Article

Cultural impacts to tribes from climate change influences on forests

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Abstract

Climate change related impacts, such as increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, higher temperatures, extreme changes to ecosystem processes, forest conversion and habitat degradation are threatening tribal access to valued resources. Climate change is and will affect the quantity and quality of resources tribes depend upon to perpetuate their cultures and livelihoods. Climate impacts on forests are expected to directly affect culturally important fungi, plant and animal species, in turn affecting tribal sovereignty, culture, and economy. This article examines the climate impacts on forests and the resulting effects on tribal cultures and resources. To understand potential adaptive strategies to climate change, the article also explores traditional ecological knowledge and historical tribal adaptive approaches in resource management, and contemporary examples of research and tribal practices related to forestry, invasive species, traditional use of fire and tribal-federal coordination on resource management projects. The article concludes by summarizing tribal adaptive strategies to climate change and considerations for strengthening the federal-tribal relationship to address climate change impacts to forests and tribal valued resources.

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... A key deleterious effect of climate change is a loss of native biodiversity, which significantly affects forest ecosystems and ecological processes (IPCC 2013). The importance of integrating diverse knowledge-bases in climate science, particularly indigenous knowledge, has been emphasized in the literature for improving quality of information (Bohensky and Maru 2011), for promoting actions (Norton-Smith et al. 2016) as well as for maintaining cultural diversity and identity of Indigenous people (Voggesser et al. 2013). However, the epistemological differences between modern science and Indigenous knowledge are often hard to bridge. ...
... Indigenous communities are at high risk of losing natural resources and ecosystem services, directly and indirectly, thus making the impact of climate change on indigenous people uniquely severe (Voggesser et al. 2013). Climate change is expected to negatively affect culturally valued forests and forest use, traditional food collecting, and undermine the formation and use of indigenous knowledge systems (Chief et al. 2014, Norton-Smith et al. 2016. ...
... Indigenous knowledge provides a critical context for interpreting scientific data, which is particularly relevant for managing native biodiversity under the inherent uncertainty presented by climate change (Voggesser et al. 2013). To frame the issues associated with simulated future forest conditions under 21st-century climate, we drew on information from Din e scholars, other Native American scholars, and the global literature on indigenous knowledge and climate change (David-Chavez and Gavin 2018). ...
Article
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Climate change affects all ecosystems but despite increasing recognition for the needs to integrate Indigenous knowledge with modern climate science, the epistemological differences between the two make it challenging. In this study, we present how Indigenous belief and knowledge system can frame the application of a modeling tool (Climate‐Forest Vegetation Simulator). We focus on managing forest ecosystem services of the Diné (Navajo) Nation as a case study. Most Diné tribal members depend directly on the land for their livelihoods and cultural traditions. The forest plays a vital role in Diné livelihoods through social, cultural, spiritual, subsistence, and economic factors. We simulated forest dynamics over time under alternative climate change scenarios and management strategies to identify forest management strategies that will maintain future ecosystem services. We initialized the Climate‐Forest Vegetation Simulator model with data from permanent plots and site‐specific growth models under multiple management systems (no‐management, thinning, burning, and assisted migration planting) and different climate scenarios (no‐climate‐change, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0). Projections of climate change show average losses of basal area by over 65% by 2105, a shift in tree species composition to drier‐adapted species, and a decrease in species diversity. While substantial forest loss was inevitable under the warming climate scenarios, the modeling framework allowed us to evaluate the management treatments, including planting, for conserving multiple tree species in mixed conifer forests, thus providing an anchor for biodiversity. We presented the modeling results and management implications and discuss how they can complement Diné kinship concepts. Our approach is a useful step for framing modern science with Indigenous Knowledge and for developing improved strategies to sustain natural resources and livelihoods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The ecological idea of a "keystone" species is one that "keeps the system in check," or "whose effects on the community is large" (Garibaldi and Turner 2004). Cultural keystone species share a similar role in the function and resilience of culture (Voggesser et al. 2013). Something is considered a cultural keystone species by the intensity of use, role in narratives or ceremonies, and unique position in culture (Garibaldi and Turner 2004, Voggesser et al. 2013. ...
... Cultural keystone species share a similar role in the function and resilience of culture (Voggesser et al. 2013). Something is considered a cultural keystone species by the intensity of use, role in narratives or ceremonies, and unique position in culture (Garibaldi and Turner 2004, Voggesser et al. 2013. Sweetgrass is part of Koluskap narratives, and figures prominently in fiber arts and ...
... In context, Maine's indigenous populations have lower per capita incomes compared to Maine averages: $12,700 versus $19,727 respectively and experience higher rates of unemployment compared to Maine averages: 6.6% versus 14.4% respectively (Kuehnert 2000). More than 95% of Maine tribal basketmakers live on or near reservations at or below the poverty level (Voggesser et al. 2013). Neuman (2010) suggests that basketmaking is a "form of cultural preservation, revitalization, and education that makes a powerful statement about sovereignty" (90). ...
Article
Nontimber forest products (NTFPs), refer to a class of resources (i.e. moss, fungi, mushrooms, plants, etc.) gathered in both rural and urban landscapes. NTFPs are utilized by a variety of cultures all over the world and are a critical part of medicinal, spiritual, dietary, and economic practices. In fact, some NTFP species are so critical to people that they are considered ‘cultural keystone species’ (Garibaldi and Turner 2004). This designation means that without access to the NTFP, cultural survival is at risk. This is the case in Maine where the Wabanaki, a confederacy of four tribes (Passamaqouddy, Penobscot, Mikmaq, and Maliseet), utilize sweetgrass (Hierochloe odorata (L) P.Beauv.) for a variety of cultural practices. Sweetgrass is a perennial grass that grows in rhizomatous mats (Baumflek et al. 2010). Sweetgrass is classified as a wetland plant and typically inhabits riverbanks, moist meadows, and places along the coast (Baumflek et al. 2010) The Wabanaki use sweetgrass for a variety of purposes. For example, sweetgrass is part of creation narratives, and figures prominently in fiber arts and ceremonies. Sweetgrass is a critical component of Wabanaki fancy baskets, intricately designed baskets that are sold and collected throughout the world (Neuman 2010). Wabanaki basketry traditions are an important part of cultural heritage, sovereignty, and economic survival (Brooks 2014). Anecdotal evidence suggested that the ability of Wabanaki harvesters to gather sweetgrass in coastal communities was declining due to development pressures and changes in property ownership. This research examined access issues and harvesting practices within the context of Maine’s diminishing open land tradition, which refers to the increased posting of private land in order to prevent trespass. Utilizing a case study approach that incorporated the perspectives of coastal property owners and Wabanaki Citizens, this study illuminated a variety of factors that influence access issues. Specifically, the landowners interviewed and Wabanaki Citizens agreed that development within coastal communities has become problematic; existing access policies favor commercial fishing; and the Wabanaki are disproportionately impacted by access loss. This research concludes with a discussion of strategies for improving coastal access to culturally significant NTFPs, such as sweetgrass.
... 303 In addition to drought, wildfires affect traditional resources, including fish, wildlife, and plants, such as tanoaks and beargrass, upon which some Southwest tribes rely for food and cultural uses. 304,305,306 Continued climate change would reduce populations of some fish, wildlife, and plants that serve as traditional foods, medicines, and livelihood and cultural resources. 298,307,308 Reduced availability of traditional foods often contributes to poorer nutrition and an increase in diabetes and heart disease. ...
... They use fire to increase ecosystem resilience, reduce fuel loads, manage crops, and protect species used for basket weaving, medicines, and traditional foods. 306,313,328,329,330,331,332 Tribal entities are restoring cultural burning practices and management principles that guide the use of fire on the landscape to reduce wildfire risks and protect public and tribal trust resources. 331 foods. ...
... 331 foods. 306,313,328,329,330,331,332 This cultural use of fire offers an important tool for adaptation and mitigation, as traditional burning reduces fuel accumulations that can lead to high-severity wildfires (see Case Study "Cultural Fire and Climate Resilience" and Figure 25.7). 331,333 Fourth National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program ...
... However, since settling into permanent villages, women have lost their role and some of their knowledge base." For generations, Indigenous communities have depended on a wide variety of fungi, plant, and animal species for sustenance (Lynn et al., 2013). Water, with its vital role as a giver of life is also considered a traditional food by some tribes (Lynn et al., 2013). ...
... For generations, Indigenous communities have depended on a wide variety of fungi, plant, and animal species for sustenance (Lynn et al., 2013). Water, with its vital role as a giver of life is also considered a traditional food by some tribes (Lynn et al., 2013). Therefore, anything that impacts these resources also affects traditional ways of life. ...
... (Vinyeta et al.,p. 27) With the destruction of ecosystems and natural resources as a direct result of colonial occupation -such as disease, pollution, invasive species and management actions -the availability of traditional foods and natural resources becomes limited (Lynn et al., 2013). Lifestyle processes related to food are also affected. ...
Article
Indigenous women have been affected by food insecurity due to historical and continued impacts of settler-colonialism, which include the stripping of traditional gendered roles and responsibilities, environmental degradation, and poverty that limit access to traditional foods and resources. As a result, Indigenous women remain among the most vulnerable to malnourishment and hunger, as well as chronic health conditions that arise in part from colonial diets. Despite the severity of this issue in Native North America, there has been little research carried out on the topic in the state of Maine. This thesis analyzes the connections between factors underlying food insecurity as it relates to Maine Indigenous women and communities. In addition, efforts by Maine tribes to address food insecurity and reclaim tribal food sovereignty are discussed. A Wabanaki case study is used to highlight Indigenous perspectives related to food access, personal health, and community concerns.
