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Abstract

Past research has repeatedly identified relations between optimal experience—or flow—and well-being across the lifespan. In the attempt to identify the conditions favoring this experience, some studies took into account personality traits. While most of them operationalized flow in terms of intensity, we presently focused on perceived occurrence versus absence of flow. Specifically, we investigated the relations between flow occurrence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, activities associated with flow, and personality in adolescence. A group of 408 Italian teenagers (mean age = 17.31; SD = 1.13) were administered Flow Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales, and the Big Five Questionnaire. Participants reporting optimal experience in their lives were compared with those not reporting it. Results showed that adolescents experiencing flow reported higher satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being than their counterparts. Findings from logistic regression analyses further showed that openness to experience was the sole personality factor predicting flow occurrence, and that no personality factors were predictive of type of activities adolescents associated with flow. Findings point to the promotion of optimal experience among adolescents through the support of curiosity and openness to new experiences in engaging opportunities for action. They further call for the development of an integrated model taking into account both individual predispositions and social and cultural factors in well-being promotion.

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... It is theorized to be a major factor in compliance behaviors, and has been used to explain challenges faced by patients in medical (Fogarty 1997) and therapeutic settings (e.g., Buboltz et al. 2003;Seemann et al. 2005). Reactance is negatively correlated with openness (Dowd, Milne and Wise 1991;Seemann et al. 2005) and positively correlated with neuroticism (Seemann et al. 2005) and anxiety (Dowd et al. 1991); flow is positively correlated with openness (Bassi et al. 2014) and negatively related with neuroticism and anxiety (Ullén et al. 2012). Thus, this pattern of relationships suggests flow and reactance should be negatively correlated and identifies reactance as a potential barrier to experiencing flow. ...
... As previously mentioned, Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi (1988) posited an autotelic personality predisposed to experiencing flow, and subsequently identified a combination of receptive (e.g., openness to new experiences and challenges) and active (e.g., engagement and persistence in building knowledge and skill) characteristics often held in tension, which fosters flow (Baumann 2012, p. 167). Csikszentmihalyi and Csikszentmihalyi's theory implies flow experience is related to individual personality characteristics, and several investigations have provided supporting evidence via: (a) positive correlations between trait flow and openness to experience (Hager and Marszalek 2016;Bassi et al. 2014), conscientiousness (Hager and Marszalek 2016;Ullén et al. 2012), and extraversion (Hager and Marszalek 2016;Ross and Keiser 2014); (b) positive correlations between state flow and internal locus of control (Keller and Bless 2008;Keller and Blomann 2008); (c) negative correlations between trait flow and neuroticism (Hager and Marszalek 2016;Ross and Keiser 2014;Ullén et al. 2012), agreeableness (Ross and Keiser 2014) and anxiety (Marszalek 2009;Ullén et al. 2012); negative correlations between state flow and anxiety (Marszalek 2009). The pattern of observed correlations suggests different personality traits may facilitate flow (e.g., openness, conscientiousness, locus of control) or hinder it (e.g., neuroticism, anxiety), and the characteristics that hinder it are shared with another motivational state, reactance. ...
... As mentioned above, both flow and reactance are state-trait constructs, and tendencies toward behaviors regarding control are components of both trait flow (i.e., autotelic personality) and trait reactance. The autotelic personality is characterized in part by a propensity to accept the paradox of control, as reflected in its positive association with the Big Five personality factor of openness to experience (Hager and Marszalek 2016;Bassi et al. 2014), which itself is partly characterized by flexibility (Schretlen et al. 2010) and creativity (Kaufman and Gregoire 2015). At the same time, trait reactance also has been observed to positively correlate with openness (Seemann et al. 2005), most likely due impulsivity, which is a feature of both and characterized by a loss of control (DeYoung 2011). ...
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Flow is a motivational state occurring when one’s skill level is balanced with the challenge of a task, leading to optimal performance and profound enjoyment. Its connection with optimal performance has drawn interest in fields focused on performance—such as sports, education, and work—and its connection with enjoyment has drawn interest in fields focused on subjective well-being, such as leisure and mental health. Facilitation of flow can involve both personality traits that promote it and those that hinder it, such as reactance . Reactance occurs when one perceives either a threat to a freedom or its actual loss, leading to behaviors directed toward restoring that lost/threatened freedom. Reactance is negatively correlated with personality traits such as openness and positively correlated with neuroticism and anxiety, whereas flow is positively correlated with openness and negatively related with neuroticism and anxiety. After comparing several structural equation models using a sample of 369 postsecondary students, a first-order confirmatory factor analysis model was retained. Results indicated negative correlations between most flow factors and two of four reactance factors (resentment of authority and tolerance of conflict), and positive correlations with the remaining two (resistance to influence and preservation of freedom). Thus the strength and direction of the association between flow and reactance depend on the factors involved. These findings reflect a complex relationship between flow and reactance and provide insight into how optimal performance and subjective well-being can be better facilitated.
... Facets of extraversion, such as high assertiveness, activeness, and cheerfulness, are associated with taking active control of activities and having a general interest in life (McCrae & Costa, 1987; between flow proneness and extraversion (e.g., Johnson et al., 2014;Mesurado & de Minzi, 2013), only one out of five empirical studies has reported a significant positive relationship between flow proneness and openness to experience (Bassi et al., 2014). One potential reason for this lack of empirical support is that the measurement of flow proneness focuses on flow experiences in daily life but not the traits supporting it. ...
... Finally, facets of agreeableness, such as sympathy and altruism, are mainly socially focused (McCrae & Costa, 1987). Given that autotelic personality does not concern the social environment, many studies have not found a significant relationship between the two (e.g., Bassi et al., 2014;Ullén et al., 2012). Therefore, we hypothesized that agreeableness would be independent from (i.e., weakly related to) autotelic personality (|ρ| < .30;Cohen, ...
... In our study, the APQ significantly predicts flow proneness above and beyond the five personality traits, suggesting that the scale has good incremental validity of the scale. In addition, as suggested by the literature on flow experience and subjective well-being (e.g., Bassi et al., 2014), APQ scores positively predict satisfaction with life through the mediation of flow proneness. This also suggests good criterion validity. ...
Article
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Autotelic personality is a constellation of dispositional attributes that facilitate engagement and enjoyment in daily activities. However, there is no existing measurement directly capturing the attributes of autotelic personality that are identified in the literature. In the three studies reported here (total N = 900), we developed an Autotelic Personality Questionnaire (APQ) and evaluated its reliability and validity. Results from the studies provide support for adequate internal consistency, longitudinal invariance, and test–retest reliability (Study 1 and Study 2). Furthermore, APQ scores were significantly correlated with measures of conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, neuroticism, and internal locus of control. In addition, APQ scores predicted flow proneness and satisfaction with life (Study 2). These results provide support for construct and criterion validity. Finally, people high in autotelic personality experienced more flow state than those low in autotelic personality during a word unscrambling task (Study 3), indicating good criterion validity of the APQ scores. Limitations, future research, and implications are discussed.
... By virtue of these positive characteristics, flow represents a relevant indicator of good psycho-social functioning in adolescence (Asakawa & Csikszentmihalyi, 1998;Bassi et al., 2014;Freire, 2013;Hektner, 2001;Larson, 2000;Mao et al., 2016;Mesurado et al., 2016). Teenagers who experienced flow reported higher life satisfaction and psychological well-being than those who did not (Asakawa & Csikszentmihalyi, 1998;Bassi et al., 2014;Steele & Fullagar, 2009). ...
... By virtue of these positive characteristics, flow represents a relevant indicator of good psycho-social functioning in adolescence (Asakawa & Csikszentmihalyi, 1998;Bassi et al., 2014;Freire, 2013;Hektner, 2001;Larson, 2000;Mao et al., 2016;Mesurado et al., 2016). Teenagers who experienced flow reported higher life satisfaction and psychological well-being than those who did not (Asakawa & Csikszentmihalyi, 1998;Bassi et al., 2014;Steele & Fullagar, 2009). Positive strong correlations were also observed between flow and positive affect, and negative, though weak, correlations with negative affect (Rogatko, 2009;Tavares et al., 2020). ...
... Finally, descriptive analyses were performed on adolescents' flow activities before and during the pandemic (Aim 3). In line with previous studies (Bassi et al., 2014;Bassi & Delle Fave, 2012;Delle Fave & Bassi, 2003;Delle Fave et al., 2011;Freire, 2013;Mesurado, 2010;Schmidt et al., 2014), we expected participants to primarily report flow activities in the learning and leisure domains and, to a small extent, during interpersonal relations. In addition, based on the above-mentioned findings obtained from persons with disabilities and from women interviewed during the early phase of the pandemic, changes between pre-pandemic and current activities were anticipated. ...
Article
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Research highlighted the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' emotional well-being worldwide. In the attempt to identify resources which could facilitate adolescents' adjustment , this study examined the occurrence of flow experience and related activities, and the association between flow and emotional well-being among Italian teenagers. In Spring 2021, 150 students (40.7% girls) aged 15-19 completed instruments assessing flow and related activities before and during the pandemic, and current positive and negative affect. Findings revealed that only 24.7% of the participants currently reported flow; over half of those reporting flow before the pandemic did not experience it subsequently, and only 6.5% of those not reporting flow before the pandemic currently experienced it. Participants with flow both before and during the pandemic reported higher positive affect than teens who never experienced flow (p = .011), or lost it (p = .006). No group differences were detected for negative affect. Learning, structured leisure, and interpersonal relations were the domains most frequently associated with flow before and during the pandemic, but after the pandemic onset a reduction in the variety of flow activities and limited identification of new flow domains were observed. The association of flow with higher emotional well-being even in pandemic times suggests the potential usefulness of interventions promoting flow retrieval under adverse circumstances.
... Relation between flow and extraversion was confirmed by Bassi et al. (2013). A study on a sample of adolescents found that adolescents who achieve higher scores on the extraversion scale experience more flow and experience is more intense in schoolwork such as problem solving, finding the best solutions, etc. ...
... Ross and Keiser (2014) state agreeableness is negatively related to experiencing a state of flow due to high levels of modesty in individuals who are high in agreeableness. Alternatively, agreeableness and flow have been positively correlated in a study by Bassi et al. (2013). Chu et al. (2013) could not find support that agreeableness mediates flow experience and job performance. ...
... h2 Extraversion is positively correlated to flow at work. Bassi et al. (2013). A study on a sample of adolescents found that adolescents who achieve higher scores on the extraversion scale experience more flow. ...
Article
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In this paper we assessed the connection between flow at work, work satisfaction and personality traits among 890 teachers from Slovenian public primary schools. We assumed flow at work was positively correlated to work satisfaction. Furthermore, flow at work was hypothesized to be positively correlated to extraversion and conscientiousness. Alternatively, flow at work was hypothesized to be negatively correlated to emotional stability. Three questionnaires: BAIJS, FLOW-W and 10-Item Personality Scale were applied. The main findings were that teachers who are satisfied with their work have repeatedly experienced a state of flow in their workplace. Likewise, state of flow has been more likely experienced by teachers with higher levels of extraversion, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness. Teachers with low emotional stability have been less likely to experience flow at work as teachers with higher emotional stability. Implications of these findings are being discussed.
... In addition, openness and music-specific flow were found to be the strongest predictors of music practice (Butkovic et al., 2015). In line with this, further studies suggest that extraversion and openness to experience are positively related to flow, while high neuroticism and introversion related to less flow experience (Vittersø, 2003;Baumann and Scheffer, 2010;Mesurado and Richaud de Minzi, 2013;Bassi et al., 2014b;Heller et al., 2015). ...
