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Facies, stratigraphy and paleogeographic analysis of Upper ? Kimmeridgian to Upper Portlandian sediments in the environs of Arruda dos Vinhos, Estremadura, Portugal

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Late Upper Kimmeridgian to final Portlandian sediments in the environs of Arruda dos Vinhos, Portugal, consist of deltaic siliciclastics, the Sobral formation, and lagoonal deposits, the limestone —marl sequence of the “Pteroceriano” formation and the limestone—marl—sandstone sequence of the Freixial formation. The lagoonal sediments grade into coastal and terrestrial clastics in northward and westward direction. Formal definition according to the ISSC norms is suggestively given for all lithological units and tentatively applied to further regions by basing on published studies in order to give a lithostratigraphic framework for the highly intertonguing sequence of the study area and the entire Lusitanian Basin. This approach is of special importance, since available stratigraphic data are scarce and sometimes even contradictory. The examined sequence lies within the Virguliana biozone and the Lusitanica biozone, based on benthic foraminifers. A further subdivision of the first is possible by the appearance of the alga Permocalculus n.sp. which is preliminarily described. The lack of a refined biostratigraphic classification can be partly balanced by considerations on subsidence and depositional rates, global sea level changes, diachronism, sedimentary processes and depositional models, so that a sketch-like paleageographic reconstruction can be concluded. The Upper to late Upper Kimmeridgian Sobral formation consists of three main sediment types: Sandstones exhibiting the brackish water bivalve Eomiodon securiformis are attributed to delta front environments, thin oolitic horizons are interpreted as distal/tidal bars, and silty-marly sediments, often with bivalve meadows of Gervillia sobralensis or bivalve banks of Isognomon lusitanicum, represent prodelta and interdistributary bay deposits. Soft bottom substrata were also inhabited by the specialized regular sea—urchin Pseudocidaris lusitanicus and occasionally by adapted corals which are interpreted in respect of functional morphology. The delta complex was prograding from west and north. It was biparted in N-S direction by a morphological and structural ridge, possibly caused by uprising salt diapirs. The delta not only outwedges towards south but also towards southeast due to another structural high along the Vila Franca fault system. This resulted in lowered subsidence rates, so that distribution of the eastern part of the delta was mainly determined by the heavily subsiding Arruda depocenter. The superimposed, uppermost Kimmeridgian to early Lower Portlandian “Pteroceriano” formation is mainly restricted to this Arruda depo-center, only extending further north and west at its base, probably coinciding with the peak in global eustatic sea level highstand. The formation’s lower part is mainly composed of low energetic marls and limestones, among which the nodular Arcomytilus limestones deserve special interest, since they indicate occasional very rapid deposition of lime mud followed by morphological adaptions of the bivalve Arcomytilus morrisi. Macrofaunal shell coquinas interpreted as storm layers are another important facies type. Intensive subsidence in the Arruda depo-center caused large thicknesses and pronounced channelling of terrigenous clay, in contrast to the structurally higher block further east where low depositional rates led to oncoid formatian and occasional establishment of coral facies. Heavy, though intermittent, subsidence in a wrench block directly bordering the Vila Franca fault system further east resulted in considerable thicknesses in this area. Contemporaneously, marginal marine siliciclastics (Santa Cruz member of the Bombarral formation, upper sandstone group) were deposited further west and north which only cccasionally affected the area of “Pteroceriano” facies around its western and northern borders. This indicates the establishment of a clastic trap in the north and the continuing activity of the mentioned morphological elevations, now acting as clastic fences in the west and east. General shallowing in the upper part of the “Pteroceriano” formation led to a vast establishment of mud-rich coral patch reefs and associated high and low energy facies lypes. Particularly discussed here are the adaption of corals to fairly high background sedimentation and the systematic position of some algae (Marinella lugeoni, Solenopora cayeuxiformis n.sp., Lithocodium sp.). This development was restricted to the Arruda depo-center. Perfect sheltering from terrestrial clastics in the west, north and, probably, east (Bombarral formation) indicates once more highly potent clastic fences in form of now emerging elevations. High subsidence rates in the north resulted in trapping coarse clastics, only allowing terrigenous clay to pass which settled down in tranquil water settings between individual patch reets. During deposition of the late Lower to final Portlandian Freixial formation, no clastic traps or fences were obvious, so that episodic hinterland uplift and minor sea level fluctuations resulted in rapid spreading and withdrawal of sand facies from and to the west, north and east. More basinwards, typical lagoonal limestones were deposited, dominated by foraminifers during times of slightly elevated salinities or by algae during more normal periods. The study area silted and sanded up completely towards the Cretaceous boundary. The late Upper Jurassic Lusitanian Basin displays the typical character of a protoocean marginal basin, characterized by calcareous facies into which clastic wedges were prograding. Yet, basin configuration and symmetry of sediment arrangement differs from other Jurassic marginal basins of the young Northern Atlantic, thus pointing out the control of basin development by local parameters.
