Article

Topal B, Fieuws S, Aerts R, et al. Pancreaticojejunostomy versus pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic or periampullary tumours: a multicentre randomised trial

University Hospitals KU Leuven, Abdominal Surgery, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: .
The Lancet Oncology (Impact Factor: 24.69). 06/2013; 14(7):655–662. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70126-8

ABSTRACT

Background
Postoperative pancreatic fistula is the leading cause of death and morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy. However, the best reconstruction method to reduce occurrence of fistula is debated. We did a multicentre, randomised superiority trial to compare the outcomes of different reconstructive techniques in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic or periampullary tumours.

Methods
Patients aged 18–85 years with confirmed or suspected neoplasms of the pancreas, distal bile duct, ampulla vateri, duodenum, or periampullary tumours were eligible for inclusion. An internet-based platform was used to randomly assign patients to either pancreaticojejunostomy or pancreaticogastrostomy as reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy, using permuted blocks with six patients per block. Within each centre the randomisation was stratified on the pancreatic duct diameter (≤3 mm vs >3 mm) measured at the time of surgery. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of clinical postoperative pancreatic fistula (grade B or C) as defined by the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The study was not masked and analyses were done by intention to treat. Patient follow-up was closed 2 months after discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00830778.

Findings
Between June, 2009, and August, 2012, we randomly allocated 167 patients to receive pancreaticojejunostomy and 162 to receive pancreaticogastrostomy. 33 (19·8%) patients in the pancreaticojejunostomy group and 13 (8·0%) in the pancreaticogastrostomy group had clinical postoperative pancreatic fistula (OR 2·86, 95% CI 1·38–6·17; p=0·002). The overall incidence of postoperative complications did not differ significantly between the groups (99 in the pancreaticojejunostomy group vs 100 in the pancreaticogastrostomy group), although more events in the pancreaticojejunostomy group were of grade ≥3a than in the pancreaticogastrostomy group (39 vs 35).

Interpretation
In patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head or periampullary tumours, pancreaticogastrostomy is more efficient than pancreaticojejunostomy in reducing the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula.

Funding
Funding Johnson & Johnson Medical Devices, Belgium.

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    • "Different solutions have been proposed like pancreaticogastrostomy [5] [6], pancreatic duct occlusion, several techniques for pancreaticojejunostomy [7e10], use of biologic glues or sealants [11], energy devices [12], external or internal pancreatic duct stenting [13e15] and the use of one, two or any surgical drain [16e18]. Despite the recent " new deal " of pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) [5] [19] [20], pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) is still the most performed pancreatic anastomosis and the effect of suture material on POPF incidence has not been clearly defined. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pancreatic fistula represents the most important complication in terms of clinical management and costs after pancreaticoduodenectomy. A lot of studies have investigated several techniques in order to reduce pancreatic fistula, but data on the effect of sutures material on pancreatic fistula are not available. The analysis investigated the role of suture material in influencing pancreatic fistula rate and severity. Methods: Results from 130 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomy with pancreaticojejunostomy performed between March 2013 and September 2014 were prospectively collected and analyzed. In 65 cases pancreaticojejunostomy was performed with absorbable sutures, in the other 65 cases using non-absorbable sutures (polyester, silk and polybutester). Results: Pancreaticojejunostomy with non-absorbable sutures had the same incidence of pancreatic fistula, but less severe and with less episodes of post-operative bleeding if compared with absorbable sutures. A sub-analysis was carried out comparing polydioxanone with polyester: the latter was associated with a lower pancreatic fistula rate (11.9% vs. 31.7%; p = 0,01) and less severe pancreatic anastomosis dehiscence (grade C - 0% vs. 30%; p = 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed that hard pancreatic texture, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma at final histology and the use of polyester for pancreaticojejunostomy were associated with a lower pancreatic fistula rate (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of pancreatic juice and bile on different sutures and pancreatic tissue response to different materials. However, pancreaticojejunostomy performed with polyester sutures is safe and feasible and is associated to a lower incidence of pancreatic fistula with less severe clinical impact.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pancreatology
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    • "Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth most common malignancy and is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, reflected by a median survival of <6 months and a 5-year survival of <5% [1], [2]. Currently, surgical resection provides the only hope of a cure for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma, whereas high rates of postoperative complications remain significant causes of mortality and markedly prolonged hospitalizations [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the long-term survival, mortality, morbidity and the operation-related events in patients with periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma undergoing pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) and pylorus-resecting pancreaticoduodenectomy (PRPD). A systematic search of literature databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) was performed to identify studies. Outcome measures comparing PPPD versus PRPD for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma were long-term survival, mortality, morbidity (overall morbidity, delayed gastric emptying [DGE], pancreatic fistula, wound infection, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage) and operation related events (hospital stays, operating time, intraoperative blood loss and red blood cell transfusions). Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 622 patients were identified and included in the analysis. Among these patients, it revealed no difference in long-term survival between the PPPD and PRPD groups (HR = 0.23, p = 0.11). There was a lower rate of DGE (RR = 2.35, p = 0.04, 95% CI, 1.06-5.21) with PRPD. Mortality, overall morbidity, pancreatic fistula, wound infection, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage were not significantly different between the groups. PPPDs were performed more quickly than PRPDs (WMD = 53.25 minutes, p = 0.01, 95% CI, 12.53-93.97); and there was less estimated intraoperative blood loss (WMD = 365.21 ml, p = 0.006, 95% CI, 102.71-627.71) and fewer red blood cell transfusions (WMD = 0.29 U, p = 0.003, 95% CI, 0.10-0.48) in patients undergoing PPPD. The hospital stays showed no significant difference. PPPD had advantages over PRPD in operating time, intraoperative blood loss and red blood cell transfusions, but had a significantly higher rate of DGE for periampullary and pancreatic carcinoma. PPPD and PRPD had comparable mortality and morbidity including pancreatic fistulas, wound infections, postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, ascites and gastroenterostomy leakage. Our conclusions were limited by the available data. Further evaluations of high-quality RCTs are needed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreaticojejunostomy and pancreaticogastrostomy are both used for reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy; which method is best is still debated. A nationwide multicentre randomized clinical trial that compared these two types of reconstruction has demonstrated that pancreaticogastrostomy is associated with a substantially lower rate of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula than pancreaticojejunostomy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &#38 Hepatology
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