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Students’ Academic Cheating in Chinese Universities: Prevalence, Influencing Factors, and Proposed Action

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Abstract

Quantitative research about academic cheating among Chinese college students is minimal. This paper discusses a large survey conducted in Chinese colleges and universities which examined the prevalence of different kinds of student cheating and explored factors that influence cheating behavior. A structural equation model was used to analyze the data. Results indicate that organizational deterrence and individual performance have a negative impact on cheating while individual perceived pressure, peers’ cheating, and extracurricular activities have a positive impact. Recommendations are proposed to reduce the level of academic cheating in China. Many of these are universal in nature and applicable outside of China as well.

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... Alarming prevalence rates have emerged from surveys of students (such as the McCabe Academic Integrity survey, 2010) as well as from reports about student disciplinary proceedings (Goveneder, 2014). Academic dishonesty has emerged as a global issue, with high rates reported in a wide range of countries including the USA (Hensley, Kirkpatrick, & Burgoon, 2013;McCabe, Trevino & Butterfield, 2001); Canada (Jurdi, Hage, &Chow, 2012), the UK (Park, 2003); Sweden (Trost, 2009); Germany (Sattler, Graeff, & Willen, 2013); Romania (Teodorescu & Andrei, 2009); China (Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013); Pakistan (Ghias, Lakho, Asim, Azam, & Saeed, 2014); East Africa (Mwamwenda, 2012); Russia (Lupton & Chapman, 2002); New Zealand (Kuntz & Butler, 2014); and Japan (Diekhoff, LaBeff, Shinohara, & Yasukawa, 1999). Information about the prevalence of academic dishonesty in South Africa comes mainly from media reports (e.g. ...
... Studies have also compared students of different nationalities on incidence and attitudes to cheating and plagiarism (Diekhoff et al., 1999;Lupton & Chapman, 2002;McCabe, Feghali, & Abdallah, 2008;Michalska, 2012) at different kinds of universities (Ma et al., 2013) and in different disciplines (Hu & Lei, 2015). The findings of the cross-cultural research point to differences around norms and beliefs, institutional policies and teachings, and the relative value of academic degrees for personal benefit. ...
... A high contributor to this is the effect of observing or knowing of other students cheating. This acts as a 'contagion' resulting in greater tolerance for the practice (Burrus, McGoldrick, & Schuhmann, 2007;Gino, Ayal, & Ariely, 2009;Gino & Bazerman, 2009;Jurdi et al., 2012;Ma et al., 2013;McCabe, Butterfield, & Trevino, 2006;McCabe et al., 2008). ...
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The prevalence of academic dishonesty is a matter of considerable concern for institutions of higher education everywhere. We explored students’ perceptions of academic dishonesty using Q-methodology, which provides insights that are different from those obtained through surveys or interviews. South African students ranked 48 statements, giving reasons why students cheat, on an eleven-column grid, anchored by “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree”. Q factor analysis was used to identify groups of individuals who share the same perspective. The three perspectives that emerged viewed academic dishonesty as (1) moral transgressions; (2) pressure transgressions; or (3) confused transgressions. These suggest different approaches to addressing the issue.
... Limitations of the Study is added to highlight limitations of the study. Nagin & Pogarsky, 2003;McCabe et al., 2006;Bisping et al., 2008;Ogilvie & Stewart, 2010;Adeyemi & Adelaja, 2011;Ma et al., 2013;Sattler et al., 2013;Corrigan-Gibbs et al., 2015;Minarcik & Bridges, 2015;Freiburger et al., 2017 Certainty/Severity of Punishment Negative Bisping et al., 2008;Ogilvie & Stewart, 2010;Adeyemi & Adelaja, 2011;Ma et al., 2013;Sattler et al., 2013;Minarcik & Bridges, 2015;Corrigan-Gibbs et al., 2015;Ismail & Yussof, 2016;Ullah, 2019 1 3 ...
... Limitations of the Study is added to highlight limitations of the study. Nagin & Pogarsky, 2003;McCabe et al., 2006;Bisping et al., 2008;Ogilvie & Stewart, 2010;Adeyemi & Adelaja, 2011;Ma et al., 2013;Sattler et al., 2013;Corrigan-Gibbs et al., 2015;Minarcik & Bridges, 2015;Freiburger et al., 2017 Certainty/Severity of Punishment Negative Bisping et al., 2008;Ogilvie & Stewart, 2010;Adeyemi & Adelaja, 2011;Ma et al., 2013;Sattler et al., 2013;Minarcik & Bridges, 2015;Corrigan-Gibbs et al., 2015;Ismail & Yussof, 2016;Ullah, 2019 1 3 ...
... Besides, Becker et al. (2006) has reported that majority of the cheating students hinted punishments for cheating at their schools to be less severe. Hence reluctance on part of the enforcers to report acts of AD undermines the true effects of being caught and punished and, in many cases, are counterproductive (McCabe et al., 2001;Woessner, 2004;Ma et al., 2013;Boyle et al., 2017). In terms of Eq. 3, this would translate into expected value of academic dishonesty to student j (i.e. ...
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Academic frauds, dishonesty and cheating are pervasive in Pakistan, but thus far less systematic research has been undertaken on the effectiveness of the policies designed for countering academic dishonesty. Generally, the success of a policy depends on a good design and appropriate implementation. The design aspect of the policies to counter academic dishonesty in Pakistan is studied elsewhere, the purpose of this article is to empirically examine the implementation stages of the same policies. In doing so, the study utilizes a panel data set comprising of 60 cross-sections and 06 time series observations (2012–2017). Results of the rigorous panel regression models shows that leniency in the prescribed punishments and an exhaustive belief on the efficacy of traditional examination surveillance methods are counterproductive. The study however failed to substantiate the direct relationship of discrimination and academic dishonesty in the sample. It is therefore concluded that prescribed punishments must be awarded in letter and spirit and that there is need for coordination at different stages of the implementation. Further, the study also recommends that traditional forms of examination surveillance must be augmented using modern technology.
... The studies usually explore the relations between dishonest behaviour and individual student characteristics, the characteristics of the educational environment, and cultural values. Research findings show that the scope of cheating among students may be related to values prevailing in the society (Magnus et al. 2002;Ma et al. 2013;McCabe et al. 2008;Payan et al. 2010), student psychological characteristics such as BBig Five^personality traits (Giluk and Postlethwaite 2015), moral development (Mayhew et al. 2009), the ability to rationalize dishonest behaviour (Rettinger 2017) or learning motivation (Murdock and Anderman 2006). Academic dishonesty also correlates with the characteristics of the educational environment: it is related to the faculty members' attitudes and actions (Simon et al. 2004;Yu et al. 2016;Broeckelman-Post 2008;Murdock et al. 2007), peers' behaviour (McCabe et al. 2001McCabe et al. 2002;McCabe et al. 2008;Megehee and Spake 2008;Ma et al. 2013), the availability and effectiveness of institutional academic integrity policies (Arnold et al. 2007;McCabe et al. 2002). ...
... Research findings show that the scope of cheating among students may be related to values prevailing in the society (Magnus et al. 2002;Ma et al. 2013;McCabe et al. 2008;Payan et al. 2010), student psychological characteristics such as BBig Five^personality traits (Giluk and Postlethwaite 2015), moral development (Mayhew et al. 2009), the ability to rationalize dishonest behaviour (Rettinger 2017) or learning motivation (Murdock and Anderman 2006). Academic dishonesty also correlates with the characteristics of the educational environment: it is related to the faculty members' attitudes and actions (Simon et al. 2004;Yu et al. 2016;Broeckelman-Post 2008;Murdock et al. 2007), peers' behaviour (McCabe et al. 2001McCabe et al. 2002;McCabe et al. 2008;Megehee and Spake 2008;Ma et al. 2013), the availability and effectiveness of institutional academic integrity policies (Arnold et al. 2007;McCabe et al. 2002). ...
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Student academic dishonesty is a pervasive problem for universities all over the world. The development of innovative practices and interventions for decreasing dishonest behaviour requires understanding factors influencing academic dishonesty. Previous research showed that personal, environmental, and situational factors affect dishonest behaviour at a university. The set of factors and the strength of their influence can differ across countries. There is a lack of research on factors affecting student dishonesty in Russia. A sample of 15,159 undergraduate students from eight Russian highly selective universities was surveyed to understand what factors influence their decision to engage in dishonest behaviour. Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was employed to explain dishonest behaviour among students. The explained variance in the engagement in academic dishonesty equals 48% in the model for the full sample, and reaches 69% in the model for one of the considered institutions. The major findings of this study were: (1) subjective norms appeared to dominate as the strongest predictor of academic dishonesty across the Russian universities; (2) perceived behavioural control, appeared to be positively related to the dishonest behaviour. In the majority of universities, this factor was found to be insignificant. This finding indicates a specific feature of Russian students’ an ethical decision-making process discussed in the last part of the paper.
