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It has been possible to document seveal paleoseismic events in Sweden in the period at around the deglaciation. A major earthquake occurred in the autumn of varve 10,430 BP. It generated liquefaction over 320 km. Another event occurred in varve 9663 BP It generated seismites over a distance of 210 km. Both events also generated tsunamis. The tsunami wave of the 10,430-event washed the strait between the Baltic and the North Sea free of ice so that marine water suddenly could invade the Baltic basin creating the so-called Yoldia Sea stage. The 9663-event set up a tsunami wave recorded in the ice marginal sedimentology and shore morphology in such details that it seems possible to record a triple deformation/flow sequence.

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... Furthermore, low rigidity faults may cause a major tsunami even at relatively low magnitudes [51]. Climate change may have a major impact on the distribution of tsunami potential as ice-unloading redistributes the stresses around ice sheets (see, for example, Mörner [52]). ...
... [ [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] Surface-water changes Sustained changes in river discharge may occur over weeks to months following the earthquake with a range of tens to hundreds of kilometers, especially as a result of gradient changes and groundwater expulsion. [2,32] Groundwater changes Groundwater responses to earthquakes are well documented following many earthquakes in areas including China, the United States, New Zealand, Indonesia, Japan, and Italy, among others. ...
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Earthquakes can influence flood hazards by altering the flux, volumes, and distributions of surface and/or subsurface waters and causing physical changes to natural and engineered environments (e.g., elevation, topographic relief, permeability) that affect surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes. This paper analyzes how earthquakes increased flood hazards in Christchurch, New Zealand, using empirical observations and seismological data. Between 4 September 2010 and 4 December 2017, this region hosted one moment magnitude (Mw) 7.1 earthquake, 3 earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6, and 31 earthquakes with local magnitude (ML) ≥ 5. Flooding related to liquefaction-induced groundwater pore-water fluid pressure perturbations and groundwater expulsion occurred in at least six earthquakes. Flooding related to shaking-induced ground deformations (e.g., subsidence) occurred in at least four earthquakes. Flooding related to tectonic deformations of the land surface (fault surface rupture and/or folding) occurred in at least two earthquakes. At least eight earthquakes caused damage to surface (e.g., buildings, bridges, roads) and subsurface (e.g., pipelines) infrastructure in areas of liquefaction and/or flooding. Severe liquefaction and associated groundwater-expulsion flooding in vulnerable sediments occurred at peak ground accelerations as low as 0.15 to 0.18 g (proportion of gravity). Expected return times of liquefaction-induced flooding in vulnerable sediments were estimated to be 100 to 500 years using the Christchurch seismic hazard curve, which is consistent with emerging evidence from paleo-liquefaction studies. Liquefaction-induced subsidence of 100 to 250 mm was estimated for 100-year peak ground acceleration return periods in parts of Christchurch.
... In 1995, we got excellent, extensive and multiple sections and trenches in connection with the construction of a new motor highway and a railway some 70 km west of Stockholm [10][11][12]. There were remarkable liquefaction structures, ground-shaking structures and deformed annual varves (Figure 2). ...
... In the Hudiksvall area of central Sweden, there occurred a very large earthquake in the varveyear 9663 BP [1,3,4,9,12,18,19]. The paleogeography of this event is very well known (Figure 9). ...
... 1). Other evidence of glacio-seismotectonic activity are records of a large palpeoseismic event in the autumn of varve year 10,430 BP (MoK rner, 1996MoK rner, , 1999a). This event caused liquefaction and varve disturbances over 60;320 km (i.e. more extensive than the 1964 earthquake in Alaska), which suggests a magnitude'M8, Likewise, a major rock avalanche and deformed varves over an area of, at least, 60;40 km in the Umea area, are allocated to varve 9428 BP (MoK rner, 1999b). ...