... In studies considering wellbeing, flow experience tends to be positively associated with the concept of emotional wellbeing (Wanner et al., 2006), and psychological wellbeing (Bassi et al., 2014a,b), with others showing that flow experience can predict psychological wellbeing (Steele and Fullagar, 2009;Bassi et al., 2014b), life satisfaction (Collins et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2010;Bassi et al., 2014b), happiness (Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter, 2003), job satisfaction (Maeran and Cangiano, 2013), course satisfaction (Shin, 2006), and e-satisfaction and e-loyalty (Hsu et al., 2013). ...
... In studies considering wellbeing, flow experience tends to be positively associated with the concept of emotional wellbeing (Wanner et al., 2006), and psychological wellbeing (Bassi et al., 2014a,b), with others showing that flow experience can predict psychological wellbeing (Steele and Fullagar, 2009;Bassi et al., 2014b), life satisfaction (Collins et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2010;Bassi et al., 2014b), happiness (Csikszentmihalyi and Hunter, 2003), job satisfaction (Maeran and Cangiano, 2013), course satisfaction (Shin, 2006), and e-satisfaction and e-loyalty (Hsu et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Flow is a gratifying state of deep involvement and absorption that individuals report when facing a challenging activity and they perceive adequate abilities to cope with it ( EFRN, 2014 ). The flow concept was introduced by Csikszentmihalyi in 1975, and interest in flow research is growing. However, to our best knowledge, no scoping review exists that takes a systematic look at studies on flow which were published between the years 2000 and 2016. Overall, 252 studies have been included in this review. Our review (1) provides a framework to cluster flow research, (2) gives a systematic overview about existing studies and their findings, and (3) provides an overview about implications for future research. The provided framework consists of three levels of flow research. In the first “Individual” level are the categories for personality, motivation, physiology, emotion, cognition, and behavior. The second “Contextual” level contains the categories for contextual and interindividual factors and the third “Cultural” level contains cultural factors that relate to flow. Using our framework, we systematically present the findings for each category. While flow research has made progress in understanding flow, in the future, more experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to gain deeper insights into the causal structure of flow and its antecedents and consequences.
... Flow promotes well-being (77)(78)(79)(80)(81) and performance (79,(82)(83)(84). Like humor (61), the transactional model of stress and coping (60) can also be associated with flow (85). ...
... In the study by van Oortmerssen et al. (88) a small correlation between flow and humor was found, but no further effects of humor and flow could be reported. Our results are particularly relevant for the work context, because well-being (77)(78)(79)(80)(81) and job satisfaction (109) are positively influenced by flow experience. ...
Article
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The media increasingly speak of a care crisis. Systematic support is needed to prepare nursing apprentices for the high demands of their profession and to reduce the number of nurses who finally quit. Particularly in stressful jobs like nursing, humor as a coping strategy can have a beneficial effect on perceived stress and overall work enjoyment. In this study, we used a humor intervention among nursing staff in training and evaluated its effects on humor, stress, work enjoyment, the meaningfulness of work, and flow experience. The sample consists of 104 nurses in training. The intervention group received a 3-h humor intervention, while the control group received no intervention. Positive and negative affect were measured immediately before and after the intervention. Humor was measured before the intervention (t0) and again 6 months later (t1); at t1, we again measured humor and also stress, work meaningfulness, work enjoyment, and flow experience. Our analyses showed a beneficial change in positive and negative affect right after the intervention. By means of repeated measures ANOVA we could further confirm an effect of the intervention on reported humor 6 months later. Humor mediated positive effects of the humor intervention on perceived meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and on the frequency of flow at work. Also, we found a significant negative relationship between humor and stress measured at t1. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of humor interventions in promoting humor, and, through this, the meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and the frequency of flow experience. Implications of the use of humor interventions in the nursing profession are discussed.
... The importance of personality and personality traits as Flow drivers has been highlighted previously, particularly concerning Flow pronenessthe individuals' propensity to experience Flow (e.g., Kowal & Fortier, 1999;Mills & Fullagar, 2008;Rea, 2000;Voiskounsky & Smyslova, 2003). As for the motivation, several studies found that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are pivotal in enabling individuals to develop skills to respond to environmental cues and reaching the state of activation (Bassi et al., 2014;Mesurado & de Minzi, 2013;Ross & Keiser, 2014). Hence, to achieve the Flow in tourism, the tourist must display some level of Flow proneness and be motivated to activate the Flow state when provided with adequate environmental cues. ...
... Moreover, this review identified that the most frequent Flow outcomes studied were about life satisfaction, well-being, happiness, pleasure, and enjoyment (Bassi et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2010;Collins et al., 2009;Pelet et al., 2017;Rijavec, Ljubin-Golub, & Olčar, 2016;Ullen et al., 2012). However, it Source: Own elaboration. ...
Article
The flourishing positive psychology field has Flow as a core construct. This systematic review of 185 articles examines Flow's concept, to analyse it theoretically, methodologically, empirically, and to provide an agenda for Tourism research. This paper adds to the knowledge in tourism psychology by exploring the Flow framework's core elements, incorporating its drivers, processes and outcomes, as an instrument to improve tourists' experiences. The study suggests the relevance of considering the tourist's characteristics and both the positive and negative outcomes of the Flow experience and other concepts, such as immersion or cognitive stimulation. Extant studies often use the Flow state scale as a measurement tool, but new opportunities are offered by using physiology instruments. Several propositions are put forth to foster the investigation on Flow in the tourism field, and to further the understanding of the tourists' behaviour and experience.
... Similar findings were also ascertained in other studies involving Japanese college students (Asakawa, 2004) and Italian Secondary school students (Bassi et al., 2014). In addition, in a study by Bassi et al. (2014), participants with higher levels of flow reported higher levels of life satisfaction. ...
... Similar findings were also ascertained in other studies involving Japanese college students (Asakawa, 2004) and Italian Secondary school students (Bassi et al., 2014). In addition, in a study by Bassi et al. (2014), participants with higher levels of flow reported higher levels of life satisfaction. ...
Thesis
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of individual and collective flow experienced by Secondary school students while they engaged in band. More specifically, it aimed to test Sawyer’s (2006) theorisation that collective flow predicts individual flow, and also to ascertain if grit directly predicts flow in instrumental contexts (Miksza & Tan, 2015). Participants were 83 band students from two Secondary school bands in Singapore. Data were collected using two questionnaires that measured participants’ self-report levels of individual and collective flow while rehearsing, achievement goals towards band, grit while practising, commitment to band, and expectancy-value towards band. The main data analyses included: (1) descriptive statistics of all constructs (Research Question One); (2) between-subject t-test and one-way ANOVA to identify whether any constructs differed by gender or instrumental families (Research Question One); (3) correlational and regression analyses (Research Question Two); and (4) mediation analyses (Research Question Three). Findings indicated a reciprocal relationship between individual and collective flow: individual flow predicted collective flow and vice versa. Among the myriad psychological constructs, value emerged strongly in the data—it was not only positively associated with commitment, mastery-approach goals, individual and collective flow, but was also the strongest predictor of collective flow. Finally, the effect of grit on individual flow was found to be indirect and mediated by expectancy and value. Based on the findings, implications for theory and practice were proffered.
... They are more open to experiences and knowledge outside their immediate domain and interest, so it is expected that this contributes to them investing their attention more intensely and more often, which again leads to more frequent flow experiences. The positive relationship between openness to experience and flow has been backed up by some studies (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014;Hager, 2015;Tatalović Vorkapić & Gović, 2016;Ullén, Harmat, Thorell, & Madison, 2016). However, other https: //doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.11.7 Corresponding Author: Diana Olčar Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference eISSN: 89 studies found no significant relationship between these two constructs (Johnson, Keiser, Skarin, & Ross, 2014;Ullén et al., 2012;Zager Kocjan & Avsec, 2017). ...
... Therefore, it was supposed that flow proneness would be related to intellect only while playing music and studying, but not during leisure and routine activities. Also, some previous research has shown a positive relationship between flow proneness and openness/intellect (Bassi et al., 2014;Hager, 2015;https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2019.11.7 Corresponding Author: Diana Olčar Selection and peer-review under Vorkapić & Gović, 2016;Ullén et al., 2016). This hypothesis was supported by zero-order correlations, but when all personality predictors are put together in the hierarchical regression model it was found that intellect was related to flow while playing music and not to flow while studying. ...
... Openness-to-experience is highly predictive of flow in both non-musicians [55] and musicians [56] and has been closely related to musical talent and creativity [57,58]. Csikszentmihalyi and Rathunde [59] conjectured that those who are open to challenges or are willing to persist and engage in stimulating activities would be more likely to achieve flow. ...
... Finally, using hierarchical regression, we investigated (iv) whether trait anxiety added any additional predictive power for flow proneness above and beyond these known predictor traits: EI [37], LOC [68], grit [70], conscientiousness, openness-to-experience, and emotional stability [48,55,56], as well as musical training [70]. ...
Article
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Flow is a highly focussed state of consciousness that is rewarding, fulfilling, and sought after by many, especially musicians. It is characterised by exceptional levels of concentration, loss of self-consciousness, and competent control over one’s actions. Several personality and non-cognitive traits have been positively linked with flow proneness, such as emotional intelligence; however, anxiety is thought to be the antithesis of flow, yet the relationship between trait anxiety and flow proneness in musicians is not adequately characterised. This study investigated the individual differences in flow proneness in contemporary musicians ( N = 664), focusing on the interaction of trait anxiety and emotional intelligence. We identified a significant negative correlation between trait anxiety and flow. Emotional intelligence was positively correlated with flow proneness and negatively with trait anxiety. Moderation analysis revealed a difference in the relationship between trait anxiety and flow depending on the level of emotional intelligence; there was no correlation in those with low emotional intelligence, whereas a strong negative relationship was found in those with high emotional intelligence. Finally, hierarchical regression indicated that musical training was the most substantial predictor of all the tested variables and that trait anxiety did not add any predictive power on top of the known predictors. Altogether, this study provided new insights into the possible disruption of flow proneness linked to high anxiety and low emotional intelligence in contemporary musicians.
... One study that focused on the psychological health of nearly 600 adolescents (Albert-Lőrincz, Albert-Lőrincz, Kádár, Krizbai, & Lukács-Márton, 2011) showed that psychological immune systems, or the ability to protect oneself from internal or external psychological harm, complements and enables flow experience. Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, and Delle Fave (2014) found that openness to experience is the sole personality trait correlated with flow experience among adolescents, and the higher the frequency of flow, the higher their satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being was. To that end, those same authors (Bassi et al., 2014) recognized that personality traits, in general, are becoming more of a stable and permanent part of the individual by this age. ...
... Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, and Delle Fave (2014) found that openness to experience is the sole personality trait correlated with flow experience among adolescents, and the higher the frequency of flow, the higher their satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being was. To that end, those same authors (Bassi et al., 2014) recognized that personality traits, in general, are becoming more of a stable and permanent part of the individual by this age. Besides, parents and educators should be encouraging adolescents to be more open to new experiences, as this could lead them to more flow experiences and a more positive developmental trajectory. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the idea of flow experience in human development. We consider that the study of flow and its complexity should take a developmental and ecological framework into consideration since the experience of flow occurs in the interaction between the individual and his/her daily contexts. Besides this, we show how flow is, by its nature, anchored in developmental science and developmental psychology, contributing to the development of new skills and resources that help the individual to mature, grow and reach an optimal level of functioning.