... Turning in a paper obtained in large part from a term paper "mill" or website that did not charge a fee post-secondary students; Birks et al., 2018;Hughes & McCabe, 2006;Ma, Mccabe, & Liu, 2013). We speculated, however, that the actual rate of academic dishonesty in our sample for Study 1 was underestimated. ...
... As part of our investigation of tutorial effectiveness, we collected data on cheating to understand the previous scholarly behaviours of our participants. The estimated cheating rates in our samples were relatively high but in line with previous reports of middle and high school (e.g., Galloway, 2012;McCabe & Pavela, 2004in Strom & Strom, 2007, university, and college students (e.g., Birks et al., 2018;Ma et al., 2013). In middle school, the rate of cheating in written work (e.g., cut-and-paste plagiarism) might be higher if students have not yet learned the citing and referencing skills expected in later studies. ...
Article
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Academic integrity violations undermine principles of integrity and the quality of education. Reducing the prevalence of dishonesty in scholarly work requires a multi-faceted approach (Stephens, 2016), which may include the implementation of e-learning tutorials. Tutorials and other brief educational interventions increase students’ perceived knowledge and understanding of academic integrity and related topics (Stoesz & Yudintseva, 2018); however, it is unclear from the literature which students benefit most from completing them. In two studies, secondary (i.e., middle and high) school students were recruited to complete an e-learning tutorial and surveys about academic integrity, approaches to learning, motivation for learning, and personality. 95 students participated in an online study, but only 15 participants completed the tutorial. Knowledge and perceived seriousness of academic integrity violations increased significantly in this small sample; these changes were not evident in the remaining participants. A follow-up study with 90 students (88 of which completed the tutorial) tested in face-to-face classroom sessions confirmed the results of the first study. Moreover, the changes in perception were larger for the youngest and oldest participants compared to the middle age group, and were correlated with use of deep learning strategies and agreeableness. Overall, the findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of academic integrity tutorials, and suggest individual difference factors must be considered when designing and implementing brief educational interventions. Examining behaviour change and long-term outcomes for secondary school students, and exploring the influences of learning environment and teacher characteristics on learning the values of academic integrity are important avenues for future research.
... In addition, socialization with friends (non-structured leisure activities) is also linked with academic misconduct as researchers identified peer influence as one important predictor for academic cheating (McCabe et al., 2001;McCabe et al., 2012). Logically, frequent involvement in leisure activities often means students have little time to study, which increases students' pressure to be engaged in academic misconduct (Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013). For example, Davis (1993) found one of the primary reasons for academic misconduct is that students often admit they "usually do not study" (p. ...
... In addition, students could be encouraged to play an important role in "defending and enforcing" academic integrity policies and rules. Prior studies reveal that when students take ownership of the responsibilities of their behaviors as well as their peers', they are more likely to develop a right attitude toward academic cheating (McCabe et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Though numerous studies have identified factors associated with academic misconduct, few have proposed conceptual models that could make sense of multiple factors. In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test a conceptual model of five factors using data from a relatively large sample of 2,503 college students. The results indicated that there is a significant direct association between students’ reported lack of self-control and academic misconduct. The association between these two variables was also mediated by students’ degree of academic preparation, their involvement in structured and non-structured leisure activities, their perception of opportunities to cheat, and their attitude toward academic misconduct. © 2018 Association for the Study of Higher Education All Rights Reserved.
... Assignment cheating: Davis, Drinan and Bertram-Gallant (2009) explained that assignment cheating is an action committed by the students who deceive educators into thinking that the assignment submitted by the student was a student's own work. Ma, McCabe and Liu (2013) stated that students felt easier to copy a peer's works because the answer to that assignment is often standardized. The study found that 10 percent of the respondents often working on an assignment with their friends when the lecturers asked for individual work and 6 percent of the respondents often copied another student's assignment. ...
... The last part involved demographic information questions. The instrument was adapted from various literatures (Ellahi, Mushtaq & Khan, 2013;Ma, McCabe & Liu, 2013;Smith, Ghazali, Fatimah Noor Minhad, 2007) and it was rated using 5-point Likert scale. All respondents involved were guaranteed with high level of confidentiality, hence they were asked to answer each question honestly. ...
... As stated by Ellahi, Mushtaq and Khan (2013), some students commit cheating due to the pressure of meeting deadlines which usually arises at the end of semester when they have to submit many assignments, projects and presentations. Ma, McCabe and Liu (2013) postulated that a student who experiences high pressure is more likely to commit academic cheating as a coping mechanism. On the other hand, Lin and Wen (2007) found that students who are highly pressured by family, task commitment or time factors are more likely to commit plagiarism but not academic cheating. ...
... The survey was administered personally by the researchers as a means to collect data. For items on test and assignment cheating, four and three items were adapted from Ma et al. (2013) respectively. Meanwhile, items for internet facilities (3 items), lack of competency (6 items), negative attitude (5 items) and pressure (4 items) were adopted from Smith et al. (2007). ...
... In order to disguise this at times, they seem to pin their faith on numbers overwhelmingly. There are instances when students show importunate demands to seek views, listen to ideas, seek notes of credibly academic but unpublished papers, and even unknowingly plagiarize to reproduce and report what they perceive could be better illustrated numerically ( Jian 2012;Jordan and Gray 2013;Ma, Mccabe, and Liu 2013;Postiglione et al. 2017). ...
... The regulation related to the East China Normal University was not well detailed and therefore was out-listed from this study. The low-grade universities though have enacted the regulation but due to the lack of well-defined regulations have been facing more problems related to academic integrity, malpractices (Ma, Yuchao, Donald, and Ruizhi 2013), over-administration, corruption, plagiarism, and spying on intellectual wealth within and without the country. In most of the cases it becomes uglier when decisions are made arbitrarily. ...
Article
This exploratory study critically investigates the teaching assistant regulations of higher education institutions of China. On the basis of content analysis of the teaching assistant regulations of five premier universities of China this study analyses the possible discrepancies that might compromise the principles of transparency, equal opportunity and encouraging excellence as stipulated in the vision, mission, and goal of the regulations. Teacher assistants do make more than two third of the academic staff at the universities in China. Besides, China has a second largest higher education system in terms of scale in the world. Practices of sharing skills and imparting knowledge at these institutions have been intermediated by a semi-institutionalized position, called ‘teacher assistants’. It’s therefore, the informal submission of assignments without record at the PhD level questions the purpose of integrity and academic freedom of the higher education at the universities. On the basis of an instrumentalised framework guided by the dimensions of decision making and learning organization theories this study using content analysis has formulated the recommendations for the institutions while selecting and training the students as teaching assistants. A critical but logical illustration of the teaching assistant regulations has also been detailed regarding academic integrity in this study.
... Studies have shown that academic cheating in the past is a predictor of unethical behavior in the business world (Elias 2009;Lawson 2004;Ma 2013;Nonis and Swift 2001;Smith et al. 2004), and even to a country's level of corruption (Teixeira 2013). Therefore, it comes as no surprise that researchers from many countries have studied this topic in an attempt to understand the factors that lead to such behavior (Ellahi et al. 2013;Freire 2014;Hughes and McCabe 2006;Kwong et al. 2010;Lupton et al. 2000;Ma et al. 2013;Rawwas et al. 2004;Yang 2012). ...
... The last situational factor concerns the perception of students regarding the behavior of their peers. There is strong evidence that peer-related variables are the most important variables in determining the likelihood of unethical behavior (Jensen et al. 2002;Ma et al. 2013;McCabe and Trevino 1997;Rettinger and Kramer 2009;Tsui and Ngo 2016;Yu et al. 2017). The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen 1991) offers an attractive theoretical framework that explains why peer-related variables are strong predictors of academic cheating. ...
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Studies have found that academic dishonesty is widespread. Of particular interest is the case of business students since many are expected to be the leaders of tomorrow. This study examines the cheating behaviors and perceptions of 819 business and engineering students at three private Lebanese universities, two of which are ranked as the top two universities in the country. Our results show that cheating is pervasive in the universities to an alarming degree. We first analyzed the data by looking at the variables gender, college (business vs. engineering), GPA, and whether the students had taken the business ethics course. We then supplemented this analysis by building an ordered logistic regression model to test whether these independent variables affect the level of engagement in cheating behavior when we control for the other variables. The results show that males engage in cheating more than females and that students with a lower GPA engage in cheating more. We initially find a difference between business and engineering students, but once we control for the other variables, this difference ceases to exist. Our most surprising result is that the business ethics course seems to have a detrimental effect on the cheating behavior of students. Finally, we find that perception plays a key role in defining the behavior of students. The more that students perceive that others are engaging in a certain behavior, the higher the probability that they will engage in the behavior, even if they believe that this behavior constitutes cheating.