... 32), across an area of 80;50 km. The gravel pit at HoK g in the Hudiksvall Esker (Fig. 5) is a key section in this context (MoK rner, 1999a; MoK rner et al., 1999, and see references to this site above). The stratigraphy, from the base upwards, is: ...
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The Iggeesund event is an example of the high seismicity which occurred in Fennoscandia during deglaciation as a function of the high rate of glacial isostatic uplift. This event is dated to varve 9663 BP. The Iggesund–Hudiksvall area is represented by intensive postglacial fracturing of the bedrock recorded over an area of, at least, 50×50 km. The most remarkable locality is the Boda cave system; a hill fractured into a field of large detached blocks with a cave system of more than 2 km length. In the varve-year 9663 BP, an extensive turbidite was spread over an area of 210×80 km. Liquefaction structures are recorded over an area of 80×30 km and can be assigned to the same varve year. Structures and deposits of a tsunami are recorded over 80×50 km
... Each event was documented by multiple criteria (lending internal support and control to each of the events; [3]. Tsunami events were recorded at an increasing number of sites [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] up to 17 events [7] [8] [9]. The tsunami wave-heights observed provided an independent method of estimating the seismic magnitude of ground shaking [9]. ...
... This is illustrated inFigure 15(to be compared with the actual sedimentary columns inFigure 6of[20]). Section A1 shows a concordant stratigraphy with a change from freshwater to brackish water varves at the varves 10,431/10,430 transition, which corresponds to a major tsunami event opening a free connection to the Atlantic [4][34]. Section A2 shows an erosional depression, which began to be filled by the autumn unit of varve 10,430 (indicating the Open Journal of Earthquake Research return to normal sedimentary conditions after the paleoseismic event and tsunami event). ...
... Pelinovsky, preprint, 1999 ). Two occurrences of paleotsunami (approximately 10000 years ago) were found in the Baltic Sea [Morner, 1999] . We also note a tsunami of asteroid origin in the Barents Sea [Shuvalov et al, 2002]. ...
... al., 2000;Clague, 2000;Dominey-Howes et. al., 2000;Papadopoulos and Chalkis 1984;Monge and Mendoza, 1993;Mörner, 1999). (Angusamy & Rajamanickam 2000) have studied the distribution of heavy minerals between Kanyakuami and Mandapam. ...
... al., 2000; Clague, 2000; Dominey-Howes et. al., 2000; Papadopoulos and Chalkis 1984; Monge and Mendoza, 1993; Mörner, 1999). In most cases, post tsunami collected data was used for evaluation and assessment. ...
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In connection with observations made on the impact of beach placer mining, a study area extending from Poompuhar to Nagoor, in Tamil Nadu, had been chosen for regular profiling and sediment sampling since April 2003. The on-set of the tsunami of 26th December 2004 encouraged continuation of the study in order to understand the sudden changes in the sedimentological processes caused by this tsunami. As a profiling survey of the area had been completed on 16th December 2004, an exact quantum of erosion level caused by the tsunami was determined for several stations. Except for Nagoor, all other stations showed erosion of the beaches, with a maximum of 2.5 m, particularly in the Karaikkal area. The study identified two major geomorphologic parts, the first extending from northern Poompuhar to Karaikkal and the second from southern Karaikkal to Nagoor. Changes in the geomorphologic characters observed at these two areas were attributed to the nature of the inner shelf bathymetry. The different beach profiles for the pre- and post-tsunami periods that were prepared through trend analysis, clearly show huge deposition of sediments on the Nagoor beaches. The influence of inlets in Karaikkal, Poompuhar and Nagoor are strongly indicated by the nature of sediments that were deposited on beaches at these locations. When the sediment texture of pre-tsunami deposits is compared with that of post- tsunami deposits, a characteristic shift in kurtosis is observed on all the beaches, while skewness and mean establish a shift on beaches that eroded. Examination of heavy mineral composition in sediments indicates a dramatic shift in concentration, ranging from 19 to 76 % in the Nagoor area. Further study of sedimentological process may shed additional light on tsunami impacts on any beach in the study area, particularly because of the ongoing monitoring and the availability of past baseline records.