... TEK is often in the form of qualitative descriptions passed on through oral and experiential cultural transmissions, which make it challenging to incorporate into forest inventory and planning efforts (Hummel and Lake, 2015). Thus, ensuring sustainable access to culturally important resources may require developing unique climate adaptation strategies (Voggesser et al., 2013) by ...
... Forests provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including plants and animals supporting livelihoods and cultural traditions, but are under threat from loss of resilience with increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation (McDowell et al., 2016). Native American communities are particularly vulnerable to changing forest conditions as their values and identifies are linked to the natural landscape (Voggesser et al., 2013). Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is a integrating knowledge from different sources and traditions (Bohensky and Maru, 2011). ...
... The tribe understands the importance of sustaining Douglas-fir and other species into the future, which initiated this study. However, more studies are needed to understand climate impacts on cultural important species and to develop unique adaptation strategies for guiding the sustainability of tribally important species for many generations (Voggesser et al., 2013). Despite the high historical frequency of fire on the Mescalero landscape (A. ...
Article
Integrating traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with western science and modeling tools can enhance not only the delivery of culturally important species, but also community support and overall effectiveness of management. This paper presents a case study of co-producing usable science integrating TEK on a culturally important species with a modeling tool, Climate-Forest Vegetation Simulator (C-FVS). The Mescalero Apache tribe (southwestern USA) conduct a coming of age ceremony for young women who follow a traditional way of life. In order to conduct this ceremony, tall, thin teepee poles made from Douglas-fir trees are needed. Douglas-fir trees capable of producing teepee poles are a culturally important resource for the Mescalero Apache tribe. We interacted with medicine people, tribal members, and forest managers to gain insight on characteristics of teepee pole stands. We established thirty, 400 m² circular plots with nested 100 m² regeneration plots in teepee pole producing stands to characterize composition, structure, age, growth rates, and fuels. Teepee pole producing stands occupy an elevation range from 2012 to 2561 m, slopes of 3–43%, and aspects from NW to NE. The stands consist of dense, relatively old trees dominated by Douglas-fir, with other species of trees usually present as a minor component. Douglas-firs in teepee pole producing stands averaged 1255 ± 99 trees per ha (TPH), basal area 31.7 ± 1.5 m²/ha, and 18.5 ± 0.5 cm quadratic mean diameters (QMD). Douglas-fir trees in teepee pole producing stands were most commonly 75–100 years old with diameters at breast height (DBH) ranging from 5.1 to 25.4 cm. In order to assess future trajectories of teepee pole stands, we applied C-FVS which incorporates the effects of climate change scenarios over the next 100 years. We compared three standard scenarios ranging from moderate to severe climate change: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. Simulated future forests at the current plot locations even under the most mild climate change scenario (RCP 4.5) did not contain Douglas-fir after a century of modeling. Complete forest mortality was predicted under RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5. Comparing bioclimatic niche modeling of Douglas-fir with downscaled future climate scenarios indicated that the species would have to be planted at least 305 m higher to maintain 21st century viability under RCP 4.5 and 6.0, or at least 610 m higher under RCP 8.0. The characterization of current teepee pole producing stands and simulations of future effects of climate change provide useful information to the Mescalero Apache Tribe to support management decisions on how they would like to preserve this cultural important resource.
... The ecological balance that has sustained North American temperate and boreal coniferous forests through indigenous burning practices becomes compromised when invasive species grow and flourish in areas they have not previously (Christianson 2015). Traditional burning practices rely on predictable environmental cues (Huffman 2013) that are increasingly being disrupted because of climate change and species invasion (Voggesser et al. 2013). ...
... Significant changes to species composition in forests could deprive tribal communities of culturally important resources and negatively impact historical means of subsistence (Voggesser et al. 2013). Voggesser et al. (2013) offer a solution that is grounded in collaboration: ...
... Significant changes to species composition in forests could deprive tribal communities of culturally important resources and negatively impact historical means of subsistence (Voggesser et al. 2013). Voggesser et al. (2013) offer a solution that is grounded in collaboration: ...
Technical Report
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Integrating tribes and culture into public land management
... Mortality of black ash trees, which are important for traditional basket-making for many tribes, is highly likely as winter temperatures continue to rise. 127 Warming winters already have economic impacts on the forest industry, as well. Forest operations (for example, site access, tree harvesting, and product transport) in many northern regions are conducted on snowpack or frozen ground to protect the site from negative impacts such as soil disturbance and compaction, 128 but the timing of suitable conditions has become shorter and more variable. ...
... 88 Climate change presents challenges to the O jibwe tribes in co-managing these resources with other land managers; as the climate changes, various species utilized by tribes are declining and may shift entirely outside of treaty boundaries and reserved lands. 127,309,310 In certain tribal cultures, all beings (species) are important; climate adaptation efforts that favor certain beings at the detriment of others can be problematic. Adaptation to climate change might also mean giving up on something deeply embedded in tribal culture for which no substitute exists. ...
... Additionally, in areas of the Midwest, infestations of the invasive emerald ash borer already are devastating ash tree populations and corresponding Indigenous cultural and economic traditions. 127 Across the United States, a number of tribal nations are developing adaptation plans, including in the Midwest (Ch. 15: Tribes, KM 3). ...
... However, due to climate change stressors their forests may decline between 65%-89% by 2100 (Yazzie et al., 2019). Voggesser et al. (2013) reviewed the literature on climate change impacts on First Nations peoples' forests in the USA. Various impacts were identified, from increased invasive pests and pathogens, higher incidence of wildfire and changing burning regimes, and more frequent droughts, all of which require adaptations. ...
... In a broader study exploring the impacts of climate change on forests, Voggesser et al. (2013) mentions that many tribal communities are concerned about how climate change will impact their relationship with culturally-significant species and ecosystems, and their traditional knowledge on how to adapt to changes. Oak-dominated ecosystems in North America are particularly vulnerable to increasingly dryer and warmer conditions associated with climate change. ...
... Oak-dominated ecosystems in North America are particularly vulnerable to increasingly dryer and warmer conditions associated with climate change. The declining resilience of oak trees means less acorns are available for tribal food consumption (Voggesser et al., 2013). For Wabanaki peoples, black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is considered to be a cultural keystone species due to its historical role in basketry tradition and associated origin stories. ...
Article
Anthropogenic climate change is leading to widespread losses around the world. While the focus of research over the last decade has largely been on economic or tangible losses, researchers have begun to shift their focus to understanding the non-economic or intangible dimensions of loss more deeply. Loss of life, biodiversity and social cohesion are some of the losses that are beginning to be explored, along with Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) and cultural heritage. These latter two form the basis of this systematic review of 100 studies to take stock of what we know about climate-driven losses to ILK and cultural heritage, how such losses manifest and how they are overcome, revealing gaps in our knowledge and carving a path for future research.
... Indigenous peoples have been able to subsist in specific areas for extended periods based on their harmonious relationship with nature (Turner et al. 2000;Lynn et al. 2013;Voggesser et al. 2013). Despite being relegated within their own countries, some groups have coped to remain linguistically and culturally different and thus continue to define themselves in relation to their natural surroundings (Turner et al. 2000). ...
... However, the changing climate is threatening natural indicators (e.g. biodiversity, land features, and culturally important species) on which Indigenous peoples' traditional ecological knowledge and spirituality are grounded (Egri 1997;Montalba et al. 2005;Voggesser et al. 2013). Under threat from present and future climate change, spirituality remains an important part of Indigenous cultures (Egri 1997;Makondo and Thomas 2018). ...
Chapter
Undoubtedly, the Chilean forestry sector is one of the most successful in the world; however, its exponential development is based on Mapuche ancestral territories. Access to these territories was obtained through titles assigned during the Chilean military dictatorship (1973–1989). As a result, the native forest associated with these lands has been subjected to selective harvests, forest fires, and the introduction of industrial timber plantations (ITPs). This has not only caused severe impacts on the environment and the communities that depend on it, but it has also determined the spiritual disconnection between people and nature, mainly, due to the loss of sacred spaces that have been destroyed, determining the disappearance of the spirits or ngen, protectors of those spaces. Thus, this research discusses the role of Mapuche spirituality in the recuperation processes of lands, sacred spaces, and forest ecosystems, and thus its contribution to climate change mitigation. Keywords Mapuche spirituality; Climate change; Reciprocal restoration; Sacred places; Ixofillmogen; Az mapu; Industrial timber plantations
... Climate change impacts including increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, higher seasonal temperatures, changes in ecosystem processes, and habitat degradation threaten tribal access to culturally significant resources . Among likely effects are altered composition and distribution of plant, animal, and fungi species in forests that tribes rely on for culture, economy, traditional foods, nutrition, and health Voggesser et al. 2013), with the potential for loss of associated Indigenous Knowledge (IK) (Swinomish 2010;Turner and Clifton 2009). IK and indigenous narrative traditions support community understandings of relationships among species, ecosystems, and ecological processes, and can play a vital role in climate change assessment and adaptation efforts that bridge human and environmental systems (Hardison and Williams 2013;Voggesser et al. 2013;Whyte 2013). ...