... own. These include online reading (Affouneh et al., 2018;Coiro, 2011;Kiili et al., 2020), digital curation (Antonio et al., 2012;Antonio & Tuffley, 2015;Mihailidis, 2015;Song et al., 2017;Ungerer, 2016), copy-and-paste behavior or plagiarism (Akçapınar, 2015;Blau & Eshet-Alkalai, 2017;Chang et al., 2015;Heckler & Forde, 2015;Kauffman & Young, 2015;Y. Ma et al., 2013), and knowledge sharing (Chennamaneni et al., 2012a;Teh et al., 2011;Yilmaz, 2016). The holistic understanding of information search behavior is therefore dissected, which is why this current study adopts an integrative approach to behavior. Secondly, recent works, in countries suffering from structural violence and subjugation, show an ...
... McCabe, 2012;Stephens et al., 2007), China (Y. Ma et al., 2013), UK (Selwyn, 2008;Trushell et al., 2013), Turkey (Akçapınar, 2015), Hong Kong (Stapleton, 2012), Algeria (KHIATI, 2019), and Taiwan (Chang et al., 2015). Plagiarism is an epidemic, not only in terms of its geographical spread, but also in its intensity. ...
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This paper explores the ways in which higher education students search for information in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. Data for this study was drawn from verbal reports of nine participants engaged in retrospective think-aloud sessions to solve ten tasks each. The results of the thematic analysis revealed that the participants followed the pattern outlined in literature of connectivism and literacy frameworks. Namely, the participants proceeded with four interrelated steps: locating information, information use, remix and repurpose, and knowledge sharing. Some key themes were observed that differed from previous studies, including meta-search and the frequency of changing search keywords over time. Each difference deserves further consideration. Moreover, the results highlight extreme plagiarism among participants and their low-level competencies to innovatively evaluate and remix online content. This paper argues that critical and cyberliteracy are perhaps the nominated theoretical frameworks for developing information search mechanisms in oppressed societies. Implications for educational practices are discussed.
... First, increased levels of extracurricular involvement in general tended to be linked to cheating (McCabe & Treviño, 1993, 1997Mustaine & Tewksbury, 2005). Logically, frequent involvement in extra-curricular activities often means students have little time to study, which increases students' pressure to be engaged in academic misconduct (Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013). For example, Davis (1993) found one of the primary reasons for academic misconduct is that students often admit they 'usually do not study ' (p. ...
... Paradoxically, it is the pervasiveness of academic dishonesty, in part, that produces the possibility. More concretely, it is because the majority 1 of secondary and tertiary students have admitted to cheating (Josephson Institute of Ethics, 2012; Lupton & Chapman, 2002;Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013;McCabe, 2005;Rawwas, Al-Khatib, & Vitell, 2004;Stephens, Romakin, & Yukhymenko, 2010)-many despite believing that it is wrong (e.g., Anderman, Griesinger, & Westerfield, 1998;Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, & Cauffman, 2002;Jordan, 2001;Stephens & Nicholson, 2008) or that it "hurts your character" (Josephson Institute of Ethics, 2012)-that it is such a potentially powerful lever for fostering their moral development. ...
Article
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For anyone concerned about students’ moral development, academic dishonesty presents a pervasive problem but also a promising possibility. The present paper describes the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of process-oriented, four-component model approach to promoting students’ “moral functioning” related to academic integrity, and the research project currently underway that is providing Web-based professional development to teachers for using the model in their high school classrooms. In doing so, we hope to develop a scalable approach that offers teachers an opportunity to be the primary agents of change in transforming the problem of academic dishonesty into a possibility for positive youth development.
... Certain conditions affect its likelihood, such as seeing those around you cheat and believing that they wouldn't much disapprove if you did, as well. In such a culture, cheating becomes commonplace; even epidemic, as it now is in the 480 United States and elsewhere (Josephson Institute of Ethics, 2012;Lupton & Chapman, 2002;Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013;D. L. McCabe, 2005;Stephens, Romakin, & Yukhymenko, 2010). ...
Article
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The belief that cheating is wrong doesn’t prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two “good” theories that offer some insight into the psychological and social processes underlying the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Specifically, attribution theory and social norms theory serve as conceptual lenses for understanding how students manage cognitive dissonance related to academic dishonesty. Finally, in the spirit of Kurt Lewin, these two “good” theories are discussed in terms of the design and development of “wise interventions” aimed at promoting academic integrity and reducing the prevalence of cheating.
... McCabe (2005) reports that 60% of university students in the United States of America cheated at least once during their academic career. Similar prevalence can be observed among South Korean students (Park, Park & Jang, 2013), Chinese students (Ma, McCabe & Liu, 2013), Hungarian students (Orosz, Farkas & Roland-Lévy, 2013), and Western European students (Teixeira & Rocha, 2010). New Zealand students (De Lambert, Ellen & Taylor, 2006), Taiwan students (Lambert, Hogan & Barton, 2003), Singapore students (Lin & Wen, 2007). ...
Article
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The study explored student-teachers' views on cheating during examinations. A mixed method approach which involved a survey and focus group interviews was employed. Nine hundred undergraduate education students from a public university and three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed. Focus group interviews were held with six students from each institution selected. A total of 942 students participated in the study. The findings indicate that fear of failure seem to be the main motivation for cheating; students perceived cheating acts treated as minor offences as 'helping' peers; the severity of the punishment applied if students are caught cheating negatively influence their propensity to cheat; students' perception of ethical values does not determine the level of prevalence of cheating; peer loyalty or fellow feeling is dominant; and students perceive a correspondence between social corruption and cheating. It is recommended that the risk of detection should be increased and the penalty for the 'less serious offences' reconsidered. If students perceive cheating within the context of their social experience, the overall quality of student experience needs to be considered if the likelihood of cheating is to be minimised. It is suggested that more attention needs to be paid to institutionalizing academic integrity instead of managing cheating.
... Therefore, the present study is an attempt to investigate plagiarism statements in Iranian TEFL teachers' syllabuses in order to find out how they deal with it in their syllabuses and how they inform their students of their expectations. It should be noted that the researchers decided to zoom in on only one aspect of academic integrity in the syllabuses, namely plagiarism, because academic integrity is a rather broad domain that includes not only plagiarism but also issues such as examfixing, cheating on exams, honest and responsible scholarship and academic, and falsification and misrepresentation of data (see Ryan, et al., 2017;Tauginienė, 2016;Ma, McCabe and Liu, 2013). Moreover, the review of the related literature indicated that although many of those issues have been investigated in Iranian higher education contexts (e.g. ...
Article
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Plagiarism has been on the rise amongst university students in recent decades. This study puts university teachers in the spotlight and investigates their role in raising students' awareness about plagiarism. To that end, plagiarism policies in 207 Iranian university TEFL teachers' syllabuses were analyzed. The researchers analyzed the syllabuses to find out if they contain a plagiarism policy, and if so, how the term is defined; whether they approach the issue of plagiarism directly; if they offer students any guidelines on how to avoid plagiarism; and if the consequences of committing plagiarism are specified. The results indicated that the majority of the syllabuses (83. 6%) lacked a plagiarism policy and those that did include a policy were often vague in their definition of the phenomenon. However, when there was a plagiarism policy in the syllabuses, the teachers tried to address the issue directly half of the time and offered students brief guidelines on how to avoid plagiaristic behavior, which was a small step in the right direction. It is recommended that other higher education institutions make it obligatory for their academic staff to include a plagiarism policy in their syllabuses if they wish to cultivate academic integrity in students.
... These individuals would therefore view AF as the best option to match their academic grades with the rest and be part of the group having outstanding academic results. Prior research suggests that peer pressure forms the main motivating factors toward the propensity to cheat (Carrell et al., 2008) as it becomes a strategic coping mechanism when an individual is nervous following pressures and fears of failure (Ma et al., 2013). Peers could also influence individual's ethical judgment in the context of committing AF (McCabe et al., 2001). ...
Article
Purpose This exploratory research explores the (in)tolerance level of accounting major students in Oman towards identified integrity destroying academic activities. Design/methodology/approach A triangulation approach was adopted whereby a questionnaire survey on academic fraud (AF) was administered to a group of Omani major accounting students. The descriptive statistical results were further analyzed and validated using in depth interviews in exploring further the students’ tolerance decisions. Findings A conceivably low and non–disturbing tolerance level towards myriads of integrity destroying academic activities was documented. The tolerance is however observed to be dynamic in nature as it is sensitive to fraud “severity” and “seriousness” i.e. it increases as AF activities become less severe and serious. Minor free–ride is tolerated the most, followed by minor plagiarism and seldom forgery. These AF activities were tolerated most by female and academically weak students. The varying results suggest that demographic factors do play a role in shaping Omani future accountants’ AF tolerance. The interview results further point to the intertwined factors of academic, family and peers, as well as religion that primarily influence their AF tolerance levels. Originality/value The research fills the extremely scarce accounting education literature in Oman by documenting fresh evidence of AF (in)tolerance among future members of the Country’s accountancy profession. As academic is the primary source of accountants’ accountability and integrity knowledge and training base, investigating accounting students’ tolerance towards integrity in the acute context of AF would effectively provide a reflection of the profession’s future integrity environment.
