Article

Daily Functioning, Health Status, and Happiness in Older Adults

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Abstract

The hypothesis that the degree to which disease disrupts daily functioning is inversely associated with happiness is widely accepted, yet existing literature offers little direct evidence in its support. This paper explores the hypothesized association in a community-based sample of 383 older adults. To assess the degree to which disease disrupts daily functioning we developed a measure—called the freedom-from-debility score—based on four Short Form-12 (SF-12) Health Survey questions explicitly designed to represent “limitations in physical activities because of health problems” and “limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems.” The results were consistent with the hypothesis. When participants were divided into categories based on their freedom-from-debility score, median happiness scores were monotonically increasing across categories. Controlling for demographic and socio-economic factors as well as health status (measured both subjectively and objectively), a one-point increase in freedom-from-debility score (on a scale from 0 to 100) was associated with a three-percent reduction in the odds of lower-quartile happiness. The results support the contention that health status is one of the most influential predictors of happiness, that the association between health status and happiness depends greatly on the manner in which health status is measured, and that the degree to which disease disrupts daily functioning is inversely associated with happiness.

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... Other researchers who examined the relationships between self-reported health on the SF-12 and back pain in a Japanese sample found that higher levels of happiness correlated with better mental and physical health status, having a spouse, and being female (Takeyachi et al., 2003). Results of a study conducted with older adult participants in Alabama found a moderate positive correlation between happiness and self-reported health on the SF-12 (Angner, Ghandhi, Purvis, Amante, & Allison, 2013). Similar to these previous studies, the aim of the current study is to examine relationships among happiness and mental and physical health using the SF-12. ...
... The relationships between happiness, mental health, and physical health were also evident in another study using an older adult population in Alabama (Angner et al., 2013). This study, however, did not use a one-item scale to assess happiness. ...
... Prior studies examining happiness in older adult populations also found the data to be negatively skewed (Angner et al., 2013;Angner et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
Research on happiness has been abundant over the last few decades and findings have repeatedly shown that people who are happier have better life outcomes in terms of health and in nearly all other aspects of functioning. Thus, it is crucial to continue studying the construct using valid and reliable measurements. Single-item rating scales have been shown to be psychometrically sound and more convenient in comparison to multiple-item measures designed to measure certain constructs. The aim of the present study was to test the reliability and convergent and divergent validity of a single-item happiness scale, the Aréchiga-Moldovan Happy Scale (AM Happy Scale). Participants included 275 adults between the ages of 64 to 81 (M = 71.51, SD = 3.85; 63.6% female; 77.1% White, 10.5% Hispanic, 6.2% Black, and 4.7% Asian) recruited from Loma Linda, California and the surrounding communities. This population was chosen due to progressive increases in life expectancy and rates of older adults in the workforce that highlight the importance of prevention and maintenance of health. The overall range for the minimum reliability estimate of the AM Happy Scale was .27 to 1.06. The AM Happy Scale showed a convergent relationship with the Positive Affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; rs = .57, p < .001) and the Spirituality Index of Well-Being (rs = .50, p < .001). The AM Happy Scale showed a divergent relationship with the Negative Affect subscale of the PANAS (rs = -.38, p < .001) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (rs = -.42, p < .001). Additionally, the AM Happy Scale also demonstrated a positive relationship with the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey, a measure of mental (rs = .51, p < .001) and physical health (rs = .26, p < .001). Findings from this study have serious clinical implications indicating that a brief measure of happiness may be a quick and efficient way to assess an individual’s overall sense of well-being, which is also associated with his or her physical health.
... Firstly, the factor of income could influence elderly people's satisfaction. Many research have identified the importance of the financial status on the satisfaction of the elderly people (Angner et al. 2013;Gana et al. 2013). Appleton and Song (2008) used the urban data from the Chinese Family Income Programs (CHIPs) to study the relationship between individual characteristics and people's satisfaction of life. ...
... The research showed that there was a big influence of health condition on people's satisfaction. Such influence was outstanding on elderly people (Angner et al. 2013;Gana et al. 2013). One typical study came from Stenhagen et al. (2014), which explained the negative impacts of the physical consequences of accidental falls in the elderly people's quality of life and life satisfaction. ...
... In other words, health condition is an important factor to influence the elderly people's satisfaction. The significant influence of health condition on the elderly people's satisfaction has demonstrated by many previous researchers (Liu et al. 2017;Weaver and Ford 2015;Oliveira et al. 2014;Angner et al. 2013;Gana et al. 2013). However, this paper further indicates the effect of health condition on the elderly people's living arrangementwhether they live with their children. ...
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Article
In today’s society, with the aging population, the satisfaction of the elderly people is highly connected with the social sustainability. This article used the data of the Chinese Health and the Pension Follow-up Survey from CHARLS in 2013 to analyze the relation between the elderly people’s satisfaction and their living arrangement. Based on the control of the influential factors on the individual, family and the regional level, this article used ordinary least square regression method to find out that the elderly people’s satisfaction will be deceased because of living with their children. However, the elderly people’s dissatisfaction will be vanished along with the growth of the age of the elderly. Therefore, the elderly people’s living arrangements have been changed, to maintain the satisfaction of the elderly in China, the appropriate health care and other activities should be redesigned and developed for the elderly who live by themselves.
... However, happiness in late life repartnering was not specifically studied. Happy adults are usually healthier than unhappy adults (Angner et al., 2013) and older adults in satisfying partner relationships, are usually happier than those who are not (Lawrence et al., 2019). Studying experiences of happiness in the context of late life repartner relationships could assist with promoting older adults' wellbeing. ...
... One of the most influential predictors of happiness in old age is subjective health (Angner et al., 2013). Older adults who rated themselves as healthy were found happy whereas those who rate themselves as unhealthy were unhappy. ...
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Article
Research indicates that happiness increases with age, however, the common layperson perception is that happiness decreases with age. Late-life repartnering is a phenomenon developing with the increase in life expectancy, entered to enjoy life. It is not officially recognized as an option in Israel, culturally located between tradition and modernity. Within this social context, the aim is to explore the experience of happiness in late life repartnering relationships from a dyadic partner perspective and understand its meaning within the cultural society it is developing in. Data was drawn from a larger phenomenology study conducted on the meaning of late life repartnering from a dyadic view. 38 semi-structured qualitative interviews (19 couples) were conducted with functionally independent repartners, aged 66-92 who entered their relationship after a lifelong marriage. Happiness was an issue addressed by participants. It was not part of the interview guide thus results represent secondary analysis of interviews with participants who addressed happiness. Results illustrate a range of happiness experiences from a dyadic view related to expectations experienced on a continuum between surprised being happy and disappointed not being happy including six subthemes. Results are discussed relating to expectations and disappointment theory, and to how happiness is valued linked to culture. Implicit ageism is suggested for understanding why happiness is experienced as unexpected in late life repartnering, although entered to enjoy life. Implications are addressed.
... A recent study based on Asian samples also concluded that selfrated health greatly affected happiness, especially when physical health problems occurred [71]. Another study, based on a community sample of older adults, concluded that health status is one of the most influential predictors of happiness [72]. However, disease severity has little effect on happiness. ...
... People with cancer can be happier than people with allergies. A higher relationship was found between happiness and the degree to which disease disrupts daily functioning [72]. ...
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Article
Background Studies on physical activity’s psychological benefits are generally fewer than those on its physiological benefits, and these limited studies have mostly investigated its impact on cognitive functions. Studies exclusively investigating physical activity’s effects on happiness are rare. This study aims to investigate the effect of physical activity on psychological functions, especially on happiness. Methods Analysis was based on a large field of nationally representative Indonesian adult data. Data were compiled based on face-to-face interviews with 12,051 adults. Participants provided measures of physical activity, subjective health, and happiness, and responses were recorded with computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) software. Demographic data, including gender, subjective wealth, education, and age, were also included in the analysis. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to determine the relationship between physical activity, health, subjective wealth, and happiness. Results The tested model of the association between physical activity, health, subjective wealth, and happiness indicated a good fit, based on χ² (1, n = 12,051) = 48.733, p = .001, RMSEA = .063, and CFI = .97. Path analysis results showed that health conditions mediated the effects of physical activity on happiness. The result also showed positive effects of education level and subjective wealth on happiness. Conclusion This study provides evidence that engagement in physical activity has a positive impact on happiness. Indonesian adults should engage in more active lifestyles since more than one-third of Indonesians did not get enough physical activity.
... The assumed influence of structural factors is in line with structural constructivism and the related theoretical approaches, and it is supported by the empirical evidence cited earlier. Health status has been shown to be one of the major predictors of wellbeing in later life, and the degree to which poor health affects daily functioning is seen as the main factor negatively impacting happiness (Angner et al., 2013). ...
... First, these findings may suggest that while respondents' lifestyles may be associated with wellbeing, this association is largely due to factors that determine the daily behaviours of older adults, such as their health, including its different psychosocial dimensions. This is in line with earlier evidence suggesting that health limitations may impact wellbeing through the way they affect the daily functioning of older adults (Angner et al., 2013). An alternative explanation would be one in line with earlier studies on the Valuation of Life (e.g. ...
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Article
The association between everyday activities, health and subjective wellbeing in older adults has mostly been examined using different activities as separate variables. Which activities are likely to come together in individuals’ daily time-use patterns, or in what context, has not yet been analysed. This study looks at a broad range of spontaneously reported activities, their location and social context to identify latent behavioural classes. The data used in the study came from a sample of 200 non-institutionalised adults aged 65 and above. Activity data were collected using the Experience Sampling Method. Generalised structural equation modelling was used to identify the classes. Three distinctive behavioural classes, representing different lifestyles, emerged: passive domiciliary, active functional and social recreational. They constituted 30, 53 and 17 per cent of the sample, respectively. Class membership was related to individuals’ age, education and selected dimensions of health measured using the Nottingham Health Profile: energy levels and emotional response. There was consistency between the objectively measured class and an individual's subjective assessment of their physical and emotional health. While both class membership and subjective wellbeing were associated with health, the relationship between class and wellbeing was weak and fully explained by socio-demographic and health-related variables.
... These results are also consistent with some previous empirical findings (Horstmann et al. 2012; Li et al. 2013; Moor et al. 2013; Sok 2010; Tomas et al. 2014; Yunong 2012. As suggested by Angner et al. (2013), our results support the notion that the functional relationship between objective health status and subjective happiness must be understood in terms of approaches that incorporate additional psychological and social elements. The relationship between happiness and the number of unhealthy days can be explained by considering this variable a subjective indicator of health which contributes, as Angner et al. (2013) suggest, to disrupting seniors' daily functioning. ...
... As suggested by Angner et al. (2013), our results support the notion that the functional relationship between objective health status and subjective happiness must be understood in terms of approaches that incorporate additional psychological and social elements. The relationship between happiness and the number of unhealthy days can be explained by considering this variable a subjective indicator of health which contributes, as Angner et al. (2013) suggest, to disrupting seniors' daily functioning. This has implications for the affective component of well-being as well as other biological, psychological and social factors. ...
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In recent years, measurement of quality of life is receiving increased attention. We used the satisfaction with life and subjective happiness scales in older adults living in urban areas in the Maule Region, Chile; generalized linear models were computed (n=396). We discovered that (1) gender is linked to the satisfaction with life, (2) satisfaction with one´s own economic situation have robustly effects on satisfaction with life and happiness, and (3) unhealthy days, family importance and satisfaction with food are the strongest predictors of both satisfaction with life and happiness.
... Health status plays a key role in influencing happiness. Participants with poor self-reported health status are more likely to lead to a decline in happiness 48 . The degree of disease damage to individual life ability is inversely proportional to happiness. ...
... The relationship between disease and happiness is complex, and disease can affect happiness through its impact on health. The extent of disease has various effects on the ability of the elderly to care for themselves, which, in turn, affects their overall level of happiness 48 . According to hedonic adaptation theory, however, people adapt to disease over time, and the effect of physical health on happiness gradually decreases 49 . ...