... Among likely effects are altered composition and distribution of plant, animal, and fungi species in forests that tribes rely on for culture, economy, traditional foods, nutrition, and health Voggesser et al. 2013), with the potential for loss of associated Indigenous Knowledge (IK) (Swinomish 2010;Turner and Clifton 2009). IK and indigenous narrative traditions support community understandings of relationships among species, ecosystems, and ecological processes, and can play a vital role in climate change assessment and adaptation efforts that bridge human and environmental systems (Hardison and Williams 2013;Voggesser et al. 2013;Whyte 2013). IK plays an important role for many tribes in understanding how climate change impacts and adaptive strategies are affecting culturally important species. ...
Article
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We collected data through three focus groups conducted with Wabanaki citizens (members of the Penobscot Nation, Passamaquoddy Tribe, Maliseet, and Micmac Nations) residing in Maine, USA, and the Canadian Maritime region. These sessions used a collective storytelling and discussion approach consistent with Wabanaki cultural practices to explore environmental knowledge, information on environmental change, and its impact on traditional lifeways (TLW) over time. Wild foods such as fiddleheads (Matteucia strutiopteris (L.) Tod.), berries such as blackberries (Rubus allegheniensis & R. Canadensis) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananasa), deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), fish, and seafood provide not only physical nourishment, but also cultural connections through storytelling, harvesting, processing, and sharing of resources. It is this strong and multifaceted dependence on natural resources and systems that makes Wabanaki citizens particularly “vulnerable” to climate change, but also potentially resilient because of stories and other cultural traditions that help process and understand environmental change. We suggest storytelling continues to remain relevant as a way to connect the generations and for continued adaptation to ecosystem change and sustaining traditions.
... Moreover, our approach to assessing sensitivity and adaptive capacity was limited by the state of the science; we based our indexes on existing frameworks, which could be improved. For example, although our sensitivity index accounted for minority populations, Native American tribes are particularly sensitive to climate-related changes because of their strong ties to place-specific food sources and cultural sites and lack of options for migration (Lynn and Donoghue 2011;Voggesser et al. 2013). Incorporating a variable indicating the proportion of the population that identifies as Native American could improve the appropriateness of the index for the local context. ...
... Indexes of adaptive capacity could be improved with new variables. For example, land tenure could serve as an indicator of self-determination and agency; ratios of federal to state and private land could indicate capacity of counties to make choices regarding management strategies and land uses in anticipation of or response to climate change; and the extent of reservation land could indicate the challenges tribes would face relocating to less exposed areas (Lynn and Donoghue 2011;Voggesser et al. 2013). Mixed method research in communities identified as having relatively high and low vulnerability could reveal additional variables to incorporate in indicator-based assessments for specific geographic areas. ...
Article
Human communities in forested areas that are expected to experience climate-related changes have received little attention in the scholarly literature on vulnerability assessment. Many communities rely on forest ecosystems to support their social and economic livelihoods. Climate change could alter these ecosystems. We developed a framework that measures social vulnerability to slow-onset climate-related changes in forest ecosystems. We focused on temperate forests because this biome is expected to experience dramatic change in the coming years, with adverse effects for humans. We advance climate change vulnerability science by making improvements to measures of exposure and sensitivity and by incorporating a measure of adaptive capacity. We improved on other methods of assessing exposure by incorporating climate change model projections and thus a temporal perspective. We improved on other methods of assessing sensitivity by incorporating a variable representing interdependency between human populations and forests. We incorporated a measure of adaptive capacity to account for ways socioeconomic conditions might mitigate exposure and sensitivity. Our geographic focus was the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. We found that fifteen of the region's seventy-five counties were highly vulnerable to climate-related changes due to some combination of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Nine counties were highly vulnerable because they ranked very high in terms of exposure and sensitivity and very low in terms of adaptive capacity. The framework we developed could be useful for investigations of vulnerability to climate change in other forested contexts and in other ecological contexts where slow-onset changes might be expected under future climate conditions.
... Hawai'i to Eastern tribal marine environments (Voggesser et al. 2013;Bennett et al. 2014;Mason et al. 2012;Norgaard 2014;McNeeley 2012). Much of this research also highlights the contributions of Indigenous peoples' knowledges and lifeways for attending to climatic destabilization, and suggest actions moving forward. ...
... Work has focused on human rights issues around displacement from sea-level rise (Maldonado et al. 2013;Bronen 2009). Studies also document impacts to food, fire practices, and forests among Indigenous peoples from Interior Alaska to the Pacific Northwest, Hawai'i to Eastern tribal marine environments (Voggesser et al. 2013;Bennett et al. 2014;Mason et al. 2012;Norgaard 2014;McNeeley 2012). Much of this research also highlights the contributions of Indigenous peoples' knowledges and lifeways for attending to climatic destabilization, and suggest actions moving forward. ...
Thesis
Indigenous peoples concerned about climate change have sought collaborative partnerships to address disproportionate impacts, and support their adaptations to environmental change. One emerging approach involves collaborative networks formed directly with climate scientists. Collaborations are often assumed to bring benefits, yet they also carry challenges and risks. There is a need to better understand how these environmental networks address issues of concern to Indigenous peoples. Employing a framework from Indigenous environmental justice studies and a mixed-methods social network approach, this dissertation analyzes dynamics of collaboration in US climate change boundary organizations along three lines of inquiry. The first paper assesses not only knowledge transfers frequently found in climate change networks, but also integrated decision-making, policy, and place-based climate adaptation partnerships in a national scale case study organization formed specifically to bring together Indigenous peoples and climate scientists. Through measurements of relational ties and network structures, results indicate the network supported climate knowledge transfers. Types of collaboration well attuned to transfers of power such as joint decision-making and advocacy were minimally present. Though critical to strengthen Indigenous peoples’ climate change capabilities, place-based climate adaptation partnerships between participants in the network were scarce. The second paper asks: how do central actors in the cross-cultural organization represent intersections of race, ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, and age? Climate change collaborations run the risk of reproducing some forms of inequality while challenging others due to interconnections between colonialism, racism, and patriarchy. This study analyzes central actors based on relational ties between participants and organizational leadership. In both cases, Indigenous women and youth were underrepresented in central roles. White women and elder Indigenous men held most central positions. However, Indigenous women consistently served as bridges between otherwise unconnected participants, and provided less visible labor to support the network. These did not translate to decision-making roles. The third paper investigates how bringing together Indigenous peoples’ and climate scientists’ knowledges and practices carry benefits and risks for Indigenous collectives. It analyzes participant perspectives in the case study network, and organizational practices of eight climate change boundary organizations. A majority of collaboration members identified simultaneous high benefits and high risks to Indigenous peoples when sharing their knowledges with climate scientists. A noted minority was less convinced of the benefits involved. This paper reveals a wide range of approaches by boundary organizations at the intersection of multiple knowledge and practice systems. It found greater benefits and reduced risks when Indigenous peoples were among core governance positions in collaborative endeavors. Overall, this research demonstrates how climate change boundary organizations variously resisted and reproduced socio-ecological injustices. The dissertation contributes to debates about how to assess environmental collaborations, and broadens conceptions that bring together climate science, climate justice, and adaptation to environmental change. Key recommendations call for climate change boundary organizations to deepen advocacy and place-based climate adaptation actions that benefit Indigenous peoples, and to ensure Indigenous participants—including diverse members such as Indigenous women and youth—are among central governance roles.
... 19,141 Adaptation actions are also being implemented by Native American tribes and communities, with an emphasis on culturally significant forest resources, such as flora and fauna, which in turn affect sovereignty and economic sustainability. 142 Adaptation is especially urgent for Native American communities affiliated with reservations where place-based traditional medicine, ceremonial practices, and methods of gathering and hunting for food contribute to cultural identity (Ch. 15: Tribes). ...
... 28: Adaptation) 19,140,175 and Native American tribes. 142 Because of the limited number of examples in the scientific literature, there is medium confidence that adaptation planning is progressing to the application stage, where forest management plans are altered and on-the-ground management activities are implemented to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, there is high confidence that future progress in climate change adaptation planning and implementation will depend on social, organizational, and economic conditions. ...
... Fort McKay in Yukon is seeing considerable changes in food availability due to climate change [16]. Widespread changes in habitats, migration patterns, and distribution of species have also been noted [17][18][19]. Further, pathogens and diseases in wildlife are an increasing threat in the warming Arctic [20][21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... However, as these observations were consistently raised by Kugluktuk participants, and since similar topics and questions were covered in Cambridge Bay, we believe there is cause to believe that Kugluktuk residents are facing a higher burden of climate-related food insecurity than those in Cambridge Bay. These results concur with other studies which have shown a decrease or change in the availability of wildlife in the Arctic [11,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]; the impacts on subsistence practices due to climatic change [4,5,33] and the adverse impacts to subsistence and country foods from climate change, and developmental pressures [82]. ...
Article
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Climate change driven food insecurity has emerged as a topic of special concern in the Canadian Arctic. Inuit communities in this region rely heavily on subsistence; however, access to traditional food sources may have been compromised due to climate change. Drawing from a total of 25 interviews among Inuit elders and experienced hunters from Cambridge Bay and Kugluktuk in Nunavut, Canada, this research examines how climate change is impacting food sovereignty and health. Our results show that reports of food insecurity were more pronounced in Kugluktuk than Cambridge Bay. Participants in Kugluktuk consistently noted declining availability of preferred fish and game species (e.g., caribou, Arctic char), a decline in participation of sharing networks, and overall increased difficulty accessing traditional foods. Respondents in both communities presented a consistent picture of climate change compounding existing socio-economic (e.g., poverty, disconnect between elders and youth) and health stressors affecting multiple aspects of food sovereignty. This article presents a situated understanding of how climate change as well as other sociocultural factors are eroding food sovereignty at the community-scale in the Arctic. We argue that a communal focus is required to address resilience and adaptation at the local level through programs that protect the local cultural knowledge, traditional ways of life, and indigenous sovereignty to reduce the severities of food insecurity in the Arctic stemming from climate change.
