Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) may contribute to clarify the circumstances of a suspicious death and help to estimate the post-mortem interval. This species has been used as a forensic indicator of human corpses in USA [1,2]. In Europe, it was used for first time in 2001, in Italy . The black soldier fly is originally a New World species, but food and other materials transported by man have resulted in the establishment of this species in all regions . It is now widely distributed from approximately latitude 468N to 428S [4–7]. In Europe, it was recorded in Malta for the first time in 1926 , and since then it has been found in other parts of the Mediterranean region [4,9], Albania, Croatia, France, Italy, southern Switzerland, Portugal and Spain . In the Iberian Peninsula, H. illucens was first recorded in 1954 from the eastern coast , and it was captured in Portugal for the first time in 1995 . However, it has never been found breeding in animal remains or reported in faunistic studies of the sarcosaprophagous community in the Iberian Peninsula [13,14]. Adults probably feed on nectar and pollen, but they can survive for several weeks without food in laboratory conditions . By contrast, larvae can use a wide variety of organic materials as food, but are mainly saprophages in media as diverse as manure or decaying fruits and vegetables, moreover, occasionally causing facultative human myiasis [16,17]. The case described here constitutes the first record of H. illucens breeding on human carrion in Spain. Furthermore, some notes on the biology and geographic distribution of H. illucens in the Iberian Peninsula are presented. This information could, in the future, help to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death in the Mediterranean region. 1. Materials and methods Forensic case report. The body of an elderly man (72 years old) was found on the tiled roof of a farmhouse, located in a rural environment in Reus (N 41.108, E 1.068, Tarragona province, NE Spain) on 26 October 1998. The man had been last seen alive on the day of his disappearance, 8 November 1997. The body was lying face down (Fig. 1), covered by pine foliage and dressed in the same jeans, jacket, T-shirt, socks and shoes as had been worn when he was last seen. The cadaver exhibited mummification in soft tissues and partial skeletisation of the face and the upper part of the thorax. Insects were collected during the autopsy at the Instituto Anató mico Forense in Madrid and preserved in 70% ethanol prior to identification . Meteorological data recorded at the weather station nearest to Reus showed an average daily maximum temperature in July 1998 of 26.9 8C, an average daily minimum temperature in January of 11.6 8C and overall average daily temperature of 17.6 8C. Based on investigations by the forensic medical examiner and police, the death was considered most likely to be on the date of disappearance. At the time of the post-mortem examination, samples of insects from around or under the body were not analysed. This article presents the first record of Hermetia illucens larvae on a human corpse in Spain (the second case report in Europe). Prepupae of H. illucens, and other insects, were recovered from the dead body of a 72-year-old man in an advanced stage of decomposition. The body was located in Reus (NE Spain), in October 1998. This article provides additional biological data on experimental studies and an update on the geographic distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula.