Article

Thermal and rheological study of polysaccharides for enhanced oil recovery

Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (Impact Factor: 2.04). 07/2006; 85(1). DOI: 10.1007/s10973-005-7339-7

ABSTRACT

Enhanced oil recovery
process is based on the injection of chemical products (e.g. polymers, surfactants,
gases) or thermal energy (originating from the injection of e.g. steam, hot
water, in situ combustion) to recover crude oil. One of these processes use
polymer solution to mobilize the oil in the reservoir. In this work the thermal
decomposition kinetic of xanthan gum, guar gum and a blend (50/50 mass/mass%)
was studied according to Ozawa–Flynn–Wall method. According to
the kinetic analysis, the studied systems were copmpatible. The rheological
behavior of the samples was studied in distilled water and seawater at different
temperatures. Only the blend was studied in distilled water presented synergism
(enhancement in material properties like stability and viscosity) which was
confirmed through rheology.

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    • "Both xanthan and guar gums are extensively used in food, cosmetics, and oil recovery applications. Xanthan/guar gum mixtures are widely used as viscosity enhancement agents in the food industry due to the synergy that they provide: mixture solution viscosities are higher than those of either of the two pure polymers at the same total polymer concentration (Cairns et al. 1986; Lopes et al. 1992; Mothé et al. 2006). The synergy has been studied mostly in the concentrated regime when the solutions become highly viscoelastic: elastic moduli of the mixtures also exceed the values of the individual polymers (Fernandes 1995; Schorsch et al. 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mixtures of xanthan and guar gum in aqueous solution were studied in two flow situations: simple shear and porous media. In addition, solids transport in vertical annular flow of sand suspensions was explored. The zero shear rate viscosity of the solutions displayed a pronounced synergy: the viscosity of the mixture is higher than that of the polymer solutions in a wide range of relative concentrations of the two polymers, in agreement with previous literature. However, at relatively high shear rates, the viscosity approaches the value of the more viscous xanthan gum solutions at mass fractions of xanthan gum between 0.1 and 0.15, and the degree of synergy substantially decreases. Stress relaxation experiments in simple shear indicate that the polymer mixtures exhibit a well-defined yield stress after relaxation that is absent in solutions of pure polymers. In porous media flow experiments, a synergistic behavior mimicking the shear flow results was obtained for the polymer mixtures at low shear rates. However, at a critical shear rate, the apparent viscosity in porous media flows exceeds the shear viscosity due to the elongational nature of flow in the pores. The solids transport capacity in annular flows is well-represented by trends in shear viscosity and stress relaxation behavior. However, the lack of viscosity synergy at high shear rates limits the applicability of the mixtures as a way to improve solids suspension capacity in annular flows.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Rheologica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: Guar gum is a natural polysaccharide that has been explored for various applications. However, there is a limited number of studies in which guar gum has been used as a filler in a polymer. The effect of guar gum and its hydroxypropyl derivatives in unsaturated polyester composites were investigated with respect to their mechanical and chemical properties. The effect of hydroxypropylation and the degree of hydroxypropylation on the properties of resultant composites were also studied. It was observed that the inclusion of guar gum and its derivatives resulted in composites with increased solvent resistance and mechanical properties. An increase in the degree of substitution resulted in increased polymer-filler interac- tion reflected by a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the composites. These results open an avenue for the use of polysaccharides and their derivatives as eco-friendly fillers as a replacement of mineral fillers.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2007 · eXPRESS Polymer Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Guar gum (GG) and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) are widely used in a variety of applications ranging from foods, pharmaceutics to mining and explosives. However, there have been very few studies conducted investigating the use of these materials as fillers in polymer composites. GG and HPG were incorporated in an epoxy matrix and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites were determined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength of the composites indicate that they provide reinforcement to the composites upto 5–7.5 phr after which there is a rapid decrease in the respective properties. HPG with higher propoxy content was found to provide greater reinforcement due to its increased hydrophobic nature leading to greater polymer–filler interaction. The nature of the filler required that the water absorption and related tests be carried out. The composites showed increased water absorption and also weight loss on exposure to acid and alkali environments, with HPGs showing greater variations when compared with GG, making the composites susceptible to moisture. The study shows that these fillers make an inexpensive, eco-friendly, and renewable addition to conventional organic and inorganic fillers where the composites do not come into immediate contact with water. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 48:124–132, 2008. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers
    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Polymer Engineering and Science
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