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Until recently, the offshore effects of modern tsunamis were unknown. It is only within the past fifteen years that studies have started to examine the sedimentologic and stratigraphic signatures of modern tsunamis in the marine environment. Claims of paleo-tsunami deposits in Sweden, however, predate any knowledge of the offshore effects of tsunamis by more than ten years. These claims are based on lacustrine sediment sequences that would have been at outer shelf water depths during the proposed tsunamis. While numerous claims of paleo-tsunami deposits exist in Sweden, relatively few of these claims are reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The current study re-examines proposed paleo-tsunamis from Stockholm, Iggesund, and northern Uppland and points out a lack of critical geographical, stratigraphical, and chronological data. Additionally, consideration of the Holocene stratigraphy of these locations in the context of what is now known about the effects of tsunamis in the offshore environment indicates that there is currently no credible evidence of paleo-tsunamis in Sweden.
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At about 3000 C14-years BP or 1200 cal. yrs BC, the Baltic Sea experienced a mega- tsunami with a wave-height of 10 m or more, and a run-up height of up to 16.5 m. This event had significant geological and archaeological effects. We explore the records from the Lake Mälaren area in Sweden. The tsunami event is linked to seismic ground shak- ing and methane venting tectonics at several sites. The triggering factor is proposed to be the Kaali meteor impact in Estonia of the same age. The documentation of a mega-tsunami in the middle of the Bronze Age has wide implications both in geology and in archaeology. The archaeological key sites at Annelund and Apalle are reinter- preted in terms of tsunami wave actions remodelling stratigraphy. By extensive coring, we are able to trace the tsunami effects in both off-shore and on-shore environment. At the time of the event, sea level was at +15 m (due to isostatic uplift). The tsunami wave erosion is traced 13.5 m below sea level. The tsunami run-up over land is traced to +29.5 m to +31.5 m (occasionally even higher), implying a run-up of 14.5-16.5 m. In Ångermanland, the tsunami event was absolutely dated at 1171 varve year BC. Archae- ologically, the tsunami event coincides well with the transition between Periods II and III of the South Scandinavian Bronze Age. Period III has traditionally been difficult to identify in the cultural materials of the Lake Mälaren region.
The Baltic Sea is commonly viewed as a region with a low frequency of coastal hazards such as tsunamis or extreme storm surges. However, historical sources indicate that in the past, several catastrophic storm surges resulted in coastal floods and related casualties. Their sedimentological records and reconstructions of paleostorminess were so far studied mainly in the westernmost (Denmark) and easternmost (Estonia) parts of the Baltic Sea. The present study focus on southern Baltic coast (Gulf of Gdańsk), where storm surge sedimentary deposits left within coastal peatlands were investigated, and related to historical record in order to compare recent risk estimations and predictions of storm surge levels to geological data. To achieve this aim, the collected sediment cores were subjected to sedimentological, grain size, and diatom analyses, plus 137Cs, 210Pb, and 14C datings. Two types of sandy event deposits were identified, and interpreted to be storm deposits formed under an inundation regime and overwash regime, respectively. The deposits formed under the inundation regime were characterised by an erosional lower boundary, massive structure and presence of rip-up clasts of underlying sediments, whereas the sediments formed under the overwash regime were low-angle planar cross-stratified medium sands with intercalations of massive fine sand. The recognized sandy storm deposits were dated mainly to the Little Ice Age period (XVIth–XIXth centuries). They were most likely left during the historical storms of AD1825, AD1872, and AD1914. It extends the sedimentary record of known historical events as mainly storms from AD1497 and AD1872 were reported previously from Baltic Sea. Notably, none of the historical storm events during the past 100-year period have formed a distinguishable sedimentary record. These findings clearly show that risk models and storm return period predictions, which are based on instrumental measurements from the last century, should also include geological evidence. The strongest storm surges from the past century may not be adequate reference of a worst case scenario.