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Background: The happiness of elderly people is an important indicator of successful aging. Research shows that happiness among the elderly is not only affected by physical conditions, social relations and other factors, but is also used as a measure of other aspects of happiness. This study examined the relationship between happiness and social relationships, contextual characteristics, and the medical outcomes of the elderly in China. Methods: Using multistage sampling method, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Heilongjiang Province, China. 1003 elderly people participated in this study. We used the Life Satisfaction Scale, social isolation scale and EQ-5D to measure the happiness, social participation and health status of the elderly. In this study, structural equation modeling and descriptive analysis were used for analysis. Results: The main factors for happiness in the elderly were social relationships (γ = 0.507, P<0.001), contextual characteristics (γ= 0.256, P<0.001), and medical outcomes (γ= 0.232, P=0.015). Among these, the most important factor in the dimension of social relationships was social isolation (γ = -0.757 P<0.001), the most important factor in the dimension of contextual characteristics was monthly income (γ = 0.955 P<0.001), and the most important factor in the dimension of medical outcomes was physical health (γ = 0.600 P<0.001). There were also some relationships among three other dimensions. Conclusions:For the elderly, we must pay attention to social relations and reduce the sense of social isolation. At the same time, we should provide more medical resources for the elderly and maintain their health.
... Angelini et al. (2012) concluded that the existence of conditions detrimental to health and the presence of physical limitations negatively influence the QDL of the European elderly. Angner et al. (2013) reported a significant association between self-perception of health and QDL. For their part, Baernholdt et al. (2012) suggested that QDL is a multidimensional construct and that some mental health disorders related to depression, memory loss and functionality are inversely associated with QDL in the elderly in the United States. ...
... The relationship between food consumption and QDL (Schnettler et al., 2017b;Shams, 2014;Sok, 2010) is a research topic that has scarcely been explored considering that demographic aging has become such a subject of interest (Tomás et al., 2014). On fact, aging has been related to food (Holden & Hatcher, 2006;Noll, 2007), self-perception of health (Schneider et al., 2004;Angelini et al., 2012;Angner et al., 2013) and FPR (Dean et al., 2008;Diener & Fujita, 1995;Grunert et al., 2007;Lobos et al., 2017;Schnettler Morales et al., 2014). ...
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Article
Individuals not only have a set of personal resources to carry out their activities, they also have a perception with respect to the availability of these resources. As people age, personal food-related perceived resources (FPR) become increasingly important, and these influence their quality of life (QOL). Since men and women differ in aspects like education, consumption and pensions, this study seeks to identify the gender role in the relationship between FPR and QOL among Ecuadorian elderly. The sample included elderly people of both sexes in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, with the application of stratified random sampling. The instrument included: FPR scale, satisfaction with food-related life scale (SWFLS) and the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). The results indicated that those men and women who have a better perceived satisfaction with their economic situation are in physically and mentally good health, assign greater importance to family, are more satisfied with their food-related life, and have a higher number of FPR and therefore a better QOL. A relevant conclusion is that SWFLS and FPR are predictors of QOL among Ecuadorian elderly and that gender helps to explain the sign and magnitude of the relationship between these variables.
... Some studies, although not referring directly to the health-related symptoms and negative emotions relationship, clearly suggest that there may be a positive relationship between these variables. They point out that self-report health measures show a pervasive mood of negative affectivity [33], and that health status is one of the most influential predictors of affective well-being, as people with an unfavorable self-reported health status have almost three times the odds of experiencing more negative emotions [34]. Taking these studies into account, and considering the happy-productive worker thesis [27], we expect that health-related symptoms will play a mediating role in the relationship between the appraisal of environmental stressors and negative emotions, which, in turn, will decrease performance. ...
... With regard to the indirect effect, on the one hand, and in contrast to previous studies [23,24,27], the indirect relationship between the appraisal of environmental stressors and performance through negative emotions was not significant. On the other hand, as expected, taking into account the existing literature [5,27,29,34], the double mediation through health-related symptoms and negative emotions, in that order, was significant for the 'high interactive, high complexity' pattern, but not for the 'middle interactive, high complexity' or 'high interactive, low complexity' patterns. These results can be explained based on the activation theory [39] and the job stress theory [35]. ...
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Article
Background: Different studies have shown a relationship between office environmental stressors and performance. However, studying environmental stress in the workplace requires analyzing more specific patterns to generate knowledge about the type of employees who are more or less vulnerable to environmental stressors. The present study analyzes the mediating role of health symptoms and negative emotions in the relationship between stressors and performance in different work patterns (task complexity and interactivity). Methods: There were 83 office workers (n = 603 time points) that took part in a diary study with multilevel design. Results: The appraisal of the environmental stressors is positively related to health-related symptoms, which in turn increase negative emotions, and then decrease the performance of workers who perform complex tasks and interact frequently with other people at work. This mediation is not significant when office workers do not interact frequently with other people at work and/or perform simple, rather than complex tasks. Conclusions: Work patterns play an important role when studying the mediating role of health-related symptoms and negative emotions in the relationship between the appraisal of environmental stressors and performance in office workers. In other words, employees in the ‘interactive and complex’ pattern are more vulnerable to the negative effects of office stressors on performance.
... Es posible afirmar que la felicidad afecta a la salud, evaluada tanto objetiva como subjetivamente [14][15][16], aunque no debemos olvidar que la relación entre estas variables no es tan sencilla ni tan unívoca, ya que la percepción de una buena salud no implica necesariamente que uno perciba que tiene una buena calidad de vida [17]. ...
... Además, se sentían felices y eso les hacía percibir mayor bienestar. Como señalan numerosos trabajos [7,12,[13][14][15][16] tanto el optimismo como la felicidad tienen un papel destacado en la salud, y participar en el taller contribuyó a mantener ese estado de felicidad y optimismo. En concordancia con la investigación de García Larrauri [40] el taller evidenció la relación que existe entre mantener un ánimo positivo y la tendencia a la hora de ayudar a otras personas, manifestar comportamientos solidarios, compasivos, generosos o altruistas. ...
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Article
Introducción: El proceso de envejecimiento en los países desarrollados conlleva que las personas mayores constituyan un grupo de edad al que prestar especial atención. En este contexto, se hace necesario implementar actividades que fomenten el envejecimiento activo y que repercutan en su bienestar psicosocial. Objetivo: en este estudio se investigan los beneficios de la participación en un taller de risaterapia sobre el bienestar subjetivo y psicológico de un grupo de personas mayores a partir de su experiencia. Metodología: estudio con enfoque cualitativo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas a 57 personas mayores no institucionalizadas, con edades comprendidas entre los 60 y 88 años, socias de tres Centros de Día para personas mayores de la Gerencia Territorial de Servicios Sociales de Salamanca (Junta de Castilla y León). El taller de risaterapia se desarrolló durante cuatro sesiones de tres horas de duración cada una, con una periodicidad semanal. Resultados: El análisis de contenido de los discursos de los participantes desvelan categorías vinculadas a: crecimiento personal, mejora del estado de ánimo, valoración de la risa como actividad física y lúdica, incremento de la motivación y fortalecimiento de las relaciones interpersonales. Conclusiones: los resultados confirman los efectos positivos de los talleres de risaterapia sobre el bienestar psicológico y subjetivo de las personas mayores.
... Numerous studies have found high positive correlation between human happiness and their health (Morris et al, 1984;Angner et al, 2012). Same conclusion can be drawn by looking at the relationship between happiness scores and status of health of the citizens of OECD member countries (see graph 1). ...
... Soris dade-biTi statistikuri korelaciaa[Morris et al, 1984;Angner et al, 2012]. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevri-qveynebis bednierebis qulebsa 15 da maTi mosaxleobis janmrTelobis maCveneblebs16 Soris kavSirsac am daskvnamde mivyavarT (naxazi 1).Kaseve, sxvadasxva kvlevebi bednierebaze cxadyofs, rom adamianTa keTildReoba sxva mraval faqtorze, maT Soris ganaTlebis xarisxisa da garemos dabinZurebis donezecaa damokidebuli[Michalos, 2007; Rehdanza et al,2013]. ...
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სტატიაში ახსნილია ბედნიერებასა და ეკონომიკას შორის კავშირი, შეფასებულია მოსახლეობის კეთილდღეობის გაზომვის მეთოდოლოგიური და კეთილდღეობის მაქსიმიზაციის განხორციელების მიზანშეწონილობის საკითხები. ნაშრომში გაანალიზებულია უცხოელ მკვლევართა შეხედულებები ბედნიერების ეკონომიკური თეორიის შესახებ და შემოთავაზებულია მთლიანი შიგა პროდუქტის ალტერნატიული საზომები. სტატიაში გაკეთებულია დასკვნა, რომ მსოფლიოში ყველაზე გავრცელებული კეთილდღეობის საზომი, მთლიანი შიგა პროდუქტი, ვერ ახერხებს სრულად ასახოს ადამიანთა ბედნიერებაზე მნიშვნელოვანი გავლენის მქონე ფაქტორები. თუმცა, რადგან დღეს მთლიანი შიგა პროდუქტი ყველაზე კარგად შესწავლილი ინდიკატორია, შეგვიძლია ვივარაუდოთ, რომ მისი ჩანაცვლება ალტერნატიული საზომით ახლო მომავალში არ მოხდება. შესაძლებელია იმის ვარაუდიც, რომ თანდათან მეტი ქვეყნები მოახდენენ ბედნიერების ინდიკატორების სხვადასხვა პოლიტიკური გადაწყვეტილების მიღების პროცესში ეტაპობრივ ჩართვას.
... The results of this study are also consistent with the findings of several studies that have shown the positive effects of a better functional health on wellbeing, including the enhancement of life satisfaction [81]. Thus, as evident from earlier studies as well, improving functional health status could be considered as one means by which government can improve the SWB of their senior citizens [82,83]. Again, consistent with previous studies that revealed that lack of social contact is strongly positively associated with SWB [84], we found a negative association between the construct of social capital (with higher decision making power, community involvement and having someone to be trusted) and LSWB. ...
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Background Subjective well-being (SWB) is of particular interest among gerontologists and health researchers with important implications for interventions especially in poor-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the possible pathways from socioeconomic status (SES), functional independence and social capital towards SWB among older adults in India. Methods Cross-sectional data from the “Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India” (BKPAI) survey with a total sample of 9231 older adults aged 60 years and above were used. The outcome variable was low SWB (LSWB). The study used univariate and bivariate analysis for reporting the initial results. Further, the study employed the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure to estimate the covariance matrix. Results Overall, about 27% of older adults reported LSWB. Reporting LSWB was more prevalent among older adults who had no income (30.8%) and those who had income but not sufficient to fulfil their basic needs (39.4%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of reporting LSWB was significantly higher among older adults who had no asset ownership (36.5%, p < 0.001) than those who had asset ownership. The path from the SEM shows that LSWB and SES are negatively related to each other. Moreover, LSWB had significant negative relationship with independence (β = -0.032, p < 0.001) and social capital (β = -0.020; p < 0.001). In addition, results found a positive relationship between SES and independence (β = 0.019; p < 0.001), SES and social capital (β = 0.016; p < 0.001), and independence and social capital (β = 0.033; p < 0.001). Conclusions The findings highlight that higher SES, good physical functioning as well as favorable social capital are interdependent factors of late-life wellbeing and a multidimensional approach in policymaking can ensure a successful and active ageing among older Indian adults.
... This finding is consistent with previous studies (Pinquart and Sörensen, 2000;Steptoe et al., 2015;Zhang andZhang, 2015, 2017). This shows that the physical health status is one of the most important prerequisites for maintaining individual wellbeing and mental health (Angner et al., 2013;Tomaszewski, 2013). Second, social cohesion was positively associated with psychological wellbeing, probably because it can enhance neighborhood belonging and participation and improve mental wellbeing through the behavioral confirmation need of the SPF theory (Liu et al., 2016). ...