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... Based on the ammonite-calibrated age of the Abadia Formation, he assumed a Kimmeridgian age for the Alcobaça Formation (Witt 1977). Werner (1986) undertook a detailed analysis of the (bio-)facies of the Alcobaça Formation exposed in the coastal section at Consolação (log reproduced at reduced scale herein), which was assigned to the 'Consolação Member' by Leinfelder (1986). Fatela (1990) Fig. 3, is indicated by a red frame. ...
... Superior units: None. The proposed Estremadura Group of Witt (1977) and the Abadia Group of Leinfelder (1986) have never come into use. França et al. 1960;Manuppella et al. 1978;Wilson 1979). ...
... Moledo Subunit = Calcários de Moledo (Manuppella 1998;Manuppella et al. 1999). Consolação Member = Consolação Subunit = Grés, margas, calcários oolíticos e dolomites da Consolação = Consolação Formation (Leinfelder 1986;Manuppella 1998;Manuppella et al. 1999;Mocho et al. 2017;Castanera et al. 2020a, b). Calcários bioclásticos com corais e calcários oolíticos de Feteira (Manuppella et al. 1999). ...
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The Kimmeridgian Alcobaça Formation of the Lusitanian Basin forms a mixed carbonate–siliciclastic unit between basinal deposits of the Abadia Formation, and fluvial–terrestrial strata of the Lourinhã Formation. This study presents >2.5 km of detailed logs of nine outcrop sections of the Alcobaça Formation in its type region. Eight of these sections encircle the Caldas da Rainha Diapir, which was a prominent, emergent, passive salt diapir during the time of deposition. Palaeoenvironments of the unit form a complex mosaic of low- to high-energy, carbonate- or siliciclastic-dominated shallow shelf settings; coastal embayments and lagoons; and coastal plains with rivers, lakes and playas. In the strata, abundant microfauna is often joined by a rich macrofauna, usually dominated by bivalves. Locally, corals, calcareous sponges or oysters form meadows or patch reefs. These autochthonous to parautochthonous remnants of former communities are assigned to 35 benthic macrofaunal associations. The integration of palaeoecological analysis of these associations with microfaunal and sedimentological data provides constraint on their salinity ranges, which range from slightly hypersaline to freshwater. Frequent temporal and spatial salinity fluctuations are attributed to variations in relative sea-level, salt tectonics or climate. The NNE-trending Caldas da Rainha Diapir induced pronounced facies differentiation. Predominantly, non-marine siliciclastic facies in the northwest and carbonate to siliciclastic, marine to brackish facies in the southwest are contrasted by shallow-marine carbonate facies east of the diapir. Comprehensive exposure and well-preserved fossils make the Alcobaça Formation an excellent showcase to demonstrate how biofacies analysis can help to disentangle the interplay of climate changes, sea-level fluctuations and salt tectonics. Based on the improved characterisation of the unit, the Alcobaça Formation is formally defined, and seven members are established.
... Fossils included in Elianellaceae are interpreted as calcified red algae from Ordovician to Miocene marine deposits (Riding, 2004). The sinuous filaments with sparse cross partitions resemble those of Pycnoporidium lobatum Yabe and Toyama 1928 from the Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) of NW Germany (Helm et al., 2003), and "Solenopora" cayeuxiformis Leinfelder 1986 from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal (Leinfelder, 1986). They are also similar to Pycnoporidium sinuosum Johnson and Konishi 1960 from the Upper Cretaceous of Guatemala (Johnson and Konishi, 1960) and from the Albian-Cenomanian of NE Brazil (Granier et al. 2008). ...
... In summary, the branching algae can be named Pycnoporidium sp. and considered as a member of the family Elianellaceae, but this adds little to our knowledge since these names are applied to fossils with a sparse record separated in time, and their true relationships are not known. Despite this ambiguity, Pycnoporidium species, "Solenopora" cayeuxiformis, and the rest of Elianellacean algae (most of them described as Solenoporaceans before 2016) are always recorded in marine deposits and associated with marine corals, coralline red algae, and green algae (Johnson and Konishi, 1960;Johnson, 1964;Leinfelder, 1986;Riding, 2004;Granier et al. 2008;Granier and Dias-Brito, 2016). ...