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It all began with observations. With Ovidius changes and metamorphoses were incorporated in the ancient «scientific» knowledge. Aristotle's was to formulate the world's first model claiming that the Earth was in the planetary centre. This model fooled the world for 1800 years. There is a danger in ruling models. The nuclear waste handling and the global warming scenario are two such modern ruling models, both of which are here challenged because of observational facts. Geoethics calls for an increased respect for observational facts. Observation-interpretation-conclusion must be the base and backbone for science today, as it has been in the past.
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Baltic Sea is not a typical area of tsunami wave occurrence. However, during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene several tsunami events were interpreted from sedimentary record in Sweden and Estonia. On the other hand, on the southern coast of Baltic are known historical accounts on “der Seebär” (sea bear). Their descriptions reveal many features typical for tsunami waves, but their genesis is still unknown and the sedimentary effects have not been discovered until now. Contemporary studies on tsunami, based mostly on the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, proved that the tsunami impacts may vary a lot due to local conditions. Moreover, there is no unique set of features which would allow easy interpretation of tsunami deposits, in particular from storm deposits. Environmental effects of tsunami are described rather as a disturbance of an ecosystem, than a catastrophe. Studies on preservation potential of tsunami deposits on land revealed that depositional effects of tsunami flooding smaller than 3 m maybe poorly preserved after few years. In case of southern Baltic coast, the highest probability of potential tsunami record preservation is in coastal lakes deposits and lowlands nearby river mouths. Further study are required because from historical accounts it is expected to have “der Seebär” events every several tens of years and sometimes they may have significant runups, for instance in 1497 sea flooding reached up to 20 m. Consequently to verify their occurrence, spatial extent, impacts and finally their genesis may be important not only from scientific point of view but is important for assessment of potential hazard for users of coastal zone. Polish abstract: Morze Bałtyckie nie jest postrzegane jako obszar, gdzie należałoby się spo-dziewać występowania fal tsunami. Jednakże dla ostatnich kilkunastu tysięcy lat udoku-mentowano na podstawie osadów szereg prawdopodobnych zjawisk tego typu w Szwecji i Estonii. Historyczne zapisy zjawiska zwanego „niedźwiedziem morskim” na południowym wybrzeżu Bałtyku, wskazują z kolei, że mogły to być zalewy morskie spowodowane falami o charakterystyce typowej dla fal tsunami. Geneza „niedźwiedzia morskiego” jest jednak jak dotąd nieznana, brak również jego potwierdzenia w zapisie kopalnym. Współ-czesne badania skutków tsunami, oparte głównie na przypadku tsunami z 2004 roku na Oceanie Indyjskim, pokazują, że mogą one w bardzo dużym stopniu zależeć od lokalnych warunków. Nie ma też jednego prostego klucza do rozpoznania osadów tsunami od innych osadów, zwłaszcza sztormowych. Środowiskowe skutki tsunami również mogą stanowić raczej zaburzenie w ekosystemach niż katastrofę. Badania nad zachowaniem osadów tsunami wskazują, że efekty depozycyjne zalewów o wysokości poniżej 3 m już po kilku latach mogą być słabo widoczne. Wydaje się jednak, że w przypadku Bałtyku, zarówno w osadach jezior przybrzeżnych, jak i ujść rzek, istnieje prawdopodobieństwo zachowania zapisu takich zalewów. Podjęcie badań w tym kierunku jest istotne, bowiem z danych archiwalnych wynika, że tego typu zjawiska mogły zdarzać się nawet co kilkadziesiąt lat, a czasami osią-gały znaczne rozmiary – na przykład w 1497 roku zalew morza sięgnął prawdopodobnie aż do wysokości 20 m. Zatem potwierdzenie ich występowania, określenia zasięgu, skutków i wreszcie genezy, może mieć znaczenie nie tylko poznawcze, ale również jest konieczne z punktu widzenia potencjalnego zagrożenia życia i mienia mieszkańców i turystów.