Article
The basic attributes of the urban built environment are an important factor affecting mental health. However, research has rarely distinguished objective and perceived built environment characteristics to explore the associations with older adults' mental health. Based on data of 879 respondents aged 60 or older in Dalian, China, we explored the mediating roles of perceived built environmental attributes in the relationship between objective built environmental characteristics and mental wellbeing by structural equation modelling. Furthermore, to control for residential self-selection, the model was further tested by excluding the participants who self-selected their residences. The results showed that accessibility to daily living service facilities was positively associated with older adults' mental wellbeing through an indirect role of perceived built environmental attributes. The positive direct effect of aggregation of daily living service facilities on mental wellbeing was offset by the negative indirect effects of perceived built environmental attributes. In addition, the street interface density was negatively related to mental wellbeing through indirect effects. The diverse leisure, exercise and landscape facilities, underground parking and presence of elevators within neighborhoods were all positively associated with older adults’ mental wellbeing through direct and/or indirect effects. The results were verified after excluding residential self-selection samples. These findings are helpful for evidence-based planning strategies and can provide guidelines on designing neighborhood landscapes and facilities which can further contribute to aging in place policies.
... 24 There is evidence that, lack of which are associated with higher mortalities cognition, depressive symptoms, and well-being. 25 This reliance sensation among elderly may help them with strengthening their coping abilities to overcome the stressors of life. ...
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to examine possible gender interaction in the mentioned associations. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted among 644 participants over the age of 60 years old in Tehran. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted in their own homes, by using a structured multi-sectional questionnaire. The version 1 of the SF-12 scale was used to measure the HRQoL, consisting of two summary measures; PCS (Physical Component Score) and MCS (Mental Component Score). The Persian version of the Social Provisions Scale (SPS) was used to measure PSS. Four multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results: Older people with poor SPS score were 1.8 times more likely to be in the worst quartile of the MCS distribution (CI=1.11-2.93, P =0.021), and twice as likely to be in the worst quartile of the PCS distribution (CI=1.18-3.54, P =0.011). We found strong evidence to support the hypothesis of gender interaction in the association between economic status and PCS [Men: OR 0.28, CI (0.11-0.71); Women: OR 1.00, CI (0.53-1.88); P of Interaction 0.021], and a borderline evidence for gender interaction in the association between physical activity and PCS [Men: OR 5.32, CI (2.14-13.20); Women: OR 1.80, CI (0.82-3.93); P of Interaction 0.051]. Conclusions: Social support could be regarded as one of the main social determinants affecting HRQoL among older people. Men with poor economic status and poor physical activity, compared to women, are more likely to suffer from poor quality of life, thus men should be prioritized in financial support and life style and physical activity interventions.
... Although an association between health status and happiness depends on how health is measured [18], a study showed that the relationship between happiness and self-rated health is somewhat more robust than the correlations between happiness and medical examinations [19]. Self-rated health is a widespread health measure that is based on personal perception of one's about their own health. ...
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Background Health is one of the most important factors that affect happiness. This study aimed to assess the association between happiness and self-rated health among the Iranian adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of adults aged 18–65 In Iran in 2020. Demographic information, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and a single item on self-rated health were used to collect the data. The relationship between happiness with demographic variables and self-rated health was examined by performing logistic regression analyses. Results In all, 19499 were studied (9845 males and 9654 females). The mean age of participants was 36.38± 8.17 years. The mean happiness score was 4.1± 0.57 (out of 6) and this for self-rated health was 3.66±1.2 (out of 5). The results obtained from logistic regression analysis showed that very poor health status (OR: 5.114, 95% CI, P = 4.490–5.824, p <0.001), poor or very poor income status (OR: 1.553, 95% CI, P = 1.406–1.716, p <0.001), unemployment (OR: 1.704, 95% CI, P = 1.432–2.029, p <0.001), being aged 25–34 years (OR: 1.190, 95% CI, P = 1.088–1.302, p <0.001), and years of education (OR for 10–12 years of education: 1.271, 95% CI = 1.174–1.377, p< 0.001) were significant contributing factors to a lower happiness. Conclusion The results showed that self-rated health was the most significant factor that affected happiness even after adjustment for socioeconomic variables, including age, income, employment, and education. Indeed, improving population health might be an effective measure to improve happiness among Iranians.
... A isto acresce que os benefícios da eliminação ou erradicação de doenças vão para além do que é mensurável, dado que claramente se reflectem na diminuição da mortalidade e no consequente aumento do bem-estar geral (19). Desde há vários anos que se sabe que o estado de saúde é um dos mais importantes indicadores de felicidade (20), embora reconhecendo as dificuldades na definição do conceito. Não é possível atribuir um valorou um custo -à felicidade, mas fácil é concluir que esta é uma das mais poderosas externalidades da erradicação de doenças. ...
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Objectivo: a presente reflexão visa confrontar as reivindicações de autonomia pessoal relativamente à decisão sobre a vacinação com considerações de saúde pública e bem comum. Metodologia: este estudo será levado a cabo mediante uma análise dos argumentos de ambas as partes, tendo igualmente em conta a doutrina, legislação e jurisprudência relevantes. Resultados: conquanto de ambos os lados se esgrimam argumentos de valor, a actual existência de uma pandemia muda drasticamente as regras do jogo. Conclusão: no contexto de uma pandemia, considerações de saúde pública – ou seja, a erradicação da doença – devem ter primazia sobre a autonomia individual no que respeita à vacinação.
... SS is defined as an important social factor for good physical and emotional health and to gain a healthy sense of well-being. (Bryla et al., 2013), reducing depressive symptoms and chronic diseases (Angner et al., 2013;Bartolini et al., 2013). ...
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The purpose of this research is to investigate the association of perceived social support (PSS) and depression in middle and older aged people. A random sample of 126 elderly persons, age between 40 years to 75 years, were selected from different areas of Karachi. A demographic data sheet was administered along with study scales. To explore the relationship, correlation coefficient and linear regression were applied. Findings revealed a significant negative relationship between perceived social support and depression (p<.000) in middle and older-aged adults and in male and female middle and older-aged adults, respectively. Further, the analysis revealed that PSS has the potential to bring .09%, .10%, and .06% change in depression among the whole sample and among elderly males and females. Provision and utilization of adequate support systems for the elderly can be beneficial in treating emotional problems and enhance the well-being of this population.
... In this regard, a correct regulation of emotions in the development of self-concept during the school stage allows for maintaining a positive self-concept in different areas: academic, social and physical [31,32]. For this reason, previous research highlighted the incidence of self-concept as a predictor of subjective happiness, specifically the dimensions of self-esteem, physical appearance and self-confidence [18,[33][34][35]. ...
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Adolescence is a critical period for the acquisition of health-related behaviors that will transcend later psychological well-being in adulthood. The present study presents a theoretical model whose objective is to analyze how physical activity predicts an adequate quality of life through self-concept and subjective happiness among adolescents. A total of 452 students aged 12 to 15 (M = 13.8; SD = 0.77) from four Compulsory Secondary Education institutes of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura participated, including boys (n = 258) and girls (n = 194). The students reported information on the following variables: physical activity, body mass index, self-concept, subjective happiness, and quality of life. The results show acceptable fit indices for the proposed theoretical model, which showed the importance of physical activity through self-concept and subjective happiness in quality of life: MRLχ2 = 67.533, p < 0.05, CFI = 0.93, TLI = 0.90, SRMR = 0.05, and RMSA = 0.07. Likewise, the model presented a better fit index for males than females. This study draws conclusions on the importance of physical activity as a predictor of quality of life mediated by the perception of self-concept and mood in adolescents.
... This, in turn, affects our income (Strauss & Thomas, 1998). Perhaps more importantly, our happiness and satisfaction in life depend on our health (Angner et al., 2013(Angner et al., , 2009. It is unsurprising, therefore, to see many researchers are interested in finding out the determinants of good health (e.g., Grossman, 1972Grossman, , 2000Grossman & Kaestner, 1997). ...
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Technological advancements bring changes to our life, altering our behaviors as well as our role in the economy. In this paper, we examine the potential effect of the rise of robotic technology on health. Using the variation in the initial distribution of industrial employment in US cities and the difference in robot adoption across industries over time to predict robot exposure at the local labor market, we find evidence that higher penetration of industrial robots in the local economy is positively related to the health of the low‐skilled population. A 10% increase in robots per 1000 workers is associated with an approximately 10% reduction in the share of low‐skilled individuals reporting poor health. Further analysis suggests that the reallocation of tasks partly explains this finding. A 10% increase in robots per 1000 workers is associated with an approximately 1.5% reduction in physical tasks supplied by low‐skilled workers.
... The positive association of psychological distress with LSWB observed in our study can be explained as the psychological distress may reflect the differences in health conditions and issues of access to resources and mental health care [44]. As evidence suggests physical health status plays a preponderant role in late-life wellbeing [45][46][47]. Consistently, the present study found a significant positive association of poor self-rated health and prevalence of chronic morbidity with LSWB. The finding that disability had a significant positive association with LSWB was in concordance with earlier studies that highlighted functional activities namely, activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs as predictors of subjective well-being in later years of life [17,18]. ...
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Background The status of household headship accorded to the older members of the family is often symbolic and seldom vested with some control over resources. The increased dependency and diminished ability to contribute to household economy are major factors that lead to a decline in the respect accorded to older people and their status in the family. The present study aimed to understand the distinction between the functional and nominal household headship status of older adults based on their decision-making power and examine how it is associated with their subjective well-being. Method The present research used data from the 'Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India' (BKPAI) which is nationally representative. The survey was conducted in 2011, across seven states of India. Descriptive statistics along with percentage distribution were calculated for subjective well-being over explanatory variables. For finding the association between subjective well-being over explanatory variables, binary logistic regression model was used. Results The mean age of the study population was 68 years [CI: 67.8–68.2]. About 5 % of older adults had nominal while 95% had functional headship status. The prevalence of low subjective well-being (LSWB) was significantly higher among older adults with nominal headship status (58%) than functional headship status (23%). After controlling for several other variables, older adults with nominal headship status were 59% significantly more likely to have low subjective well-being than individuals with functional headship status (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.31). Further, older adults with psychological distress, chronic morbidity, poor self-reported health, no community involvement and no one to trust on were at higher risk of LSWB than their counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest that older adults who do not have a household headship with power with active participation in household decision-making as well as those who have no involvement in social activities or have poor health conditions need to be given more attention. Thus, to keep a large proportion of older population gainfully engaged, their care and support should be ensured via providing appropriate services that would enhance their roles and responsibilities and overall wellbeing.
... Studies have shown that the happiness of the older population is decreased in those with chronic illnesses (Ghasemi et al., 2009). Other studies have shown that health status is one of the most influential predictors of happiness (Angner et al., 2013;Bishop et al., 2006) because the underlying disease disrupts daily functioning. In our previous study conducted on aging people from Alborz province in 2000 (Harandi et al., 2020), we found that variables such as educational level, occupational status, income level, marital status, number of family members, lifestyle, and quality of life can be considered as predictors of general health status in the older population. ...
Article
This study evaluates the happiness inequality among older Iranians using concentration index analysis. A total of 739 people aged 60–90 years completed the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) questionnaire. The SES variables were constructed using nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) based on all related variables. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that persons in the SES quintiles 3–4, urban dwellers, literate, and with no underlying disease had higher odds of happiness than others. Based on the estimated concentration indices, there was inequality in happiness based on SES levels (concentration index [95% confidence Interval]: 0.14 [0.10, 0.19]; p < .05). Our results revealed that happiness in the older population was probably more prevalent among people with higher SES levels.
... Se ha demostrado que la autopercepción de salud tiene una asociación significativa con indicadores más objetivos como el número de enfermedades crónicas que el adulto mayor padece o el tiempo que se ha vivido con una enfermedad (Baernholdt et al, 2012). Angner et al, (2013) complementan este enunciado indicando que existe una relación positiva entre el estado favorable de salud de una persona y su satisfacción con la vida, mientras que, ante la presencia de una enfermedad que interrumpe las actividades diarias de una persona, la relación es inversa. En términos de medición de este indicador, Schneider (2004) encontró que la autopercepción de la salud produce un efecto más fuerte en la satisfacción con la vida, comparado con indicadores objetivos de la salud. ...