... Flow research has increasingly focused on the positive consequences of flow, emphasizing the importance of flow in the workplace (Peifer and Wolters 2017). With positive associations with both wellbeing (Bassi et al. 2014;Bassi et al. 2013;Steele and Fullagar 2009) and performance (e.g., Christandl et al. 2018;Demerouti 2006;Engeser et al. 2005;Schüler 2007), flow is a desirable experience for both employees and organizations. People who experience flow at work have higher energy levels after work (Demerouti et al. 2012), and flow has been found to mediate the association between positive work-related attitude and wellbeing (Rivkin et al. 2016). ...
... Thus, results from both studies support the hypothesis that reduced flow experience during work or leisure time may be involved in the process by which unfinished tasks translate into decreased wellbeing. This evidence corroborates other studies (e.g., Asakawa 2010;Bassi et al. 2013;Collins et al. 2009;Steele and Fullagar 2009) that have demonstrated a positive relationship between flow experience and wellbeing. As we analyzed effects of flow experience at work on wellbeing in both Studies 1 and 2, our results also corroborate other research (Fritz and Sonnentag 2005) showing that positive work experiences are associated with enhanced wellbeing. ...
Article
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The beneficial potential of flow experience is highlighted by research demonstrating positive associations between flow and wellbeing. Flow has also been associated with stress—a relationship that has not received much attention in the context of work. Unfinished tasks have been identified as a crucial work-related stressor in recent occupational stress research. Extending previous research, we examine in two consecutive studies how unfinished tasks are related to flow and whether flow plays a mediational role between unfinished tasks and wellbeing. Study 1 adopted a cross-sectional design, with 93 employees taking part in an online survey assessing their work experiences during the previous two weeks. Study 2 employed a short-term diary design and 149 participants (85 employees and 64 students) responded to our survey at three points of measurement: after work/study, before going to bed, and in the next morning. Results from both studies provided evidence for a negative quadratic relationship between unfinished tasks and flow at work/study, with low to medium levels of unfinished tasks being unrelated to flow, while high levels of unfinished tasks were negatively associated with flow. The relationship of unfinished tasks at work/study and flow during an evening activity was negative. Both studies supported the postulated mediating role of flow in the relationship between unfinished tasks and wellbeing. Thus, finishing tasks during the day and in particular before leaving the workplace is a helpful condition to experiencing flow both at work and during non-work activities and to fostering wellbeing.
... Research also indicates that flow can result in the optimization of work and competency and also vice-versa in school teachers (Salanova, Bakker, & Llorens, 2006). In addition to increasing positive affect and reducing negative affect, flow can enhance life satisfaction in older adults and students enrolled in undergraduate programs (Bassi et al., 2013;Collins et al., 2008;Rogatko, 2007). According to Bonaauto et al. (2016), irrespective of gender or age, various self-defining activities lead to an experience of flow in one's preferred place and are also strongly associated with one's own place identity. ...
... There are contradictory findings from studies that examined the relationship between big five factors and flow. Bassi et al. (2013) report that no other personality factor of Big Five other than Openness to Experience were predictive of the type of activities associated with the flow among adolescents. On the other hand, Ross and Keiser (2014), report that big five factor model traits explained for 38% to over 50% of variances in flow-propensity. ...
Article
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... Flow has been found to be related to adaptive outcomes such as satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014;Collins, Sarkisian, & Winner, 2009). Research has also demonstrated that flow experiences improve students' academic satisfaction and achievement (Carli, Delle Fave, & Massimini, 1988;Heine, 1996;Joo, Joung, & Sim, 2011;Nakamura, 1988). ...
Article
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Purpose: Calculus is generally offered as a freshman-year course and is a prerequisite for some advanced STEM-related courses in some undergraduate programs. However, some students experience difficulties in Calculus courses, leading to lower levels of achievement. Thus, there is a need to examine the factors which may be related to students’ achievement in Calculus courses. According to relevant literature, procrastination can diminish students’ achievement. Additionally, flow emerges as an important factor that may be related to students’ achievement and procrastination, but these relationships have not been studied in the context of Calculus courses. The purpose of this study was twofold. Firstly, undergraduate students’ academic procrastination was examined in relation to dimensions of flow experiences in a Calculus-I course. Secondly, undergraduate students’ academic achievement in Calculus-I course was explored in relation to their academic procrastination and dimensions of flow experiences. Research Methods: A total of 117 undergraduate students (54% female and 46% male, Mage=23.00) from various departments participated in an online survey. Findings: Multiple regression analysis showed that among flow-experience dimensions, “concentration on the task at hand” was negatively related to procrastination. In addition, two-step hierarchical regression analysis indicated that procrastination negatively predicted achievement in the first step. However, in the second step, only the “challenge-skills balance” dimension of flow positively predicted achievement. Implications for Research and Practice: In Calculus courses, if students are given tasks that foster their focus, their procrastination behavior can be diminished. In addition, if they are given tasks that are appropriate to their level and skills, their academic achievement can be predictably higher. In this context, real-life applications should relate to students’ own interests and skills. Therefore, their academic achievement can be higher.
... Originally, Csikszentmihalyi (1975Csikszentmihalyi ( /2000 wrote about autotelic individuals who tend to engage in activities for their own sake and were characterized by curiosity, persistence, and low self-centeredness. More recently, flow intensity was found to be negatively related to neuroticism and maladaptive perfectionism, while positively to conscientiousness and adaptive perfectionism (Ljubin-Golub et al. 2018;Ullén et al. 2016), and flow occurrence was found to be related to openness to experience (Bassi et al. 2014). ...
Article
Drawing on self-determination theory and flow theory, the purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between perceptions of autonomy-supportive teacher behaviour, students’ autonomous motivation, academic flow, and burnout in a university setting. More specifically, we tested the mediational role of both autonomous motivation and academic flow in the relationship between perceived teachers’ behaviour (autonomy support) and student burnout. The sample consisted of 213 Croatian university students (70% female, mean age of 20 years). Four instruments were administered: the Learning Climate Questionnaire, the Self-Regulation Questionnaire—Academic Domain, the Wolf-Study Questionnaire, and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory-S. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that students who perceived their teachers as providing more autonomy support experienced more autonomous learning motivation which, in turn, led to more frequent flow experiences in learning and subsequently to less burnout. The results are in line with both self-determination theory and flow theory, with significant practical implications suggesting that teachers should support the satisfaction of students’ needs for autonomy and facilitate students’ academic flow in order to prevent student burnout.
... At the same time, flow which is characterized by self-consciousness and concentration can demonstrate a kind of self-control. Although flow has been investigated in association with many psychological constructs such as eudaimonic well-being [8,9] and subjective well-being [10], little research has explored its relationship to anxiety and the associated underlying mechanisms. So, can flow alleviate anxiety? ...
Article
A growing number of studies suggest that flow experience is associated with life satisfaction, eudaimonic well-being, and the perceived strength of one’s social and place identity. However, little research has placed emphasis on flow and its relations with negative experiences such as anxiety. The current study investigated the relations between flow and anxiety by considering the roles of self-esteem and academic self-efficacy. The study sample included 590 Chinese university students, who were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire on flow, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with AMOS software, in which both factorial analysis and path analysis were performed. Results revealed that the experience of flow negatively predicted anxiety, and both self-esteem and academic self-efficacy fully mediated the path between flow and anxiety. Specifically, self-esteem played a crucial and complete mediating role in this relationship, while academic self-efficacy mediated the path between self-esteem and anxiety. Our findings enrich the literature on flow experience and help with identifying practical considerations for buffering anxiety and more broadly with fostering strategies for promoting psychological sustainability and resilience.
... Most relevant to this study, flow is effective for boosting emotional well-being during stressful periods of uncertainty [12]. Notably, researchers have documented the benefits of flow across a number of cultures and countries, including Japan [13,14], Czech Republic [15], Hong Kong [16], Sweden [17], and Italy [18]. ...
Preprint
In February 2020, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was raging in Wuhan, China and quickly spreading to the rest of the world. This period was fraught with uncertainty for those in the affected areas. The present investigation examined the role of two potential coping resources during this stressful period of uncertainty: flow and mindfulness. Participants in Wuhan and other major cities affected by COVID-19 (N = 5115) completed an online survey assessing experiences of flow, mindfulness, and well-being. Longer quarantine was associated with poorer well-being; flow and mindfulness predicted better well-being on some measures. However, flow—but not mindfulness—moderated the link between quarantine length and well-being, such that people who experienced high levels flow showed little or no association between quarantine length and poorer well-being. These findings suggest that engaging in flow-inducing activities may be a particularly effective way to protect against the deleterious effects of a period of quarantine.
... Dazu passen die Befunde dass sich auch Flow-Erleben positiv auf positiven Affekt und das Wohlbefinden auswirkt (z. B., Bassi et al., 2013;Asakawa, 2010;Collins et al., 2009;Steele & Fullagar, 2009;Fullagar & Kelloway, 2009;Rogatko, 2009). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
stress-assoziierter physiologischer Parameter einhergeht, z. B. der sympathischen Aktivierung und des Stresshormons Cortisol. Steigen die Werte jedoch über ein moderates Maß hinaus an, sinkt der Flow wieder – es besteht also ein umgekehrt uförmiger Zusammenhang zwischen physiologischer Aktivierung und Flow. Flow erscheint daher als ein Zustand erhöhter physiologischer Aktivierung, auf einem Kontinuum zwischen Entspannung und Stress. Flow kann entsprechend auch als eine moderate und positive Form von Stress betrachtet werden. Mit seinen positiven Effekten auf Wohlbefinden, Motivation und Leistung hat Flow ein großes Potenzial bei der Gestaltung von gelingenden Arbeits- und Lernkontexten. Zu beachten ist, dass Flow einen Zustand erhöhter Aktivierung darstellt, weshalb sich Phasen des Flow- Erlebens mit Phasen von Entspannung abwechseln sollten.
... Likewise, we anticipated that the least effective scenario for improving mood would occur when the art-making activity reinforced rumination and self-focus. activities and they report that it is associated with enhanced emotional and physical well-being (e.g., Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014;Chilton, 2013;Collins, Sarkisian, & Winner, 2009;Noy, Levit-Binun, & Golland, 2015;Sahoo & Sahu, 2009;Tsaur, Yen, & Hsiao, 2013). In the study described below, we wanted to ensure that all the art-making activities that our participants were involved with had similar levels of flow, and, that these levels were moderate to high. ...
... Studies have shown that flow is associated with higher engagement (e.g., Ljubin-Golub, Rijavec, & Jurčec, 2018), task interest, and job performance (e.g., Chu & Lee, 2012), life satisfaction (e.g., Asakawa, 2010) and psychological well-being (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2013). On the sample of Croatian primary school teachers, Olčar (2015) found that they often experience flow at work, mostly during teaching (63%) and that work-related flow was positively related to their well-being (positive affect, engagement and life satisfaction) and negatively to their ill-being (negative affect and burnout). ...
... Research with students suggests that those who experience flow during academic work perform better and are more persistent in their academic studies (Bassi Steca, Delle Fave & Caprara, 2007;Cksikszentmihalyi, Rathunde & Whalen, 1993). Adolescents experiencing flow reported higher satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being than their counterparts (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco & Delle Fave, 2014). Flow has also been positively associated with work satisfaction (Bryce & Haworth, 2002), in-role behaviors (Demerouti, 2006), and extra-role behaviors (Demerouti, 2006;Eisenberger, Jones, et al., 2005). ...