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Marine straits and seaways are known to host a wide range of sedimentary processes and products, but the role of marine connections in the development of large river systems remains little studied. This study explores a hypothesis that shallow marine waters flooded the lower Colorado River valley at ∼ 5 Ma along a fault-controlled former tidal straight, soon after the river was first integrated to the northern Gulf of California. The upper bioclastic member of the southern Bouse Formation provides a critical test of this hypothesis. The upper bioclastic member contains wave ripple-laminated bioclastic grainstone with minor red mudstone, pebbly grainstone with HCS-like stratification and symmetrical gravelly ripples, and calcareous-matrix conglomerate. Fossils include upward-branching segmented coralline-like red algae with no known modern relatives but confirmed as marine calcareous algae, echinoid spines, barnacles, shallow marine foraminifers, clams, and serpulid worm tubes. These results provide evidence for deposition in a shallow marine bay or estuary seaward of the transgressive backstepping Colorado River delta. Tsunamis generated by seismic and meteorologic sources likely produced the HCS-like and wave-ripple cross-bedding in poorly-sorted gravelly grainstone. Marine waters inundated a former tidal strait within a fault-bounded tectonic lowland that connected the lower Colorado River to the Gulf of California. Delta backstepping and transgression resulted from a decrease in sediment output due to sediment trapping in upstream basins and relative sea-level rise produced by regional tectonic subsidence. Reprint at: https://doi.org/10.31223/X5RW4Q. Supplementary material at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.5740426
... Fossils included in Elianellaceae are interpreted as calcified red algae from Ordovician to Miocene marine deposits (Riding, 2004). The sinuous filaments with sparse cross partitions resemble those of Pycnoporidium lobatum Yabe and Toyama 1928 from the Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) of NW Germany (Helm et al., 2003), and "Solenopora" cayeuxiformis Leinfelder 1986 from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal (Leinfelder, 1986). They are also similar to Pycnoporidium sinuosum Johnson and Konishi 1960 from the Upper Cretaceous of Guatemala (Johnson and Konishi, 1960) and from the Albian-Cenomanian of NE Brazil (Granier et al. 2008). ...
... In summary, the branching algae can be named Pycnoporidium sp. and considered as a member of the family Elianellaceae, but this adds little to our knowledge since these names are applied to fossils with a sparse record separated in time, and their true relationships are not known. Despite this ambiguity, Pycnoporidium species, "Solenopora" cayeuxiformis, and the rest of Elianellacean algae (most of them described as Solenoporaceans before 2016) are always recorded in marine deposits and associated with marine corals, coralline red algae, and green algae (Johnson and Konishi, 1960;Johnson, 1964;Leinfelder, 1986;Riding, 2004;Granier et al. 2008;Granier and Dias-Brito, 2016). ...
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Marine straits and seaways are known to host a wide range of sedimentary processes and products, but the role of marine connections in the development of large river systems remains little studied. This study explores a hypothesis that shallow marine waters flooded the lower Colorado River valley at ~ 5 Ma along a fault-controlled former tidal straight, soon after the river was first integrated to the northern Gulf of California. The upper bioclastic member of the southern Bouse Formation provides a critical test of this hypothesis. The upper bioclastic member contains wave ripple-laminated bioclastic grainstone with minor red mudstone, pebbly grainstone with HCS-like stratification and symmetrical gravelly ripples, and calcareous-matrix conglomerate. Fossils include upward-branching segmented coralline-like red algae with no known modern relatives but confirmed as marine calcareous algae, echinoid spines, barnacles, shallow marine foraminifers, clams, and serpulid worm tubes. These results provide evidence for deposition in a shallow marine bay or estuary seaward of the transgressive backstepping Colorado River delta. Tsunamis generated by seismic and meteorologic sources likely produced the HCS-like and wave-ripple cross-bedding in poorly-sorted gravelly grainstone. Marine waters inundated a former tidal strait within a fault-bounded tectonic lowland that connected the lower Colorado River to the Gulf of California. Delta backstepping and transgression resulted from a decrease in sediment output due to sediment trapping in upstream basins and relative sea-level rise produced by regional tectonic subsidence.
... Special attention has been given to sponges, corals and rudist reefs, but the role of oysters as reef builders has been largely ignored. Jurassic examples of OMOs are found exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere, primarily in European successions at Tethys' margins, with minor occurrences in Asia, comprising many species from at least two different families (Fürsich 1981;Fürsich and Oschmann 1986;Fürsich and Werner 1986;Leinfelder 1986;Hoffmann and Krobicki 1989;Poulton 1989;Andrews and Walton 1990;Delecat et al. 2001;Komatsu et al. 2002;Olivier et al. 2004;Palma et al. 2007;Zatoń and Machalski 2014;Fürsich et al. 2016). During the Early Cretaceous, OMOs distribution shifted from the Tethyan margins to the north and south-eastern Pacific margins, appearing for the first time in the southern hemisphere (Flatt 1976;Damborenea et al. 1979;Guzmán 1985;Leckie 1989;Palma and Lanés 2001;Schwarz and Howell 2005;Lazo 2007;Kietzmann et al. 2014;Hernández-Ocaña et al. 2015;this paper). ...