Article
El propósito consistió en analizar la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores a partir de los los predictores del bienestar subjetivo y de acuerdo con el nivel de profesionalismo, empleando técnicas estadísticas multivariantes. El presente estudio es de tipo no experimental, de lógica deductiva, de corte transversal y de alcance correlacional-causal. Se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra de 500 adultos mayores en Ecuador. Los resultados evidenciaron efectos positivos y significativos que causan predictores como la situación económica, la importancia familiar, la percepción de salud, la independencia de actividades diarias y la suma de recursos percibidos relacionados con la alimentación en la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores. Además, los adultos mayores no profesionales presentaron más sensibilidad ante una percepción mala de la salud, mientras que los profesionales priorizan su satisfacción con la situación económica.
... Evidences showed that social support associate with lower health cost and higher perception of wellbeing among older persons [17] . It has also been found that older persons with high level of social support are more capable to maintain their health and daily activities [18] . Although literature explored adequately older person's health and well-being [19][20][21][22] , the inter connectedness of age, gender, and life satisfaction addressing the role of social support as a moderating factor has little attention. ...
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Introduction: Life satisfaction among older persons is one significant component of quality of life. However, differences related to gender and moderation role of social support might affect life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderation effect of perceived social support on the relationship between gender and life satisfaction among older persons.
... Those couples who belonged to other religious communities, having some health problems, had lived less than five years of married life and did not fell under the prescribed age range were excluded from the study. Unhealthy participants were excluded to avoid any confounding impacts of health-related distress on happiness (Angner et al., 2009(Angner et al., , 2013Steptoe, 2019). ...
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The study examined the relationships among some demographic factors, self-compassion and interdependent happiness of the married Hindu couples. Using a correlational research design, 600 participants (300 couples) were chosen by a snowball sampling. Self-compassion Scale (Neff, 2003b), Socioeconomic Status Scale (Aggarwal et al., 2005) and Interdependent Happiness Scale (Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015) were used to collect data. Findings revealed that some demographic factors such as age, years of marriage and number of family members were positively correlated with self-compassion while the number of children and socioeconomic status were negatively correlated with it. Age, years of marriage and the number of children had a positive relationship with interdependent happiness. Self-compassion evinced a significant positive correlation with the interdependent happiness of the couples. The nature of family and self-compassion accounted for significant variance in the scores of interdependent happiness of the couples. The study constitutes one of the limited studies which assessed the relationships among a set of demographic factors, self-compassion and interdependent happiness on a sample drawn from a collectivistic society. The results have been discussed in the light of extant theoretical and empirical findings of self-compassion and interdependent happiness. The findings may have significant implications for understanding positive life outcomes of people with self-compassion belonging to a collectivistic culture. The theory, practise and policy implications of the findings have been discussed. Directions for future research have also been provided along with some limitations of the study.
... Deteriorating health may disrupt daily functioning in various life domains from which people can gain happiness. Even though people can gradually adapt to health deterioration, the adaptive process may not be as fast as the diseases (Angner et al., 2013). They also found that the relationship between health and happiness is stronger in so-called "developing" countries than in "developed" countries. ...
Article
The “paradox of aging” refers to the phenomenon that even though people’s physical health and functions may decline when they enter later adulthood, their happiness does not necessarily. Previous studies have shown that older adults’ better emotional regulation skills may contribute to the maintenance of their happiness. This study aims to examine the relationship between age, health, and happiness, and the moderating role of emotional stability. We adopted a nationally representative sample (n = 10,968) from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) and performed weight-adjusted regression models with interaction terms. There is generally an S-shaped age-happiness relationship with significant urban-rural differences. Emotional stability buffers the negative association between health and happiness, and this moderating effect was stronger among older than younger adults, especially in rural China. This study calls for special attention paid to the oldest-old population in rural China and older adults’ emotional regulation skills.
... Thus, overall, literature suggests that the effects of frail syndrome can, and do, go beyond the physiological sphere by also having negative psychological consequences, such as reduced happiness, and life satisfaction. Broadly speaking, the idea that diseases that disrupt daily functioning are negatively related with happiness (and other well-beingrelated measures), is a relatively well-accepted hypothesis within the fields of health psychology and the study of happiness (Angner, Ghandhi, Purvis, Amante, & Allison, 2013). However, the reason for this association is less clear. ...
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During the past decade, the frail syndrome has acquired great importance due to its detrimental social and psychological consequences. In the present study, we investigate the association between frailty status and well-being (happiness and life satisfaction) among older adults, and we test the role of self-perceived health as potential mediator in such relations. We recruited 1205 Chilean older adults that responded to measures about their objective health status (frailty-related indicators), well-being, and self-perceived health. Overall, path analyses showed that frailty status is negatively associated to life satisfaction and happiness, and that self-perceived health works as a mediator for such relations. The social and psychological consequences of the frail syndrome older adults are discussed.
... A saúde, as políticas públicas, a satisfação alimentar, a participção social, são mais significativas que o dinheiro, confirmando a hipótese entre saúde e dinheiro, a saúde permanece em primeiro lugar. De forma semelhante, para Angner et al.17 , ter boas condições de saúde é mais significativo do que ter boas condições financeiras.Outra questão que apareceu nas falas foi o possível transtorno que a ausência do dinheiro pode gerar na família e no trabalho, e como ele deve ser usado no planejamento orçamentário e no projeto de vida, mas sempre com equilíbrio: "A falta do dinheiro acaba trazendo muitos transtornos: desagregação na família, no trabalho, etc. Eu recebi uma orientação do meu pai, que ele não é importante. Ele deveria ser consequência do seu trabalho e não o objetivo da vida" (P8)."O ...
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Objective: To describe and reflect the possible relationships established by the elderly between happiness and money. Method: It is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, carried out from a semi-structured interview with 19 elderly people, in their households, of both sexes in 2017 and 2018, in two states of the South region of Brazil, through content analysis. Results: What emerged in the voice of older people unfolded into two categories: Money as a way of life and Money does not bring happiness. Participants indicated relationships between happiness and money because money is one of the conditions to meet the basic needs of daily life, but it appeared as a propedeutic resource for happiness. They also reported that the obsessive pursuit of money can generate fascination, anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The participants indicated that money is a means to live well and be happy and was not considered the highest goal of their lives. He is not a promoter of happiness, but can contribute to the pursuit of peace, tranquility and inner satisfaction.
... El predominio del efecto negativo en situaciones de desfavorable salud o deterioro funcional, sin embargo, no excluye la existencia de emociones positivas. De hecho, los efectos fisiológicos y psicológicos nocivos de los problemas médicos crónicos pueden ser mitigados por las emociones positivas (Angner, Ghandhi, Williams-Purvis, Amante y Allison, 2013;Angner, Ray, Saag y Allinson, 2009), que sirven de marcos protectores para la salud física y mental en condiciones médicas crónicas (Garaigordobil, 2015). Al respecto, Lebowitz, Suh, Diaz y Emery (2011) plantearon que el sentido del humor en los pacientes con EPOC se asocia con un funcionamiento psicológico positivo y una mejor calidad de vida, pero la risa en voz alta puede causar un deterioro agudo en la función pulmonar secundaria a una hiperinflación empeorada. ...
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Resumen El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las relaciones entre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud-CVRS, la ansiedad, la depresión y el bienestar espiritual en pacientes con diagnóstico de en-fermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica-EPOC. La muestra estuvo conformada por 71 pacientes con una media de edad de 72 años. El diseño del estudio fue descriptivo correlacional. Instrumentos: cuestionario de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud-MOS SF36, cuestionario de calidad de vida abreviado para pacientes con EPOC Airways-AQ20, inventario de bienestar espiritual-SIWB y escala hospitalaria de ansiedad y depresión-HADS. Resultados: el índice sumario físico de calidad de vida del MOS-SF36 tuvo una puntación más baja con respecto al índice de sumario mental, a nivel general la CVRS de estos pacientes fue favorable. Respecto al análisis de regresión lineal múlti-ple, hubo una relación negativa de la ansiedad con la calidad de vida medida con el AQ-20. Los re-sultados encontrados confirman el peso de la ansiedad, especialmente, sobre la percepción de la CVRS en los pacientes con EPOC. Palabras clave: Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, ansiedad, depresión, bienestar espir-itual, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the health-related quality of life-HRQOL, anxiety, depression and spiritual well-being in patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD. The sample consisted of 71 patients with a mean age of 72 years. The study design was descriptive correlational. Instruments: Medical Outcomes Study a lower score with respect to the mental summary index, at a general level the HRQoL of these patients was favorable. Regarding multiple linear regression analysis, there was a negative relationship of anxiety with quality of life measured with AQ-20. The results confirm the weight of negative emotions on the perception of quality of life of patients with COPD.
... Several studies conducted in different countries have investigated the role of objective dimensions as predictors of successful aging. The most relevant ones are represented by physical health (Angner et al., 2013), social support from family and friends (Dai et al., 2013;Dumitrache et al., 2015), free time investment (Adams et al., 2011;Brajsa-Zganec et al., 2011;Lee et al., 2014), and physical activity (Klusmann et al., 2012;Ku et al., 2016). ...
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In the last few decades, the relationship between physical conditions and mental health has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers and professionals across disciplines. This relationship is especially relevant in old age, as the challenges posed by aging at various levels represent crucial concerns for policy makers. Due to the remarkable increase in life expectancy across countries, sustainable prevention strategies are needed to help individuals preserve psychophysical well-being in old age. In particular, the regular practice of a moderately intense physical activity is recommended by the World Health Organization to enhance balance, prevent falls, strengthen muscles, and promote psychophysical well-being. Daily physical exercise represents a beneficial and low-cost strategy, easily accessible to the general population and potentially customizable to specific needs through brief training programs. Based on these premises, the present research aimed at longitudinally evaluating mental well-being among 58 Italian people aged 67–85, who were involved in two Adapted Physical Activity (APA) training programs. Inclusion criteria for participation comprised high autonomy levels in daily activities, no cognitive impairment, sedentary habits or only occasional performance of moderate physical activity. Based on physical and functional assessment, 39 participants joined a program of adapted motor activity (PoliFit; Study 1), while 19 participants attended a variant program specifically designed for people with osteoporosis (OsteoFit; Study 2). Well-being dimensions were assessed through the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Physical functioning were evaluated before and after the programs through the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Handgrip Dynamometer Jamar Test. Findings highlighted that, besides physical benefits, participants reported significantly more adaptive emotion regulation strategies after both training programs; in addition, participants attending OsteoFit reported significantly higher levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest the potential of moderate physical activity in promoting mental health, emphasizing the additional role of training programs as cost-effective opportunities for elderly people to socialize and improve emotional functioning. Overall, the findings support the view of old age as a stage of competence development and adaptive adjustment, rather than a phase of mere psychophysical decline.
... "Health, however, is not necessarily a condition for happiness" [32, p 0.14]. Nonetheless, there is evidence that it may contribute to happiness in aging adults [40]. Culture theory identifies a "culture" as a group of people with shared meanings feelings, experiences [41][42][43]. ...
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Purpose: To describe shared meanings of success, happiness, and health of adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists. Materials and methods: Ethnography employed open ended/semi-structured interviews and structured questionnaires (Satisfaction with Life Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II®, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Life Habits Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study-Social Support Survey, and PROMIS® Pain Interference Scale). Content analysis of qualitative data and principal components analysis of questionnaire responses identified shared meanings. Results: Fourteen adults with cerebral palsy and 15 physiotherapists (median age 46) had similar levels of education. For both groups, social achievements, personal goals, employment, and supporting a family defined success. Adults with cerebral palsy more frequently identified tenacity and persistence as important for success. Both groups described happiness as spending time with loved ones, recreational activities, and having purpose in life. Adults with cerebral palsy identified the importance of self-acceptance for happiness. For both, health included self-care of mind/spirit, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal wellness, and physical fitness (the ability to perform physical tasks). Analysis of questionnaire responses identified shared meanings (eigenvalue 41, 95% explained variance). Conclusions: Adults with cerebral palsy and physiotherapists share similar experiences, behaviors, and feelings about success, happiness, and health. This knowledge may improve communication, enhance evidence-based practice, and foster services to support wellbeing. • Implications for rehabilitation • Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition, but we know little about social and physical outcomes for adults with cerebral palsy. • Lack of understanding about meanings of success, happiness, and health may be a barrier for consumers accessing and for providers delivering evidence-based services. • Physiotherapists and adults with cerebral palsy share similar meanings (feelings, experiences, beliefs, behaviors) of success, happiness, and health- or wellbeing. • Knowledge of this common ground may result in improved communication between providers and consumers, and foster more relevant and meaningful services to support the wellbeing of adults with cerebral palsy.