... Fire regimes like frequency, intensity, size, pattern, season, and severity are important factors in many ecosystems [2,3]. Climate change of any region adversely affects the cultural, ecological and socioeconomic condition of inhabitant tribal community [4] due to increase in intensity and frequency of forest fires. High temperatures and drought lead to extreme changes in the ecosystem which ultimately leads to forest habitat degradation. ...
Article
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Global warming caused an increase of forest fire events worldwide causing widespread forest degradation. Geospatial techniques aid in analysing climatic parameters to examine their relationship with forest fire. The research analyses time series forest fire events during 2001–2017 to deduce forest fire hotspots in PTR. MODIS forest fire spots was converted into points and hotspot analysis tool was used to map hotspot. The forest fire incidences were analysed with reference to climatic parameters viz. precipitation, solar radiation (SR), mean temperature and relative humidity (RH). The average RH was highest in May (0.69) and lowest in March (0.18), whereas high temperature with low RH was observed till the end of April. The SR was highest in April (27.24 MJ/m²) whereas lowest in May (15.68 MJ/m²). Satellite based land surface temperature (LST) was compared with fire spot and found that area having high temperature lies under high forest fire zone. The highest LST observed was 49.52 °C whereas the lowest was 29.40 °C. The study revealed that most forest fires occurred during March–April and total forest fire events was 1212. For accuracy assessment an analysis between fire pixels and post fire data from Landsat was shown, which showed that same areas were under forest fires during 2001–2017.
... Revising conservation strategies in the context of dynamic environmental settings invites consideration of cultural expressions in the management of plant and animal resources (Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2019). In some cases, comanaging culturally important natural resources with AIAN could improve conservation practices and sustainable resource management (Alexander et al., 2011;Lake & Long, 2014;Norgaard, 2005;Norton-Smith et al., 2016;Verschuuren, 2006;Voggesser, Lynn, Daigle, Lake, & Ranco, 2013) or introduce innovative management approaches for culturally significant species (Berkes, 2009;Donatuto et al., 2014;Dudley, Higgins-Zogib, & Mansourian, 2009). Furthermore, understanding how resource management decisions may impact cultural expressions could uncover more holistic adaptation options that benefit not only AIAN, but also all of society. ...
Article
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Cultural expressions of American Indian and Alaska Natives reflect the relationship between American Indian and Alaska Natives and the plant and animal species present in an area. Different forces that modify that relationship and influence those expressions can potentially shape American Indian and Alaska Natives cultural heritage and even compromise their cultural identity. Herein, we propose seven modalities to illustrate how American Indian and Alaska Natives cultural expressions may respond to changes in environmental settings that alter the relationship between plant and animal assemblages, and Native peoples. Each modality provides insight into the vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity of American Indian and Alaska Natives cultural expressions to changes in environmental settings. Future research may delve deeper into these modalities and help identify appropriate methods for managing culturally important resources. More culturally sensitive management approaches may strengthen conservation practices and safeguard the cultural legacy of indigenous groups.
... Desde os tempos pré-históricos as plantas têm sido utilizadas como recursos alimentícios, entretanto, além da finalidade alimentícia, os vegetais podem ser úteis na combustão, construção civil e farmacologia. A utilização das plantas na alimentação é representativa como alternativa de subsistência para comunidades rurais, além de contribuir com as economias desde a escala local até a escala global (NASCIMENTO et al., 2013;VOGGESSER et al., 2013). ...
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Lifestyle and globalization have the traction of the local cultural reference, as the implication, various agricultural work practices, just as cultures before the senses have fallen into oblivion. Unconventional Food Plants (UFPs) are sources that develop in natural environments without the need of fertilizer and pesticide applications or opening of new areas. The consumption of vegetables is an important strategy of food diversification and of stimulating the maintenance of preservation areas. As a result, the present study aimed to evaluate the consumption, publicity and urban culture of the Municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, on Unconventional Food Plants, through visits to the 7 free fairs, one per region of the city, where about 220 semi-structured interviews were held, with people interacting through traffic through shopping centers. The values found were expressed as Cadernos de Agroecologia –ISSN 2236-7934 –V. 13, N. 2, Dez. 20182percentage, in addition, the data were discussed qualitatively. The present study allowed a large portion of the rural population to be unaware of "Unconventional Food Plants " or "UFPs ", although part of a number of denominations have already consumed some UFPs. In addition, a Taioba and Cará-do-ar stand out as the vegetables are no longer consumed or cited by the interviewees. As the pots are hardly popular, the vegetables grow small farmers.
... A warming climate is projected to hasten the spread of invasive species within riparian ecosystems. 134,137,138,139 Indigenous populations who harvest and hold sacred flora and fauna along rivers within the semiarid region of south central Montana are particularly vulnerable. 140 The Apsaalooké, or Crow, people regularly harvest riparian plant species for food, ritual, and ceremonial uses. ...
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In the Northern Great Plains, the timing and quantity of both precipitation and runoff have important consequences for water supplies, agricultural activities, and energy production. Overall, climate projections suggest that the number of heavy precipitation events (events with greater than 1 inch per day of rainfall) is projected to increase. Moving forward, the magnitude of year-to-year variability overshadows the small projected average decrease in streamflow. Changes in extreme events are likely to overwhelm average changes in both the eastern and western regions of the Northern Great Plains. Major flooding across the basin in 2011 was followed by severe drought in 2012, representing new and unprecedented variability that is likely to become more common in a warmer world. The Northern Great Plains region plays a critical role in national food security. Among other anticipated changes, projected warmer and generally wetter conditions with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to increase the abundance and competitive ability of weeds and invasive species, increase livestock production and efficiency of production, and result in longer growing seasons at mid- and high latitudes. Net primary productivity, including crop yields and forage production, is also likely to increase, although an increasing number of extreme temperature events during critical pollination and grain fill periods is likely to reduce crop yields. Ecosystems across the Northern Great Plains provide recreational opportunities and other valuable goods and services that are ingrained in the region’s cultures. Higher temperatures, reduced snow cover, and more variable precipitation will make it increasingly challenging to manage the region’s valuable wetlands, rivers, and snow-dependent ecosystems. In the mountains of western Wyoming and western Montana, the fraction of total water in precipitation that falls as snow is expected to decline by 25% to 40% by 2100 under a higher scenario (RCP8.5), which would negatively affect the region’s winter recreation industry. At lower-elevation areas of the Northern Great Plains, climate-induced land-use changes in agriculture can have cascading effects on closely entwined natural ecosystems, such as wetlands, and the diverse species and recreational opportunities they support. Energy resources in the Northern Great Plains include abundant crude oil, natural gas, coal, wind, and stored water, and to a lesser extent, corn-based ethanol, solar energy, and uranium. The infrastructure associated with the extraction, distribution, and energy produced from these resources is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Railroads and pipelines are vulnerable to damage or disruption from increasing heavy precipitation events and associated flooding and erosion. Declining water availability in the summer would likely increase costs for oil production operations, which require freshwater resources. These cost increases will either lead to lower production or be passed on to consumers. Finally, higher maximum temperatures, longer and more severe heat waves, and higher overnight lows are expected to increase electricity demand for cooling in the summer, further stressing the power grid. Indigenous peoples in the region are observing changes to climate, many of which are impacting livelihoods as well as traditional subsistence and wild foods, wildlife, plants and water for ceremonies, medicines, and health and well-being. Because some tribes and Indigenous peoples are among those in the region with the highest rates of poverty and unemployment, and because many are still directly reliant on natural resources, they are among the most at risk to climate change (e.g., Gamble et al. 2016, Cozzetto et al. 2013, Espey et al. 2014, Wong et al. 2014, Kornfeld 2016, Paul and Caplins 2016, Maynard 2014, USGCRP 2017).
... Fire regimes like frequency, intensity, size, pattern, season, and severity are important factors in many ecosystems [2,3]. Climate change of any region adversely affects the cultural, ecological and socioeconomic condition of inhabitant tribal community [4] due to increase in intensity and frequency of forest fires. High temperatures and drought lead to extreme changes in the ecosystem which ultimately leads to forest habitat degradation. ...
Research
Global warming caused an increase of forest fireevents worldwide causing widespread forest degradation.Geospatial techniques aid in analysing climatic parametersto examine their relationship with forest fire. The researchanalyses time series forest fire events during 2001–2017 todeduce forest fire hotspots in PTR. MODIS forest fire spotswas converted into points and hotspot analysis tool wasused to map hotspot. The forest fire incidences wereanalysed with reference to climatic parameters viz. pre-cipitation, solar radiation (SR), mean temperature andrelative humidity (RH). The average RH was highest inMay (0.69) and lowest in March (0.18), whereas hightemperature with low RH was observed till the end ofApril. The SR was highest in April (27.24 MJ/m2) whereaslowest in May (15.68 MJ/m2). Satellite based land surfacetemperature (LST ) was compared with fire spot and foundthat area having high temperature lies under high forest firezone. The highest LST observed was 49.52 °C whereas thelowest was 29.40 °C. The study revealed that most forestfires occurred during March–April and total forest fireevents was 1212. For accuracy assessment an analysisbetween fire pixels and post fire data from Landsat wasshown, which showed that same areas were under forestfires during 2001–2017.