... Since the Early Jurassic (examples from Spain and Germany, Fürsich and Hautmann 2005 and F.T. Fürsich personal communication 2017), OMOs have experienced important changes in their global distribution and habitat preferences. During that period, OMOs were recorded almost exclusively in European marine successions, especially in the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean, between 308 and 608N (records from Portugal (Fürsich 1981;Fürsich and Werner 1986;Leinfelder 1986), Poland (Seilacher et al. 1985;Hoffmann and Krobicki 1989;Machalski 1998;Zatoń and Machalski 2013), Canada (Poulton 1989), Scotland (Andrews and Walton 1990), Germany (Delecat et al. 2001), and France (Olivier et al. 2004)) with some non-European Tethyan records (Japan, Komatsu et al. 2002;Iran, Fürsich et al. 2016). They were mainly formed by taxa from the family Gryphaeidae and, secondarily, from the family Ostreidae (14 and three OMOs from the reviewed bibliography, respectively). ...
Article
Lower Cretaceous (lower Hauterivian) oyster mass occurrences (OMOs) dominated by the gryphaeid small oyster Ceratostreon from the Neuquén Basin (west-central Argentina) are analyzed in terms of taphonomy and paleoecology in order to characterize their origin, reconstruct the oyster-dominated paleocommunity, and assess their paleoenvironmental implications. A laterally extensive oyster-bearing sedimentary interval with high oyster abundance was analyzed at three localities situated along a 75 km N-S transect. Three different types of OMOs were differentiated: biogenic bioherms with dominance of encrusting life habits, biogenic autobiostromes with dominance of soft bottom recliners, and mixed sedimentologic-biogenic parabiostromes with signs of reworking. The development of these different types of OMOs indicates a high nutrient input that favored high oyster proliferation, whereas the different life habits adopted by the oysters indicate a difference in sedimentation rate throughout the studied level: reclining oysters indicate a higher sedimentation rate than cementing ones. This Lower Cretaceous study case is framed in a general context of global shift of OMOs from a Tethyan distribution during the Jurassic to a mainly eastern Pacific distribution in the Cretaceous, occupying both coastal and deep continental shelf. Also, there is a taxonomic shift from primarily gryphaeid OMOs during the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous to primarily ostreid OMOs during the Upper Cretaceous. Cenozoic OMOs are found in marginal marine environments and are exclusively built by ostreids. An increase in predation pressure from the mid-Mesozoic onwards could have pushed OMOs to shallow and marginal marine environments where predators cannot thrive and force a taxonomic shift towards brachyhaline taxa.
... The overall Jurassic units record the main episodes of the tectonosedimentary evolution and infill of the Mesozoic Lusitanian Basin, during the first rifting phases and post-rift detumescence intervals that occurred in the proto-Atlantic in front of Iberia (Wilson 1979(Wilson , 1988Leinfelder 1986;Wilson et al. 1989;Hiscott et al. 1990;Pinheiro et al. 1996;Alves et al. 2009). Regarding the Cabeço da Vaca area, the local succession is late Oxfordian in age (Manuppella et al. 2000), being correlative of the beginning of a rifting phase marked by a transgressive context on sedimentation with gradual installation of fully marine conditions (Montejunto Formation) over freshwater, brackish and restricted lagoon carbonated parasequences (Cabaços Formation) (Ruget-Perrot 1961; Mouterde et al. 1979;Reis et al. 1996;Azerêdo & Wright 2002;Azerêdo et al. 2003). ...
... The anterior pairs of peripherals are wider than long. Fürsich (1981) and Fürsich and Werner (1984, 1986 for the Oxfordian of West Portugal, corresponding to a successful colonization of inner shelf, littoral plain and lagoonal, slightly restricted environments of carbonate platform. ...
Article
A shell coming from an upper Oxfordian section of the Lusitanian Basin located in Alqueidão da Serra (Municipality of Porto de Mós, West Central Portugal) is here presented. It corresponds to the oldest remain of a turtle identified in Portugal. In fact, the record of Jurassic turtles identified in pre-Kimmeridgian levels of Europe is very scarce. The new specimen represents the second worldwide identification of a Plesiochelyid turtle (basal Eucryptodira) performed in pre-Kimmeridgian levels, being the only one recognized at generic level. Therefore, this specimen corresponds to the oldest identification of Craspedochelys, a genus well-represented in Kimmeridgian and Tithonian levels of several European countries. This finding contributes the first evidence on the synchronous coexistence of more than a member of Plesiochelyidae in pre-Kimmeridgian levels, which provides arguments to justify the relatively wide diversity known for this exclusively Jurassic clade during the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian.