... Video game players often experience loss of time perception, loss of self-reflective thoughts, and a merging of action and awareness, during which their actions feel as being automatic [1]. Research has shown that flow's onset may be facilitated by personality traits [2,3]. For example, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness have been positively linked to flow, due to their connection to well-being, social desirability and active lifestyle [4]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Immersive experiences are typically considered an indicator of successful game design. The ability to maintain the player’s focus and enjoyment in the game lies at the core of game mechanics. In this work, we used a custom virtual reality game aiming to induce flow, boredom and anxiety throughout specific instances in the game. We used self-reports of personality and flow in addition to physiological measures (heart rate variability) as a means of evaluating the game design. Results yielded a consistently high accuracy in the classification of low flow versus high flow conditions across multiple classifiers. Moreover, they suggested that the anticipated model-by-design was not necessarily consistent with the player’s subjective and objective data. Our approach lays promising groundwork for the automatic assessment of game design strategies and may help explain experiential variability across video game players.
... Experiencing flow can indeed be a rewarding optimal experience, but its impact goes far beyond this effect, contributing to short-and long-term positive influence regarding children and adolescents' functioning and development (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Hektner & Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). The flow experience has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents, such as greater positive affect (Rogatko, 2009), satisfaction with life (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014), happiness (Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003), sociability (Hektner, Asakawa, Knauth, & Henshaw, 2000), psychological well-being and self-esteem (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002;Steele & Fullagar, 2009), and engagement in learning and achievement (Shernoff, Csikszentmihalyi, Schneider, & Shernoff, 2003). ...
Article
This study investigated how the internal psychological states (i.e., challenge–skill perception, positive and negative affect, and effortless attention) and contextual features (i.e., activity and company) of momentary experiences relate to optimal experience in adolescents’ lives. Data were collected from 245 Portuguese adolescents (14–19 years old, 63% female) by using the experience sampling method. Multilevel modeling revealed that challenge–skill and positive affect were positively associated with optimal experience, while negative affect was negatively associated with optimal experience. Effortless attention mediated the associations between internal states and optimal experience, while activity and company only moderated some of these associations. These findings will inform practitioners about the factors that should be addressed in interventions with adolescents to promote optimal experiences in their lives.
... Research with students suggests that those who experience flow during academic work perform better and are more persistent in their academic studies (Bassi Steca, Delle Fave & Caprara, 2007;Cksikszentmihalyi, Rathunde & Whalen, 1993). Adolescents experiencing flow reported higher satisfaction with life, hedonic balance, and psychological well-being than their counterparts (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco & Delle Fave, 2014). Flow has also been positively associated with work satisfaction (Bryce & Haworth, 2002), in-role behaviors (Demerouti, 2006), and extra-role behaviors (Demerouti, 2006;Eisenberger, Jones, et al., 2005). ...
... To our knowledge there is little research that has explored well-being in professional athletes. Previous studies on flow and well-being reveal that experiencing more intense flow correlates positively with hedonic and eudemonic well-being (Smolej Fritz and Avsec, 2007;Delle Fave et al., 2011a;Moneta, 2012;Bassi et al., 2014;Baker et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Although flow has been studied extensively in music and sport, there is a lack of research comparing these two domains. With the aim of filling this gap, elite musicians and top athletes in Slovenia were contrasted in the current study. Differences for flow and satisfaction with life between elite musicians and top athletes were explored. Individual versus group performance setting and gender differences were considered. 452 participants; 114 elite Slovenian musicians (mean age 23.46 years) and 338 top Slovenian athletes (mean age 22.40 years) answered questions about flow and satisfaction with life measures. The results show differences between elite musicians and top athletes in four flow dimensions: transformation of time and autotelic experience were higher in musicians while clear goals and unambiguous feedback were higher in athletes. However, differences in global flow were not confirmed. Elite musicians and top athletes experienced flow more often in group than in individual performance settings and surprisingly it was experienced more in male than in female top performers. Satisfaction with life has a positive correlation with all nine dimensions of flow, but only challenge-skill balance was a significant predictor for satisfaction with life.
... Tako ljudi koji su radoznali, uporni i manje usmjereni sami na sebe češće i intenzivnije doživljavaju zanesenost. U okviru se petofaktorskog modela ličnosti pokazalo da je otvorenost prema iskustvu najvažnija varijabla za razlikovanje adolescenata koji doživljavaju zanesenost (u socijalnoj domeni, produktivnim zadacima ili slobodnim aktivnostima) u odnosu na one koji ju ne doživljavaju (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco i Delle Fave, 2014). Istraživanja u kojima je mjeren intenzitet zanesenosti doživljen kroz razne domene pokazala su, pak, pozitivnu povezanost sa savjesnošću, a negativnu sa neuroticizmom (Ullen i sur., 2012;Ullen, Harmat, Thorell i Madison, 2016), a istraživanja zanesenosti u akademskoj domeni pokazala su povezanost zanesenosti s perfekcionizmom (Ljubin Golub, Rijavec i Jurčec, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Zanesenost je izrazito ugodno psihološko stanje koje ljudi doživljavaju kada su u tolikoj mjeri usmjereni na aktivnost kojom se trenutno bave da su potpuno njome zaokupljeni. Glavni je uvjet za pojavu stanja zanesenosti ravnoteža između izazova i vještina, pri čemu i izazovi i vještine moraju za pojedinca biti iznadprosječni. Zanesenost se najčešće istraživala u slobodnim aktivnostima, ali je ljudi doživljavaju i u aktivnostima koje su nametnute ili u njima ima manje slobode izbora, kao što su posao i obrazovanje. Zanesenost ima pozitivne posljedice ne samo na učinkovitost u različitim područjima života nego i na dobrobit pojedinca. I u akademskom je kontekstu zanesenost povezana s različitim pozitivnim ishodima, uključujući bolje svladavanje nastavnog programa, veća akademska postignuća, ali i veću dobrobit studenata. Kada je u pitanju studentska populacija, iskustva zanesenosti u akademskim aktivnostima manje su učestala nego u ostalim područjima studentskog života (slobodno vrijeme, uobičajene svakodnevne aktivnosti, povremeni posao), ali je veza između zanesenosti i dobrobiti najizraženija upravo u akademskom kontekstu. U ovom se radu daje pregled istraživanja akademske zanesenosti u studentskoj populaciji, posebno onih koja upućuju na moguće uzroke navedene povezanosti, kao što su važnost i korisnost akademskih aktivnosti za ostvarenje budućih životnih ciljeva, važnost akademskih aktivnosti za izgradnju socijalnog identiteta te smanjenje akademskog stresa i sagorijevanja.
... Furthermore, flow at work was shown to be associated with increased energy afterwards [33]. On a larger scale, frequent flow experiences led to long-term increases in affective well-being and life satisfaction [34]. ...
Chapter
Motivation explains the direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior and thus plays a crucial role in the mobilization and allocation of available energy. An experience that occurs during motivated action is flow. Flow is perceived as highly rewarding for its own sake and, thus, in flow all attention is directed towards the task at hand, leading to an experience of absorption. At the same time, attention is shielded from irrelevant stimuli and the activity feels easy and effortless. This suggests that flow is a highly efficient state in terms of energy expenditure. Studies addressing the physiology of flow support this assumption. Accordingly, for an optimal use of energy, it is of interest to promote flow in relevant work processes. In HCI, for example, in production work, flow promotion could be enabled by a real-time measure of the operator’s flow state in combination with automated adjustments in the work system to achieve, sustain, or extend flow. Such a real-time measure should not interrupt a person, as traditional self-report measures do. A combination of physiological measures (e.g., heart rate variability, skin conductance, and blink rate) provides a promising starting point to find such a real-time measure. Automated adjustments first require the identification of design approaches that affect flow within the work system. Using the example of work in manufacturing, the concept of flow, its measurement, and potential design approaches for automated adaptation are presented, and their application in HCI processes is discussed.
... Most relevant to this study, flow is effective for boosting emotional well-being during stressful periods of uncertainty [12]. Notably, researchers have documented the benefits of flow across a number of cultures and countries, including Japan [13,14], Czech Republic [15], Hong Kong [16], Sweden [17], and Italy [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In February 2020, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was raging in Wuhan, China and quickly spreading to the rest of the world. This period was fraught with uncertainty for those in the affected areas. The present investigation examined the role of two potential coping resources during this stressful period of uncertainty: flow and mindfulness. Participants in Wuhan and other major cities affected by COVID-19 ( N = 5115) completed an online survey assessing subjective experiences of flow, mindfulness, and well-being. Longer quarantine was associated with poorer well-being; flow and mindfulness were associated with better well-being on some measures. However, flow—but not mindfulness—moderated the link between quarantine length and well-being, such that people who experienced high levels flow showed little or no association between quarantine length and poorer well-being. These findings suggest that experiencing flow (typically by engaging in flow-inducing activities) may be a particularly effective way to protect against potentially deleterious effects of a period of quarantine.
... Beispielsweise Fullagar und Kelloway (2009) zeigen, dass Flow-Erleben mit einer positiven Stimmung korreliert, welche im Anschluss an die Flow-auslösende Tätigkeit entsteht. Häufiges Flow-Erleben wirkt somit positiv auf die Lebenszufriedenheit und erhöht das affektive Wohlbefinden (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco & Delle Fave, 2014). Eine Assoziation von Flow-Erleben und Wohlbefinden ist auch für den schulischen Kontext belegt (Fritz & Avsec, 2007 Auf Grundlage der formulierten Hypothesen werden die Ergebnisse diskutiert und entsprechende Implikationen für die pädagogische Praxis abgeleitet. ...
Thesis
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Ein positiver Zusammenhang von Leistungsmotivation, Flow und Wohlbefinden ist in Einzelpfaden gut belegt. Befunde, welche alle drei Variablen miteinander in Beziehung setzen, stehen in der Bildungsfor-schung noch aus. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss einzelner Dimensionen von Leistungsmotivation & Flow auf das subjektive Wohlempfinden von Schüler/innen, unter Berücksichtigung etwaiger Media-tionseffekte durch Flow zu untersuchen. Die Grundlage der Daten bildet der erste Messzeitpunkt einer motivationsbezogenen Interventionsstudie. Erhoben wurden die Daten im Rahmen einer prospektiven randomisierten Längsschnittstudie im Kon-trollgruppendesign (N=742; 46,2% weibl.), welche mit Schüler/innen von sieben rheinland-pfälzischen Schulen durchgeführt wurde. Leistungsmotivation, Wohlbefinden und Flow wurden mit folgenden In-strumenten erfasst: Petermann & Winkel (2007a&b): Fragebogen zur Leistungsmotivation; Flow-Skala (in Anlehnung an Rheinberg et al., 2003); Flourishing-Skala (in Anlehnung an Diener et al., 2009). Ausge-wertet wurden die Daten mittels Mediatoranalysen per multipler Regression mit SPSS. Die Ergebnisse multipler Regressionsanalysen konnten sowohl in der Primar-, als auch Sekundarstufe direkte Effekte einzelner Leistungsmotivationsskalen auf das subjektive Wohlbefinden belegen. Zudem wurden in den Jahrgansstufen 2&3,4&5,7&9 der Zusammenhang zwischen Leistungsmotivation und Wohlbefinden durch Flow-Erleben mediiert. In der Jahrgangsstufe 11 konnte kein Mediationseffekt gefunden werden. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen vorliegende Korrelationsstudien und identifizieren Flow als einen zentralen Mediator zwischen der Leistungsmotivation und dem Wohlbefinden bei Schüler/innen. Die Reflexion dieser Befunde eröffnet großes Potential für die weitere Ausarbeitung und Implementierung Flow-förderlicher Interaktionen in der Schule.
... The findings are consistent with the speculation of the flow theory [61]. Specifically, engaging in creative activities (e.g., composing a song, writing a script) allows individuals to enter flow states which are conducive to one's life satisfaction and psychological well-being [62]. ...
