrichments while left alone in a familiar room for 20 min: long-lasting chew (Chew), kibble in a treat-dispensing toy (Toy), and kibble dispensed through a smart treat-dispensing device with (Device + Voice) and without (Device) a person talking to the dog. Time spent engaging with each enrichment item and emotional valence and arousal (7-point scale collected every 5-min) were scored from videos. The results of linear mixed models indicated Chew was the most successful enrichment, with dogs having lower arousal scores (p < 0.05 vs. Device and Toy) during the first five minutes of isolation, higher positive valence scores (p < 0.05 vs. all) during the second five minutes of isolation, and spending the most total time engaged (p < 0.01 vs. all). Based on these findings, long-lasting chews should be further explored to assess their impact on dog emotional wellbeing.
... Separate from this question, though, there is also an emerging literature on the use of classical and other types of music to help /soothe dogs (as measured by activity level/time spent sleeping, vocalizing, and/or body shaking, no matter whether they are in the home environment, kennelled, or in an animal shelter (Bowman et al., 2015(Bowman et al., , 2017Gabbard, 2017;Kogan et al., 2012;Leeds and Wagner, 2008); though see also MailOnline Reporter, 2017). As yet, however, I am unaware of anyone having looked at the question of whether classical (or, for that matter, any other kind of) music influences the feeding behaviour of dogs under different environmental conditions/contexts (and see Snowdon et al., 2015, on species-appropriate choice of music in cats). ...
While the growing global obesity crisis in humans has attracted a great deal of attention from the media and healthcare professionals alike, the rapid increase in weight problems reported amongst pets is now attracting widespread recognition too. In humans, the emerging science of gastrophysics offers a number of concrete suggestions as to how people can be nudged into eating less by means of the enhanced multisensory design of both foods and the environments in which they choose to eat. In this narrative review, the potential relevance of gastrophysics to helping tackle the growing problem of overweight and obese domestic dogs is reviewed. This involves discussion of both the important similarities and difference in the way in which people and their pets perceive food, and the likely role of various product-extrinsic factors on consumption in the two cases. Nevertheless, despite the differences, a number of suggestions for future research are forwarded that may help to address the growing problem of overweight pets, and the behaviours that give rise to it.
... Wprowadzenie nowych elementów stymuluje umysł psa oraz socjalizuje go z nowościami. Dla przykładu -w badaniach wykazano, że muzyka klasyczna uspokaja psy [Kogan 2012]. ...
Przystosowywanie się do środowiska przekształconego przez człowieka jest nieuniknione w kontekście przetrwania zwierząt, ponieważ zwiększanie terenów miast czy osiedli prowadzi do zajmowania ich naturalnych siedlisk. W przypadku niedźwiedzia brunatnego synantropizacja niesie ze sobą wiele zagrożeń, zarówno dla człowieka, jak i dla zwierząt. Nie jest to jednak temat często poruszany w dyskusji dotyczącej prawidłowego zarządzania populacjami dzikich zwierząt. Celem pracy była analiza postaw oraz ocena wiedzy studentów różnych kierunków na temat zjawiska synantropizacji niedźwiedzia brunatnego, w szczególności tych, którzy czasowo (jako turyści) lub na co dzień przebywają na terenach, gdzie występują niedźwiedzie i są potencjalnie narażeni na spotkania z nimi. Badania przeprowadzono na grupie 311 studentów metodą CAWI. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują na niski poziom wiedzy dotyczący behawioru oraz zjawiska synantropizacji niedźwiedzia brunatnego (połowa badanych go nie znała, 20% z badanych nie potrafiła go prawidłowo zdefiniować, a 70% deklarowała neutralny stosunek do faktu obecności niedźwiedzi blisko siedzib ludzkich). Osoby studiujące kierunki przyrodnicze istotnie częściej prawidłowo definiowały pojęcie synantropizacji niż studenci kierunków humanistyczno-społecznych i inżynieryjno-technicznych. Połowa badanych, którzy spotkali kiedykolwiek niedźwiedzia, nie miało zdania lub zgadzało się ze stwierdzeniem, że chęć zobaczenia niedźwiedzia z bliska wzmacnia synantropizację. Brak wiedzy na temat czynników, które mogą przyczyniać się do wzmożenia u niedźwiedzi chęci korzystania z pokarmu pozostawionego przez człowieka (na przykład w śmietnikach) może być przyczyną zdarzeń niebezpiecznych z udziałem tych zwierząt.