... The Upper Jurassic has long been known for extensive coral-reef developments worldwide. Among the most notably ones are the reef faunas from the Oxfordian of Poland (e.g., roniewicz, 1966), France (e.g., BeAuVAiS, 1964;Bertling & inSAlAco, 1998;lAthuilière, et al., 2005), Germany (e.g., lAuxmAnn, 1991aBertling, 1993;helm & SchülKe, 2003), England (neguS & BeAuVAiS, 1979), Portugal (e.g., roSendAhl, 1985leinFelder, et al., 1993), Caucasus-Crimea area (BenduKidze, 1982), andSwitzerland (BeAuVAiS, 1963), the reef faunas of the kimmeridgian of Spain (errenSt, 1990), Portugal (geyer, 1955aroSendAhl, 1985;leinFelder, 1986;werner, 1986;noSe, 1995), Romania (roniewicz, 1976), Italy (ricci, et al., 2018), and the Tithonian coral reef associations of the Czech Republic (geyer, 1955b;eliášoVá, 2008eliášoVá, , 2015, Spain (geyer & roSendAhl, 1985), Georgia (in Caucasus) (leBAnidze, 1991), Russia (BenduKidze, 1982), and others. The largest Upper Jurassic coral reef faunas include the Oxfordian assemblages from Germany (around 100 nominal species; lAuxmAnn, 1991a, b; Bertling, 1993;helm & SchülKe, 2003), Poland (77 nominal species;roniewicz, 1966), Caucasus-Crimea area (100 nominal species; BenduKidze, 1982), and Switzerland (around 90 nominal species;BeAuVAiS, 1963BeAuVAiS, , 1964, the kimmeridgian coral faunas from France (Valfin Fm.) (around 80 species; KoBy, 1888;BeAuVAiS & Bernier, 1981), Portugal (100 nominal species;noSe, 1995), Spain (around 130 nominal species;errenSt, 1990errenSt, , 1991, Romania (91 nominal species;roniewicz, 1976), and the Tithonian coral reef faunas of the Czech Republic (upper Tithonian;around 180 nominal species;geyer, 1955b;eliášoVá, 1973eliášoVá, , 1975eliášoVá, , 1976aeliášoVá, , b, c, 1981eliášoVá, , b, 2015 [in need of revision regarding some taxa of, e.g., the amphiastreids, aplosmiliids, axosmiliids, dermosmiliids, latomeandrids, stylinids, and thecosmiliids, which is expected by the current author to lower the number of species by possibly around 15%; for examples of some revised taxa see e.g., lAuxmAnn, 1991;lAthuilière, et al., 2020]), Germany (lower Tithonian of Gerstetten: 74 nominal species; reiFF, 1988; lower Tithonian of Nattheim: around 100 nominal species; geyer, 1954). ...
Article
From the Schrattenkalk Formation (upper Barremian–lower Aptian) of southern Germany, western Austria, and Switzerland, new coral material is taxonomically described, belonging to 56 species from 35 genera of 21 families: Actinastrea pseudominima (Koby); A. subornata (d’Orbigny); Paretallonia bendukidzeae Sikharulidze; Eugyra (Felixigyra) crassa (de Fromentel) (new combination); E. (F.) patruliusi (Morycowa); E. (F.) picteti (Koby) (new combination); E. rariseptata Morycowa; Myriophyllia propria Sikharulidze; Thecosmilia dichotoma Koby; Clausastrea plana (de Fromentel); Complexastrea cf. lobata Geyer; Paraclausastrea chevalieri Zlatarski; P. kaufmanni (Koby); P. vorarlbergensis Baron-Szabo; ?Montlivaltia sp.; Diplogyra subplanotabulata Sikharulidze; Hydnophora styriaca (Michelin); Dermosmilia fiagdonensis Starostina & Krasnov; D. cf. laxata (Étallon); D. trichotoma Eguchi; D. tuapensis Baron-Szabo & Gonzalez.