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Abstract A 2-parts excursion through most of Sweden from 64oN to 56.5oN or from the centre of uplift to the periphery of uplift with intricate interplay of isostasy and eustasy. Field evidence of a large number of high-magnitudes paleoseismic events will be explored; faults, fractures, bedrock caves, slides, sections with excellent liquefaction structure, varves, seismic turbidites and multiple tsunami records. The special distribution of liquefaction events provides new means of assessing magnitudes. The varve chronology offers the dating as to a single year, sometimes even the season of a year. The fluid stage of the liquefaction structures have been demonstrated by magnetic methods. There are about 4000 registered bedrock caves in Sweden, most of those seem to have been formed as a function of paleoseismics in combination with explosive methane venting. The tsunami waves are traced by coring in lakes and bogs. Our Paleoseismic Catalogue includes 58 events, 16 of which generated tsunamis. There will also be numerous records of the changes in climate like the severe Younger Dryas cooling event, the Holocene climatic optimum, the Late Holocene deterioration, and a number of short (~50 yrs), very warm and dry horizons. We will also explore classical Fennoscandian Quaternary geology; eskers, ice recession, varve counting, the Baltic stages, elevated and tilted shorelines, sea level oscillations, isolation/transgression levels in bogs and lakes. Much attention will also be paid on scenic views and records of the local cultural evolution.
The impact of a meteorite into the ocean surface is a rare phenomenon. However, it can be catastrophic, especially for the coastal area. The aim of the paper is to describe the evolution of the tsunami impulse due to meteorite impact in shallow water, including energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking. As the exact nonlinear solutions for tsunami transformation with energy loss due to wave breaking are not known, the linearised equations of motion are used and energy loss is parameterised accordingly. To describe the evolution of tsunami impulse in shallow water, the Hilbert Transform technique was introduced. It facilitates considerably the evaluation of the tsunami impulse transformation, its run-up and coast inundation range. Examples are included to illustrate the applicability of the theoretical derivations.
Paleoseismic data provide a long-term record of seismic activity to predict hazards for periods longer than one to a few centuries. In Sweden, the analysis reveals there was a drastic change in dominant seismic mode from a high to super-high deglacial mode to a low to moderately low mode in present and Late Holocene time. Paleoseismic criteria and characteristics include numerous different sources of information; viz. primary faults, bedrock deformation, sedimentary deformation, rock and sediment slides, liquefaction, sorting by shaking, tsunamis, differing geomorphic expressions, disordering and ordering of magnetic particles. By applying multiple criteria, it was possible to identify 44 paleoseismic events, including 23 events of estimated M 6–7, 12 events of M 7–8 and 6 events of M > 8. Varve-dating often allows a precision as to a single year, in one case even to the season of a year. The key for paleoseismic reconstruction and testing is the application of multiple criteria.
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The Second Storegga Slide on the continental slope off western Norway has been dated at between 8000 and 5000 yrs B.P. A prominent sand layer in Flandrian (Holocene) deposits along the coast of eastern Scotland, and dated at approximately 7000 yrs B.P. may have been deposited by a tsunami generated by the slide. The altitude and stratigraphy of the layer allow estimates to be made of the magnitude of the earthquake which initiated the slide.