... This is surprising since determining personality is not easy even for pet professionals [46] and, in addition, shelters and rescues are typically loud and visually over-stimulating for dogs making selection based on a dog's personality even more difficult [47]. A dog in this situation will likely be over-exuberant or displaying fearful behavior [48]. None of the other selection criteria we suggested, including age, appearance, breed, compatibility with other pets, size, or trainability, was found to have a significant effect on eventual owner satisfaction. ...
Full-text available
Personal likes, experience, and deep-rooted interests to satisfy emotional needs such as companionship, affection, empathy, and security are some of the underlying human motivations for acquiring a pet companion. In this study, we asked how long the owner took to decide whether to adopt a dog, who their dog was adopted from, their primary motivation for adoption, a ranking of characteristics considered during the adoption process, and how satisfied they were with the eventual outcome. Participants (n = 933) to this Center for Canine Behavior Studies survey completed an online questionnaire with responses representing 1537 dog/owner pairs. A majority of participants reported satisfaction with at least one of their adopted dogs. Odds of eventual satisfaction are higher for participants who spent less than a week considering an adoption or were seeking a pet to provide companionship and affection. Participants that prioritized personality as an adoption criteria were more likely to be satisfied with their adopted dogs. A mast majority (91%) of participants reported they would consider adopting another dog in the future. Selection criteria rankings that participants indicated they would employ for future adoptions tended to shift away from physical to behavior characteristics when compared to selection criteria priorities of prior adoptions.
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In Europe, regulations contain guidance to maintain high standards of animal welfare. In many parts of the world, large buyers for supermarkets or restaurants are the main enforcers of basic animal welfare standards. They can have considerable influence on improving standards on large commercial farms. Research clearly shows that straw is one of the most effective environmental enrichment for pigs. On some large farms, there are concerns that straw will either clog waste management systems or bring in disease. This paper contains a review of both scientific research and practical experience with enrichment devices that are easy to implement. Pigs prefer enrichment objects that they can chew up and deform. Broiler chickens prefer to climb up on objects, hide under them or peck them. It is always essential to uphold basic welfare standards such as animal cleanliness and low levels of lameness (difficulty walking). It is also important to reduce lesions, and maintain body conditions of breeding animals. An environment enrichment device is never a substitute for poorly managed facilities. It should enhance animal welfare on well-managed farms.
The stress caused by sound is inevitable. The stress caused by noise and the positive effects of music can affect the endocrine of animals and their welfare. In this study, a total of 72 hybrid piglets (Large White × Duroc × Min pig) were randomly divided into 3 groups, including music (Mozart K.448, 60-70 dB), noise (recorded mechanical noise, 80-85 dB), and control (natural background sound, <40 dB) groups. S-IgA (secretory immunoglobulin A), IL-6 (interleukin-6), IL-8 (interleukin-8), and positive emotion-related behaviors were used as indicators to discuss whether noise induced stress and inflammation in piglets or whether music could have positive effects. Six hours of auditory exposure were given daily (10:00 - 16:00), which lasted for 56 days. Behavioral responses of the piglets were observed, and the concentrations of salivary S-IgA and serum IL-6 and IL-8 were measured. The results showed that the concentration of S-IgA increased in the noise and control groups on the 57th day (P < 0.05); S-IgA concentration in the music group was unchanged after long-term music exposure. The concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 showed that long-term noise exposure might lead to stress and inflammation in piglets. Tail-wagging and play behaviors of the piglets in the music group were significantly greater than those in the noise and control groups, which implied that long-term music exposure improved the emotional state of the piglets in a restricted and barren environment.