... Active elderly individuals who eat fruits and vegetables are happier, while those who sleep either a lot or very little or are overweight are less happy (Lima et al., 2012). The authors of one study found that having a disease does not directly lead to a reduction in happiness, but that what matters is the degree to which the disease interferes with daily functioning (Angner et al., 2013). In our study, psychological factors were positively associated with levels of B.M. Luchesi et al. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with happiness in a sample of Brazilian older adults. Methods: A study was conducted with 263 elderly people in the area of coverage of a family health unit located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The Subjective Happiness Scale was used to measure happiness, the final score of which determined one of three outcomes: not happy, intermediate, and happy. Disability, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychological, cognitive, and physical factors were considered for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results: Statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding satisfaction with life, disability, social phobia, anxiety, depression, and frailty (p≤0.05). In the multinomial regression analysis, being "not happy" was significantly associated with satisfaction with life (RRR: 0.53), depression (RRR: 1.46), social phobia (RRR: 1.24), and age (RRR: 1.06). Conclusion: The present findings indicate that psychological factors and age influence the levels of happiness in older adults living in the community. Furthermore, better screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health disorders could increase the feeling of happiness among older adults.
Article
Purpose: India is witnessing a phenomenon called population aging that is not only altering the shape of the population pyramid but also bringing regarding new needs, demands for new and increased resources and new opportunities as well. In India, family is still the major caregiver for the elderly. The conventional joint family arrangement is giving way to the nuclear family systems as people become more mobile. The social life of the elderly is undergoing changes. The changing and demanding requirements of the elderly are not taken care properly in the traditional old age care centres and homes. While the Western World is advanced with institutionalized support systems for the elderly population, India lacks adequate institutionalized support system and policy support mechanism. In this context traditional system of geriatric care and upcoming Community based geriatric care is reviewed systematically in this paper. The basis of secondary data the concept of community-based geriatric care in India and psychological capital, flourishing and hope among older persons in the community-based geriatric care is analysed. Design: The codes are taken from the literature and used in the review of literature. This paper analyses the notion of community-based geriatric care in India, as well as psychological capital, flourishing, and hope among older people in community-based geriatric care, using secondary data. Desktop research was conducted using the internet platform. A total of 80 research articles were examined in depth and methodically to identify the research gap. Findings: The factors, for instance, Community based geriatric care, psychological capital, flouring among old age people, and the geriatric care system in India are reviewed and analysed. The various theories are examined to comprehend psychological capital and flourishing. The hedonic and eudemonic theories were collected by the literature and studied to develop the concepts in this study. It also highlights the importance of community-based geriatric care for healthy aging. Originality: A new conceptual geriatric care system is introduced called community - based geriatric care. Paper Type: Review type paper.
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Individu didiagnosis dengan penyakit ginjal stadium akhir dan harus menjalani perawatan hemodialisis memiliki implikasi bahwa menjadi tergantung pada pengobatan seumur hidup. Sejumlah studi melaporkan pasien hemodialisis mengalami beban simtom dan terganggunya well-being akibat penyakit maupun perawatan hemodialisis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji peran resiliensi, positive social relationships, dan health belief terhadap emotional well-being pasien hemodialisis. Subjek penelitian yaitu pasien penyakit ginjal stadium akhir yang menjalani hemodialisis secara rutin di Instalasi Hemodialisis RSU Dr. Soetomo, Surabaya yang dipilih melalui purposive sampling, artinya dipilih berdasarkan pertimbangan kriteria tertentu dan kesediaan berpartisipasi. Penelitian ini melibatkan pasien hemodialisis sejumlah 55 orang terdiri dari 34 laki-laki dan 21 perempuan, berusia 26 – 60 tahun. Menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan melakukan survei, pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan lima Skala yakni Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) dan Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), 10-Item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-Item CD-RISC), Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), dan Skala Health Belief. Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis statistik uji regresi ganda. Hasil uji regresi ganda menunjukkan bahwa hipotesis ditolak, artinya resiliensi, positive social relationships, dan health belief secara simultan tidak dapat memprediksi emotional well-being pasien hemodialisis (F = 2,363, p 0,05). Secara parsial, berdasarkan nilai t diketahui hanya resiliensi memberi kontribusi signifikan terhadap emotional well-being (t = 2,342, p 0,05), sementara positive social relationships dan health belief masing-masing memberi kontribusi tidak signifikan terhadap emotional well-being. Penelitian berikutnya diharapkan dapat membantu meningkatkan coping resources yakni resiliensi yang bermanfaat mendorong perkembangan emosi positif, serta dapat membantu memberi edukasi terkait penyakit ginjal dan hemodialisis sehingga pasien memiliki pemahaman, respon permasalahan, dan belief yang lebih positif.Kata kunci: emotional well-being, pasien hemodialisis
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This study examines the mediating effect of coping strategies in the association between social participation, social support and self-rated health among older adults. A sample of 9233 Chinese older adults (Mean Age = 69.61 years, SD = 7.27) is obtained from the China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey in 2016 through a stratified multi-stage probability sampling. Stata 15/SE is used for data analysis. Results show that among older adults, coping strategies partially mediate the association between social participation and self-rated health, and fully mediate the relationship between social support and self-rated health. Findings contribute to existing knowledge and provide practical implications for social policy and intervention programs to enhance self-rated health of older adults in a Chinese social context.
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The current, utilitarian debate on the relation between euthanasia and happiness focusses primarily on the subject of dying patients. Where some utilitarians stress how euthanasia may relieve suffering in the process of dying, others emphasize the importance of respecting the autonomy of others to make decisions like these themselves. However, less attention has been paid to how legalizing euthanasia may impact the human decision-making processes of those still in a healthy and mentally sound state. This paper aims to shed light on this relatively underdeveloped subject within utilitarian theory. In particular, I focus on euthanasia’s most contested form: active, voluntary euthanasia. I draw on Ernst Becker, who argues that moderate death anxiety stimulates people to work on ‘immortality projects,’ decisions that help them cope with the concept of death. Subsequently, I draw on several studies to defend the notion that immortality projects are indirectly conducive to happiness because they stimulate healthy decisions and long-term, human progress. Additionally, immortality projects counterbalance decisions that are based on an excessive drive for short-term pleasure. As euthanasia can make dying less painful, I argue it may diminish death anxiety to significant degree, and thereby also an incentive to work on immortality projects. This brings me to the conclusion that legalizing euthanasia is problematic from a utilitarian point of view, considering the observation that immortality projects are indirectly conducive to happiness.
Conference Paper
Background: In the context of an aging society, the physical and mental health and quality of life of the elderly have received more and more attention. Among them, in the field of mental health of the elderly, subject well-being is an important concern. Many studies have shown that the environment has a certain impact on people's mental health. In the field of landscape, public health and architecture, most of the studies focus on the natural environment, including the number and proportion of green space, the distance to green space, the characteristics of green space, as well as the building density, building form, road network density and layout in the built environment. However, in China, the specific environment elements that are more comprehensive and more closely linked with urban planning and management need to be studied. Objectives: Relevant research shows that more than 80% of the activities of the elderly are completed within 1 km of the neighborhood. This study takes neighborhood environment as the main research area and research object. The objectives include: 1, to find the status of the elderly’s subject well-being in Shanghai; 2, to find the impact of the neighborhood environmental factors on the subject well-being of the elderly; and therefore, 3, to put forward some suggestions for neighborhood planning to promote the subject well-being of the elderly. Methods: Based on the data of the Fourth Survey on the Living Conditions of the Elderly in Urban and Rural Areas of China, 3431 urban residential samples in Shanghai were selected and analyzed in this study. The subject well-being comes from the question, "General speaking, do you feel happy?" Options include five levels, ranging from very happy to very unhappy. According to the existing literature and the specific requirements of Shanghai urban planning compilation and management, the environmental factors are summarized as 20 indicators in four aspects: natural environment, housing conditions, urban form and facility environment. According to the sample address, the environmental factors indicators are calculated in GIS. The data are analyzed by the method of path analysis in Mplus7.4. Results: 70.9% of the respondents felt very happy or happy, while only 2.2% of the respondents said they were unhappy or very unhappy. Non-agricultural household registration, higher education, better self-rated economic status of the elderly, the better of the subject well-being of the elderly. Under the control of the basic characteristics and socio-economic attributes of the elderly, the per capita green space area, housing construction area, road network density and location conditions have a significant impact on the well-being of the elderly. Conclusion: Under the control of socio-economic variables, community environment can significantly affect the subjective well-being of the elderly. In the planning of community life circle, improving the level of green space per capita in the community, improving the housing conditions of the elderly, and building a high-density road network system are effective measures to promote the subject well-being of the elderly.
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Objectives: This study uses a broad range of activities to examine how the type of activity, its social context, associated stress, importance, and the level of effort required are linked with activity enjoyment. Using aggregated data from all activities, it analyses the association between the experiential wellbeing of individuals and their satisfaction with life in general. Method: The data set included 1809 activities, reported by 200 non-institutionalised adults, aged 65 and above, living in Poland. Activity data were collected using the experience sampling method. Multilevel mixed effects models examined what makes an activity enjoyable for older adults. Linear regression models examined the relationship between aggregated subjective activity characteristics and satisfaction with life in general. Results: The most enjoyable activities were religious practice, childcare, and socialising. Enjoyment was positively associated with perceived activity importance, inversely associated with stress, and formed a U-shaped association with effort. On the aggregated level, a higher mean enjoyment predicted a higher satisfaction with life in general, whereas the opposite was the case for the mean importance. However, having greater variance in importance was associated with higher satisfaction with life. Conclusions: Enjoyable daily activities may boost the global wellbeing of older adults. Balancing high-effort and low-effort activities may provide additional benefits. This study points to new directions for research and shows that activities rarely studied in the existing literature have significant effects on the wellbeing of older adults.
Article
Successful aging is affected by multiple factors, including social support and mental health. In this investigation, the aim was to assess the association between Social support, happiness, and self-rated health among older adults. In this cross-sectional analytical descriptive study, 240 older adults were included using the multistage sampling method in Kerman, Iran. Data collection tools included: sociodemographic questionnaire, happiness self-rated health questionnaire, the Received Social Support Scale, and Perceived Social Support. The mean age of the elderly in the study was 66.74 ± 8.69 years. Regarding happiness status, less than half of them reported an acceptable happiness level. The mean perceived social support value was 42.3%, and the highest mean belonged to friend support. The means of received and perceived social support were significantly different based on gender, number of children, marital status, education, health, and happiness. It is necessary to heed older people’s social needs and communication networks, as these may have a direct impact on their health and happiness status.
Article
The Easterlin Paradox triggers the use of happiness as a measure of Wellbeing. The welfare can be measured by monetary measurement and comprehensive to subjective measurement, one of which is social capital. This study shows the influence of social capital on the level of individual happiness in Indonesia. The study uses the 2007 and 2014 Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) data. Using the Logit Regression Panel, the results show a positive influence on social capital, which contains trust, social networks, and sanctions and norms on several dimensions on the level of individual happiness. We also found that individual happiness levels are based on age, marital status, income level, education level, health status. Therefore, we need programs that prioritize community participation to increase informal social interaction and the need for effective programs to accelerate community income.