... McCabe and Trevino (1993) found that students in universities with lower levels of cheating tended to report a culture of disapproval of cheating. A recent study by Ma et al. (2013) on a sample of Chinese college students also confirmed the positive impact of the prevalence of peers' cheating on individuals' cheating. Therefore, we predict a positive relationship between students' perceived cheating norms and their cheating behaviour. ...
Article
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Cheating is a serious issue among business students worldwide. However, research investigating the social factors that may help prevent cheating in Chinese higher education is rare. The present study examined two key social relationship factors of perceived teacher-student relationships and peer relationships by the students. It attempted to build a model which addressed the effects of two variables on Chinese business students’ cheating behaviour: the teacher’s approachability and the relationship goal of the students. Two important social influence factors were also tested as mediators: neutralizing attitudes and perceived cheating norms of the students. A student survey was conducted with 1329 questionnaires collected. The results showed the negative effects of both social relationship variables on cheating, and that their effects were fully mediated by neutralizing attitudes. Moreover, perceived cheating norms fully mediated the effect of the teacher’s approachability, but not so for the relationship goal of the students. This study provided novel insights and recommendations for promoting academic integrity in Chinese business schools and universities.
... This study indicates that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control as individual factors significantly and positively affect the intention of accounting students to commit academic dishonesty. Perhaps accounting student attitudes toward academic dishonesty have indeed changed from one of dishonour to "it's fine" ( Ma et al. 2013). Furthermore, this study also finds that definitional ambiguity and pressure affect accounting student intention. ...
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Academic dishonesty among students has been recognised as a major concern in higher education in Indonesia. Accounting research arguably need to give more attention to this issue. This is partly because of the importance of integrity as part of accounting ethics and professionalism. However, little currently known about academic dishonesty among accounting students in Indonesia. We address this issue by surveying 342 accounting students about their perception of academic dishonesty and what motivates such behaviour. Our respondents were from all first, second or third year undergraduate students at one state university in Indonesia. Drawing from Theory of Planned Behaviour, we examine three individual variables-attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. In addition, we also examine three situational variables-academic integrity culture, definitional ambiguity, and pressure. Six hypotheses were tested, using a Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling. The results reveal that 77.5% of respondents admitted committing academic dishonesty. While all individual factors studies have positive significant effect on the intention to commit academic dishonesty, of the three situational factors only pressure and definitional ambiguity have a positive significant effect. Surprisingly, it is found that academic integrity culture does not have a significant effect. Keywords: academic dishonesty, the theory of planned behaviour, situational factors, individual factors
... Big lecture hall settings discourage instructors from keeping track of student attendance. Plagiarism and cheating during exams are common among Chinese college students, as well (Ma, McCabe & Liu, 2013). Students are graded based mostly on midterm and final exams (Wolff &Qiang, 2011). ...
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Recent economic development in China not only has improved the overall living standards of Chinese people, but it has also created a new middle class. Another impact of the economic development is the increasing demand for educated workers. Subsequently, the demand for quality higher education has also increased. With more than 50% of the world's top 100 universities located in the United States, the United States is regarded as the number one destination for international students for higher education. Due to the cultural differences between China and the United States, scholars have found that Chinese students encounter the most challenges adjusting to American college life. Lack of Western cultural exposure, different cultural values, the effect of the One-Child Policy, the emphasis on effort, endurance, and hard work in education, the continual impact of the Cultural Revolution's aftermath on people's relationships, the unfulfilled expectations of American college life experiences, and the influence of the Chinese education structure on students' characters and skills-building all have an impact on Chinese students' worldview and their interaction with their new environment. By reviewing the literature on the topic, this article seeks to understand the roots of the challenge to gain insight into the reasons why Chinese students do what they do after they come to the United States for higher education.
... Además, igualmente esta también resulta ser la tipología de plagio más fácilmente detectable por los docentes gracias al uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, por lo que no es de extrañar que se den estos altos índices de prevalencia en su identificación por parte del profesorado. También es sustancial remarcar, además, que un elemento más de validación de los resultados obtenidos en cuanto a los altos niveles de detección de determinadas prácticas (aquellas relativas al ciberplagio) entre el profesorado se hallan en consonancia con los niveles revelados en trabajos previos centrados exclusivamente en el alumnado y que recogían los niveles de comisión de prácticas académicamente deshonestas por parte de este (Kisamore, Stone & Jawahar, 2007;Davis, Drinan & Bertram-Gallant, 2009;Ma, McCabe & Liu, 2013). ...
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This work analyses and describes, from the teachers' point of view, the phenomenon of academic plagiarism amongst compulsory secondary education students in Andalucía and Baleares. Firstly, the general frequency with which plagiarism is detected by teachers is described. Afterwards, data is presented relating to the association between the frequency and prevalence with which the phenomenon is detected according to the teachers' branch of knowledge. A third block details the measures taken by teachers suspecting plagiarism. The research used a questionnaire given to 453 secondary teachers in both autonomous communities. The results threw up some significant figures, amongst which the differences in detection levels by teachers in different subjects stand out. This makes a proposal for specific actions and initiatives directed at combating the phenomenon.
... Others have studied social and environmental contexts-classroom climate and personality of teachers (Murdock et al. 2001), perceived prevalence of peers' cheating (Andrews et al. 2007), or moral support of the family (Park al. 2013). Most studies investigate individuals from one single country (Allmon et al. 2000), such as, Canada (Widelman 2009), China (Ma et al. 2013), Hungary (Orosz et al. 2013), Japan (Kobayashi and Fukushima 2012), South Korea (Park et al. 2013), UK (Kirland 2009), and the US (Gino and Wiltermuth 2014;Premeaux 2010), with some exceptions (Pascual-Ezama et al. 2015;Salter et al. 2001;Tang et al. 2011Tang et al. , 2015. In this study, we incorporate social bonding theory. ...
Article
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http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-015-2939-z Published in Online First on 11/20/2012 A well-known common wisdom asserts that strong social bonds undermine delinquency. However, there is little empirical evidence to substantiate this assertion regarding adolescence academic cheating across cultures. In this study, we adopt social bonding theory and develop a theoretical model involving four social bonds (parental attachment, academic commitment, peer involvement, and moral values) and adolescence self-reported academic cheating behavior and cheating perception. Based on 913 adolescents (average age = 15.88) in France (n = 429) and China (n = 484), we show that parental attachment, academic commitment, and moral values curb academic cheating; counter-intuitively, peer involvement contributes to cheating. We test our theoretical model across culture and gender, separately, using multi-group analyses. For French teens, peer involvement encourages and moral values undermine cheating; for Chinese adolescents, all four social bonds contribute to cheating, similar to the whole sample. For girls, parental attachment deters, but peer involvement enhances cheating. For boys, parental attachment is the only social bond that does not affect cheating. We treat social integration (popularity) as a mediator of the relationship between peer involvement and social bonds that, in turn, related to cheating and ask: Considering popularity, who are likely to cheat? Our answers provide an interesting paradox: Popularity matters, yet popular French girls and unpopular Chinese boys are likely to cheat. Social sharing is a positive pro-social behavior in consumer behavior. However, academic cheating and rule breaking, reflecting self-serving altruism and the red sneakers effect, at a very young age may have the potential to grow into the Enron Effect later in their lives as executives in organizations. We shed new lights on both the bright and dark sides of social bonds on cheating, demonstrate bad company corrupts good morals, differently, across culture and gender, and provide practical implications to social bonding, business ethics, and cheating.
... Dyer (2010) points to three major factors that contribute to the increase of academic dishonesty, namely digital technology and the availability of quick information sharing online, the viewpoints and attitudes of the latest generations towards cheating and the cultural and societal backgrounds. Other researchers also include institutional deterrence, the influence of peers, the instructors' attitudes, the tasks, the forms of teaching and the pressure to perform well or graduate in time (e.g. Ma et al. 2013, Miller and Young-Jones 2012). In terms of plagiarism, especially in EFL contexts, the lack of ideas, bad time management skills, the insufficient target language proficiency level and practice opportunities are also considered (e.g. ...