... However, only 3% percent of fire-scarred tree chronologies in Arizona and New Mexico rep- resent tribal forests (our calculation from studies reported in Falk et al., 2011), although tribal forests and woodlands are about 4.7 mil- lion ha, which is half of the size of the area that the US Forest Service manages in the southwest (Mason, 2014). The lack of attention to fire regimes on Native American lands is of particular concern be- cause Native citizens are often closely reliant on natural resources and thus relatively vulnerable to catastrophic change (Voggesser, Lynn, Daigle, Lake, & Rance, 2013). Also, understanding changes in Indigenous management practices and their impacts can help us better manage resilient forests in fire-prone environments under changing climates, as suggested by application of traditional fire knowledge for ecological restoration at a variety of sites around the world (Huffman, 2013). ...
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Fire has played an important role in the evolutionary environment of global ecosystems, and Indigenous peoples have long managed natural resources in these fire‐prone environments. We worked with the Navajo Nation Forestry Department to evaluate the historical role of fire on a 50 km² landscape bisected by a natural mountain pass. We used fifty 5‐ha circular plots to collect proxy fire history data on fire‐scarred trees, stumps, logs, and snags in a coniferous forest centered on a key mountain pass. The fire history data were categorized into three groups: All (all 50 plots), Corridor (25 plots closest to Buffalo Pass drainage), and Outer (remaining 25 plots, farther from pass). We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of fire recurrence and fire‐climate relationships. The landscape experienced frequent fires from 1644, the earliest fire date with sufficient sample depth, to 1920, after which fire occurrence was interrupted. The mean fire interval (MFI) for fire dates scarring 10% or more of the samples was 6.25 years; there were 13 large‐scale fires identified with the 25% filter with an MFI of 22.6 years. Fire regimes varied over the landscape, with an early reduction in fire occurrence after 1829, likely associated with pastoralism, in the outer uplands away from the pass. In contrast, the pass corridor had continuing fire occurrence until the early 20th century.Synthesis. Fires were synchronized with large‐scale top‐down climatic oscillations (drought and La Niña), but the spatially explicit landscape sampling design allowed us to detect bottom‐up factors of topography, livestock grazing, and human movement patterns that interacted in complex ways to influence the fire regime at fine scales. Since the early 20th century, however, fires have been completely excluded. Fuel accumulation in the absence of fire and warming climate present challenges for future management.
... Willette, Norgaard, and Reed (2016) note that environmentally induced declines in the availability of wild food can lead to reduced family interaction time; they document the reduced transmission of cultural values and knowledge that result for a native Karuk tribe in Southern Oregon. The personal and cultural identity for indigenous communities, directly tied to the land through history as well as lived experience, may be at risk (Cochran et al., 2013;Durkalec, Furgal, Skinner, & Sheldon, 2015;Voggesser, Lynn, Daigle, Lake, & Ranco, 2013). As Chief Albert 18 ...
... Predicting climate and weather using animals has been part of numerous human cultures since time immemorial, and these relationships have persisted through generations until today. The number of examples of animal behavior useful to human communities for predicting the weather is vast (Krupnik and Jolly, 2002;Voggesser et al., 2013). Indeed, numerous practical activities (including farming and hunting-gathering) are, to some extent, determined and circumscribed by meteorological events. ...
... 403). We thus bring arts-base, new media, storytelling (Ferrel, 2013;Quiring, unpublished manuscript), and spiritual perspectives (Voggesser et al., 2013) into the fold of our sustainability science collaborations. As part of this commitment, we have collaborated with the Maine Public Broadcasting Network (MPBN) to produce an award winning documentary series known as Sustainable Maine (Video 1); developed a series of science communication training workshops informed by arts and humanities disciplines; and created innovative storytelling techniques that help build relationships between researchers and within communities to promote communication with diverse audiences, and we describe these efforts briefly here. ...
... WK and TK can be integrated during planning to address climate change and other challenges. For example, in the Pacific Northwest and California, many tribes place higher value on culturally significant trees (e.g., pines and oaks) that are fire-adapted and drought-tolerant, promoting these species in landscape restoration strategies (see Voggesser et al. 2013). Fire and fuels management decisions that favor fire-adapted species can increase the resilience of valued habitats and associated resources to fires. ...
Article
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North American tribes have traditional knowledge about fire effects on ecosystems, habitats, and resources. For millennia, tribes have used fire to promote valued resources. Sharing our collective understanding of fire, derived from traditional and western knowledge systems, can benefit landscapes and people. We organized two workshops to investigate how traditional and western knowledge can be used to enhance wildland fire and fuels management and research. We engaged tribal members, managers, and researchers to formulate solutions regarding the main topics identified as important to tribal and other land managers: cross-jurisdictional work, fuels reduction strategies, and wildland fire management and research involving traditional knowledge. A key conclusion from the workshops is that successful management of wildland fire and fuels requires collaborative partnerships that share traditional and western fire knowledge through culturally sensitive consultation, coordination, and communication for building trust. We present a framework for developing these partnerships based on workshop discussions.
... The erosion of culture, language, participation in traditional economies, and degradation of land and water threaten the continuity of storytelling traditions in Indigenous communities (Heritage Canada, 2005;Jackson, 2018). Changes to ecosystems threaten the resilience, and biodiversity of regions, from which stories, totems, icons, characters, and locations are based (Pfeiffer & Voeks, 2008;Voggesser et al., 2013). Social processes including cultural appropriation and hybridization threaten the values and 'sacredness' of stories through tensions between story keepers and usurpers (Taylor, 1997;Owen, 2008). ...
Article
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Provision of safe water on reserves is an ongoing problem in Canada that can be addressed by mobilizing water knowledge across diverse platforms to a variety of audiences. A participatory artistic animation video on the lived experiences of Elderswith water in Yellow Quill First Nation, Treaty Four territory, was created to mobilize knowledge beyond conventional peer-review channels. Research findings from interviews with 22 Elders were translated through a collaborative process into a video with a storytelling format that harmonized narratives, visual arts, music, and meaningful symbols. Three themes emerged which centered on the spirituality of water, the survival need for water, and standoffs in water management. The translation process, engagement and video output were evaluated using an autoethnographic approach with two members of the research team. We demonstrate how the collaborative research process and co-created video enhance community-based participatory knowledge translation and sharing. We also express how the video augments First Nations community ownership, control, access and possession (OCAP) of research information that aligns with their storytelling traditions and does so in a youth-friendly, e-compatible form. Through the evaluative process we share lessons learned about the value and effectiveness of the video as a tool for fostering partnerships, and reconciliation. The benefits and positive impacts of the video for the Yellow Quill community and for community members are discussed.
... Including information about the potential social, demographic, and economic disruptions from climate change in addition to physical health impacts broadens the consideration of well-being and represents a wider range of values that might motivate support for mitigation measures and personal behavioral changes (Bain et al. 2012, McMichael et al. 2006. Additionally, climate change is likely to affect whole groups or sectors of minority or ethnic groups differently, based on the dependence of each cultural group's traditions and livelihoods on valued resources affected by climate in different ways (e.g., for American Indians, see Voggesser et al. 2013). Impacts of climate change on rural communities are of pressing concern and currently under examination by a group of agency researchers and collaborators across the United States (see fig. 1). ...
... In the face of landscape-scale disturbances such as fire, as well as global changes such as land-use conversion and climate change, indigenous people around the world are becoming more determined to protect and reassert their right to co-manage valued resources outside their current jurisdictional boundaries (Green and Raygorodetsky 2010;Voggesser et al. 2013). Other local people who live in the communities that border the CNF have economies that are heavily influenced by fire and its influence on hunting, logging, recreation, and commercial and private mushroom and berry harvest. ...
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Background Evaluating fuel treatment effectiveness is challenging when managing a landscape for diverse ecological, social, and economic values. We used a Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) to understand Confederated Colville Tribal (CCT) member views regarding the location and effectiveness of fuel treatments within their ancestral territory within the Colville National Forest (CNF) boundary. The 2015 North Star Fire burned 88 221 ha (218 000 acres) of the CCT ancestral territory. Results We sampled thirty plot pairs that were treated or untreated prior to being burned by the North Star Fire and again one growing season post fire. Species diversity was significantly increased by wildfire in both treated and untreated plots. Species richness was significantly increased in the plots that were treated, and there was no significant change in species richness from wildfire within the untreated plots. The percent canopy cover of two of the six culturally important plants ( Fragaria spp . L. and Arnica cordifolia Hook.) significantly increased one growing season post wildfire within treated plots and one ( Arctostaphylos uva-ursi [L.] Spreng.) significantly decreased in the treated plots post wildfire. These post-fire monitoring results were consistent with CCT member management recommendations and desired outcomes of understory thinning, prescribed fire, and natural ignition found using PGIS. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that prior thinning and prescribed burning can foster vegetation response to subsequent wildfires, including culturally important plants. Further, integrating Traditional Knowledge (TK) into fuels treatments can improve ongoing adaptive management of national forests that include tribal ancestral lands.
... northern forest region is the original homeland of many Indigenous peoples, including citizens of federally and state-recognized Tribal Nations in the United States, First Nations and the M etis Nation in Canada, and Indigenous communities throughout the region still seeking federal or state recognition. Tribal/First Nations and Indigenous peoples are intertwined with the area's forests in many important and substantial ways ( Voggesser et al. 2013, Mausel et al. 2017. As a result, as discussed above, the winter climate changes we identify with this study and the associated ecological, social, and economic effects also relate directly to Tribal/First Nations and Indigenous peoples. ...