Article
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The impact of happiness on creativity is well-established. However, little is known about the effect of creativity on well-being. Two studies were thus conducted to examine the impact of creativity on subjective well-being. In the first study, 256 undergraduate students (Study 1a) and 291 working adults (Study 1b) self-reported their creativity, stress, and subjective well-being. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship between creativity and subjective well-being after controlling the effect of self-perceived stress and demographics in both samples. Study 2 then employed an experimental design to examine the causal relationship between creativity and subjective well-being. Half of the 68 undergraduates underwent a creativity priming task followed by a divergent thinking test as well as self-reported stress and subjective well-being. The priming task was found to boost creative performance in the pilot study (Study 2a) and the actual study (Study 2b). Moreover, after controlling the effect of self-perceived stress, ANCOVA analysis showed that participants receiving the priming reported higher subjective well-being scores than their counterparts in the control group. The overall findings not only shed light on the facilitative effect of creativity on subjective well-being but also highlight the necessity of considering the reciprocal relationship of the two constructs in future research.
... These findings concur with the assumption of the initial Flow-Burnout-Model proposing that enhanced flow experience could serve as a buffer against accumulated acute stress experiences and could, therefore, protect in the long run against burnout symptoms. Furthermore, our review underlines the findings of the existing literature in the field of positive psychology that characterizes flow experience as an important promoter of health and well-being [28][29][30]. The health-promoting effects of flow are at odds with the already demonstrated consequences of burnout symptoms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In today's performance-oriented society, burnout symptoms, defined as consequences of chronic work stress, are an increasing problem. To counteract this development, the important aims are (1) to find protective and modifiable factors that reduce the risk of developing and harboring burnout symptoms and (2) to understand the underlying mechanisms. A phenomenon potentially furthering both aims is flow experience. Based on the earlier literature, we developed a psycho-physiological "Flow-Burnout-Model", which postulates positive or negative associations between flow and burnout symptoms, depending on the prevailing situational and personal conditions. Methods: To test our Flow-Burnout-Model, we conducted a systematic literature search encompassing flow and burnout symptoms. Eighteen empirical studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Results: The findings of the systematic review as a whole suggest a negative association between flow and burnout symptoms, both cross-sectional and longitudinal. According to the findings from longitudinal studies, flow can be interpreted as a protective factor against burnout symptoms, and burnout symptoms can be interpreted as a factor inhibiting flow. In our conclusion, we maintain the assumption of a bidirectional association between flow and burnout symptoms in the Flow-Burnout-Model but modify the initially suggested positive and negative associations between flow and burnout symptoms towards a predominantly negative relationship. Discussion: Mindful of the heterogeneous findings of earlier studies, the resulting comprehensive Flow-Burnout-Model will lay the foundations for future hypothesis-based research. This includes physiological mechanisms explaining the relationship between flow and burnout symptoms, and likewise, the conditions of their longitudinal association.
... In turn, such attributes could help them experience long-lasting happiness and fulfillment. These findings also support the outcomes reported by previous studies: being open to experience and being less neurotic can contribute to optimal experiences (Bassi et al., 2014;Schmutte & Ryff, 1997). It is thus surmised that middle-aged and older adults use pickleball as a modality in recreational settings because it offers their lives purpose and meaning and enhances their long-term well-being and happiness. ...
Article
This study explored how personality and serious leisure activities, such as playing pickleball, contribute to eudaimonic well-being in middle-aged and older adults. Data were collected at pickleball events at the 2017 Huntsman World Senior Games from a convenience sample of 250 players aged between 50 and 91 years ( M = 65.11, SD = 7.49). Of the five personality dispositions examined, conscientiousness (β = 0.32, p < .001), neuroticism (β = −0.22, p < .01), and openness to experience (β = 0.18, p < .01) were discovered to be significant predictors of eudaimonic well-being. Serious leisure also contributed to eudaimonic well-being (β = 0.28, p < .01). The findings of this study enhance the understanding of the behaviors exhibited by older adults and elucidate the positive impact exerted on eudaimonic well-being by personality and serious leisure.
... Moreover, once the experience of flow has been validated, longer-lasting effects of flow states can be investigated. From studies in humans we know that the experience of flow leads to positive affect in the short run (Rogatko, 2009) and that it is correlated with high life satisfaction and hedonic balance in the long run (Bassi et al., 2014). Flow may affect mood in non-human animals, too, which may be assessed in a Judgement Bias Task where more optimistic subjects judge ambiguous stimuli more positively than pessimistic subjects (Harding et al., 2004). ...
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The concept of flow, a state of complete absorption in an intrinsically rewarding activity, has played a pivotal role in advancing notions of human well-being beyond minimising suffering towards promoting flourishing and thriving. While flow has played a fundamental role in human positive psychology, it has not yet been explored in non-human animals, leaving an enormous void in our understanding of intrinsic motivation in animals. As ethology and related fields keep progressing in uncovering complex cognitive and affective capacities of non-human animals, we propose the time is ripe to translate the concept of flow to animals. We start by embedding flow in the topic of intrinsic motivation and describe its impact on positive human psychology and potentially positive animal welfare. We then disambiguate flow from related concepts discussed in the animal literature. Next, we derive experimental approaches in animals from the canonical characteristics of flow in humans and provide guidelines for both inducing and assessing flow by focusing on two characteristics that do not necessarily depend on self-report, namely resistance to distraction and time distortion. Not all aspects of the human flow experience are (yet) translatable, but those that are may improve quality of life in non-human animals.
... In other words, the higher the flow experience is, the easier it is for people to feel happiness [50]. Rogatko notes that flow experience is an important factor in obtaining happiness [51] and flow has been found to have a positive relationship with subjective well-being [52,53]. Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis: ...
Article
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Watching videos/livestreams concerning pets is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon among youth in China, thus the social dynamics and psychological impacts of this pet-centred online activities worth in-depth exploration. This study investigates the sensual experiences of the audiences who have watched pet videos/livestreams and examines how these online experiences influence their subjective well-being. We develop a conceptual model that bases on the relationships between telepresence, social presence, flow experience, and subjective well-being to comprehend this mechanism. The result of 439 samples indicates that both telepresence and social presence have significant positive effects on flow experience, and social presence also has a positive impact on subjective well-being. We also examine the role of loneliness and perceived stress in moderating the effects of online pet watching on subjective well-being, showing that loneliness has a significant positive moderating effect on the relationship between social presence and flow experience, while perceived pressure has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between telepresence and flow experience. This study not only demonstrates the positive effect of an online pet on subjective well-being and but also uses interview data to comprehend the social processes underlying this effect. We also discuss the theoretical and practical values of this study in improving public health in the digital age.
... Research confi rms that intentional activity is one of the most effi cient ways of enduringly infl uencing happiness levels ( Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005 ). Involvement often leads to fl ow ( Csikszentmihalyi, 1990 ), which is related not only with hedonic and eudaimonic well-being ( Bassi et al., 2013 ), but also with efficient coping with stressful situations ( Rankin, Walsh, & Sweeny, 2018 ). A recent study has identifi ed that high-fl ow and high-well-being inducing activities center around the following fi ve themes: romantic relationships, spirituality, creative activities, physical activity and engagement with others ( Isham, Gatersleben, & Jackson, 2018 ). ...
... For instance, university students who were more satisfied with the educational environment would feel much happier (Anderson et al., 2019;Booker and Perlin, 2020;Bélanger and Ratelle, 2020). Numerous records have suggested that facilitating an enjoyable flow experience is a good strategy for promoting academic performance of university students (Shernoff, 2010;Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014;Mao et al., 2020) and promoting their well-being, directly or indirectly (Cantor and Sanderson, 2003;Bassi et al., 2014;Coffey et al., 2016;Daw et al., 2016;Tse et al., 2021). Previous works also found that an increase in academic selfefficacy and self-esteem is associated with an increased optimal enjoyable experience of flow (Choi and Kim, 2013), which in turn contributes to subjective well-being Delle Fave and Bassi, 2016;Wang and Fowler, 2019). ...
Article
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The present study investigated a conceptual model by testing university students’ flow experience and subjective well-being via considering their underlying mechanisms of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. A total of 1109 Chinese university students completed a questionnaire containing scales of Subjective Well-being, Flow, Academic Self-efficacy and Self-esteem. Results yielded from the structural equation modelling analysis indicated a significant and positive association between flow experience and subjective well-being, and such an association was sequentially mediated by academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings also provided empirical evidence for the proposed model highlighting the significant role of flow experience at the higher educational context in predicting Chinese university students’ subjective well-being, and how such a relation can be supported by suggested mediating roles academic self-efficacy and self-esteem played.
... heads of household (Lodhi, Rabbani, Khan, Irum and Naieni, 2020), parents (Schwarze and Winkelmann, 2005), students (Takebayashi, Tanaka, Sugiura and Sugiura, 2018;Öztürk, Meral and Yılmaz, 2017;Tucker et al., 2006). Also some literature studies about teenagers (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco and Delle Fave, 2014), elderly (Nieboer and Cramm, 2018;Tran and Vu, 2018), mothers (Hamplová, 2019), white-collars (Karabati, Ensari and Fiorentino, 2019), farmers (Markussen, Fibaek, Tarp and Tuan, 2018). All these studies utilized national or survey-specific data (Devine, Hinks and Naveed, 2019;Sironi, 2019;Vang, Hou and Elder, 2019;Susanlı, 2018) or data sets that combine the survey data with the time dimension (Venetoklis, 2019;Graafland and Lous, 2019;Ngoo, Tey and Tan, 2015). ...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between the perception of happiness and socio-demographic characteristics in Turkey using the Life Satisfaction Survey conducted by the Turkish Statistical Institute in 2017. For this purpose, nonlinear canonical correlation analysis was performed on a dataset of 4261 employees. Socio-demographic characteristics evaluated the variable set consisting of both the individual's direct perception happiness and the conceptual/personal sources of happiness. Consistent with the literature, it was seen that socio-demographic variables impacted the levels of happiness in Turkey. The main findings show that marital status has the highest effect on perceived happiness, and married people are happier than the unmarried ones. Age has a negative, educational background has a positive effect. For employment status, it is notable that per diem employees are unhappy. Besides, a detailed perspective to researchers working towards increasing perceived happiness by evaluating the identified sub-groups of working individuals living in Turkey is provided.
... The increased parasympathetic activation during flow is further consistent with flow research showing positive associations between flow and wellbeing (e.g. Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Fave, 2013;Fullagar & Kelloway, 2009;Rivkin, Diestel, & Schmidt, 2016;cf. Engeser et al., Chap. 1 and Barthelmäs & Keller, Chap. ...
Chapter
In recent years, flow has been increasingly investigated from a physiological perspective and interest in such studies is growing fast. In order to contribute to this ongoing research, this chapter aims to report and integrate existing theories and findings concerning the physiology of flow experience and to stimulate further investigation. The first part of this chapter will give an overview about existing literature explicitly dealing with the psychophysiology of flow. Secondly, a theoretical psychophysiological framework is developed based on prominent stress theories. The third part discusses physiological correlates of flow, integrating existing literature on flow and related concepts such as stress, attention and cognitive control. The chapter ends with an integrative definition of flow experience, the proposition of a physiological flow pattern, practical implications and an outlook on future research perspectives.
... According to this perspective the main point is to clarify what aspects of a technology and the task at hand are fundamental to promote a state of flow in the user. While different factors, such as cognitive strategies, personality traits and contextual variables, have been suggested to influence the emergence of flow experiences in the context of technology use (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014;Cavanagh & Shernoff, 2014;Schmidt, Shernoff, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), it is important to understand what aspects of a technology may be useful to properly respond to the users' goals, guaranteeing a fluid interaction and thus promoting flow. In particular, , suggest that the possibility to enter a flow state, while interacting with a technology, is strictly linked to presence and intention enacting. ...