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Combined effects of music, environmental enrichment, and filial imprinting were tested on meat strain chicks (broilers) from 1 to 7 days old (Study I) or from one to 8 wk old (Study II). In six experiments conducted in two separate studies, chicks were exposed to a blue plastic box (30 × 30 × 38 cm) containing speakers from which red gloves were hung at the chicks’ eye level. Classical music was provided intermittently (1 h on/1 h off) from speakers located in the boxes. Approach response, feeding behavior, fear behavior, body weight, feed:gain ratio, and mortality were evaluated. Approach response tests (Study I) demonstrated that attachment to the imprinting enrichment and music (IEM) object was greater among treated chicks, whereas fear response tests indicated that IEM-treated chicks were also less fearful. Evaluation of feeding behavior (Study II) indicated that IEM chickens fed significantly more often than controls, particularly when the music was activated. Feed:gain ratios of the IEM-treated chicks in Study I were significantly improved (1.48 vs. 1.58) compared with those of controls for three of the four experiments. The exception occurred in Experiment 3, when chicks were exposed to heat stress, and nonsignificant differences for feed:gain ratios were observed. Body weight and mortality differences were not observed. Results of Study II, however, demonstrated significant influences of imprinting, enrichment, and music on body weight at 8 wk of age (2.63 vs. 2.57 kg), whereas differences in feed conversion and mortality were not significant.
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Several studies indicate that mood can influence the likelihood of an individual demonstrating instances of helping behavior, and one previous laboratory study has indicated that music can be used to bring about manipulations of mood to such an end. To investigate this in a naturalistic setting, 646 users of a university gym were played either uplifting or annoying music while theyworked out. Upon completion of theirworkout, they were asked to either sign a petition in support of a fictitious sporting charity (i.e., a low-cost task) or to distribute leaflets on their behalf (i.e., a high-cost task). Responses to the petition-signing measure indicated a ceiling effect with almost all participants offering to help. However, consistent with previous research on mood and helping behavior, uplifting music led to participants offering to help more on the high-cost, leaflet-distributing task than did annoying music.
Study objective: To determine the effect of music during bronchoscopy on patient perception of the procedure. Design: Prospective randomized trial. Setting: University-based bronchoscopy suite. Patients: Twenty-one patients received music (M+), and 28 patients served as controls (M-). Measurements and results: Physiologic responses, subjective patient perceptions, and administered medications were monitored. After the procedure, the technician and the physician both rated their impression of the patients' comfort levels to see how accurately they correlated with actual patient reports. There was no difference in physiologic responses between the M+ and M- groups. The M+ patients reported significantly greater comfort (p=0.02) and less cough (p=0.03) than the M- group, while there was no difference in reported dyspnea P=0.21). Both physicians and technicians were very inaccurate in their assessments of patient level of comfort. Medications given did not differ for the two groups. Conclusion: Music during bronchoscopy is a simple and inexpensive nonpharmacologic way to improve patient comfort. Measurements and results: Physiologic responses, subjective patient perceptions, and administered medications were monitored. After the procedure, the technician and the physician both rated their impression of the patients' comfort levels to see how accurately they correlated with actual patient reports. There was no difference in physiologic responses between the M+ and M- groups. The M+ patients reported significantly greater comfort (p=0.02) and less cough (p=0.03) than the M- group, while there was no difference in reported dyspnea P=0.21). Both physicians and technicians were very inaccurate in their assessments of patient level of comfort. Medications given did not differ for the two groups.
This paper critically reviews the literature available and presents an empirical study that examines the effects of background music on in-store shopping behavior. It finds that music tempo variations can significantly affect the pace of in-store traffic flow and dollar sales volume.