Article
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Winter is an understudied but key period for the socio‐ecological systems of northeastern North American forests. A growing awareness of the importance of the winter season to forest ecosystems and surrounding communities has inspired several decades of research, both across the northern forest and at other mid‐ and high‐latitude ecosystems around the globe. Despite these efforts, we lack a synthetic understanding of how winter climate change may impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes and the social and economic activities they support. Here we take advantage of 100 years of meteorological observations across the northern forest region of the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada to develop a suite of indicators that enable a cross‐cutting understanding of 1) how winter temperatures and snow cover have been changing and 2) how these shifts may impact both ecosystems and surrounding human communities. We show that cold and snow‐covered conditions have generally decreased over the past 100 years. These trends suggest positive outcomes for tree health as related to reduced fine root mortality and nutrient loss associated with winter frost but negative outcomes as related to the northward advancement and proliferation of forest insect pests. In addition to effects on vegetation, reductions in cold temperatures and snow cover are likely to have negative impacts on the ecology of the northern forest through impacts on water, soils, and wildlife. The overall loss of coldness and snow cover may also have negative consequences for logging and forest products, vector‐borne diseases and human health, recreation and tourism, and cultural practices, which together represent important social and economic dimensions for the northern forest region. These findings advance our understanding of how our changing winters may transform the socio‐ecological system of a region that has been defined by the contrasting rhythm of the seasons. Our research also identifies a trajectory of change that informs our expectations for the future as the climate continues to warm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Under climate change projections, water availability, food security, culture, health, and the economies of many Tribal nations are disproportionately at risk (Voggesser et al. 2013;Jantarasami et al. 2018). The degradation of biodiversity would reduce drastically the availability of food and medicinal plants at a time when human health may be at higher risk (Patz et al. 2005). ...
Article
The Mescalero Apache Tribal Lands (MATL) provide a diverse range of ecosystem services, many of which are of fundamental importance for the Mescalero Apache Tribe’s well-being. Managing forests on MATL, especially under climate change, involves prioritizing certain ecosystem services. We used an iterative survey of experts’ opinions to identify those ecosystem services that have (1) high utility - services that the Tribe uses, or could use, and are obtained directly or indirectly from the MATL; (2) irreplaceable - services that cannot be provided by any other natural resource; and (3) high level of threat - services in risk of declining or being lost directly or indirectly by climate change, thus critical for management. Both scientists and practitioners identified water and cultural services as management priorities. Management recommendations to mitigate and adapt to climate change effects include reintroduction of fire in the landscape, assisted migration, creation of age/size mosaics across the landscape and incorporation of green energy. Incorporating human perspectives into natural resource management is a critical component to maintain and adapt social-ecological systems to climate change, especially for Indigenous communities with inherent rights of sovereignty who are deeply connected to natural resources. This study demonstrates how knowledge systems are complementary: diverse perspectives related to values and threats of ecosystems can be incorporated to co-construct ecosystem management decisions.
... They can further provide an opportunity to revitalize and reclaim IKs regarding land, medicines, and foods, as more communities may provide ongoing feedback to build and validate the data. For example, knowledge of Indigenous herbal medicines and their evolution is related to an Indigenous group's environment or place, which includes how climate change has impacted these medicines (Lynn 2013). This invaluable information could be shared, for example, with Indigenous persons who live in a region differing from their tribal homelands through an online IK repository. ...
Article
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Indigenous knowledge and wisdom continue to guide food and land practices, which may be key to lowering high rates of diabetes and obesity among Indigenous communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Indigenous, ancestral, and wise practices around food and land can best be reclaimed, revitalized, and reinvented through the use of an online digital platform. Key informant interviews and focus groups were conducted in order to identify digital data needs for food and land practices. Participants included Indigenous key informants, ranging from elders to farmers. Key questions included: (1) How could an online platform be deemed suitable for Indigenous communities to catalogue food wisdom? (2) What types of information would be useful to classify? (3) What other related needs exist? Researchers analyzed field notes, identified themes, and used a consensual qualitative research approach. Three themes were found, including a need for the appropriate use of Indigenous knowledges and sharing such online, a need for community control of Indigenous knowledges, and a need and desire to share wise practices with others online. An online Food Wisdom Repository that contributes to the health and wellbeing of Indigenous peoples through cultural continuity appears appropriate if it follows the outlined needs.
... A utilização das plantas com finalidade alimentícia representa alternativa de subsistência para comunidades rurais e, podem contribuir com a economia local e regional (2) . A utilização de plantas alimentícias, em particular as Plantas Alimentícias não Convencionais (PANC), é parte da cultura, identidade e práticas agrícolas em muitas regiões do planeta (3) . ...
... Quase todos (93,1%) conheciam que, da perspectiva do umbuzeiro, o xilopódio (tubérculos ou "batata" da raiz) tem a função de armazenar água e açúcares, que o auxilia a atravessar o período seco na Caatinga (Figura 5). O consumo de plantas nativas é parte integrante da cultura e identidade do povo em várias regiões do mundo (VOGGESSER et al., 2013). Paodjuenas e colaboradores (2019) mostram que a população do semiárido brasileiro usa os xilopódios do umbuzeiro de diferentes formas, como na fabricação de bolo, cocada, rapadura, doces e até mesmo in natura. ...
Article
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Resumo: Este estudo de caso avalia os conhecimentos ecológicos da vegetação da Caatinga de viveiristas e estudantes através de uma oficina de produção de mudas na área de influência do Projeto de Integração do São Francisco. A análise quanti-qualitativa permitiu verificar que, apesar de características diversificadas entre os sujeitos, eles conhecem algumas adaptações das plantas nativas, porém, há uma confusão conceitual entre espécie endêmica e exótica, principalmente para parte dos estudantes que classificaram uma espécie exótica (Prosopis juliflora) como nativa. A oficina contribuiu ao saber ecológico e florístico dos sujeitos. Os resultados indicam temas relevantes para constar em práticas de ensino formal e não-formal. Palavras-chave: Produtores de Mudas; Capacitação; Formação; Rede de Sementes do PISF; Educação Ambiental. Abstract: This case study evaluates the ecological knowledge of the Caatinga vegetation of nurserymen and students through a sapling production workshop in the influence area of the São Francisco Integration Project (PISF).The quanti-qualitative analysis showed that, although 1) the participants had diverse characteristics, they 2) knew some adaptations of native plants, however, 3) there is a conceptual confusion between endemic and exotic species, particularly to 4) part of the students who classified an exotic species (Prosopis juliflora) as native. The workshop contributed to the participants'; ecological and floristic knowledge. The results indicate relevant topics to be included in formal and non-formal education practices.
... Historic and contemporary Native American lifeways are linked to forest resources in many ways. Provisioning services of forests in terms of water, wildlife, timber, fuelwood, and edible and medicinal plants are relatively more important for Native Americans than the average US population due to a high incidence of rural residence, subsistence agriculture, and poverty (Voggesser et al. 2013). Indigenous nations with significant forest resources, such as the Navajo Nation, several Apache and Pueblo tribes, and the Hualapai tribe, derive an important income source from forest products and experiences such as tourism and guided trophy hunts. ...
Chapter
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Forests in the southwestern USA are well adapted to dry conditions. High lightning incidence, long human habitation, and frequently windy conditions make the Southwest stand out for a high pace of burning. Forests are structured by climatic gradients created by elevation and topography. Low-elevation woodlands experience the driest conditions, but low productivity limits fuels. At the other extreme, high-elevation forests produce abundant fuels but are rarely dry enough to burn. The “sweet spot” in the middle elevations, dominated by pines and other mixed conifers, is characterized by frequently recurring weather conditions suitable for fire, and has a contiguous fuelbed of litter and herbaceous plants. This makes for one of the most frequent fire regimes in the world, comprised primarily of surface fire. Prior to Euro-American settlement, Native Americans used fire and co-existed with the landscape’s fire regime, but colonists brought different perspectives and land uses, excluding fire from most southwestern forests for well over a century. Severe fires are becoming larger, threatening people and structures as well as ecosystem sustainability. Coupled with several recent decades of steadily warming temperatures and much hotter scenarios predicted through the twenty-first century, future southwestern forests are likely to be drastically altered by interacting effects of wildfire, biotic disturbances, and drought.
... As Panc's são definidas como aquelas espécies nativas ou não que crescem espontaneamente nas matas, margens de florestas, áreas cultivadas e terras degradadas, entretanto não são cultivadas de forma comercial (Voggesser et al., 2013;Kinupp e Barros 2008). Trabalhos de pesquisa e extensão podem contribuir no sentido de divulgar o uso destas espécies tão simples de se cultivar e altamente eficientes em usar os recursos disponíveis. ...