Article
Objective: This study investigated native-immigrant disparities in happiness among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands and the moderating role of social capital associated with such disparities. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2583 respondents aged 50 years or older from 10 origin countries from the 2015 wave of the Migrants' Welfare State Attitudes survey were used to estimate linear regression models. Results: Older immigrants experienced different levels of happiness compared with native-born individuals. Immigrants' socioeconomic status and other standard predictors accounted for much of the native-immigrant gap. Depending on origin countries, social capital had differential moderating roles compared to nonimmigrants. Conclusion: Immigrants were not always worse off than native-born residents; they showed a "happiness advantage" after controlling for socioeconomic status and related covariates. Social capital plays an important role in narrowing the immigrant-native gap in happiness.
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This article addresses the relationship between self-reported health and subjective well-being in two dimensions: cognitive and emotional. Using the Household Living Conditions Survey 2014, this study represents the first approach for Ecuador and Latin America to test how the two dimensions of subjective well-being explain self-reported health. The cognitive dimension is measured by a happiness question in a life-evaluative mode. Whereas the emotional dimension is proxied by an average of 16 psychosocial well-being questions that indicates how many, from the last 7 days, the person had a poor emotional state. We use descriptive statistics and a probit model with an instrumental variable approach to address the omitted variables bias and reverse causality. After controlling for socioeconomic, personal, regional, and health related variables, the results indicate that happiness or the cognitive dimension of well-being is the main predictor of self-reported health, quantitatively more important than having a recent illness (objective health measure), habits (sport) or health care (health importance). Furthermore, more days in a negative emotional state is associated with worse self-reported health.
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The main aim of present study is to test the associations between perceived jealousy, subjective happiness, and self-esteem. Moreover, it also aimed to test the role of self-esteem as a moderator between jealousy and subjective happiness. Our sample comprised of 200 university students using purposive convenient sampling technique including 100 male and 100 female students. For data collection we used Perceived Jealousy Scale (Iqbal, Fazaldad, & Hassan, 2019), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999).Findings indicate a significant negative relationship between perceived jealousy and subjective happiness (r=-.32, p <.001), and a positive relationship between subjective happiness and self-esteem. Furthermore, self-esteem acts as a moderator between perceived jealousy and subjective happiness. This study is beneficial in finding ways to enhance the self-esteem of students so that they can deal with negative emotions of jealousy and can experience positive emotions of happiness.
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Background: The happiness of elderly people is an important indicator of successful aging. Research shows that happiness among the elderly is not only affected by physical conditions, social relations and other factors, but is also used as a measure of other aspects of happiness. This study examined the relationship between happiness and social relationships, contextual characteristics, and the medical outcomes of the elderly in China. Methods: A total of 669 subjects over the age of 60 years were randomly selected from 13 cities in Heilongjiang province and surveyed using questionnaires. We used a structural equation based on the Anderson model to analyze the factors influencing happiness in the elderly. Results: The main factors for happiness in the elderly were social relationships (P = 0.51), contextual characteristics (P = 0.26), and medical outcomes (P = 0.23). Among these, the most important factor in the dimension of social relationships was social isolation (P = 0.757), the most important factor in the dimension of contextual characteristics was monthly income (P = 0.955), and the most important factor in the dimension of medical outcomes was physical health (P = 0.600). There were also some relationships among three other dimensions. Conclusions:For the elderly, we must pay attention to social relations and reduce the sense of social isolation. At the same time, we should provide more medical resources for the elderly and maintain their health.
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Objective: To describe the level of physical activity (PA) of a sample of independent non-institutionalised elderly and its relationship between nutritional status and psychosocial conditions of the elderly. Material and methods: A multicentre cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Health Centres of the city of Huesca in a sample size of patients over 75 years-old. Demographic, psychosocial, nutritional, anthropometric, and PA variables were analysed. The short scale of Minnesota in Spanish (VREM) was used to measure the latter. Results: The mean age was 81.58 years (±4) with a gender distribution of 51.7% women. The group were in a good health condition overall: Mild physical impairment (45%), correct mental health as regards cognition (93%) or mood (88%), favourable social status (96%), independence for activities of daily living (100%), and a good perceived quality of life (score>70 in 70%). There was a mean of 4666.2 METS-Min/14 days obtained in PA, and 10% of the participants were identified as sedentary. A statistically significant inverse relationship (P<.05) was observed between PA and functional disability, sarcopenia and body composition (waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, mass index, and body fat percentage). No significant relationship was observed between PA and nutritional status and psychosocial conditions. The relationship between the nutritional status and the variables of the psychosocial sphere was significant (P<.01). Conclusions: The characteristics of the population studied in the organic, functional, psychical, and social spheres do not suggest important limitations for PA. An insignificant percentage of the elderly does not perform enough PA. There is a significant relationship between physical exercise and favourable body composition rates.
Article
The main objective of this study was to provide new evidence on predictors of subjective quality of life of Ecuadorian senior citizens and evaluate variations between residents of urban and rural areas. A survey was conducted in rural and urban areas in the different cantons of the province of Guayas where there is a greater population concentration, to a number of 384 participants over 60 years of age. The technique of generalized linear models (GLM) with a Poisson distribution was used for the multivariate analysis. First, the combination of food-related perceived resources proved to be an important predictor of subjective well-being indicators. Secondly, it was corroborated that the satisfaction with the economic situation, family importance, perception of health and the sum of food-related perceived resources influence the satisfaction with the quality of life of the elderly. Finally, results revealed that older adults in urban areas were more sensitive to a poor perception of health, while the quality of life of older adults in rural areas is more affected when facing an unfavorable economic situation.
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Positive associations between religiosity and subjective well-being (SWB) have been found in a multitude of studies. However, there has been little effort in documenting the role that religion plays in helping people during the onset of adverse circumstances in their lives. This study investigates the effect of religion on the SWB of the disabled. We utilized secondary data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2006 to 2016 with a sample size of 36,484. Starting with nondisabled participants, we applied a difference-in-differences approach to a fixed-effects model and compared the magnitude of the decrease in SWB resulting from disability between religious individuals and their nonreligious counterparts. The empirical results show that following a religion increased SWB by 0.94 (p < 0.01) and the onset of a disability reduced SWB by 3.57 (p < 0.01) out of 100. Furthermore, there is a significant gap in happiness levels between religious and nonreligious individuals when they are diagnosed with a disability. Becoming disabled reduces SWB for nonreligious people more than that for religious people by 2.62 (p < 0.01). This study confirms that following a religion helps people cope with adverse circumstances such as the onset of a disability.
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Two studies were undertaken in two different samples of eight European countries. The aim of these studies was twofold: (1) to develop and validate, according to psychometric standards, an online self-administered instrument to measure the variables related to what is to “Live well” (the Live Well Index, LWI) taking into consideration four major domains: To Move Well, to Eat Well, to Feel Well and Perceived Health; (2) To investigate the particular role of physical activity in a life well lived, and to develop and validate motivational profiles for doing and sustaining the practice of physical exercise (Aspirational Profiles). The two initial questionnaire were developed using data from (a) a qualitative study (twenty Interviews and two Focus Group) on what is to Live Well, taking the four dimensions into contemplation, and (b) a quantitative study on motivations for physical activity. Both were conducted to generate items that identify domains and portraits. Alongside, an extensive literature review was implemented. Content analysis for the qualitative data was intertwined with principal factor analysis and cluster analysis, regarding the quantitative data, with the aim of generating the final items, either for the LWI and the Aspirational Profiles. The second phase of the two studies included 876 participants from eight European countries for the LWI and a sample of 1177 participants that joined in the pilot validation of the initial questionnaires; This phase included translation, retroversion and validation for each of the languages used in the two questionnaires. A list of easily comprehensible, non-redundant items was defined for the two instruments. The final Live Well Index is a brief measure that includes 17 questions. It can be connected to the Aspirational Profile on physical activity, that includes 19 quastions, and allows for a deeper exploration of the Move Well dimension, one of the four scopes of the LWI. Implications for the study and promotion of quality of life, supported in these pillars, are addressed, in particular in what concerns the role of physical activity for quality of life, and how to promote exercise in accordance with people’s specific motivations.
Article
Objectives The objective of this article is to analyze the different roles played by key factors in individual subjective well‐being (SWB). Making a distinction between females and males, we consider the correlations of different characteristics of a healthy lifestyle, work environment, and social support with happiness in Spain. Methods Based on a sample of 10,821 Spanish people, we applied ordered probit models and consider the possibility of common method variance. Results The results show that some elements of healthy lifestyles, such as the intensity of physical activity (PA), level of self‐perceived health, and sleeping hours are positively associated with a higher level of happiness, with some differences between genders, particularly in terms of PA. We also detected significant differences between males and females in the potential associations between individual happiness and variables measuring the social support, job satisfaction, and time spent unemployed. Conclusions The conclusions emphasize the differences between genders in explaining individual happiness and the relevance of the healthy lifestyles, different circumstances of the labor market, and social support to account for happiness.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between health literacy, self-care agency, social support and health status among elderly Chinese nursing home residents in Xinjiang. Design: Participants were selected using a stratified cluster random sampling design. Setting: The study was conducted from September 2011 to June 2012 in 44 nursing homes in four cities of Xinjiang, China. Methods: A total of 1,452 participants aged between 60 and 99 years met the study inclusion criteria. Data were collected using the Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire, the Exercise of Self-Care Agency Scale, the Social Support Rating Scale, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire and the Activities of Daily Living Scale. Subsequently, 1,452 questionnaires were distributed with a response rate of 96.14% (1,396 of 1,452). Results: Path analysis with structural equation modelling was used to test a hypothesised model linking health literacy to self-care agency, social support and health status. The optimal fitted model indicated that pathways linking health literacy to health status consisted of one direct path (path coefficient =.074) and three indirect paths (path coefficient =.194), with a total path coefficient of health literacy to health status being.268. Conclusion: Improving health literacy may enable older adults to more appropriately use self-care agency and social support as part of health promotion. The outcomes of this study suggest that to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising the health literacy levels of elderly people in China.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness in fibromyalgia syndrome [FMS] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA] patients and to determine the differences of life satisfaction in these patient groups. Methods: Twenty patients with RA, 20 patients with FMS, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in this study. All the subjects were female. The Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], and Beck Hopelessness Scale [BHS] were used to evaluate psychological disturbance, and the life satisfaction index [LSI] was used to measure psychological well-being. Results: The mean BDI scores were higher in both the FMS and RA groups, trait anxiety scores in FMS and state anxiety scores in RA were significantly higher compared with the control group. The mean BHS score was higher in the RA group. The LSI results were similar in FMS and RA but significantly lower than the control group. The BDI was found to be correlated with functional status which was measured by health assessment questionnaire in the RA group. There was a negative correlation between LSI and STAI in both the FMS and RA groups but LSI was correlated with BDI only in the RA group. Conclusion: In conclusion, life satisfaction was similar in RA and FMS patients although RA patients were more disabled because of the arthritic disease. Both depression and anxiety were predictors of low life satisfaction in RA, but in FMS only anxiety had a negative role on life satisfaction.
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A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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Using a ''subjectivist'' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness. The rationale for developing a new measure of happiness, as well as advantages of this scale, are discussed.
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Adaptation level theory suggests that both contrast and habituation will operate to prevent the winning of a fortune from elevating happiness as much as might be expected. Contrast with the peak experience of winning should lessen the impact of ordinary pleasures, while habituation should eventually reduce the value of new pleasures made possible by winning. Study 1 compared a sample of 22 major lottery winners with 22 controls and also with a group of 29 paralyzed accident victims who had been interviewed previously. As predicted, lottery winners were not happier than controls and took significantly less pleasure from a series of mundane events. Study 2 indicated that these effects were not due to preexisting differences between people who buy or do not buy lottery tickets or between interviews that made or did not make the lottery salient. Paraplegics also demonstrated a contrast effect, not by enhancing minor pleasures but by idealizing their past, which did not help their present happiness.