-León; Placophyllia grata Bugrova; Cairnsipsammia merbeleri Baron-Szabo; Morphastrea ludovici (Michelin) (emended herein); Ahrdorffia ornata (Morycowa); Astraeofungia tirnovoriana (Toula) (new combination); Actinaraea (Camptodocis) brancai (Dietrich); A. tenuis Morycowa; Rhipidomeandra bugrovae Morycowa & Masse; Comoseris aptiensis Baron-Szabo; Comoseris jireceki Toula; Polyphylloseris mammillata Eguchi; Ellipsocoenia barottei (de Fromentel) (new combination); Ellipsocoenia haimei (de Fromentel) (new combination); Dimorphastrea tenustriata de Fromentel; Latomeandra cf. plicata (Goldfuss); Microphyllia gemina Eliášová; Thalamocaeniopsis stricta (Milne Edwards & Haime)(new combination); Trigerastraea haldonensis (Duncan) (new combination); Heliocoenia rozkowskae Morycowa; H. vadosa (Počta); Stylosmilia corallina Koby; Cyathophora decipiens ramosa (Hackemesser) (new combination); C. mirtschinkae Kuzmicheva; Cladophyllia clemencia de Fromentel; C. conybearei Milne Edwards & Haime; C. crenata (Blanckenhorn); C. furcifera Roemer; C. rollieri (Koby); C. stutzi (Koby) (new combination); Amphiaulastrea conferta (Ogilvie); A. rarauensis (Morycowa); Heterocoenia inflexa (Eichwald); H. minima d’Orbigny; Acanthogyra aptiana Turnšek; as well as the new species Columnocoenia falkenbergensis. In addition, all the information about previously described taxa from the Schrattenkalk was evaluated with regard to their taxonomic assignment, stratigraphic and paleogeographic distribution, and paleoenvironmental relationships to faunas from other geographic areas and time periods. A total of 122 species belonging to 53 genera and 24 families are recognized from Schrattenkalk localities (western Austria, southern Germany, Switzerland). These include the taxa of both the Lower and Upper Schrattenkalk, and the intercalated Rawil Member. The Schrattenkalk coral fauna nearly exclusively consists of colonial forms of three general categories of polyp integration: cerioid-plocoid (33.6%); branching (18%); and (hydno-) meandroid-thamnasterioid (46.7%). Only two specimens were doubtfully assigned to solitary taxa. Corallite diameters range from less than 1 mm to over 20 mm and fall into three major corallite-size groups: small (up to 2.4 mm), medium (>2.4–9.5 mm), and large (>9.5 mm). The fauna is distinctly dominated by forms with medium-size corallites (68%), followed by forms having small-size corallites (26%). Together with the potential solitary taxa, corals with large-size corallites are of minimal importance to the total fauna. On the genus-level, the Schrattenkalk corals show closest affinities to coral assemblages of central (especially France; 55%), eastern and southern Europe (44‒49%), as well as Central America (47%). On the species-level, closest affinities are to coral assemblages of central, southeastern, and eastern Europe (16‒25.5%), as well as Central America (14%), but nearly a third of the Schrattenkalk species (30%) was restricted to the upper Barremian–lower Aptian of the Schrattenkalk Formation; this suggests that the Schrattenkalk platform sensu lato was a diversity center and a crucial reservoir for coral recruitment. The majority (86%) of the Schrattenkalk corals thrived in a shallow-water, reefal to perireefal, subtropical marine environment. In general, the Schrattenkalk coral assemblages are characteristic of moderate- to high-energy environments of the inner shelf to shore zone, having morphotype associations that typically prevail down to 10–15 m depth. In contrast, for the Upper Schrattenkalk coral fauna of central Switzerland (Hergiswil), a non-reefal paleoenvironment at a depth of several tens of meters is suggested by the morphotypes of the taxa and types of microfacies present. The corals of the Schrattenkalk Formation occurred in both photozoan (Lower and Upper Schrattenkalk members) and heterozoan (Rawil member) carbonate-producing communities. With regard to taxonomic diversity, the Schrattenkalk coral fauna is comparable to the most species-rich Upper Jurassic reef assemblages and represents the last major coral-reef development of the Mesozoic.