Poster
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Palavras-chave: prospecção de plantas alimentícias, recursos alimentares vegetais. Introdução As Panc's são definidas como aquelas espécies nativas ou não que crescem espontaneamente nas matas, margens de florestas, áreas cultivadas e terras degradadas, entretanto não são cultivadas de forma comercial (Voggesser et al., 2013; Kinupp e Barros 2008). Trabalhos de pesquisa e extensão podem contribuir no sentido de divulgar o uso destas espécies tão simples de se cultivar e altamente eficientes em usar os recursos disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo, identificar e coletar espécies e materiais para o desenvolvimento de um banco de sementes, além de divulgar para a comunidade as propriedades nutricionais, formas de uso e cultivo. Metodologia A coleta de dados foi realizada através de registro fotográfico das plantas por meio de caminhadas pelo campus para identificar as espécies de plantas encontradas, entre março e agosto de 2017. Sementes foram coletadas e armazenadas para posterior cultivo e formação de um banco de espécies. Diário de campo com registros de informações relacionadas à pesquisa, durante o levantamento. Figura 1. Ora-pro-nobis, agriãozinho, serralha, capuchinha, begônia, erva-azeda, azedinha e bertalha (Fotos da autora). Análise e Discussão Após o levantamento foi possível identificar 30 espécies de plantas com potencial alimentício, assim como catalogar 16 famílias com seu respectivo número de espécies:
Conference Paper
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Resumo As Plantas Alimentícias não Convencionais (PANCs) possuem um grande potencial nutracêutico. Entretanto essas plantas são pouco conhecidas ou são desprezadas e até combatidas por serem consideradas invasoras. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a aceitabilidade de quatro plantas, azedinha e ora-pro-nobis que são usualmente consumidas como PANCs; buva e botão-de-ouro que são conhecidas como plantas invasoras. A buva e o botão-de-ouro não tiveram boa avaliação no teste de degustação, enquanto azedinha e ora-pro-nobis foram bem aceitas. Todas essas plantas possuem trabalhos científicos mostrando seu potencial nutritivo e medicinal, por isso são recomendadas a sua utilização na alimentação. Palavras-chave: Plantas invasoras, alimentos subutilizados, PANCs. Introdução O aumento do interesse em relação à sustentabilidade alimentar e preocupação com o desenvolvimento sustentável tem despertado um movimento de alimentação com mais qualidade e diversificação, baseados, principalmente, no consumo tradicional de plantas alimentícias não convencionais. PANCs, plantas alimentícias não convencionais, são plantas de desenvolvimento espontâneo, encontradas em jardins, hortas, quintais. Muitas das espécies são conhecidas como infestantes e daninhas ou "mato"-e por isso são pouco utilizadas na alimentação por falta de conhecimento ou costume. Estudos revelam que as PANCs possuem teores de minerais, fibras, antioxidantes e proteínas significativamente maiores quando comparadas às plantas domesticadas. São conhecidas por serem utilizadas na culinária tradicional. O uso de plantas alimentícias não convencionais (PANCs) representam uma importante fonte de biodiversidade alimentar. O fato de elas serem adaptadas ao ambiente onde ocorrem é importante para a manutenção do equilíbrio do mesmo. As plantas ora-pro-nobis, azedinha, botão-de-ouro e buva tem recebido grande atenção por parte dos pesquisadores quanto ao seu potencial medicinal e nutricional. Neste contexto, buscou-se através deste trabalho avaliar o nível de aceitação alimentício dessas Plantas Alimentícias não Convencionais (PANCs) encontradas no IFMS Campus Ponta Porã.
Article
Purpose In this paper, a call to the library and information science community to support documentation and conservation of cultural and biocultural heritage has been presented Design/methodology/approach Based in existing Literature, this proposal is generative and descriptive—rather than prescriptive—regarding precisely how libraries should collaborate to employ technical and ethical best practices to provide access to vital data, research and cultural narratives relating to climate. Findings COVID-19 and climate destruction signal urgent global challenges. Library best practices are positioned to respond to climate change. Literature indicates how libraries preserve, share and cross-link cultural and scientific knowledge. With wildfires, drought, flooding and other extreme or slow-onset weather events presenting dangers, it is imperative that libraries take joint action toward facilitating sustainable and open access to relevant information. Practical implications An initiative could create an easily-accessible, open, linked, curated, secure and stakeholder-respectful database for global biocultural heritage—documenting traditional knowledge, local knowledge and climate adaptation traditions. Social implications Ongoing stakeholder involvement from the outset should acknowledge preferences regarding whether or how much to share information. Ethical elements must be embedded from concept to granular access and metadata elements. Originality/value Rooted in the best practices and service orientation of library science, the proposal envisions a sustained response to a common global challenge. Stewardship would also broadly assist the global community by preserving and providing streamlined access to information of instrumental value to addressing climate change.
Article
Ecological transformation creates many challenges for public natural resource management and requires managers to grapple with new relationships to change and new ways to manage it. In the context of unfamiliar trajectories of ecological change, a manager can resist, accept, or direct change, choices that make up the resist-accept-direct (RAD) framework. In this article, we provide a conceptual framework for how to think about this new decision space that managers must navigate. We identify internal factors (mental models) and external factors (social feasibility, institutional context, and scientific uncertainty) that shape management decisions. We then apply this conceptual framework to the RAD strategies (resist, accept, direct) to illuminate how internal and external factors shape those decisions. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how this conceptual framework shapes our understanding of management decisions, especially how these decisions are not just ecological but also social, and the implications for research and management.
Article
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Earth is experiencing widespread ecological transformation in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems that is attributable to directional environmental changes, especially intensifying climate change. To better steward ecosystems facing unprecedented and lasting change, a new management paradigm is forming, supported by a decision-oriented framework that presents three distinct management choices: resist, accept, or direct the ecological trajectory. To make these choices strategically, managers seek to understand the nature of the transformation that could occur if change is accepted while identifying opportunities to intervene to resist or direct change. In this article, we seek to inspire a research agenda for transformation science that is focused on ecological and social science and based on five central questions that align with the resist–accept–direct (RAD) framework. Development of transformation science is needed to apply the RAD framework and support natural resource management and conservation on our rapidly changing planet.
Article
One serious harm facing communities in the Anthropocene is epistemic loss. This is increasingly recognized as a harm in international policy discourses around adaptation to climate change. Epistemic loss is typically conceived of as the loss of a corpus of knowledge, or less commonly, as the further loss of epistemic methodologies. In what follows, I argue that epistemic loss also can involve the loss of epistemic self-determination, and that this framework can help to usefully examine adaptation policies.
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Climate change will have complex and profound effects on tribal resources, cultures, and economies. Indigenous peoples have lived in the region for thousands of years, developing cultural and social customs that revolve around traditional foods and materials and a spiritual tradition that is inseparable from the environment. Projected changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, hydrology, and ocean chemistry threaten not only the lands, resources, and economies of tribes, but also tribal homelands, ceremonial sites, burial sites, tribal traditions, and cultural practices that have relied on native plant and animal species since time immemorial (Williams and Hardison 2005, 2006, 2007, 2012).
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Fire events are an increasing phenomenon these days due to the climate change. It is responsible for forest degradation and habitat destruction. Changes in ecosystem processes are also noticed. The livelihood of tribal population is also threatened. Geospatial technologies along with Remotely Sensed data have enormous capability to evaluate the various diversified datasets and to examine their relationship. In this analysis, we have utilized the long term fire events at district level for the Orissa state of India and forest fire hotspots were identified. The fire pattern was analyzed with respect to the existing vegetation types, tribal population and topography to understand its association/relationship. Furthermore, it was evaluated with future climate change data for better comprehension of future forest fire scenario. The study reveals that Kandhamal, Raygada and Kalahandi district have highest fire frequency representing around 38% of the total Orissa fire events. The vegetation type "Tropical mixed deciduous and dry deciduous forests" and "Tropical lowland forests, broadleaved, evergreen, <1000m" occupy the geographical area roughly 43% whereas they retain fire percent equivalent to 70%. Approximately 70% of forest fire occurred in the area where tribal population was high to very high. The 60% of forest fire occurred where elevation was greater than 500 meters whereas 48% of fire occurred on moderate slopes. Our observation of future climate change scenario for the year 2030 reflects the increase in summer temperature and irregular rainfall pattern. Therefore, forest fire intensity will be more in future in the state of Orissa whereas it's intensity will be more severe in few of the district such as Kandhamal, Raygada, Kalahandi and Koraput which have significantly high forest fire events in present scenario. The outcomes of the present study would certainly guide the policymakers to prepare more effective plan to protect the forest which is main source of livelihood to the tribal population keeping in mind of future climate change impact for prioritization of various districts of state of Orissa suffering from forest fires.
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— Résumé — Alors même que leur participation aux activités industrielles à l'origine des changements climatiques globaux a été particulièrement limitée (sinon nulle), les peuples autochtones sont particulièrement touchés par le réchauffement climatique. S'ajoutant à cette asymétrie historique, force est de constater que les peuples autochtones sont largement marginalisés dans les négociations internationales sur le climat, bien que les (non-)décisions qui y sont prises les affectent tout particulièrement. Cependant, les négociations climatiques ont récemment pris le chemin de l'intersectionnalité, et progressivement la question autochtone s'installe dans le débat. Cette évolution est due en partie aux stratégies mises en place par les peuples autochtones et d'autres catégories marginalisées. Nous nous proposons d'étudier ces stratégies autochtones en adoptant une approche d'anthropologie politique dynamique. D'abord, les cadres légaux nationaux et internationaux dans lesquels évoluent les peuples autochtones imposent une contrainte à ces stratégies, notamment dans les termes de la reconnaissance et dans les formes d'organisation institutionnelles imposées. Toutefois, nous démontrons que, dans le cas du champ climatique, l'hégémonie du référentiel scientifique semble être l'obstacle majeur au traitement de la question autochtone. Pour promouvoir un référentiel autochtone, les stratégies autochtones tentent de changer les constructions discursives qui correspondent à leur position réelle et symbolique. Ces constructions sont la culture visuelle et l'imagerie visuelle qui leur sont attribuées, tandis que les peuples autochtones tentent de se positionner comme experts grâce aux savoirs écologiques traditionnels. — Abstract — Even though they have not participated in the industrial activity that caused climate change, indigenous peoples constitute a particularly at high risk population. This historical asymmetry is reinforced by the marginalization indigenous peoples are facing in international climate change negotiations. Yet, they are largely concerned by the decisions taken in those forums. Recently though, climate change regulation has taken the path to intersectionality, and indigenous issues have been increasingly debated. This evolution has been partially impelled by political strategies set by indigenous peoples and other marginalized groups. This thesis intends to address indigenous strategies through the perspective of dynamic political anthropology. First, national and international legal contexts in which indigenous peoples are situated limit indigenous strategies, by defining the terms of the recognition and by imposing specific institutional structures. However, we demonstrate that, in climate change regulations, the main obstacle for addressing properly indigenous issues is the scientific paradigm in which decisions are made. To promote an indigenous paradigm, indigenous strategies aim at changing discourses that shape their institutional and symbolic positions. Those discourses represent them as representations and representatives of climate change, while they are positioning themselves as experts detaining traditional ecological knowledge that are both crucial and endangered.