Chapter
A promising field of application to analyze and better comprehend the impact of the flow concept is Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), in that the analysis and the design of computer interfaces pose notable challenges to its application. For example, in which cases the experience of flow should be promoted in the users, and in which other cases it should be avoided; or, whether and how an overall user engagement can be related to challenges/skills balance or imbalance. The first section of the present contribution provides a critical overview of the integration of flow in HCI, along with its relationship with other important constructs in the field such as presence/immersion, embodiment, breakdown and readiness-to-hand. In the subsequent sections, this contribution explores the role of flow in the interaction with specific technologies, namely video games, that constitute the most interesting example of complex interactive interfaces where a certain balance (or imbalance) between challenges and skills should be explicitly designed; virtual reality (VR) as the more immersive digital technology, which recently gained renovated importance because having become a commercial product thanks to the emergence of innovative devices on the global market; and other contexts, with a specific focus on the role of flow in the use of new technologies to promote health and well-being (Positive Technology). The last section will identify important guidelines for future research on the topic of flow and HCI, introducing the more inclusive and updated concept of Human Computer Confluence (HCC) and selected new lines of research on the transformative potential of digital technologies.
... Dentro del marco concreto de la teoría de la Fluidez, la evidencia ha mostrado una relación clara entre la experiencia de Fluidez y el bienestar en grupos de adolescentes y estudiantes universitarios. Mientras que la experiencia de Fluidez contribuyó al bienestar, la ausencia de esta se asoció con un bienestar reducido (Asakawa 2010;Bassi et al. 2014;Fullagar y Kelloway 2009;Steele y Fullagar, 2009). ...
Thesis
La interpretación musical es una actividad compleja a nivel motor, cognitivo y emocional que depende de una variedad de factores, no solo relacionados con la competencia musical. Los estados psicológicos pueden influir en el nivel de competencia artística, ya que pueden facilitar o impedir que los músicos intérpretes muestren su verdadero potencial musical. El desarrollo de habilidades de autorregulación dirigidas a suscitar la respuesta de Fluidez puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad de su experiencia durante la interpretación, aumentar la motivación intrínseca, y facilitar el compromiso con la actividad durante largos períodos de tiempo (importante para los logros creativos y artísticos). En las enseñanzas musicales parece fundamental el desarrollo de habilidades psicológicas que preparen adecuadamente a los músicos y estudiantes de música a afrontar los estresores específicos vinculados a las demandas de sus estudios y de su futura profesión. Pero, más allá de los beneficios específicos en la actividad profesional, el entrenamiento en habilidades psicológicas de autorregulación podría influir en su salud y bienestar general. La teoría de la Fluidez se enmarca en la corriente de la Psicología Positiva, cuyo cuerpo de conocimiento ha ido en aumento desde el inicio del S. XXI. Desde esta corriente, la investigación científica se ha dirigido a comprender y construir aquellos factores que permiten que las personas, las comunidades y las sociedades prosperen. Los resultados del creciente número de investigaciones que han estudiado los efectos de aplicar la Psicología Positiva en diferentes ámbitos, muestran que la Psicología Positiva tiene una amplia base de evidencia que respalda su eficacia. Específicamente, la investigación sobre la experiencia de Fluidez ha aumentado durante los últimos años. La Fluidez “es un estado gratificante de profunda implicación y absorción que las personas experimentan cuando afrontan una actividad desafiante y perciben habilidades adecuadas para involucrarse” (EFRN, 2014)1. El fenómeno fue descrito por Csikszentmihalyi (1975)2 para explicar por qué las personas realizan actividades sin más motivo que la actividad en sí misma, sin recompensas extrínsecas, y, además, persisten en esas actividades. La experiencia de Fluidez es una experiencia reconocida como una realidad fenomenológica por personas de todas las edades, género, estatus socioeconómico y muy diversas culturas; y se considera como un estado positivo de conciencia por todas ellas. La evidencia que se ha obtenido a través de décadas de investigación ha mostrado que la experiencia de Fluidez, entendida como una experiencia óptima, sucede cuando los desafíos que una persona afronta, así como las habilidades que tiene para involucrarse están en equilibrio y a partir de un cierto nivel (superior a lo que uno realiza de forma más cotidiana en la vida diaria). Aunque estas relaciones están en parte moderadas por otros factores, tanto situacionales, como personales. La evidencia empírica también muestra que la Fluidez se asocia al afecto positivo. Cuando las personas experimentan Fluidez en una situación, también tienden a ser felices después. En el contexto de actividades que ofrecen desafíos óptimos para las habilidades que posee una persona, es un estado que se ha asociado de forma positiva con el rendimiento. En parte, porque el estado de Fluidez, como estado intrínsecamente gratificante, conduciría a un mayor compromiso con la actividad a lo largo del tiempo. En el ámbito de la música, existe una acumulación creciente de trabajos de investigación que han estudiado la Fluidez desde diferentes perspectivas. En el contexto de la interpretación musical, uno de los temas de mayor interés está relacionado con la contribución de la experiencia de Fluidez a la mejora de los síntomas de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical y a la mejora del rendimiento o calidad interpretativa. Para poder evaluar el estado de Fluidez en personas que interpretan música, pero también, para poder evaluar la eficacia de intervenciones dirigidas a desencadenar la respuesta de Fluidez, es necesario contar con un instrumento de medida del estado de Fluidez, validado en una muestra representativa de músicos intérpretes del Estado Español. El hilo conductor de la presente tesis ha sido la medición del estado de Fluidez en el contexto de la música. En primer lugar, se realizó la adaptación al español y la validación del instrumento de medida del estado de Fluidez, cuyas propiedades psicométricas se analizaron con una amplia muestra de 486 músicos del Estado Español que tenían una relación consolidada con la actividad musical (tanto estudiantes, profesionales, como aficionados). En segundo lugar, se utilizó el instrumento para evaluar el estado de Fluidez en personas con Altas Capacidades Intelectuales cuando interpretan música. Este estudio se realizó como un estudio piloto, dado que no existe en la literatura un trabajo previo en el que se haya medido el estado de Fluidez en estas personas. En tercer lugar, se utilizó el instrumento para evaluar un programa de intervención específico de entrenamiento de habilidades de autorregulación psicológica diseñado para músicos intérpretes. El objetivo principal fue desencadenar la respuesta de Fluidez y el afrontamiento de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical durante la interpretación. De los resultados obtenidos en los tres estudios se puede concluir, en primer lugar, que se dispone de una herramienta validada para evaluar el estado de Fluidez en músicos intérpretes. La validación de este instrumento puede tener implicaciones clínicas y educativas, ya que el uso del cuestionario permite identificar aspectos importantes de lo que facilita o inhibe una actuación musical o del mismo aprendizaje. También puede utilizarse para futuras investigaciones donde se desee medir la variable estado de Fluidez. En segundo lugar, los resultados del segundo estudio sugieren una relación entre las personas con altas capacidades, la experiencia de Fluidez, concretamente en la experiencia de la pérdida de la autoconciencia, y aspectos de la personalidad creativa. Los resultados también sugieren que las personas con altas capacidades podrían controlar mejor su atención, disfrutar más durante el aprendizaje y, por tanto, aprender mejor. Para finalizar, los resultados del programa de intervención mostraron que los músicos intérpretes que participaron en el programa aumentaron los niveles del estado de Fluidez y disminuyeron los niveles de Ansiedad Escénica Musical de forma estadísticamente significativa. Ello sugiere que los programas que contemplen en su diseño una combinación de todas las técnicas y métodos que se utilizaron en el programa y que provienen de la Psicología científica podrían ser útiles para tratar la problemática de la Ansiedad Escénica Musical o prevenirla; y, además, podrían facilitar el estado de Fluidez, un mayor disfrute durante la interpretación y potencialmente una mejor calidad interpretativa. Se exponen las limitaciones y se señalan direcciones futuras de investigación. 1 EFRN, 2014: Red Europea de Investigadores de Fluidez (European Flow-Researchers’ Network) 2 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-bass.
Article
Hypermodernity is a period characterized by a loss of meaning and a disenchantment in relation to the world that is unique in human history. Aubert’s hyperformance, Bauman’s liquid modernity, Lipovetsky’s hypermodernity and Beck’s reflexive modernity offer a significant perspective on actual social dynamics and their evolution. A new analytical posture is proposed in this article under the form of an essay to demonstrate the contribution of leisure in this social context, and brings a fresh look at spirituality, flow and physical literacy. The meshing of these concepts is evident in the practice of flowart, which allows us to appreciate their dynamics. Described as the manipulation of objects coordinated with rhythmic body movements, this practice paves the way for an « art of flow » culture and to a reflexion on the place of leisure in our hypermodern societies.
Article
Flow is a state in which one fully and voluntarily concentrates on an activity at hand (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2003). Recent research has compared solitary flow and social flow using various operationalizations, but the role of extraversion was neglected. Therefore, an Amazon MTurk survey (N = 165) was designed to investigate flow among introverts and extraverts in solitary and social activities. Results revealed no difference in flow frequency between solitary and social activities, but individuals have more intense flow when they are alone. Results also showed that extraversion moderates the relationship between activity type and flow frequency, as well as the relationship between activity type and flow intensity. Implications of the study are discussed.
Article
Professional dancers have described high levels of performance anxiety while also experiencing flow on stage. However, such research tends to capture one period of time in the performance experience and rarely focuses on vocational dance students. The current study samples vocational dance students at a UK performing arts school and captures their cognitive, somatic, and emotional experiences from pre- to post-performance. Eleven interviews were conducted with female students aged between 15 and 17 years. Thematic analysis was employed and three themes identified: Facilitative and Debilitative Anxiety in the Wings, Constructions of Anxiety and Flow on Stage, and After the Show; the Highs and the Lows. Findings produced an understanding of the psychological journey from pre- to post-performance. Students have the potential to manipulate their cognitions to facilitate flow suggesting that dance schools can implement psychological techniques to manage anxiety and increase flow, thus enhancing well-being and performance
Chapter
What constitutes enjoyment of life? Optimal Experience offers a comprehensive survey of theoretical and empirical investigations of the 'flow' experience, a desirable or optimal state of consciousness that enhances a person's psychic state. The authors show the diverse contexts and circumstances in which flow is reported in different cultures, and describe its positive emotional impacts. They reflect on ways in which the ability to experience flow affects work satisfaction, academic success, and the overall quality of life
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Positive psychology postulates that using one’s strengths can facilitate employee well-being and performance at work. However, whether strengths use is associated with attentional performance has remained unanswered in the literature. Attention plays a role in job performance, and previous literature has suggested a contrasting link between well-being (i.e., positive affect) and attentional performance. We hypothesize that, within work episodes, strength use is positively associated with eudaimonic (i.e., meaningfulness and personal growth) and hedonic well-being (i.e., positive affect). Further, we test the episodic process model by arguing that strengths use and well-being during one work episode are negatively related to subsequent attentional performance. In total, 115 participants registered for the current study, and 86 participants filled out the daily questionnaire once per day across five working days (a total of 365 daily reports). Multilevel analyses showed that episodic strengths use was not directly related to subsequent attentional performance. Episodic strengths use was positively related to a higher level of meaningfulness, personal growth, and positive affect. In turn, experienced meaningfulness was negatively related to subsequent attentional performance. However, personal growth and positive affect did not explain variance in attentional performance. These findings suggest that strength use may be accompanied with higher experienced meaningfulness, although the latter may be detrimental for subsequent attentional performance. Theoretical implications and contributions are discussed.