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Thèse (doctorat)--Stockholm University, 1994. Earlier it has been stated that seismotectonically formed features only occured in the northern parts of Sweden. The aim of this thesis has been to analyse the distribution and probable origin of a large number of fractured bedrock surfaces, fractured hills, boulder heaps as ”blown up” hills (several of these containing long cave systems), and some large rock slides containing cave systems. These features are found all over Sweden. For the first time these phenomena have been described in one context. The origin of these features has been looked for among the following processes: glacial tectonics, frost deformation, postglacial aseismic stress adjustment, hydro-fracturing, methane ventings and seismotectonics. During the deglaciation of the Weichselian ice-sheet a combination of a very fast isostatic uplift, and corresponding changes in stress and strain, resulted in a (especially in northern Sweden) well documented neoseismotectonic activity. Several bedrock features such as a number of fractured surfaces, fractured hills, boulder heaps (with and without cave systems), and some collapsed rock walls (often containing caves), seems to have been formed as a function of this neoseismicity. In certain cases a possible combination with other processes such as methane wentings, hydro-fracturing, and post glacial stress adjustment cannot be excluded. The neoseismotectonic bedrock features described in this thesis are distributed over most parts of Sweden: - or rather wherever we have looked for them
Sweden has suffered numerous palaeoseismic events since the last ice age. Most of these events immediately follow, or coincide with, deglaciation, when the rate of glacial isostatic uplift peaked and the strain rates were two orders of magnitude larger and differently directed. Recent varve studies in the Stockholm region show that there are three zones of seismotectonically disturbed varves separated by about 20 varves (i.e. years); a major Mid-Holocene seismotectonic event is indicated by structural evidence in the Mount Billingen area; and archaeoseismic records indicate heavy fracturing of the bedrock surface associated with and earthquake younger than 3000 BP and perhaps identical with the 1904 event. These records show that the Fennoscandian shield is far more susceptible to seismotectonic faulting and fracturing than has generally been claimed. This has, of course, an important bearing on scenarios for "safe' long-term deposition of high-level nuclear waste in bedrock. -from Authors
Structures in bedrock and sediments suggest that the Fennoscandian Shield was subjected to a higher seismicity at the end of the last glaciation than it is today. We suggest that the annual varves of the glacial clays document this seismicity. In the Stockholm area, three paleoseismic events have so far been recorded in the varved clay chronology. Liquefaction structures have also been documented. The occurrence of heaps of ‘sharp-edged blocks’ (large caves in crystalline bedrock) might be another sign of this seismicity.
The Baltic Ice Lake, the Yoldia Sea, the Ancylus Lake and the Littorina Sea are the four classical stages in the postglacial evolution of the Baltic basin. The picture is complicated by what concerns the details of each of these stages. Between the Baltic Ice Lake and the Yoldia Sea it is necessary to introduce a separate lake stage; an entirely lacustrine phase of 300 years right after the drainage of the Baltic Ice Lake and before the ingression of salt water that, by definition, signifies the onset of the Yoldia Sea. During this lake stage, a fully lacustrine ‘Ancylusfauna’ lived along the coasts of the islands of Gotland and Öland. For historical reasons and mistakes, we term this new stage the ‘Yoldia’ Lake stage (thus avoiding too much reorganization).
Paleoseismicity denotes past (pre-instrumental) earthquakes as recorded by bedrock structures, morphological features and sedimentological criteria. Glacial varves. eskers and deltas are excellent records of paleoseismic events. Data from Sweden are presented. Faults, fractures and various types of sedimentary disturbances of Late Pleistocene and Holocene age frequently occur. It is concluded that the seismic activity was very intensive in connection with the peak rates of glacial isostatic uplift, and that this was a natural effect of the geodynamic processes operating.
Coastal seismic events generate instantaneous changes in relative sea level (i.e. land level vs sea level). Tsunamis may cause disastrous damage to coasts and coastal habitation. Liquefaction and deformations of annually varved sediments provide information on paleoseismic events. The evidence for a major earthquake and associated tsunami waves in Sweden are explored. Thanks to the varve chronology, liquefaction structures and varve deformations caused by this event can be dated at the autumn 10,430 varve years BP. The magnitude is estimated at 8 (or more) on the Richter scale. The tsunami washed the previously blocked outlet of the Baltic free of icebergs and pack-ice so that marine water could suddenly invade the entire Baltic, forming the Yoldia Sea.