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A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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We derived a model of appraisal, coping, and adaptation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the more general theory of Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and examined this model using a longitudinal data set spanning 4 years and involving 239 RA patients (of whom 157 contributed to the primary analyses, with the remainder contributing to various follow-up analyses). This model attempted to identify the short- and long-term adaptational consequences of coping as well as the antecedents (appraisals, beliefs, social support, disease activity, etc.) that promote particular coping styles. Interrelations among the variables were examined using path-analytic techniques. Many observed relations were consistent with the model. Significant relations were subjected to more stringent analyses examining the ability of hypothesized causal variables to predict changes in outcome variables 1 year later. These analyses provided additional support for many observed relations and suggested the existence of a vicious cycle involving helplessness appraisals, passive coping with pain, and psychosocial impairment that promotes maladaptation in the face of RA. Theoretical implications, strengths, and limitations of the study are discussed.
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In this article the authors review the findings of eighty-one studies that have tested the relationship between health status and subjective well-being. Support was found for an association between health and well-being, although the source and extent of that relationship could not be clearly delineated given the numerous measurement problems and methodological inconsistencies found among the studies. Objective indices of health tended to have lower correlations with subjective well-being than with self-reports suggesting that various report biases may account for some, but probably not all, of the relationships obtained. Problems in study design and health measurement are also noted. An outline of the major competing hypotheses is presented that would explain the health-well-being association to guide future research and call for more direct study of psychological processes affected by changes in health in future research.
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A meta-analysis was conducted of the health/subjective well-being relationship, based upon studies of United States adults published prior to 1980. Dependent variables were zero-order and first-order correlations. A total of 231 zero-order effect size estimates were extracted from 104 different sources, while a total of 189 first-order effect sizes were extracted from thirty-three different sources. The majority of effect sizes were derived from samples where the midpoint of the age range was sixty-five and over. The 95 percent confidence interval estimates, generated using Tukey's jackknife procedure, were .29 to .35 and .29 to .38 for the zero-order and first-order correlations, respectively. Using weighted regression procedures, univariate analyses indicated that all but one study and sample characteristics were significant (p less than .05) predictors of zero-order and first-order correlations, though none of the predictors adequately specified variation in effect sizes. The mean value of the first-order correlations varied with the type of control variable, ranging from .42 (age) to .27 (SES composite). Health and subjective well-being were found to be positively and significantly related. Limitations of the meta-analysis were noted and suggestions were made for strengthening research on this topic.
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This study demonstrates the application of a more comprehensive methodology for evaluating quality of life of hemodialysis and transplant patients and provides some heuristic data. Physiologic and psychologic measures were combined to assess the quality of life of 59 patients treated for endstage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with successful cadaveric transplants gave evidence of greater physical and occupational rehabilitation than patients on chronic hemodialysis. On measures of subjective quality of life, however, successful transplant and hemodialysis patients were similar in reporting normal affect whereas failed transplant patients showed a diminished quality of life. These results suggest that cadaveric transplantation may have limited value as an intervention to improve quality of life for patients with ESRD. Moreover, the results demonstrate the usefulness of questionnaire techniques adapted from psychological research for evaluating the quality of life of patients following medical intervention.
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Numerous studies show that happy individuals are successful across multiple life domains, including marriage, friendship, income, work performance, and health. The authors suggest a conceptual model to account for these findings, arguing that the happiness-success link exists not only because success makes people happy, but also because positive affect engenders success. Three classes of evidence--crosssectional, longitudinal, and experimental--are documented to test their model. Relevant studies are described and their effect sizes combined meta-analytically. The results reveal that happiness is associated with and precedes numerous successful outcomes, as well as behaviors paralleling success. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that positive affect--the hallmark of well-being--may be the cause of many of the desirable characteristics, resources, and successes correlated with happiness. Limitations, empirical issues, and important future research questions are discussed.
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The most commonly used survey methods are self-administered questionnaires, telephone interviews, and a mixture of both. But until now evidence out of randomised controlled trials as to whether patient responses differ depending on the survey mode is lacking. Therefore this study assessed whether patient responses to surveys depend on the mode of survey administration. The comparison was between mailed, self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. A four-armed, randomised controlled two-period change-over design. Each patient responded to the same survey twice, once in written form and once by telephone interview, separated by at least a fortnight. The study was conducted in 2003/2004 in Germany. 1087 patients taking part in the German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC cohort study), who agreed to participate in a survey after completing acupuncture treatment from an acupuncture-certified family physician for headache, were randomised. Of these, 823 (664 women) from the ages of 18 to 83 (mean 51.7) completed both parts of the study. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the scores on the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) questionnaire for the two survey modes. Computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) resulted in significantly fewer missing data (0.5%) than did mailed questionnaires (2.8%; p < 0.001). The analysis of equivalence revealed a difference between the survey modes only for the SF-12 mental scales. On average, reported mental status score was 3.5 score points (2.9 to 4.0) lower on the self-administered questionnaire compared to the telephone interview. The order of administration affected results. Patients who responded to the telephone interview first reported better mental health in the subsequent paper questionnaire (mean difference 2.8 score points) compared to those who responded to the paper questionnaire first (mean difference 4.1 score points). Despite the comparatively high cost of telephone interviews, they offer clear advantages over mailed self-administered questionnaires as regards completeness of data. Only items concerning mental status were dependent on the survey mode and sequence of administration. Items on physical status were not affected. Normative data for standardized telephone questionnaires could contribute to a better comparability with the results of the corresponding standardized paper questionnaires.
Article
There is general consensus that self-rated health is the strongest predictor of subjective well-being during adulthood. What is not understood is the reason for the consistent relationship between these two variables. Other literature suggests that self-report health ratings are a function of both objective physical health status and neuroticism. This study examines the interrelationships among neuroticism, physician-rated health, self-rated health and subjective well-being concurrently and prospectively. Relationships are compared across gender, indicators of subjective well-being and times of measurement. The sample includes 243 men and 225 women in the cross-sectional analyses and 185 men and 165 women in the longitudinal analyses. As predicted, the results indicate that: 1.(1) self-rated health is significantly correlated with neuroticism, physician-rated health and subjective well-being;2.(2) neuroticism is significantly related to subjective well-being;3.(3) physician-rated health is weakly correlated with subjective well-being; and4.(4) partialling out neuroticism reduces the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being more than partialling out physician-rated health. Unexpectedly, neuroticism is significantly related to changes in subjective well-being.Future studies of the determinants of subjective well-being should include measures of neuroticism and physician-rated health.
Article
Hedonic adaptation refers to the process by which individuals return to baseline levels of happiness following a change in life circumstances. Dominant models of subjective well-being (SWB) suggest that people can adapt to almost any life event and that happiness levels fluctuate around a biologically determined set point that rarely changes. Recent evidence from large-scale panel studies challenges aspects of this conclusion. Although inborn factors certainly matter and some adaptation does occur, events such as divorce, death of a spouse, unemployment, and disability are associated with lasting changes in SWB. These recent studies also show that there are considerable individual differences in the extent to which people adapt. Thus, happiness levels do change, and adaptation is not inevitable.
Article
26 11-15 yr old children with congenital heart disease and 22 with facial burns were compared on 10 measures of adjustment to test the effects of invisible and visible disability upon social and psychological development. Interview data were coded and submitted to analysis of covariance, using sex, grade, and age as covariates. The invisible disability group (the heart group) was higher in adjustment in all 10 measures. Significant differences (p < .01) were obtained on vocational aspirations, origin of interest in vocational aspiration, career plans after high school, self-image, and work values. It is concluded that an invisible disability with severe physical limitations has fewer deleterious effects upon social adjustment than does a visible disability without physical limitations such as facial disfigurement. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Begins with a catalogue of the fundamental research questions that need to be answered to construct a theoretical model describing the process of psychosocial adaptation to disability. To illustrate the difficulty of answering these questions, research literature from the last 15 yrs is reviewed on the psychosocial adaptation to 3 neuromuscular disorders: 2 congenital or early onset disorders (cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy) and 1 progressive or adult onset disorder (Parkinson's disease). Each disorder review presents a brief description of the disorder, reviews the research on psychosocial adaptation, and summarizes findings on the more enduring attributes associated with adaptation. A framework for a conceptual model of psychosocial adaptation to neuromuscular disorders is offered, and research problems, such as design, data gathering, measurement, and analysis, are listed together with recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The aim of this investigation was to explain theimpact of people’s self-reported health on theirlevels of satisfaction with their health, and theimpact of these things plus satisfaction with otherspecific domains of their lives on the perceivedquality of their lives. The latter was operationalized as general happiness, satisfactionwith life as a whole and overall satisfaction with thequality of life. Seven hundred and twenty-three (723)usable questionnaires returned from a mailout randomsample of 2500 households of Prince George, BritishColumbia in November 1998 formed the working data-setfor our analyses. Among other things, mean respondentscores on the SF-36 health profile were found to belower than published norms from the UK, USA,Netherlands and Sweden, but higher than scores fromAberdeen, Scotland. Mean scores on the CES-Ddepression scale also indicated that our respondentstended to have more depressive symptoms thancomparison groups in Winnipeg and the USA. A review oftrends in mean scores on 17 quality of life items(e.g., satisfaction with family life, financialsecurity, recreation, etc.) from 1994, 1997 and 1998revealed that there were only 7 statisticallysignificant changes across the four year period andthey were all negative. Multivariate regressionanalysis showed that health status measured with avariety of indicators could explain 56% of thevariation in respondents’ reported satisfaction withtheir health. A combination of health status plusdomain satisfaction indicators could explain 53% ofthe variation in respondents’ reported happiness, 68%of reported life satisfaction and 63% of reportedsatisfaction with the overall quality of life. Sixtypercent of the explained variation in happiness scoreswas attributable to self-reported health scores, whileonly 18% of the explained variation in satisfactionwith life and with the overall quality of life scoreswas attributable self-reported health scores.
Article
The present study investigated theoretically and empirically derived similarities and differences between the constructs of enduring happiness and self-esteem. Participants (N=621), retired employees ages 51–95, completed standardized measures of affect, personality, psychosocial characteristics, physical health, and demographics. The relations between each of the two target variables (happiness and self-esteem) and the full set of remaining variables were assessed through a series of successive statistical analyses: (1) simple Pearson’s correlations, (2) partial correlations, and (3) hierarchical regression analyses. The results revealed that happiness and self-esteem, while highly correlated (r=0.58), presented unique patterns of relations with the other measured variables. The best predictors of happiness were the following: mood and temperamental traits (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism), social relationships (lack of loneliness and satisfaction with friendships), purpose in life, and global life satisfaction. By contrast, self-esteem was best predicted by dispositions related to agency and motivation (i.e., optimism and lack of hopelessness). Implications for the understanding of happiness and self-esteem are discussed.
Policy decisions at the organizational, corporate, and governmental levels should be more heavily influenced by issues related to well-being—people's evaluations and feelings about their lives. Domestic policy currently focuses heavily on economic outcomes, although economic indicators omit, and even mislead about, much of what society values. We show that economic indicators have many shortcomings, and that measures of well-being point to important conclusions that are not apparent from economic indicators alone. For example, although economic output has risen steeply over the past decades, there has been no rise in life satisfaction during this period, and there has been a substantial increase in depression and distrust. We argue that economic indicators were extremely important in the early stages of economic development, when the fulfillment of basic needs was the main issue. As societies grow wealthy, however, differences in well-being are less frequently due to income, and are more frequently due to factors such as social relationships and enjoyment at work. Important noneconomic predictors of the average levels of well-being of societies include social capital, democratic governance, and human rights. In the workplace, noneconomic factors influence work satisfaction and profitability. It is therefore important that organizations, as well as nations, monitor the well-being of workers, and take steps to improve it. Assessing the well-being of individuals with mental disorders casts light on policy problems that do not emerge from economic indicators. Mental disorders cause widespread suffering, and their impact is growing, especially in relation to the influence of medical disorders, which is declining. Although many studies now show that the suffering due to mental disorders can be alleviated by treatment, a large proportion of persons with mental disorders go untreated. Thus, a policy imperative is to offer treatment to more people with mental disorders, and more assistance to their caregivers. Supportive, positive social relationships are necessary for well-being. There are data suggesting that well-being leads to good social relationships and does not merely follow from them. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that people suffer when they are ostracized from groups or have poor relationships in groups. The fact that strong social relationships are critical to well-being has many policy implications. For instance, corporations should carefully consider relocating employees because doing so can sever friendships and therefore be detrimental to well-being. Desirable outcomes, even economic ones, are often caused by well-being rather than the other way around. People high in well-being later earn higher incomes and perform better at work than people who report low well-being. Happy workers are better organizational citizens, meaning that they help other people at work in various ways. Furthermore, people high in well-being seem to have better social relationships than people low in well-being. For example, they are more likely to get married, stay married, and have rewarding marriages. Finally, well-being is related to health and longevity, although the pathways linking these variables are far from fully understood. Thus, well-being not only is valuable because it feels good, but also is valuable because it has beneficial consequences. This fact makes national and corporate monitoring of well-being imperative. In order to facilitate the use of well-being outcomes in shaping policy, we propose creating a national well-being index that systematically assesses key well-being variables for representative samples of the population. Variables measured should include positive and negative emotions, engagement, purpose and meaning, optimism and trust, and the broad construct of life satisfaction. A major problem with using current findings on well-being to guide policy is that they derive from diverse and incommensurable measures of different concepts, in a haphazard mix of respondents. Thus, current findings provide an interesting sample of policy-related findings, but are not strong enough to serve as the basis of policy. Periodic, systematic assessment of well-being will offer policymakers a much stronger set of findings to use in making policy decisions.