... The Upper Jurassic has long been known for extensive coral-reef developments worldwide. Among the most notably ones are the reef faunas from the Oxfordian of Poland (e.g., roniewicz, 1966), France (e.g., BeAuVAiS, 1964;Bertling & inSAlAco, 1998;lAthuilière, et al., 2005), Germany (e.g., lAuxmAnn, 1991aBertling, 1993;helm & SchülKe, 2003), England (neguS & BeAuVAiS, 1979), Portugal (e.g., roSendAhl, 1985leinFelder, et al., 1993), Caucasus-Crimea area (BenduKidze, 1982), andSwitzerland (BeAuVAiS, 1963), the reef faunas of the kimmeridgian of Spain (errenSt, 1990), Portugal (geyer, 1955aroSendAhl, 1985;leinFelder, 1986;werner, 1986;noSe, 1995), Romania (roniewicz, 1976), Italy (ricci, et al., 2018), and the Tithonian coral reef associations of the Czech Republic (geyer, 1955b;eliášoVá, 2008eliášoVá, , 2015, Spain (geyer & roSendAhl, 1985), Georgia (in Caucasus) (leBAnidze, 1991), Russia (BenduKidze, 1982), and others. The largest Upper Jurassic coral reef faunas include the Oxfordian assemblages from Germany (around 100 nominal species; lAuxmAnn, 1991a, b; Bertling, 1993;helm & SchülKe, 2003), Poland (77 nominal species;roniewicz, 1966), Caucasus-Crimea area (100 nominal species; BenduKidze, 1982), and Switzerland (around 90 nominal species;BeAuVAiS, 1963BeAuVAiS, , 1964, the kimmeridgian coral faunas from France (Valfin Fm.) (around 80 species; KoBy, 1888;BeAuVAiS & Bernier, 1981), Portugal (100 nominal species;noSe, 1995), Spain (around 130 nominal species;errenSt, 1990errenSt, , 1991, Romania (91 nominal species;roniewicz, 1976), and the Tithonian coral reef faunas of the Czech Republic (upper Tithonian;around 180 nominal species;geyer, 1955b;eliášoVá, 1973eliášoVá, , 1975eliášoVá, , 1976aeliášoVá, , b, c, 1981eliášoVá, , b, 2015 [in need of revision regarding some taxa of, e.g., the amphiastreids, aplosmiliids, axosmiliids, dermosmiliids, latomeandrids, stylinids, and thecosmiliids, which is expected by the current author to lower the number of species by possibly around 15%; for examples of some revised taxa see e.g., lAuxmAnn, 1991;lAthuilière, et al., 2020]), Germany (lower Tithonian of Gerstetten: 74 nominal species; reiFF, 1988; lower Tithonian of Nattheim: around 100 nominal species; geyer, 1954). ...
Article
From the Schrattenkalk Formation (upper Barremian–lower Aptian) of southern Germany, western Austria, and Switzerland, new coral material is taxonomically described, belonging to 56 species from 35 genera of 21 families: Actinastrea pseudominima (Koby); A. subornata (d’Orbigny); Paretallonia bendukidzeae Sikharulidze; Eugyra (Felixigyra) crassa (de Fromentel) (new combination); E. (F.) patruliusi (Morycowa); E. (F.) picteti (Koby) (new combination); E. rariseptata Morycowa; Myriophyllia propria Sikharulidze; Thecosmilia dichotoma Koby; Clausastrea plana (de Fromentel); Complexastrea cf. lobata Geyer; Paraclausastrea chevalieri Zlatarski; P. kaufmanni (Koby); P. vorarlbergensis Baron-Szabo; ?Montlivaltia sp.; Diplogyra subplanotabulata Sikharulidze; Hydnophora styriaca (Michelin); Dermosmilia fiagdonensis Starostina & Krasnov; D. cf. laxata (Étallon); D. trichotoma Eguchi; D. tuapensis Baron-Szabo & Gonzalez.-León; Placophyllia grata Bugrova; Cairnsipsammia merbeleri Baron-Szabo; Morphastrea ludovici (Michelin) (emended herein); Ahrdorffia ornata (Morycowa); Astraeofungia tirnovoriana (Toula) (new combination); Actinaraea (Camptodocis) brancai (Dietrich); A. tenuis Morycowa; Rhipidomeandra bugrovae Morycowa & Masse; Comoseris aptiensis Baron-Szabo; Comoseris jireceki Toula; Polyphylloseris mammillata Eguchi; Ellipsocoenia barottei (de Fromentel) (new combination); Ellipsocoenia haimei (de Fromentel) (new combination); Dimorphastrea tenustriata de Fromentel; Latomeandra cf. plicata (Goldfuss); Microphyllia gemina Eliášová; Thalamocaeniopsis stricta (Milne Edwards & Haime)(new combination); Trigerastraea haldonensis (Duncan) (new combination); Heliocoenia rozkowskae Morycowa; H. vadosa (Počta); Stylosmilia corallina Koby; Cyathophora decipiens ramosa (Hackemesser) (new combination); C. mirtschinkae Kuzmicheva; Cladophyllia clemencia de Fromentel; C. conybearei Milne Edwards & Haime; C. crenata (Blanckenhorn); C. furcifera Roemer; C. rollieri (Koby); C. stutzi (Koby) (new combination); Amphiaulastrea conferta (Ogilvie); A. rarauensis (Morycowa); Heterocoenia inflexa (Eichwald); H. minima d’Orbigny; Acanthogyra aptiana Turnšek; as well as the new species Columnocoenia falkenbergensis. In addition, all the information about previously described taxa from the Schrattenkalk was evaluated with regard to their taxonomic assignment, stratigraphic and paleogeographic distribution, and paleoenvironmental relationships to faunas from other geographic areas and time periods. A total of 122 