A number of sites with fresh faults and fractures have been mapped in detail. Their postglacial (and sometimes late glacial) age is confirmed. They form simple and similar patterns consistent with stress release due to a combination of acting forces. They are associated with the peak rate of glacial isostasy and increased strain rates by two orders of magnitude. They often cut straight across bedrock hills between so-called weak zones. The fault throws correspond to approximately magnitude 7 on the Richter scale. Sedimentary and morphological data confirm the seismo-tectonic origin. Newly discovered large-scale network of crossing faults is found to have changed the course of the Stockholm esker in a way that reveals at least two major seismo-tectonic events. This is consistent with paleoseismic events of magnitude 7 or more.
Old shields and plate interiors have often been assumed to exhibit a high crustal stability. During the last decade, or two, we have learnt more and more about the fragility, not to say untenability, of this concept, however. High-magnitude earthquakes and large scale fault-movements have been recorded where they were not supposed to be able to occur. Within formerly glaciated areas like Northern Europe, Scotland and northern North America a rapidly increasing number of field observations indicates that the glacial isostatic readjustment process was linked to intense seismotectonic activity. We will here investigate the Fennoscandian situation and propose a novel causation model for the high deglaciation seismicity in comparison with the present day situation.
Clay-varve chronology and deglaciation during rhc Yoonger Dryas and Prebomal in the easternmost part of tbc Middk Swedish ice marginal zone, PhD.-rhesis
  • L Bm~berg
Bm~berg, L., Clay-varve chronology and deglaciation during rhc Yoonger Dryas and Prebomal in the easternmost part of tbc Middk Swedish ice marginal zone, PhD.-rhesis, Qauetem. Dept.. Stockholm Univ.. 1995.
Swedish pakoseismicity and varve dating
  • N.-A Wmer
Wmer, N.-A., Swedish pakoseismicity and varve dating. Ann Gcophys...
Bedrock caves and t&h& rock so&es in Sweden. Occonmce and origin
  • R Sj&berg
Sj&berg, R., Bedrock caves and t&h& rock so&es in Sweden. Occonmce and origin. PlrD.-thesis, P&G, Smckholms Univusitet. II0 pp. 1994. Str6mbcrg. B., " Late Weichselian deglacktkm and clay-varve
Geochronologia Soecia Principles, Svensko vrt
  • De G Geer
De Geer. G.. Geochronologia Soecia Principles, Svensko vrt. Ahrf. Ha&.. Ser. i 18. l-367, 1940.
Liquefaction and varve diihubance as evidence of paleoseismic events and tsunamis; the aotomn 10,430 BPevent in Sweden
  • N.-A Mbmer
MBmer, N.-A., Liquefaction and varve diihubance as evidence of paleoseismic events and tsunamis; the aotomn 10,430 BPevent in Sweden, Quatcmary Sci. Rex. IS, 939-948.1996.
Liquefaction featoms from a subduction zone eathquakez presuved examples from the I964 Alaska eatthquake. Hluhington Stab? Dqmrtncnu
  • T J Walsh
  • E A Combellick
  • G L Black
Walsh, T.J., Combellick, E. A. and Black, G.L., Liquefaction featoms from a subduction zone eathquakez presuved examples from the I964 Alaska eatthquake. Hluhington Stab? Dqmrtncnu, Div. Geol. Earth Sri., Rep. 32, I-80. 1995.
Neotectonics and paleoseismicity in southern Sweden with emphasis on sedimentological criteria
  • Tröften
Clay-verve chronology and deglaciation during the Younger Dryas and Preboreal in the easternmost part of the Middle Swedish ice marginal zone
  • Brunnrberg
Swedish paleoseismicity and varve dating
  • Mörner
Paleoseismotectonics in glaciated cratonal Sweden
  • Mömer