Temperament and Problematic Alcohol Use in Adolescence: an Examination of Drinking Motives as Mediators

ArticleinJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 34(2) · June 2012with20 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s10862-012-9279-4
The present study investigated the associations between temperamental reactivity, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, it investigated whether drinking motives mediate the relations between temperamental reactivity and the alcohol use variables. The sample consisted of 188 adolescents (64.9% boys) between the ages of 13–20 years (M age = 16.9, SD = 1.32). Results revealed that the temperament factors of high BAS fun seeking and high negative affectivity were related to alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences respectively. Furthermore, high social and enhancement motives and low conformity motives were associated with alcohol consumption, whereas high coping-depression motives were associated with alcohol-related consequences. Finally, the relation between BAS fun seeking and alcohol consumption was mediated by enhancement and social motives and the association between negative affectivity and alcohol-related consequences was mediated by coping-depression motives. These results highlight the importance of focusing on temperament profiles and their associated drinking motives in the prevention and intervention of alcohol use problems among adolescents.
    • "Research on outcomes associated with the Conformity motive has been largely inconsistent. Among adolescents , use of alcohol for conformity motives was related to fewer problems (Willem et al., 2012 ) in some samples, but positively predicted problems in other adolescents who used alcohol (Cooper, 1994; Kuntsche et al., 2008) and cannabis (Fox et al., 2011). Among young adults, the relationship between conformity and problems has also been inconsistent (Buckner et al., 2012c; Merrill and Read, 2010; Simons et al., 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Heavy cannabis use has been associated with negative outcomes, particularly among individuals who begin use in adolescence. Motives for cannabis use can predict frequency of use and negative use-related problems. The purpose of the current study was to assess change in motives following a motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for adolescent users and assess whether change in motives was associated with change in use and self-reported problems negative consequences. Methods: Participants (n=252) were non-treatment seeking high school student cannabis users. All participants received two sessions of MET and had check-ins scheduled at 4, 7, and 10 months. Participants were randomized to either a motivational check-in condition or an assessment-only check-in. Participants in both conditions had the option of attending additional CBT sessions. Cannabis use frequency, negative consequences, and motives were assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 month follow-ups. Results: There were significant reductions in motives for use following the intervention and reductions in a subset of motives significantly and uniquely predicted change in problematic outcomes beyond current cannabis use frequency. Change in motives was significantly higher among those who utilized the optional CBT sessions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that motives can change over the course of treatment and that this change in motives is associated with reductions in use and problematic outcomes. Targeting specific motives in future interventions may improve treatment outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2016
    • "to increase positive affect (Cooper et al., 1995). Consistent with previous studies (O'Connor and Colder, 2005; Willem et al., 2012), this finding suggests that high fun seeking individuals may be more prone to alcohol misuse and problems because they are more sensitive to the reinforcement properties of alcohol, which make them more likely to use it to enhance positive affect. As previous studies showed mixed results with regard to the associations of alcohol misuse and alcohol problems with the two other aspects of BAS sensitivity, no specific pattern of associations was expected. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5,362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness –alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness –risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that prevention strategies targeting coping and enhancement motives may reduce the risk associated with high BIS and with high fun seeking, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "The relatively smaller effect on coping with anxiety in effect size and indirect testing may be related to differences in the nature and prevalence of anxious affect. Coping with anxiety was endorsed at a higher rate than coping with depression in this study, which is consistent with previous studies utilizing the Modified DMQ-R (Grant et al., 2007; Willem, Bijttebier, Claes, & Uytterhaegen, 2012 ). Differences in effect sizes suggest that coping with anxiety — or anxiety itself — may be a more difficult factor to affect in interventions for alcohol use. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motives for alcohol use are associated with distinct antecedents and consequences. Drinking alcohol to cope with negative affect is consistently associated with the most problematic patterns of use. Interventions targeting drinking to cope are needed. This randomized controlled treatment trial is an initial attempt to evaluate the impact of a brief coping motive-specific personalized feedback intervention on motives and problematic outcomes associated with drinking. The study randomized 170 participants to receive either a brief Standard Feedback Condition (SFC; n = 83) or a Motives Feedback Condition (MFC; n = 87) that added education and feedback on drinking to cope as well as alternative coping strategies. Significant reductions in drinking to cope with anxiety and with depression were greater in the MFC at the 2-month follow-up. Significant reductions in drinking and negative consequences were observed but did not differ significantly by condition. Indirect tests showed that the MFC, relative to SFC, was associated with outcomes of drinking and negative consequences through change in drinking to cope with depression. Moderation analyses revealed that there were no differential outcomes according to baseline level of coping. This study is a promising new direction in motives research, providing support for brief personalized feedback interventions incorporating motives-related feedback.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
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