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Teaching is one of the professions that creates opportunities for individuals to experience flow, a state of complete absorption in an activity. However, very few studies have examined ESL/EFL teachers’ flow states inside or outside the classroom. As such, this study aimed to explore the quality of experience of 75 EFL teachers in flow and also examine the relationships between their emotional intelligence, the Big Five personality traits and the flow state. To this end, the teachers filled out recurrent flow surveys for a week, and also completed emotional intelligence and the Big Five personality questionnaires. It was found that reading was the major flow trigger outside the classroom and teaching and delivering lessons was the most significant flow-inducing activity for the teachers inside the classroom. Furthermore, correlations and independent samples t-tests indicated that all emotional intelligence and personality traits had significant relationships with flow except agreeableness. Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that two personality traits, conscientiousness and openness to experience were the strongest predictors of the flow state. The implications for future flow-related research in the field of applied linguistics are discussed.
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V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
Article
Virtual World (VW) had gained and lost its popularity over the past decades. Although people were initially excited about the potential of such technology, the original excitement has not been maintained and the VW has lost its reputation. We design an experimental study to learn about the factors that impact the intention to use or not use VW (i.e., Second Life, SL). Our proposed model is based on the Theory of Reasoned Action, Technology Acceptance Model, Embodied Social Presence theory, Flow theory, and Jungian personality theory. Over 160 students participated in this study and the results support our proposed model, where a positive flow experience with VW influences the attitude towards VW, in turn influencing intention to use VW. Furthermore, VW flow experience can itself be impacted by personality of the individuals behind the avatars in VW, perceived peer influence, perceived usefulness, and familiarity with VW.
Article
L’individu hypermoderne évolue dans une société caractérisée par l’excès et l’accélération de son mode de vie à travers laquelle il doit trouver un sens qui lui est propre et effectuer des choix qui lui permettront de se forger une identité. Les notions de spiritualité, de flow et de littératie physique combinées offrent une posture analytique nouvelle sur cette problématique en mettant en perspective le bien-être de l’individu. Ces notions nous amènent également à étudier le flowart, une pratique de loisir holistique et émersive ainsi qu’une forme de méditation en mouvement. La phénoménologie est ainsi utilisée afin de décrire l’expérience vécue du flowart et son impact sur le mode de vie de sept participants. Les données ont été collectées via un questionnaire à cinq questions ouvertes et un entretien semi-dirigé. L’analyse des données nous permet de circonscrire l’essence de ce phénomène, une forme d’énergie tangible et une connexion que les participants ressentent lorsqu’ils entrent en état de flow.
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This study was designed to assess the structure of The Optimal Experience Survey. The optimal experience or flow is a mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing, characterized by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation (Csikszentmihalyi 1997, 2000). The sample includes about 1600 participants, aged 9 to 15, of middle socioeconomic level, from Argentina. Exploratory factor analysis offered two factors. Items of affect-cognition on factor 1 and items of success- external positive feedback on factor 2. To study internal consistency Cronbach alphas was calculated and the following coefficient was obtained: .85.
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This chapter discusses the empirical evidence on the stability of personality. Personality researchers and theorists are realizing that the period of adulthood cannot be ignored, just as gerontologists have come to recognize that personality is central to the study of aging. Aging faces two formidable problems rarely encountered in other branches of psychology: (1) the independent variable, maturation cannot be manipulated. In consequence, only quasi-experimental designs can be used and these face well-known threats to their validity. (2) Aging is a process which requires decades to unfold. Researchers who wish to study changes must study the life span in segments or build upon the work of earlier researchers. The personality stability or change concerns normative shifts in the mean levels of personality. The fact that mean levels of most personality variables show little or no change with age does not necessarily imply that individuals do not change. Mean level stability cannot be observed even if all the individuals in the sample have undergone dramatic changes in the level of all personality variables. The major stability concerns the maintenance of rank order in individual differences. This form of stability is usually measured as a stability coefficient, a retest correlation based on re-administration of a measure after a period of years.
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The concept of optimal experience, or flow, can be used to characterize student engagement in learning, especially since its central phenomenological components of concentration, enjoyment, and interest are the foundations of meaningful learning. Student engagement conceptualized in flow theory is rare in public high school; however, certain conditions make it more likely, such as perceptual factors (e.g., high challenges and skills, relevance, and control), mastery learning goals, instructional factors (e.g., activity type and characteristics of the teacher’s implementation), and the academic ability or achievement of the student. The chief characteristic of optimal learning environments, in which research shows that engagement is high, is environmental complexity, or the simultaneous combination of environmental challenge and environmental support. Environmental challenge is characterized by working on tasks of sufficient complexity for the learner’s skill level (usually with a domain-specific tool), clear goals, perceived importance of the task, the building of conceptual understanding and/or language skills, and the opportunity to demonstrate one’s performance through assessment. Environmental support is characterized by positive relationships with teachers and peers, support for motivational drives (e.g., support for competence and autonomy), constructive performance feedback, and opportunities to be both active and interactive. Recent research has shown that optimal learning environments and environmental complexity are illustrated by a variety of evidence-based educational models discussed in the chapter, such as Montessori schools, high-quality after-school programs, and educational video games that immerse players in complex learning tasks.
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The study was designed to assess the influence of child’s personality and perception of parental relationship on children’s optimal experiences. We proposed functional and dysfunctional models to analyze the increase or the decrease of the children’s flow experience. The sample of this study included 909 middle class children, aged 9–12 (M = 11.02, SD = 1.08), both sexes, from Argentina. When we analysed the psychological factors that could be related to the flow state in childhood, we found out that the child’s perception of a functional parental relationship, in which there is either acceptance or moderate control, indirectly affects the flow experience, through child’s personality—extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness. Functional personality traits have an important positive effect on optimal experience when they are considered as a unit. In the dysfunctional model of flow, the results showed that the child’s perception of parental pathological control had an important positive effect on neuroticism and –through this—a negative effect on flow. The child’s perception of parental negligence did not have a significant effect on neuroticism; however, neuroticism still maintained its negative effect on flow.
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Flow is an experience of enjoyment, concentration, and low self-awareness that occurs during active task performance. We investigated associations between the tendency to experience flow (flow proneness), Big Five personality traits and intelligence in two samples. We hypothesized a negative relation between flow proneness and neuroticism, since negative affect could interfere with the affective component of flow. Secondly, since sustained attention is a component of flow, we tested whether flow proneness is positively related to intelligence. Sample 1 included 137 individuals who completed tests for flow proneness, intelligence, and Big Five personality. In Sample 2 (all twins; n=2539), flow proneness and intelligence, but not personality, were measured. As hypothesized, we found a negative correlation between flow proneness and neuroticism in Sample 1. Additional exploratory analyses revealed a positive association between flow proneness and conscientiousness. There was no correlation between flow proneness and intelligence. Although significant for some comparisons, associations between intelligence and flow proneness were also very weak in Sample 2. We conclude that flow proneness is associated with personality rather than intelligence, and discuss that flow may be a state of effortless attention that relies on different mechanisms from those involved in attention during mental effort.
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The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the value of a multiple data analytic approach for testing the cross-cultural generalizability of a personality measure. Data were collected in four different countries (Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United States) on the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), which is a measure of the Five Factor Model of personality traits. Different analytical strategies were conducted. Item-level analyses were carried out to study item bias and to select (by means of simultaneous component analysis) the BFQ items that showed better functioning in all countries simultaneously. Scale-level analyses were conducted on item aggregates and were focused on the examination of structural or construct equivalence (i.e., comparability of latent structures). Three analytic approaches were compared (exploratory factor analysis, simultaneous component analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis), and converged in corroborating the basic five factor structure across the four country samples. However, these methods also yielded some noteworthy differences in the conclusions that could be drawn from the analyses. Both the methodological and conceptual implications of this multiple analytic approach are discussed.
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Objective: This study aimed to identify contextual and clinical factors contributing to the quality of experience of people participating in psychosocial rehabilitation activities (RA) and to investigate the association of RA with optimal experience or flow, a state characterized by the perception of high challenges and high skills, deep concentration, positive affect, clear goals, control and autonomous motivation, which contributes to individuals' well-being. Method: Twenty-seven people at an Italian psychiatric rehabilitation center provided real-time information on daily activities and associated experience through experience sampling method. Multilevel models were calculated to assess the factors contributing to participants' quality of experience. Results: Analyses showed that situation-contingent factors-type of activity and relationship between perceived challenges and skills-predicted participants' quality of experience over and above the clinical factors taken into account in this study: level of global functioning (GAF), rehabilitation duration, and type of setting (residential vs. semi-residential). In addition, RA were prominently associated with optimal experience. Conclusion and implications for practice: Results suggest the importance for people involved in rehabilitation programs to engage in challenging tasks, favoring both the onset of positive and complex experiences and skill development. Findings further show the usefulness of real-time assessment methods in monitoring the rehabilitation process.
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The authors explored the relationship between motivation and affect in upper elementary mathematics classes from the perspective of flow theory. They also investigated the relationship between students' motivation and teachers' instructional practices. Students' reported classroom experiences formed 4 factors--Social Affect, Personal Affect, Efficacy, and Challenge/Importance. On the basis of student reports, the authors concluded that (a) affect is essential to student experience in mathematics lessons, (b) skill is perceived in conjunction with affective variables, (c) challenge is identified as a threat to students' efficacy, and (d) importance of a task is more relevant to motivation than is its challenge. A qualitative investigation of teacher instructional discourse suggested that the following teacher practices related to student motivation: (a) provision of substantive feedback and clarification of concepts; (b) support for autonomy, cooperation, and social relatedness; and (c) emphasis on learning for its own sake. Results suggest that emphasizing the balance of challenge and skill, supporting self-efficacy and value for mathematics, and fostering positive affect can enhance student motivation in the classroom. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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Six climbers were monitored during an expedition in the Himalaya, comprising 13 days of traveling and 26 days of mountaineering. The aim was the investigation of the quality of experienceand risk perception associated with high-altitude rock climbing. By means of experience sampling method, participants provided on-line repeated self-reports about activities carriedout, and the associated quality of the experience, in terms of mood, intrinsic motivation, potency, confidence, engagement, and risk assessment. The experience fluctuation model wasapplied to identify experiential profiles on the basis of the perception of environmental challenges and personal skills. When both challenges and skills were positive, flow experience wasreported. In particular, we found that the opportunity for experiencing flow can motivate climbers to take part in a risky expedition. The results showed that risk played a minor role in climbing,in line with a goal-directed approach to risk seeking. These findings have two implications: (a) Studies on motivation in sport should distinguish between risk and search for challenges andopportunities for action, especially in dealing with extreme sports; (b) In the recreational domain, outdoor programs, among other things, should aim at providing opportunities for flowand personal development.
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present evidence on stability and change [from age 12–63 yrs old] in these 5 factors [neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness] / suggest that personality development is not complete until the end of the decade of the 20s (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
What constitutes enjoyment of life? Optimal Experience offers a comprehensive survey of theoretical and empirical investigations of the 'flow' experience, a desirable or optimal state of consciousness that enhances a person's psychic state. The authors show the diverse contexts and circumstances in which flow is reported in different cultures, and describe its positive emotional impacts. They reflect on ways in which the ability to experience flow affects work satisfaction, academic success, and the overall quality of life
Article
Biological and cultural inheritance deeply influence daily human behavior. However, individuals actively interact with bio-cultural information. Throughout their lives, they preferentially cultivate a limited subset of activities, values, and personal interests. This process, defined as psychological selection, is strictly related to the quality of subjective experience. Specifically, cross-cultural studies have highlighted the central role played by optimal experience or flow, the most positive and complex daily experience reported by the participants. It is characterized by high involvement, deep concentration, intrinsic motivation, and the perception of high challenges matched by adequate personal skills. The associated activities represent the basic units of psychological selection. Flow can therefore influence the selective transmission of bio-cultural information and the process of bio-cultural evolution.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to provide the results of a research that explores, in the Italian context, the psychological well-being dimensions identified by Carol Ryff. The study has highlighted the presence of many remarkable differences due to the gender and the age of the subjects in the six dimensions of psychological well-being (Autonomy, Selfacceptance, Positive relations with others, Purpose in life, Personal growth, Environmental mastery); it has also found strong relationships between the psychological well-being dimensions and other important indicators of individual well-being, such as self-esteem, optimism, satisfaction with life and physical health.