In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the sensory cues it offers the animals housed within. In a bid to remedy this, and promote better welfare, researchers have started to explore the merits of sensory stimulation (i.e. stimulation designed to trigger one or more of an animal's senses) as a potential method of environmental enrichment for captive animals. This paper reviews the research in this area, focusing specifically on auditory, olfactory and visual methods of sensory stimulation. Studies exploring the efficacy of each type of stimulation as an enrichment tool are described, where appropriate, making a distinction between those that occur in the animal's natural habitat, and those that do not. Overall, it is concluded that sensory stimulation harbours enrichment potential for some animals housed in institutional settings, although the specific merits gained from these enrichments are likely to depend upon a wide variety of factors including, for example, species, sex, age and housing conditions. Programmes of sensory enrichment that target the dominant sense for the species under scrutiny, using harmless, non-stressful stimuli, are likely to result in the greatest benefits for animal welfare. Stimuli specific to a species’ natural habitat should not always be considered meaningful, or advantageous, to an animal's welfare; in some cases stimuli that do not occur naturally in the wild (e.g. classical music) may offer more in the way of welfare advantages. Shortcomings in the research, and factors to consider when implementing enrichment of this nature, are discussed throughout.
Toys are often provided for adult dogs housed in kennels, but their effectiveness as environmental enrichment is not well documented. At a minimum, toys need to elicit interest in the animal for which they are intended, before any “enrichment” can be claimed. In this study we have examined short-term preferences for toys with a range of characteristics, using two methods of presentation, in both long-stay dogs in complex kennels, and short-stay dogs in rehoming kennels. The dogs, one sample in residential kennels (LSE, N=30) and the other in rehoming kennels (RH, N=66), were tested individually with four robust toys, presented both hanging and on the floor, over two 15min trials. The trial was also repeated with a second RH sample (N=34) comparing the four robust toys with less robust toys, all presented on the floor. Latency to and duration of interaction with each toy were recorded remotely. In the first trial, 34% of RH dogs and 43% of LSE dogs interacted with the toys; of the dogs that interacted, the average duration of interaction was higher among RH dogs (120s) than among LSE dogs (28s). Toys on the floor were interacted with for significantly longer than hanging toys by both LSE and RH dogs. RH dogs were faster to interact with the floor toys than the hanging toys, but the LSE dogs did not appear to discriminate between hanging and floor toys in latencies to interact. In the second trial, 76% of the RH dogs interacted with one or more of the toys, interacting for significantly longer with the four less robust toys, but their latencies to interact were similar between the robust and less robust toys. Average duration of interaction (227s) was higher than in the first trial. Our findings support previous proposals that robust toys are little used by kennel housed dogs. However, with less robust toys, interaction was relatively prolonged, indicating that interest to the dog may be enhanced if the toy can be chewed easily and/or makes a noise. Hanging toys were not favoured, although these have been reported to stimulate high levels of interaction in juvenile laboratory beagles.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a human interaction program on shelter dogs and to determine the effect on canine heart rate variability, behaviour, and salivary cortisol levels. Twenty dogs were behaviourally (temperament tests) and clinically (full cardiologic examination) pre-tested and then matched in two homogenous groups. Ten dogs (group A) were submitted to a human interaction program and compared to a control group (group B). The study included four experimental sessions (T0, T1, T2 and T3). At T0 salivary cortisol samples (basal cortisol) were collected from all dogs. After 1 week, all dogs were submitted to the following procedures: electrocardiogram holter monitor unit application and recordings, saliva cortisol sample collection before behavioural test (pre-test cortisol), behavioural test application, and saliva cortisol sample collection after behavioural test (post-test cortisol). The above-mentioned experimental session was repeated every 4 weeks from the beginning of the study (T1, T2 and T3). All dogs were videotaped during all behavioural evaluations. Significant differences (P