Article
Children and adolescents with congenital or acquired limb loss must contend with a number of medical and psychosocial Stressors that might be expected to increase their risk of maladjustment. Yet several studies suggest remarkably good psychosocial adjustment in this population. This paper reviews the available data on the psychosocial status of the pediatric patient with a limb deficiency. Possible explanations related to disability characteristics, such as degree of disease visibility, are offered for the reported positive outcomes. Psychosocial factors that may influence the adaptation process are also reviewed. Finally, methodological limitations of prior studies are delineated and suggestions for future research are offered. Clearly, prospective longitudinal studies with appropriate control groups are necessary for an understanding of the adaptive process in specific pediatrie groups with limb deficiencies.
Book
In the health sciences it is quite common to carry out studies designed to determine the influence of one or more variables upon a given response variable. When this response variable is numerical, simple or multiple regression techniques are used, depending on the case. If the response variable is a qualitative variable (dichotomic or polychotomic), as for example the presence or absence of a disease, linear regression methodology is not applicable, and simple or multinomial logistic regression is used, as applicable.
Article
Increasing attention is being paid to the importance of built environment characteristics for participation, especially among people with various levels of impairment or activity limitations. The purpose of this research was to examine the role of specific characteristics in the urban environment as they interact with underlying impairments and activity limitations to either promote or hinder participation in life situations. Using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (2001-2003) in the United States, we used logistic regression to examine the effect of built environment characteristics on three indicators of participation (interpersonal interaction, obtaining preventive health care, and voting) among adults age 45+ (N = 1225). We examined effects across two levels of spatial scale: the census tract and block group. One in five adults reported difficulty walking 2-3 blocks unaided, but their odds of engaging in regular interpersonal interaction was 45% higher when they lived in areas with higher residential security. For the thirty-six percent of adults who reported visual impairment, and the odds of obtaining preventive health care were over 20% lower when living in an area with heavy traffic. Residing in an area with a high proportion of streets in poor condition was associated with 60% lower odds of voting among those with underlying difficulty with mobility activities. Results varied across levels of spatial scale. Simple changes in urban built environments may facilitate the full participation of all persons in society.
Article
Thesis (B.S.) in Liberal Arts and Sciences -- University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 29-32). Microfiche of typescript. s
Article
The relationship between health and happiness was explored using a cross-sectional survey of 383 community-dwelling older adults. As a function of self-reported health, median happiness was increasing at a decreasing rate; happiness variability was decreasing at a decreasing rate. In multivariable logistic regression, lowest-quartile happiness was associated with poverty, unfavorable subjective health, debilitating pain and urinary incontinence, but not with the comorbidity count or other comorbidities. The results, robust to common method bias, suggest that subjective health measures are better predictors of happiness than objective measures are, except for conditions that disrupt daily functioning or are associated with social stigma.
Article
Thirty years of research among older Americans on life satisfaction, morale, and related constructs has yielded a consistent body of findings. Parallel results for measures of these contructs and high intercorrelations justifies considering them in terms of a single summary construct, subjective well-being. As this research has relied almost exclusively on survey measures, interpretations are limited to the social-psychological level of people's day-to-day verbal behavior. This research shows reported well-being to be most strongly related to health, followed by socioeconomic factors and degree of social interaction, for the general population of Americans over 60. Marital status and aspects of people's living situations are also conclusively related to well-being. Age, sex, race, and employment show no consistent independent relation to well-being. In addition to indicating that negative life situation exigencies, such as poor health and low income are related to lower well-being, the results tentatively indicate that these exigencies create a greater vulnerability to the impact of other negative conditions.
Article
The authors examined levels of psychosocial distress and well-being in 65 gay or bisexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 24 of these men had asymptomatic HIV infection, 22 had acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex, and 19 had AIDS. All of the men evidenced high levels of psychosocial distress, but those with AIDS-related complex and those with asymptomatic HIV infection were significantly more distressed than those with AIDS. Corresponding differences were not observed in feelings of psychosocial well-being. The authors conclude that specific psychosocial issues and adaptive demands should be identified over the course of HIV illness.
Article
We interviewed spinal-cord-injured, other handicapped, and nonhandicapped subjects to investigate the relation between the perception of autonomic arousal and experienced emotion. The three groups differed significantly on only one measure of affect intensity, with the spinal-cord-injured subjects more often reporting stronger fear in their lives now compared with the past. In addition, spinal-cord-injured subjects often described intense emotional experiences. Spinal-cord-injured subjects who differed in their level of autonomic feedback differed in intensity on several measures. Subjects with greater autonomic feedback tended to report more intense levels of negative emotions. The findings indicate that the perception of autonomic arousal may not be necessary for emotional experience. There were weak trends in our data, however, suggesting that the perception of arousal may enhance the experience of emotional intensity. The subjective well-being reports of the handicapped groups were comparable to those of nonhandicapped subjects, indicating successful coping with their disability.
Article
This study examined predictors and indicators of quality of life in 71 patients with closed-head injury (CHI), 2-4 years postinjury. Predictors included premorbid characteristics and acute injury-related data. Indicators included follow-up data, e.g., neuropsychological functioning. Exploratory canonical correlation analyses demonstrated that the combination of the predictor variable, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and indicator variables of neuropsychological data in the areas of motor functioning, memory, and constructional ability were related most strongly to quality of life as reported by the patients. Severity of head injury and motor disability also related strongly to quality of life, based on reports by relatives (n = 68) on the Katz Adjustment Scale (Relatives' Form). These findings suggest that quality of life is adversely affected by increased severity of head injury and greater residual motor deficits. Implications of these findings for treatment and recovery are discussed.
Article
A survey of 66 hearing-impaired older women aged 54 to 96 years interviewed at home examined major influences on quality of life experienced by 27 prevocationally deaf and 39 later onset subjects. A causal model was specified; the predictors of quality of life included age, age at onset of hearing loss, financial adequacy, social hearing handicap, perceived health, and functional social support. The model proposed that health, social support, hearing handicap, and financial adequacy would directly affect quality of life as well as mediate the effect of the demographic variables, age and age at onset of loss, on this outcome. Later onset subjects were hypothesized to have lower quality of life due to increased social hearing handicap, decreased health, and decreased functional social support. Results of the path analysis showed the best predictors of quality of life to be social hearing handicap, functional social support, and perceived health. The later onset group had an overall lower perception of quality of life, this relationship being mediated as predicted. Generally, the hypothesized causal model was supported with 34% of variance explained. Descriptive findings also supported a difference in social hearing handicap between the two groups, yielding several implications for nursing interventions.
Article
In recent years the necessity of including quality of life (QL) measurement in cancer research has been stressed. In this paper an overview is given of the results of studies into the QL of cancer patients. From descriptive studies it appears that the quality of certain domains of life is impaired by cancer treatment. Results from studies in which two or more groups of cancer patients are being compared are not consistent. The expectation that the QL of patients is impaired more negatively by certain treatment modalities is confirmed in some studies but not in several others. Even the assumption that the QL of cancer patients is worse than the QL of the normal population is not substantiated. In this paper explanations for these unexpected results are forwarded. First, the definition and operationalization of the concept QL differs from one study to another. QL may either refer to an overall evaluation or to the evaluation of certain domains of life, and, either to the subjective experience of the patient or the evaluation of the situation by others. Secondly, other methodological difficulties especially with respect to reliability, validity and design are described. Finally, it is suggested that psychological mechanisms may account for the absence of differences between cancer patients and others and may therefore, on theoretical grounds, explain the established inconsistencies.
Article
This review begins with a general discussion of the concept of psychosocial adaptation to disability, reaction phases that the adaptation process is thought to comprise, instruments to measure adaptation and the basic research questions that need to be addressed to construct a theoretical model for the process. The research literature concerning psychosocial adaptation to disability among persons with multiple sclerosis is reviewed as an illustration. Research problems identified in this review are then listed, with suggestions for future research.
Article
Functional decline is a common condition, occurring each year in nearly 12% of Canadians 75 years of age and older. The model of functional health proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) represents a useful theoretical framework and is the basis for the SMAF (Système de measure de l'autonomie fonctionelle or Functional Autonomy Measurement System), an instrument that measures functional autonomy. The functional decline syndrome, in which functional autonomy is diminished or lost, may present as an acute condition, i.e., a medical emergency for which the patient must be admitted to a geriatric assessment unit. The subacute form is a more insidious condition in which the patient requires comprehensive assessment and a rehabilitation program. A preventive approach based on screening of those at risk and early intervention should prevent or delay the appearance of functional decline or diminish its consequences. Effective strategies for the prevention of or rehabilitation from functional decline will help reduce the incidence of disabilities and the period of dependence near the end of life. These strategies are absolute prerequisites for controlling sociohealth expenses and, most importantly, for allowing people to live independently in old age.
Article
Addressing the question of why some people are happier than others is important for both theoretical and practical reasons and should be a central goal of a comprehensive positive psychology. Following a construal theory of happiness, the author proposes that multiple cognitive and motivational processes moderate the impact of the objective environment on well-being. Thus, to understand why some people are happier than others, one must understand the cognitive and motivational processes that serve to maintain, and even enhance, enduring happiness and transient mood. The author's approach has been to explore hedonically relevant psychological processes, such as social comparison, dissonance reduction, self-reflection, self-evaluation, and person perception, in chronically happy and unhappy individuals. In support of a construal framework, self-rated happy and unhappy people have been shown to differ systematically in the particular cognitive and motivational strategies they use. Promising research directions for positive psychology in pursuit of the sources of happiness, as well as the implications of the construal approach for prescriptions for enhancing well-being, are discussed.
Article
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) annually account for 70 million prescriptions and 30 billion over-the-counter (OTC) medications sold in the United States alone. Despite our familiarity with these drugs, NSAIDs are full of paradoxes that pose significant challenges for the medical community. Although NSAIDs are among the oldest of drugs, new formulations continue to come to market. Some formulas are safe enough to be sold OTC for use in infants with fever, while others are available only as a prescription medication and are a leading cause of iatrogenic reactions, hospitalizations, and death. Physicians face the choice of prescribing lower cost, older NSAIDs versus the more expensive but potentially safer ones. The use of NSAIDs is clearly increasing. Factors contributing to this increase are the availability of OTC preparations and the aging of the population with a concomitant increase in osteoarthritis. One indication of the popularity of NSAIDs is that following the introduction of 2 new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors in 1999, these drugs immediately became the most frequently prescribed new drugs in the United States. This article will familiarize the practitioner with the various types of NSAIDs, including the newer COX-2 formulations, their mechanism of action, and potential adverse reactions and efficacy. Although most practitioners are aware of the indications for NSAIDs, research is continuing to explore nontraditional applications. A new framework is being created that will allow new additions to the NSAID class of medications.