Book
The Collected Works of Ed Diener, in 3 volumes, present the major works of the leading research scientist studying happiness and well-being. Professor Diener has studied subjective well-being, people’s life satisfaction and positive emotions, for over a quarter of a century, and has published 200 works on the topic, many more than any other scholar. He has studied hundreds of thousands of people in over 140 nations of the world, and the Collected Works present the major findings from those studies. Diener has made many of the major discoveries about well-being, which are outlined in the chapters. The first volume presents the major theory and review papers of Ed Diener. These publications give a broad overview of findings in the field, and the theories of well-being. As such, the first volume is an absolute must for beginning scholars in this area, and offers a clear tutorial to the history of the field and major findings. The second volume focuses on culture. This volume is most unique, and could sell on its own, as it should appeal to cultural psychologists and anthropologists. The findings in the culture area are mostly all derived from the Diener laboratory and his students. Thus, the papers in this volume represent most of the major publications on culture and well-being. Furthermore, this is the area that is least well-known by most scholars. The third volume on measurement is the most applied and practical one because it discusses all the measures used, and presents new measures. Even for those who do not want to study well-being per se, but want to use some well-being measures in their research, this volume will be of enormous help. Volume 1: Gives a broad overview of findings and theories on subjective well-being. Volume 2: Presents most of the major papers on well-being and culture, and the international differences in well-being Volume 3: Presents discussions of measures of well-being and new measures of well-being, and is thus of great value to those who want to select measurement scales for their research Endorsements Over the past several decades Professor Diener has contributed more than any other psychologist to the rigorous research of subjective well-being. The collection of this work in this series is going to be of invaluable help to anyone interested in the study of happiness, life-satisfaction, and the emerging discipline of positive psychology. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Professor of Psychology And Management, Claremont Graduate University Ed Diener, the Jedi Master of the world's happiness researchers, has inspired and informed all of us who have studied and written about happiness. His life's work epitomizes a humanly significant psychological science. How wonderful to have his pioneering writings collected and preserved for future students of human well-being, and for practitioners and social policy makers who are working to promote human flourishing. David G. Myers, Hope College, and author, The Pursuit of Happiness. Ed Diener's work on life satisfaction -- theory and research -- has been ground-breaking. Having his collected works available will be a great boon to psychologists and policy-makers alike. Christopher Peterson, Professor of Psychology, Univ. of Michigan By looking at happiness and well-being in many different cultures and societies, from East to West, from New York City to Calcutta slums, and beyond, Ed Diener has forever transformed the field of culture in psychology. Filled with bold theoretical insights and rigorous and, yet, imaginative empirical studies, this volume will be absolutely indispensable for all social and behavioral scientists interested in transformative power of culture on human psychology. Shinobu Kitayama, Professor and Director of the Culture and Cognition Program, Univ. of Michigan Ed Diener is one of the most productive psychologists in the world working in the field of perceived quality of life or, as he prefers, subjective wellbeing. He has served the profession as a researcher, writer, teacher, officer in professional organizations, editor of leading journals, a member of the editorial board of still more journals as well as a member of the board of the Social Indicators Research Book Series. As an admirer of his work and a good friend, I have learned a lot from him, from his students, his relatives and collaborators. The idea of producing a collection of his works came to me as a result of spending a great deal of time trying to keep up with his work. What a wonderful public and professional service it would be, I thought, as well as a time-saver for me, if we could get a substantial number of his works assembled in one collection. In these three volumes we have not only a fine selection of past works but a good number of new ones as well. So, it is with considerable delight that I write these lines to thank Ed and to lend my support to this important publication. Alex C. Michalos, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., Chancellor, Director, Institute for Social Research and Evaluation, Professor Emeritus, Political Science, Univ. of Northern British Columbia
Chapter
In the social and behavioural sciences, the concepts of selection and adaptation have been fruitfully applied to the analysis of human behaviour. While most researchers agree that humans are bio-cultural entities, theoretical approaches differ in their emphasis on the role and relevance of natural selection (Barkow et al. 1992), cultural pressures, or the interaction between the two systems in influencing human behaviour (Durham 1991; Richerson and Boyd 2005). The aim of this chapter is to emphasize the role of individuals as active agents in shaping their cultural environment and in promoting its complexity. From this perspective, attention will be paid to psychological selection, that is the individual processing of bio-cultural information (Csikszentmihalyi and Massimini 1985), and to its potential in fostering personal growth and culture empowerment.
Article
A fundamental issue pursued by researchers in positive psychology involves defining what constitutes a good life and understanding how individuals can create one. From the perspective of flow theory, a good life is one that is characterized by complete absorption in what one does (Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi in Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford, New York, 2002). Born out of a desire to understand intrinsically motivated activity, flow refers to a state of optimal experience characterized by total absorption in the task at hand: a merging of action and awareness in which the individual loses track of both time and self, The flow state is experientially positive, and out of the flow experience emerges a desire to replicate the experience. Over the past three decades, Csikszentmihalyi and colleagues have developed theoretical constructs and empirical research tools to better understand the nature, origins, and consequences of this state of optimal experience called flow. In this chapter, we describe the flow model and then present data analyses in which we explore the personal traits and contextual conditions associated with the experience of flow among adolescents in the United States. We demonstrate the utility of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) for exploring flow using a complex data set characterized by repeated measures. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
Article
This chapter describes flow, the experience of complete absorption in the present moment, and the experiential approach to positive psychology that it represents. We summarize the model of optimal experience and development that is associated with the concept of flow, and describe several ways of measuring flow, giving particular attention to the experience sampling method. We review some of the recent research concerning the outcomes and dynamics of flow, its conditions at school and work, and interventions that have been employed to foster flow. Finally, we identify some of the promising directions for flow research moving into the future.
Article
The Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2) and Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) are presented as two self-report instruments designed to assess flow experiences in physical activity. Item modifications were made to the original versions of these scales in order to improve the measurement of some of the flow dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses of an item identification and a cross-validation sample demonstrated a good fit of the new scales. There was support for both a 9-first-order factor model and a higher order model with a global flow factor. The item identification sample yielded mean item loadings on the first-order factor of .78 for the FSS-2 and .77 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged from .80 to .90 for the FSS-2, and .81 to .90 for the DFS-2. In the cross-validation sample, mean item loadings on the first-order factor were .80 for the FSS-2, and .73 for the DFS-2. Reliability estimates ranged between .80 to .92 for the FSS-2 and .78 to .86 for the DFS-2. The scales are presented as ways of assessing flow experienced within a particular event (FSS-2) or the frequency of flow experiences in chosen physical activity in general (DFS-2).
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
Article
Drawing from the social psychology approach to creativity, it was hypothesized that trait intrinsic motivation would be associated with the probability of experiencing flow in work, and that the extent to which a job provides opportunity for creativity would moderate the association. A sample of 367 workers completed the Flow Questionnaire and the Work Preference Inventory, and described their job. Multinomial logistic regression of “flow in work” versus “no flow” and “flow in leisure” revealed motivation by opportunity interactions such that intrinsic motivation is associated with flow in work for high opportunity, and is either not associated or negatively associated for low opportunity. The findings support the hypotheses and indicate that person-environment matching fosters flow in work.
Article
This study aimed at investigating optimal experience during schoolwork in relation to SDT concepts of autonomy and locus of causality. Data were gathered from 268 high-school students using Experience Sampling Method for 1 week. Three levels of self-determination were identified: high (corresponding to autonomous regulation), moderate (mixed autonomous and controlled regulation), and low (controlled regulation). Consistently with the literature, the relationship between participants’ challenges and skills values was used to recognize occasions for optimal experience, and multilevel modeling was applied in data analysis. Findings showed that during schoolwork as optimal activity (high challenges and high skills) students mostly reported low levels of self-determination. However, the quality of their experience was better in situations of high and moderate self-determination. At the theoretical level, findings allow for a more articulated understanding of the characteristics of optimal experience in academic activities. Practical implications are discussed for enhancing well-being and committed learning at school.
Article
In the globalisation process, the social organisation of sedentary cultures represents the uni versal model. Few nomadic communities resist this trend, facing difficulties in survival and intercultural relations. To analyse the daily life and future expectations of these populations from the individual perspective, 60 Rom people living in Italy were administered Flow Questionnaire and Life Theme Questionnaire. These instruments investigate the quality of experience in daily life, particularly focusing on optimal experiences, characterised by engage ment, intrinsic motivation, and skill development. The joint family emerged as the main source of optimal experiences in daily life of Rom participants. The constraints of semi- sedentary lifestyle, and the integration problems due to cultural differences were also high ligbted. Results suggested that the experience associated with daily contexts should be taken into account in projects with minority communities, to design programmes promoting the perception of opportunities for optimal experiences and development in a foreign environ ment.
Article
ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship of personality, experience while studying, and academic performance. One hundred and seventy talented high‐school students (68 males, 102 females) completed the Personality Research Form (PRF) and recorded their experience via the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). The results showed that controlling for ability, work orientation, a PRF factor, was a better predictor of grade than experience. However, an experiential variable, intrinsic motivation while studying, was related to the difficulty level of courses students took over the 4 years in high school. The results supported the notion that there are two kinds of motivation in scholastic achievement, one directed toward long‐term goals, the other directed toward ongoing experience.
Article
Adolescents' perceptions of family support and challenge, and their quality of subjective experience and interest, were investigated over a 2-year period in a national sample of adolescents (Grades 6-12). In Years 1 and 3 of the study, 247 adolescents with diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds responded to the Experience Sampling Method and completed questionnaires that contained items on family support and challenge. The main findings show that adolescents who perceived more family support in Year 1 reported more positive moods 2 years later. Adolescents who perceived more family challenge in the base year reported a stronger focus on goals in Year 3. Perceptions of increased family support across the 2 years of the study were linked to positive changes in adolescents moods. Increases in family challenge combined with increases in support were associated with a stronger focus on goals perceived as important by adolescents. Increases in support and challenge were also linked with the development of undivided interest, or a synchrony of positive moods while engaging important goals. In contrast, adolescents from more permissive families (high support and low challenge) and from more authoritarian families (low support and high challenge) reported more divided interest (i.e., an asynchrony of moods and goals) 2 years later. These findings are discussed in terms of how family contexts may influence the development of undivided interest and adolescents' capacities for self-regulation and lifelong learning.
Article
In line with prior work, the present study aimed at examining a conceptual model that assigns a crucial role to affective and family interpersonal self-regulatory efficacy beliefs in influencing the cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being, namely, positive thinking and hedonic balance. Positive thinking is posited as the latent dimension underlying life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. In contrast, hedonic balance is posited as the difference between positive affect and negative affect, as they are experienced in a variety of daily life situations. The present study was conducted on 347 Italian married males and females, and its findings corroborated the paths of posited relations linking the variables of interest. In particular, both one's perceived capacities to manage negative and positive affect and to manage relationships with the spouse and children accounted for a considerable portion of the variance in both subjective well-being components.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)