species belonging to 53 genera and 24 families are recognized from Schrattenkalk localities (western Austria, southern Germany, Switzerland). These include the taxa of both the Lower and Upper Schrattenkalk, and the intercalated Rawil Member. The Schrattenkalk coral fauna nearly exclusively consists of colonial forms of three general categories of polyp integration: cerioid-plocoid (33.6%); branching (18%); and (hydno-) meandroid-thamnasterioid (46.7%). Only two specimens were doubtfully assigned to solitary taxa. Corallite diameters range from less than 1 mm to over 20 mm and fall into three major corallite-size groups: small (up to 2.4 mm), medium (>2.4–9.5 mm), and large (>9.5 mm). The fauna is distinctly dominated by forms with medium-size corallites (68%), followed by forms having small-size corallites (26%). Together with the potential solitary taxa, corals with large-size corallites are of minimal importance to the total fauna. On the genus-level, the Schrattenkalk corals show closest affinities to coral assemblages of central (especially France; 55%), eastern and southern Europe (44‒49%), as well as Central America (47%). On the species-level, closest affinities are to coral assemblages of central, southeastern, and eastern Europe (16‒25.5%), as well as Central America (14%), but nearly a third of the Schrattenkalk species (30%) was restricted to the upper Barremian–lower Aptian of the Schrattenkalk Formation; this suggests that the Schrattenkalk platform sensu lato was a diversity center and a crucial reservoir for coral recruitment. The majority (86%) of the Schrattenkalk corals thrived in a shallow-water, reefal to perireefal, subtropical marine environment. In general, the Schrattenkalk coral assemblages are characteristic of moderate- to high-energy environments of the inner shelf to shore zone, having morphotype associations that typically prevail down to 10–15 m depth. In contrast, for the Upper Schrattenkalk coral fauna of central Switzerland (Hergiswil), a non-reefal paleoenvironment at a depth of several tens of meters is suggested by the morphotypes of the taxa and types of microfacies present. The corals of the Schrattenkalk Formation occurred in both photozoan (Lower and Upper Schrattenkalk members) and heterozoan (Rawil member) carbonate-producing communities. With regard to taxonomic diversity, the Schrattenkalk coral fauna is comparable to the most species-rich Upper Jurassic reef assemblages and represents the last major coral-reef development of the Mesozoic.
... Akester and Martel (2000) stated that the characteristic sphenoid shape of Arcomytilus shell is suitable for quiet lagoonal settings. According to Leinfelder (1986), Aguirre et al. (2006) andSchneider et al. (2010), the considerable variability in shape of the Upper Jurassic Arcomytilus could be explained as a competition for space and food. Our specimens resemble Arcomytilus laitmairensis (de Loriol, 1883) as described and figured by Fürsich and Pan (2014, p. 8, pl. 1, Figs. 5e8), especially in their general form and ornamentation. ...
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... Detailed thickness and lithofacies data (1) for the Castanheira and Abadia units (see a.o. Leinfelder 1994) and (2) for the Kimmeridgian (post-Amaral) to Tithonian units (see Nose 1985, Leinfelder 1986) have been projected into the transect from outcrops. Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments are not preserved in the Arruda subbasin due to basin uplift and inversion since the late Miocene . ...
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Inúmeras denominações têm servido na língua portuguesa, desde há mais de sessenta anos, para designar a bacia sedimentar de tipo atlântico, formada entre o Triásico Superior e o final do Cretácico Inferior, localizada na parte central da margem ocidental ibérica e associada aos episódios iniciais de fragmentação da Pangea, que levaram à abertura do Atlântico Norte; nos últimos anos elas resumem-se a apenas duas – Bacia Lusitânica ou Bacia Lusitaniana. O presente texto defende esta segunda posição com base em razões de natureza estritamente geológica/estratigráfica. É demonstrado que o adjectivo “lusitaniano” não é um estrangeirismo nem se trata de uma tradução errada de termos quer da língua inglesa quer da francesa. É discutida de forma aprofundada a origem dos Lusitanos e da Lusitânia, dos pontos de vista linguístico, etnográfico, histórico e geográfico, para mostrar como é desadequada a utilização da designação “Bacia Lusitânica” (ou mesmo “Lusitana”); por outro lado julgamos demonstrar a justeza da designação de “Bacia Lusitaniana”, claramente ligada à existência do “andar Lusitaniano” na Bacia Lusitaniana.
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