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Plagiarism is unfortunately a widespread practice in most academic communities. In order to better understand what the reasons behind it are and how to treat the problem, students’ perceptions of cheating plagiarism need to be tackled. This study report on a small-scale research carried out with Hungarian undergraduate EFL students and the way the questionnaire can be successfully implemented in an anti-plagiarism session with students. Compared to North American data on similar studies, Hungarian students were found to be more permissive towards cheating. In line with earlier research, this study also found that students often do not consider certain acts as cheating or plagiarism and are often not aware of the consequences, therefore may plagiarize inadvertently. Through active discussion about the issue with students in class, the message of academic integrity is implicitly sent and leads to more positive student attitudes than the simple warning of the consequences of negative academic behavior.
... We can see a high prevalence rate among college and university students: according to the USA results (McCabe, 2005), 60% of university students cheated at least once during their academic career. Similar prevalence can be observed among South Korean (Park et al., 2013), Chinese (Ma et al., 2013), Hungarian (Orosz et al., 2013), and Western European (Teixeira and Rocha, 2010) students. ...
Article
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In this research we claim that teachers’ enthusiasm matters regarding student engagement in terms of academic cheating. Previous studies found that perceived enthusiasm of teachers is positively related to the intrinsic motivation of the students. However, it was less investigated how perceived enthusiasm is related to cheating. In the first exploratory questionnaire study (N = 244) we found that during the exams of those teachers who are perceived to be enthusiastic students tend to cheat less. In the second questionnaire study (N = 266) we took academic motivations into consideration and we found that the more teachers seem enthusiastic the cheating rate will be lower among university students. Aggregated teacher enthusiasm was positively related to intrinsic motivation, negatively related to amotivation, and not related to extrinsic motivation. Aggregated teacher enthusiasm was directly and negatively linked to cheating and it explained more variance in cheating than academic motivations together. These results suggest that teachers’ perceived enthusiasm can be a yet unexplored interpersonal factor which could effectively prevent academic cheating.
... Furthermore, students' attributes and characteristics of the campus are associated with cheating on classroom examinations (Dawkins 2004). A study revealed that organizational deterrence and individual performance may contribute to a negative impact on cheating while those who have perceived pressure, peers' cheating, and having extracurricular activities may have positive impact on cheating (Ma, McCabe, and Liu 2013). Moreover, students who possess competence and motivation are likely not to engage in cheating (Rettinger and Kramer 2009). ...
Article
This study aims to describe the perception on cheating in an academic community. It employed descriptive research design which sought the participation of faculty members (N=144) and graduating college students (N=428) from a Philippine University to answer a self-made instrument in gathering quantitative and qualitative data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and phases of thematic analysis. Results revealed that faculty members and student participants agreed on the perception of cheating in the forms of examination and assignment while having some disagreements with the other forms of cheating. Furthermore, they also agreed on situations that may encourage cheating such as situations that were faculty related, student related, physical structure related, and program related. Suggestions to minimize the occurrence of cheating were stipulated by the participants. Finally, results were utilized to come up with a program that envisions a cheat-free academic community.
... During those problems in Chinses high education, two of them are discussed in this paper. One is the inefficient signaling problem due to the exam-oriented standard training before college (Kirkpatrick, 2011) and the ridiculously slack evaluation system in most Chinese colleges (Ma, 2013). The other is the diplomaism among an overwhelming majority of Chinese families, much of which are due to pure vanity. ...
Article
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Since the higher education expansion and education marketization from 1998, China’s education inflation has become increasingly serious. And correspondingly, the income of graduates remains in a low level. This paper built a model and explained two important reasons. First, the quality of Chinese high education is relatively low, which means the signal effect of education will be less efficient. Second, every individual has an incentive to occupy higher status in the education hierarchy, which means there is a zero-sum education arms race game. I try to build a simple but powerful model in this essay to explain how thses two factors contribute to Chinese education inflation and how they intertwine with each other.
... In Ukraine, 82% of students have used non-authorized support during exams (Stephens et al. 2010). While in China, 71% of students at one university admit to having copied a homework assignment from his/her classmates (Ma et al. 2013). ...
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Corruption is a serious problem in Mexico and the available information regarding the levels of academic dishonesty in Mexico is not very encouraging. Academic integrity is essential in any teaching-learning process focussed on achieving the highest standards of excellence and learning. Promoting and experiencing academic integrity within the university context has a twofold purpose: to achieve the necessary learnings and skills to appropriately perform a specific profession and to develop an ethical perspective which leads to correct decision making. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between academic integrity and ethical behaviour, particularly workplace behaviour. The study adopts a quantitative, hypothetical and deductive approach. A questionnaire was applied to 1203 college students to gather information regarding the frequency in which they undertake acts of dishonesty in different environments and in regards to the severity they assign to each type of infraction. The results reflect that students who report committing acts against academic integrity also report being involved in dishonest activities in other contexts, and that students who consider academic breaches less serious, report being engaged in academic misconduct more frequently in different contexts. In view of these results, it is unavoidable to reflect on the role that educational institutions and businesses can adopt in the development of programmes to promote a culture of academic integrity which: design educational experiences to foster learning, better prepare students to fully meet their academic obligations, highlight the benefits of doing so, prevent the severity and consequences of dishonest actions, discourage cheating and establish clear and efficient processes to sanction those students who are found responsible for academic breaches.
... Whitley (1998) showed that 70.4% of students cheat in college. Ma (2013) claimed that Due to the stereotype of Chinese parents, Chinese students often suffer from high expectations from their parents, which translates into pressure to do well in school. This is what leads students to cheat in order to get good grades. ...
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This article discusses the relationship between students' honest behavior and science and technology from the perspective of science and technology. In the era of advanced science and technology, what strategies should schools take to prevent students' academic integrity. According to what reasons students choose to achieve higher academic achievement through academic misconduct, different methods are proposed to prevent students from academic misconduct. From the psychological point of view of three ways, education policy and high-tech means will effectively prevent cheating, so as to create a fair and just education environment.
... Adolescents' unethical behavior is a growing social problem in China (Lu, Yu, Ren, & Marshall, 2013). Rapid socioeconomic changes in recent decades might have obvious implications for increasing Chinese adolescents' various forms of unethical behavior, including theft, vandalism (Jessor et al., 2003), and academic cheating (Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013). Moreover, China has the second largest adolescent population in the world (269 million;Das Gupta et al., 2014), and this makes Chinese data essential for exploring the association between Honesty-Humility and adolescents' unethical behavior. ...
Article
Introduction Honesty-Humility represents the tendency to be fair, genuine, and cooperative in social interactions. Although previous evidence has demonstrated that Honesty-Humility is related to decreased unethical behavior, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship, especially among adolescents. Based on social cognitive theory and system justification theory, the present study aims to examine the mediating role of moral disengagement and the moderating role of system justification in the relationship between Honesty-Humility and unethical behavior among Chinese adolescents. Methods A large sample of Chinese adolescents (N = 2,576, 47% boys; Mage = 17.00 years, SD = 1.07) was recruited from four senior high schools. The participants completed questionnaires regarding Honesty-Humility, moral disengagement, system justification, and unethical behavior. Results The findings suggested that Honesty-Humility was negatively associated with adolescents’ unethical behavior, and moral disengagement partially mediated this negative association. Furthermore, system justification moderated the mediation model. Specifically, the negative relationships between Honesty-Humility and moral disengagement/unethical behavior were stronger among adolescents who perceive the society as fair. Conclusion These findings advance the understanding of when and how Honesty-Humility prevents adolescents from unethical behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of the current study as well as future research directions are discussed.
... Students should know that they cannot get away with cheating and that there are grave consequences for cheating. Penalties should be unambiguously spelled out to the students (Ma et al., 2013). Cheating is a deplorable act. ...
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Abstract Cheating is an academically dishonest behavior about which there has been a thrust of research. However, it has not been extensively researched in an Iranian context. Therefore, the current study was conducted with 310 Iranian students. A cheating questionnaire was devised and administered to the participants. Certain demographic variables were investigated. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the obtained data. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that cheating was common among participants, and most students did not harbor any negative attitude toward cheating or at least were neutral about it. The most common method of cheating was “letting others look at their papers while taking exams.” The most common reason for cheating was “not being ready for the exam.” As for inferential statistics, one-way analysis of variance, an independent t-test, and correlational analyses were used to test the effect and relationship of demographic variables on and between the cheating behaviors of the participants. It was found that none of the two demographic variables of gender and year level had any effect on students’ cheating behaviors. Furthermore, achievement scores and age were not significantly correlated with cheating behavior scores.
... In Taiwan, giving prohibited help to others on their assignments is the most common dishonest behavior among students (Lin & Wen, 2007). Ma, McCabe and Liu (2013) and Salleh, Alias, Hamid and Yusoff (2013) also found that most often students work on an assignment with others when teacher required individual work to assess their performance. In addition, Freiburger et al. (2017) stated that another common mode of dishonesty is the submission of assignment of another student with their name on it. ...