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Although Indigenous peoples’ perspectives and concerns have not always been accommodated in climate change adaptation research and practice, a burgeoning literature is helping to reframe and decolonise climate adaptation in line with Indigenous peoples’ lived experiences. In this review, we bring together climate adaptation, decolonising and intersectional scholarship to chart the progress that has been made in better analysing and responding to climate change in Indigenous contexts. We identify a wealth of literature helping to decolonise climate adaptation scholarship and praxis by attending to colonial and neo-colonial injustices implicated in Indigenous peoples’ climate vulnerability, taking seriously Indigenous peoples’ relational ontologies, and promoting adaptation that draws on Indigenous capacities and aspirations for self-determination and cultural continuity. Despite calls to interrogate heterogenous experiences of climate change within Indigenous communities, the decolonising climate and adaptation scholarship has made limited advances in this area. We examine the small body of research that takes an intersectional approach to climate adaptation and explores how the multiple subjectivities and identities that Indigenous peoples occupy produce unique vulnerabilities, capacities and encounters with adaptation policy. We suggest the field might be expanded by drawing on related studies from Indigenous development, natural resource management, conservation, feminism, health and food sovereignty. Greater engagement with intersectionality works to drive innovation in decolonising climate adaptation scholarship and practice. It can mitigate the risk of maladaptation, avoid entrenchment of inequitable power dynamics, and ensures that even the most marginal groups within Indigenous communities benefit from adaptation policies and programmes.
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This study examines and characterizes the potential impacts of climate change on the lands of the Nisga'a Nation in British Columbia, Canada, and how these impacts might affect traditional forest practices. The study results were integrated with a review of current Nisga'a forest policy. The current forest policy has developed an inflexible approach to forest management that perpetuates a top-down decision-making framework inherited from the past relationship with the provincial government. Building from the experiences of the Nisga'a Nation, it is revealed that inflexible forest policies coupled with climate change impacts could lead the forest ecosystems to ecological thresholds. No approach by itself will be sufficient to meet the challenges these changes will bring to Indigenous peoples and society in general. An integrative approach, where the forest management is undertaken from a resilience point of view, is needed if current conditions are to be improved.
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In the second paragraph of the section '2.3 Meteorological and remote sensing data', the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set used was incorrectly referred to as GIMMS-NDVI version 3G with a 0.084° spatial resolution. This should be corrected to GIMMS-NDVI version G with a 0.07° spatial resolution. The correct reference for this data set is: Tucker C J , Pinzon J E, Brown M E, Slayback D A, Pak E W, Mahoney R, Vermote E F and El Saleous N 2005 An extended AVHRR 8-km NDVI dataset compatible with MODIS and SPOT vegetation NDVI data Int. J. Remote. Sens. 26 4485–98
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This chapter reviews the cultural dynamics as a result of climatic changes in the Northwest Coast of North America. It reviews the paleoclimatic and archaeological records of this region to establish possible causal relationships between them. It suggests that on the Northwest Coast of North America, the middle Holocene was a time of changing climate and culture. The mid-Holocene climate of the Northwest Coast was cooler and wetter than the early Holocene, but warmer and somewhat drier than today. 5800 cal yr BP (5000 14C yr BP) is viewed as a major turning point in the prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Compared to the early Holocene, during the mid-Holocene the number of archaeological sites increased, their average size was larger, and shell middens became common, preserving bone and antler technologies as well as abundant faunal remains. To explain this, the study presents a synthesis of mid-Holocene environmental history based on records of pollen, plant macrofossil, charcoal, limnologic, glacial, and marine sediments. It indicates that the environmental changes during the transition from early Holocene to mid-Holocene and then late Holocene were registered throughout the Northwest Coast, and superimposed on these long-term shifts, were climate variations that took place more locally on annual-to-centennial time scales. Finally, it suggests a collaboration and frequent data sharing between paleoecologists and archaeologists as an obvious first step in approaching the effects of climate change on culture.
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Federally-recognized tribes must adapt to many ecological challenges arising from climate change, from the effects of glacier retreat on the habitats of culturally significant species to how sea leave rise forces human communities to relocate. The governmental and social institutions supporting tribes in adapting to climate change are often constrained by political obstructions, raising concerns about justice. Beyond typical uses of justice, which call attention to violations of formal rights or to considerations about the degree to which some populations may have caused anthropogenic climate change, a justice framework should guide how leaders, scientists and professionals of all heritages and who work with or for federally-recognized tribes understand what actions are morally essential for supporting tribes’ adaptation efforts. This paper motivates a shift to a forward-looking framework of justice. The framework situates justice within the systems of responsibilities that matter to tribes and many others, which range from webs of inter-species relationships to government-to-government partnerships. Justice is achieved when these systems of responsibilities operate in ways that support the continued flourishing of tribal communities.
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As part of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment, an evaluation is being made of the impacts of climate variability and potential future climate change on forests and forestry in the Mid-Atlantic Region. This paper provides a brief overview of the current status of forests in the region, and then focuses on 2 components of this evaluation: (1) modeling of the potential impacts of climate change on tree species' distributions, and (2) a survey of how extreme weather events affect forests and forest land management in the region. The tree distribution modeling indicates that climate change may result in large increases in the amount of forest dominated by oak and pine, and large decreases in maple/beech/birch forest, assuming that trees are able to migrate in pace with climate change. The forest management survey results suggest that the major impacts of severe weather on forest operations currently are related more to extreme precipitation and high wind events than to temperature extremes. The implications of these results for future climate change are discussed.
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American Indian and Alaska Native tribes are uniquely affected by climate change. Indigenous peoples have depended on a wide variety of native fungi, plant and animal species for food, medicine, ceremonies, community and economic health for countless generations. Climate change stands to impact the species and ecosystems that constitute tribal traditional foods that are vital to tribal culture, economy and traditional ways of life. This paper examines the impacts of climate change on tribal traditional foods by providing cultural context for the importance of traditional foods to tribal culture, recognizing that tribal access to traditional food resources is strongly influenced by the legal and regulatory relationship with the federal government, and examining the multi-faceted relationship that tribes have with places, ecological processes and species. Tribal participation in local, regional and national climate change adaption strategies, with a focus on food-based resources, can inform and strengthen the ability of both tribes and other governmental resource managers to address and adapt to climate change impacts.
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American Indian tribes and people have contributed very little to the causes of global warming, yet for geographic, cultural, and demographic reasons, they stand to suffer disproportionately from global warming's negative effects. A recent study, Native Communities and Climate Change, prepared by the Natural Resources Law Center at the University of Colorado Law School, documents that these effects include, among others, threats to traditional hunting and gathering, destruction of tribal villages in Alaska, increased pressure on tribal reserved rights to water in the arid Southwest, and inundation of reservation lands in Florida. The disproportion between tribal contributions to global warming and the negative impacts on tribes qualifies this as an environmental justice issue. As the Native Communities and Climate Change Report suggests, a complex of legal rights, in conjunction with Congress's moral obligation to tribes, provides the foundation and incentive for the federal government to take action to address these impacts. Yet as important as it is to highlight its environmental justice aspects, global warming's spatial and temporal dispersions render it a global and intergenerational collective action problem that is not susceptible to typical environmental justice solutions. Addressing the disparate effects warming will have on tribes and other disadvantaged communities leads us into these potentially tragic features of climate change, and requires us to articulate an ethical framework that would support global efforts to mitigate (i.e. reduce and eventually eliminate) human contributions to global warming, as well as to assist tribal communities in the already inevitable need to adapt to a warming world. Ultimately, solutions, if they are to take seriously environmental justice claims as well as the impacts at large, lie in the realm of sustainability. This brings us to the significant problem that, despite decades of discussion about sustainability and what it means, we have done relatively little to implement or achieve it. Why, then, should anyone bother to try? The answer lies in the kinds of lives we want to lead, the norms we want to aspire to, and the virtues we want to cultivate, irrespective of whether we will ever have any certainty that either the specific injustices suffered by American Indians or the broader effects that everyone will endure as a result of climate change will be redressed or avoided. Not coincidentally, a philosophical worldview that we might turn to for instruction as we navigate this new terrain is that embraced by many American Indian tribes. Attachment to place and community, and the daily rituals that entails, may be key not only to understanding the disproportionate effects of climate change on American Indian tribes, but also to formulating an ethic for all of us to live by in a world requiring skills, flexibility, and engagement of a kind that we can only barely imagine. This article explores these themes by examining the distinct effects of climate change on the four American Indian tribes discussed in the Native Communities and Climate Change report, then delving into the difficulties surrounding achieving a global solution to climate change, and finally circling back to the ethic embraced by many American Indian tribes that might provide a blueprint for behavior in a warming world.
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