Article
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This study examines 'academic dishonesty' among a sample of 243 students from business universities. Academic dishonest behavior of students was measured on four dimensions of academic dishonesty: cheating in tests, cheating in assignments and plagiarism. It was found that a considerably small number of students reported their engagement in academic dishonest behavior, such as passing answers to others, cheating in preparing assignments, working with others on 'individual assignments', and providing forbidden help to others. Very few students have reported that they often use reference material without truly reading it and provide forbidden help to other students in exams. There was hardly any reported academic dishonest behavior prevalence among the students. It is interesting to note that significant difference was found between male and female students' dishonest behavior. Universities should consider more extensive trainings for students in which it is explained to them the seriousness of cheating. Given the results indicated that students who view cheating behaviors as more wrong are less likely to cheat, universities should make an effort to increase students' opinions of wrongfulness.
... The first large-scale study of cheating occurred in the United States in the 1960s and indicated that 75% of United States tertiary students had cheated at least once in their academic careers (Bowers, 1964). Remarkably, this very high percentage has only fluctuated modestly over the past five decades -the majority of tertiary students (the world over, wherever asked) report having cheated in the past year (e.g., Lupton et al., 2000;Lupton and Chapman, 2002;McCabe, 2005;Stephens et al., 2010;Ma et al., 2013). ...
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The problem of academic dishonesty is as old as it is widespread – dating back millennia and perpetrated by the majority of students. Attempts to promote academic integrity, by comparison, are relatively new and rare – stretching back only a few hundred years and implemented by a small fraction of schools and universities. However, the past decade has seen an increase in efforts among universities to promote academic integrity among students, particularly through the use of online courses or tutorials. Previous research has found this type of instruction to be effective in increasing students’ knowledge of academic integrity and reducing their engagement in academic dishonesty. The present study contributes to this literature with a natural experiment on the effects of the Academic Integrity Course (AIC) at The University of Auckland, which became mandatory for all students in 2015. In 2012, a convenience sample of students ( n = 780) had been asked to complete a survey on their perceptions of the University’s academic integrity polices and their engagement in several forms of academic dishonesty over the past year. In 2017, the same procedures and survey were used to collect data from second sample of students ( n = 608). After establishing measurement invariance across the two samples on all latent factors, analysis of variance revealed mixed support for the studies hypotheses. Unexpectedly, students who completed the AIC (i.e., the 2017 sample) reported: (1) significantly lower (not higher) levels of understanding, support, and effectiveness with respect to the University’s academic integrity policies; (2) statistically equivalent (not higher) levels of peer disapproval of academic misconduct, and; (3) significantly higher (not lower) levels of peer engagement in academic misconduct. However, results related to participants’ personal engagement in academic misconduct offered partial support for hypotheses – those who completed the AIC reported significantly lower rates of engagement on three of the eight behaviors included in the study. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed as well as possible future directions for research.
... Academic dishonesty is a serious academic problem for many countries (Ghias, Lakho, Asim, Azam, & Saeed, 2014;Hensley, Kirkpatrick, & Burgoon, 2013;Jurdi, Hage, & Chow, 2012;Ma, McCabe, & Liu, 2013;Mwamwenda, 2012;Sattler, Graeff, & Willen, 2013). McCabe and International Center of Academic Integrity have proved it in their study that between 2002 and 2015 of 71,300 undergraduate students, 39% admitted cheating during exams, 62% admitted cheating on their report writing, while 68% did both. ...
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Academic dishonesty is a morality problem that is often found in every level of education. It becomes a concern among guidance and counseling practitioner in the educational context. Regarding previous studies, spiritual-religious attitudes and moral disengagement predict individuals’ academic dishonesty. To complete the gap of those studies, the current study investigated the role of moral disengagement to mediate the relationship between spiritual-religious attitudes and academic dishonesty in university students. There were 292 participants from four universities in Semarang participated in this study. The authors used a cross-sectional study and utilized google form to collect the data. The authors conducted three analyses, regression-based path analysis, mediation analysis using bias-corrected and bootstrapping. The results showed that there was a direct relationship among all variables, but they're found no mediation effect on moral disengagement. These findings imply the importance of counseling services to preserve students’ morality so they could avoid academic dishonesty.
... • pozwalanie innym studentom na kopiowanie własnej pracy -94,4% spośród 518 studentów badanych na uniwersytecie i dwóch politechnikach w singapurze (lim, see, 2001), • współpraca z innymi osobami podczas zadania, które miało być wykonane samodzielnie -80% spośród 1 097 studentów 16 szkół wyższych w Chinach (Ma, McCabe, liu, 2013), • pytanie o treść zbliżającego się testu osobę, która już go zdawała -69% spośród 273 studentów badanych na uniwersytecie w seulu (korea południowa) (ledesma, 2011). ...
Book
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This publication aims to present current knowledge about the psychological determinants and the prediction of academic dishonesty among higher education students, along with ways to counteract the phenomenon. The author presents results from her research on the subject and uses theoretical and empirical evidence to draw conclusions that could be applied in academic environments. In the introduction, the reader will find a justification for the consideration of academic dishonesty and the importance of conducting psychological research in this area. The first four chapters offer a presentation of the types and scope of academic dishonesty, its psychological determinants, theoretical models enabling its prediction, and ways of counteracting its occurrence. The next three chapters contain the results of the author’s research in the above areas. The final chapter contains conclusions drawn from the research conducted by the author, which can be used in planning the modes and conditions of students’ knowledge verification, designing programs aimed at counteracting academic dishonesty at universities and other higher education institutions, and interventions following the detection of students’ dishonest conduct. Summary of results in English available at the end of the book.
... In order to disguise this at times, they seem to pin their faith on numbers overwhelmingly. There are instances when students show importunate demands to seek views, listen to ideas, seek notes of credibly academic but unpublished papers, and even unknowingly plagiarize to reproduce and report what they perceive could be better illustrated numerically ( Jian 2012;Jordan and Gray 2013;Ma, Mccabe, and Liu 2013;Postiglione et al. 2017). ...
Article
This exploratory study critically investigates the teaching assistant regulations of higher education institutions of China. On the basis of content analysis of the teaching assistant regulations of five premier universities of China this study analyses the possible discrepancies that might compromise the principles of transparency, equal opportunity and encouraging excellence as stipulated in the vision, mission, and goal of the regulations. Teacher assistants do make more than two third of the academic staff at the universities in China. Besides, China has a second largest higher education system in terms of scale in the world. Practices of sharing skills and imparting knowledge at these institutions have been intermediated by a semi-institutionalized position, called 'teacher assistants'. It's therefore, the informal submission of assignments without record at the PhD level questions the purpose of integrity and academic freedom of the higher education at the universities. On the basis of an instrumentalised framework guided by the dimensions of decision making and learning organization theories this study using content analysis has formulated the recommendations for the institutions while selecting and training the students as teaching assistants. A critical but logical illustration of the teaching assistant regulations has also been detailed regarding academic integrity in this study.
... Based on the actions of rational beings, researchers have proposed that dishonest behaviors could be reduced by increasing the risk of being caught, increasing the associated penalty, and reducing the level of reward. Students may be tempted to cheat if the punishment from being caught is not as severe as the potential benefit of passing the examination and receiving a high score (Jawahar et al., 2007;Ma et al., 2013). For example, a poor student might cheat on an examination if the consequences of failing are more severe than the risk of cheating. ...
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Cheating on exams is a very common phenomenon that causes great harm. Various measures, such as chastisement and direct punishment, have been employed to reduce cheating. Previous studies have found that increasing punishment and activating “self-concept maintenance” can reduce this behavior. This study employed a priming paradigm to investigate whether priming legal consequences and the concept of honesty would reduce cheating in examination situations. In experiment 1, a total of 402 freshmen from 17 classes were included in this study. The 185 students in experimental condition were primed for legal consequences. The cheating behaviors and employed analysts were defined to count the number of cheaters. The results show that the number of students cheating in the primed group did not decrease compared to those in the controlled condition. In experiment 2, a total of 386 freshmen from 16 classes participated in this experiment. The 171 students in experimental condition were primed for the concept of honesty. The results also show that the number of students cheating in the primed group did not decrease. This study shows that priming legal consequence and the concept of honesty were not significant in certain situations, such as during examinations. It is suggested that some psychological manipulations in decreasing dishonesty behaviors should be further tested in ecological situations.
... Instead, it is related to contextual factors, such as perceived peer behavior and perceived probability of punishment. These inferences are consistent with earlier findings demonstrating the great influence of peer and faculty behavior on the frequency of academic dishonesty [Broeckelman-Post 2008;McCabe, Trevino, Butterfield 2001;McCabe, Feghali, Abdallah 2008;Megehee, Spake 2008;Ma, McCabe, Liu 2013;Simon et al. 2004;Yu et al. 2016;Shmeleva 2016]. ...
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Academic dishonesty among college students is often associated with low academic motivation, which has been confirmed by multiple international findings. However, the role of academic motivation may be overestimated, as such studies do not normally control for con-textual factors such as faculty and peer behavior. This study utilized the theoretical framework of Eric M. Anderman and Tamera B. Murdock to identify the factors of academic dishonesty and the self-determination theory of Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan to measure academic motivation. Longitudinal data on students of four Russian universities participating in the Project 5-100 (N=914) is used to measure the ability of academic motivation to predict academic cheating and plagiarism rates while controlling for contextual factors. Regression analysis shows that academic motivation becomes insignificant as a predic-tor as soon as perceived consequences and peer effects come into play. The best predictor of both plagiarism and cheating is students' perception of contextual factors, i. e. perceived prevalence of relevant behaviors among peers. Unlike with cheating, plagiarism rates are not contingent on the probability of punishment.
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Академическое мошенничество студентов часто связывают с низким уровнем учебной мотивации, что подтверждается рядом зарубежных и отечественных исследований. Однако роль учебной мотивации может быть переоценена, поскольку в таких исследованиях, как правило, не контролируются характеристики образовательной среды — поведение преподавателей и одногруппников. Проведено исследование с опорой на теоретическую рамку Э.Андермана и Т.Мердок при выделении факторов академического мошенничества и на теорию самодетер- минации Э. Диси и Р. Райана для измерения учебной мотивации. На основе лонгитюдных данных о студентах четырех российских вузов — участников Проекта «5–100» (N = 914) оценивается вклад учебной мотивации в объяснение частоты списывания и обращения к плагиату при контроле характеристик образовательной среды. Результаты регрессионного анализа показывают, что, если учитывать вероятность последствий от академического мошенничества и нечестность одногруппников, учебная мотивация перестает играть значимую роль как предиктор академического мошенничества. Основным предиктором и плагиата, и списывания выступает представление о честности среды — о том, насколько распространены эти практики среди одногруппников. В отличие от списывания, плагиат не зависит от вероятности наказания со стороны преподавателей.
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Background: Unethical Behavior and lack of adherence to scientific ethics, is a serious problem in higher education. In this line, the aim of the present study, is explanation of the lack of scientific integrity and its associated factors among graduate students of Isfahan University. Method: This study is an applied-correlation research. Population of the study includes all Graduate students of Isfahan University. Among all, 290 subjects were selected as a sample group. Data were gathered by self- report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using SPSS and Amos software. Results: More than 70 percent of students said they did not commit any of scientific misconduct raised in this study and the most frequent cases of academic dishonesty are mild rather than severe cases. Further analysis also shows that among the independent variables, the attitude towards teachers to deterrence and negative attitude to fraud have a direct effect on academic dishonesty. Conclusion: The lack of professor's serious commitment to scientific integrity on the one hand and the relatively positive attitude of students to commit academic dishonesty are among important factors underlie the misconducts of students. Along with other preventive measures, including laws and policy making, education and raising awareness of scientific actors have high priority. http://ethicsjournal.ir/article-1-617-en.html
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Female education in China is an over‐researched area, yet it does not provide enough evidence on the country's exact pattern of female education practice. On the one hand, the National Plan of 2010–2020 emphasises equal education policies regardless of gender type. On the other hand, reported research raises several gendered and procedural yet substantive practices of female education in China. Thus, it was essential to conduct this study to inform policymakers, practitioners and researchers on the status of this area, based on a systematic review of 47 eligible included studies conducted between 2009 and 2020, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed designs. The review answers two questions: (1) What are the substantive findings of qualitative synthesis on gender equity of female education in China? (2) Regardless of the existence or absence of gender inequity, what patterns of female education exist, and what kind of framework or model could be proposed to reform female education in China? The PRISMA guideline and SPIDER tool were used to conduct and report this study. The practical theory was also used—proposing a model that may serve to diagnose as well as intervene in the conflict of female education equity in China. Findings and conclusions showed that both gender equity and gender inequity are disadvantageous at short‐term and long‐term levels. For this reason, relativism might help to reduce the impact of these two patterns. While cultural and social capital is still the main impacting factor on gender equity in any country, reform should take place. Relativism could be achieved through reasonable understanding and interpretation of the sources that form the cultural and social capital. It takes place also by preventing the causes of gender gaps. These include over‐interpretation and under‐interpretation of gender roles, mainly those which are female. Gender should never be used as a factor in human capital. Context and implications Rationale for this study To examine the claim of female education in China being gendered and procedurally yet substantively practised or not; we therefore did a systematic review of the quantitative, qualitative, and mixed‐method design studies on female education equity in China between 2009 and 2020. Why the new findings matter It is not clear whether China's female education system manifests gender or another type of inequality, or what patterns characterise it compared to other countries. This systematic review introduces a framework to understand the female education system in China through the different patterns which govern human capital, social capital, economic capital and cultural capital. Implications for education researchers and policymakers This study has implications for policymakers, decision‐makers, teachers and researchers interested in conducting systematic reviews in education science. The literature review identified some themes: gender equity and minorities, gender equity in higher and vocational education, national development and policy adjustment, Chinese context‐based social factors, misconceptualisation of gender equity, quantitative inequity, and finally, mission schools; The systematic review identified themes like minority discrimination, discrimination between rural and urban areas, the impact of education on health and psychology, educational leadership and policy, educational attainment/performance, and social capital; Using the five constituents of the Practical Theory led to the proposal of a model presenting patterns of female education, helping to reform female education; and Policymakers, practitioners and researchers on female education might find it informative and practical to conduct more systematic reviews on female education when applying this theory and other related theories. Rationale for this study To examine the claim of female education in China being gendered and procedurally yet substantively practised or not; we therefore did a systematic review of the quantitative, qualitative, and mixed‐method design studies on female education equity in China between 2009 and 2020. Why the new findings matter It is not clear whether China's female education system manifests gender or another type of inequality, or what patterns characterise it compared to other countries. This systematic review introduces a framework to understand the female education system in China through the different patterns which govern human capital, social capital, economic capital and cultural capital. Implications for education researchers and policymakers This study has implications for policymakers, decision‐makers, teachers and researchers interested in conducting systematic reviews in education science. The literature review identified some themes: gender equity and minorities, gender equity in higher and vocational education, national development and policy adjustment, Chinese context‐based social factors, misconceptualisation of gender equity, quantitative inequity, and finally, mission schools; The systematic review identified themes like minority discrimination, discrimination between rural and urban areas, the impact of education on health and psychology, educational leadership and policy, educational attainment/performance, and social capital; Using the five constituents of the Practical Theory led to the proposal of a model presenting patterns of female education, helping to reform female education; and Policymakers, practitioners and researchers on female education might find it informative and practical to conduct more systematic reviews on female education when applying this theory and other related theories.
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The rise of fee-for-service assignment preparation services has led to the proliferation of file sharing sites where graded work, academic and institutional materials are shared, swapped, and traded over the Internet for no payment, or at greatly reduced costs compared to essay mills. File sharing sites operate under the guise of information repositories, student support communities and assistance centers tempting contributors and users to recycle and repurpose materials through exchange arrangements. The popularity of file sharing sites is growing in student communities. This is due to sites being fee-free or low cost, the ease of access, time saving opportunities and grade improvement potential related to assessment tasks and exams, all complemented by the seemingly low risk of detection of use. The information housed and shared may be “free” in terms of cost, but it does not mean that it is free from obligation, including the acknowledgement of the original authors, assessing the credibility of information and compliance with legal frameworks and institutional policies. This section reviews the blurred lines that exist between what is and is not appropriate to share, the motivation behind the use of fee-free materials, and the legal implications of sharing, swapping, and trading materials such as breaches in copyright, intellectual property, and institutional policies. Considerations for limiting or circumventing the ability of file sharing sites to facilitate academic dishonesty are also discussed.
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* Why do our headaches persist after taking a one-cent aspirin but disappear when we take a 50-cent aspirin? * Why does recalling the Ten Commandments reduce our tendency to lie, even when we couldn't possibly be caught? * Why do we splurge on a lavish meal but cut coupons to save 25 cents on a can of soup? * Why do we go back for second helpings at the unlimited buffet, even when our stomachs are already full? * And how did we ever start spending $4.15 on a cup of coffee when, just a few years ago, we used to pay less than a dollar? When it comes to making decisions in our lives, we think we're in control. We think we're making smart, rational choices. But are we? In a series of illuminating, often surprising experiments, MIT behavioral economist Dan Ariely refutes the common assumption that we behave in fundamentally rational ways. Blending everyday experience with groundbreaking research, Ariely explains how expectations, emotions, social norms, and other invisible, seemingly illogical forces skew our reasoning abilities. Not only do we make astonishingly simple mistakes every day, but we make the same types of mistakes, Ariely discovers. We consistently overpay, underestimate, and procrastinate. We fail to understand the profound effects of our emotions on what we want, and we overvalue what we already own. Yet these misguided behaviors are neither random nor senseless. They're systematic and predictable--making us predictably irrational. From drinking coffee to losing weight, from buying a car to choosing a romantic partner, Ariely explains how to break through these systematic patterns of thought to make better decisions. Predictably Irrational will change the way we interact with the world--one small decision at a time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(cover)
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The incidence of academic dishonesty has been increasing throughout the past few decades. Past research has indicated that business students cheat more than their peers in other disciplines across the university. And, of particular concern to marketing educators, the current research finds that marketing majors cheat significantly more than their peers in other business disciplines. The research results also indicate that students are much more likely to cheat in situations in which friends (versus mere acquaintances) are involved. The study identifies a robust false consensus effect in which the respondents significantly overestimate the degree to which others cheat. Finally, the research investigates behaviors, beliefs, and propensities related to cheating on electronic exams. The article suggests tactical and strategic measures that business schools and their faculty can use to reduce the incidence of academic dishonesty.
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A differential association model of unethical behavior was utilized to predict unethical behavior among marketing practitioners. The data were collected through a systematic random sample of 280 marketing managers selected from the 1975 American Marketing Association roster. Newstrom and Ruch 's 17-item ethics scale was used to develop six types of predictors of unethical behavior, "What I do, " among marketers. These six types of variables included (1) the marketer's beliefs, "What I believe"; (2) what the marketer thought his peers believed, "Peer beliefs"; (3) what the marketer thought top management believed, "What top management believes"; (4) what the marketer thought his peers did, "What my peers do"; (5) the opportunity the marketer thought his peers had to become involved in un-ethical behavior, "Opportunity for peers"; and finally (6) the opportunity the marketer himself had to become involved in unethical behavior, "Individual opportunity." In the case of these marketing practitioners, their perceptions of what their peers do and their own opportunity to become involved in unethical behavior that involved others were better predictor variables than were any of the other variables analyzed.
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Evidence has suggested that some forms of plagiarism might result from students' inadequate knowledge of proper citation techniques (Roig, 1997). We taught students about plagiarism identification and proper paraphrasing skills. Undergraduates who received no treatment, feedback, plagiarism examples, or a combination of feedback and examples completed 2 versions of a plagiarism knowledge survey, paraphrased a literary passage, and rated their knowledge of plagiarism. Participants in all conditions except the control condition were better able to identify plagiarism. In the paraphrasing exercise, the example conditions showed a reduction in plagiarism. Thus, we identify an exercise that can help students identify and avoid plagiarism.
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This article examines the level of cheating in marketing classes at two universities. The authors determine that certain predictors of cheating behavior activate more under high deterrent conditions. The study concludes that in-class deterrents are effective in reducing the levels of cheating on exams.
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This article investigates whether the range and severity of academic dishonesty engaged in during undergraduate studies is related to the range and severity of dishonesty engaged in later during employment. Self-reported data was collected from 60 MBA students. Findings indicate that subjects who admitted to having engaged in a wide range of academic dishonesty also admitted to a wide range of work-related dishonesty. Additionally, those subjects who engaged in behaviors considered severely dishonest in college also engaged in behaviors considered severely dishonest at work.
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ACADEMIC DISHONESTY ON COLLEGE CAMPUSES WAS STUDIED. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY A QUESTIONNAIRE TO A NATIONWIDE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE FIRST SENT TO DEANS OF STUDENTS AND STUDENT BODY PRESIDENTS. RESPONSES WERE OBTAINED FROM MORE THAN 600 DEANS AND 500 STUDENT BODY PRESIDENTS. THE DATA PROVIDED IDEAS AND PROBLEMS TO BE STUDIED MORE INTENSIVELY IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE STUDY. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE THEN SENT TO A SAMPLE OF STUDENTS DRAWN FROM 99 SCHOOLS REPRESENTED BY DEANS AND STUDENT BODY PRESIDENTS OF THE PREVIOUS STAGE. COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRES WERE RECEIVED FROM 5,000 STUDENTS. THE REPORT OF ANALYSES INCLUDED (1) THE PROBLEM OF ACADEMIC DISHONESTY IN CONTEXT, (2) THE SETTING IN WHICH ACADEMIC DISHONESTY OCCURS, (3) MEASURES OF CHEATING, (4) ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND CHEATING, (5) VALUE-ORIENTATION AND CHEATING, (6) HIGH SCHOOL EXPERIENCES AND CHEATING, (7) PEER DISAPPROVAL AND CHEATING, (8) COLLEGE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE LEVEL OF ACADEMIC DISHONESTY, AND (9) INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR CONTROLLING ACADEMIC DISHONESTY. A MAJOR FINDING INDICATED THAT MEMBERS OF THE CAMPUS COMMUNITY GROSSLY UNDERESTIMATED THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM--AT LEAST HALF THE STUDENTS HAD ENGAGED IN SOME FORM OF ACADEMIC DISHONESTY. FURTHER ACTIVITIES WERE SUGGESTED TO EXPLORE THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS BACKGROUND FACTORS ON A STUDENT'S PERSONAL SENSE OF DISAPPROVAL OF CHEATING. (RS)
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Studied factors that influence the behavior of graduate students in a college of education related to cheating and plagiarism. Six 1st-yr master's students (3 male, 3 female) from 3 different master's programs in the college of education at a large, public university were interviewed in-depth. Findings describe the internal and external factors that contribute to and inhibit behaviors relating to cheating and plagiarism. Internal inhibiting factors included personal confidence, positive professional ethics, fairness to authors and to others, fear, and guilt. External inhibiting factors included probability of being caught and need for knowledge in the future. Internal contributing factors included negative personal attitudes and lack of competency, while external contributing factors included grade, time, and task pressures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines cheating behaviors among 742 marketing and management majors at three public AACSB-accredited business schools. Specifically, we studied the simultaneous influence of demographic and attitudinal characteristics on: (1) reported prior cheating behavior; (2) the tendency to neutralize cheating behaviors; and, (3) likelihood of future cheating. We additionally examined the impact of in-class deterrents on neutralization of cheating behaviors and the likelihood of future cheating. We also directly tested potential mediating effects of neutralization on cheating behavior. We conducted independent assessments of the validity of the Smith et al. (2002) model of cheating behavior and its antecedents using structural equations modeling procedures. Results supported the differentiation of the theoretical constructs within the specified process model. Furthermore, tests of the aforementioned theoretical model indicated that the primary influences on future cheating were prior cheating, and the degree to which one neutralized prior cheating behaviors. Equally noteworthy, in contrast to previous research we found in-class deterrents to have no significant influence in either neutralizing behavior or future cheating proclivities.
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It has been argued that the use of Information and Communications Technologies has made academic dishonesty easier but this does not necessarily mean that it is more prevalent. The study presented here investigated the attitudes to, and extent of, self-reported involvement in Internet supported dishonest academic practices. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that Internet experience, acceptability of cheating and assessment of risk predicted an individual student's acceptance of acts such as plagiarism as a legitimate way to achieve academic goals. There was a complex interrelationship among gender, frequency of Internet usage, and maturity of students. Academic offences tended to be more acceptable to males, but also to active Internet users, who were often female: that is females who joined the Internet culture were more prone to plagiarise than their non-active peers. New undergraduates were more likely to err than students in later years of their degree. These results show that there are a number of interrelated factors impacting on individuals' willingness to commit academic offences. The final discussion of this paper both recognises that Internet supported academic offences occur and briefly outlines some technical and non-technical responses that should be considered-by faculty to ameliorate this problem.
Article
While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally.
Predictably irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions Student dishonesty and its control in college Relationships and unethical behavior: a social network perspective
  • D Ariely
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Study on academic integrity of college students
  • M A Chen
  • B X Yao
  • MA Chen
Cheating in schools. The CQ Researcher Online
  • K Koch
The relational basis of attitudes
  • B H Erickson
  • BH Erickson
Education for justice, a modern statement of the platonic view Moral education: Five lectures
  • L Kohlberg
‘CAI Assessment Project
  • D Mccabe
‘Toward a culture of academic integrity
  • D L Mccabe
  • P Drinan
Methods for helping students avoid plagiarism
  • J D Laudau
  • P B Druen
  • J A Arcuri
  • JD Laudau