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Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A review of its traditional uses and nutritional proporties



This article discussed various health benefits of Madhuca longifolia (. Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. It is widely known as 'Butter nut tree' is a large size tree. It is both wild and cultivated. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural areas. Mahua seeds are rich in edible fats so they have economic importance. Mahua fruits are used as vegetable and widely consumed by the tribes of western Odisha. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as medicinal herbs and is useful for external application in treating skin diseasesa, rheumatism, headache, chronic constipaption, piles, haemorrhoids and sometimes used as an emetic and galactagogue. Mahua oil is used for manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India. Madhuca longifolia is reported by various scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides. The tree is considered a boon by the tribal's who are forest dwellers and keenly conserve this tree. The tribes consider the mahua tree and the mahua drnk as paprt of their cultural heritage. So it is very much necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the wild forest.
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013ǁ PP.30-36 30 | P a g e
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review of Its Traditional
Uses and Nutritional Properties
Mishra Sunita1 & Padhan Sarojini2
Professor1 & Research Scholar2
1School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India
2School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India
ABSTRACT: This article discussed various health benefits of Madhuca longifolia (. Madhuca longifolia
(Mahua) belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. It is widely known as ‘Butter nut tree’ is a large size tree. It is
both wild and cultivated. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural
areas. Mahua seeds are rich in edible fats so they have economic importance. Mahua fruits are used as
vegetable and widely consumed by the tribes of western Odisha. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as
medicinal herbs and is useful for external application in treating skin diseasesa, rheumatism, headache, chronic
constipaption, piles, haemorrhoids and sometimes used as an emetic and galactagogue. Mahua oil is used for
manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India.
Madhuca longifolia is reported by various scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins,
flavonoids and glycosides. The tree is considered a boon by the tribal’s who are forest dwellers and keenly
conserve this tree. The tribes consider the mahua tree and the mahua drnk as paprt of their cultural heritage. So
it is very much necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the wild forest.
Keywords: butter nut tree, medicinal herbs, mahua, mainstream, sapotaceae
Banerji and Mitra, (1996) studied that Mahua (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. syn. Madhuca latifolia
Macb.) belonging to the family Sapotaceae, is one of those multipurpose forest tree species that provide an
answer for the three major Fs i.e. food, fodder and fuel. It is widely distributed in the South Asian countries.
Jayasree et al., (1998) find out that, the tree, known under the name of mahua, produces edible flowers and
fruits. The leaves of Mahua tree contain saponin, an alkaloid glucoside. Sapogenin and other basic acid have
been found in the seeds.. Mahua flowers are well known for their high reducing sugar and nutrient content They
are edible and used as a sweetener in preparation of many local dishes like halwa, kheer, puri and burfi (Patel
and Naik, 2008) in the mahua production belt of India. However, due to the lack of proper scientific
investigation and post harvest processing technologies, they are collected and subjected to open yard sun drying
till about 80% moisture is lost, before storage (Patel and Naik, 2008). This process results in heavy microbial
load and degrades their food value, finally making them suitable only for the liquor distillation units and as
cattle feed. This way a precious, organic and easily available source of natural sugar is being under-utilized.
According to Sahay and Singh, (1996) Mahua flowers undergo a series of unit operations before reaching the
final step of processing, and the value added products development designs, and fabrication of particular
equipments and structures for such unit operations as handling, transport, processing and storage and also for
assessing the behaviour of the product quality, require the knowledge of their physical properties. Physical
properties of mahua flowers are essential for the design of equipments for drying, cleaning, grading, storage and
value added products.
Mahua is a large deciduous tree growing widely under dry tropical and sub tropical climatic conditions.
Madhuca Longifolia distributed in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhatisgadh, Jharkhand,
Bihar, Uttar Ppradesh. It is an important tree for poor, greatly valued for its flowers and its seeds known as tora.
The tree has religious and aesthetic value in the tribal culture. The trees with best girth in forest are often Mahua
trees as it is protected and cared by forest dwellers. Mahua tree can be found in forests, revenue, and private
land. The early settlers had rights to specific Mahua trees occurring near the village in private, revenue and
forestlands. Some trees may even be located at long distance from the village but are recognized as being
associated to a family. These rights are only for harvesting flowers but not for fruits and have been practiced.
These rights have passed from generation to generation. When father divides the property among his sons, he
also divides Mahua tree between them but keeps some for himself till the end, as it becomes an easy source of
income. In absence of sons, harvesting rights are given to daughters when they get married. Sometimes villagers
of one region, in dearth of Mahua, visit relatives who have trees in abundance.
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 31 | P a g e
In most agricultural communities people rely on seasonal crop production. For many rural people, and
especially for the poor, these cycles entail periods of food shortage. It is at these critical periods that the
importance of forest foods is greatest. Of course, forests and fallow lands provide food resources in most
seasons, in the form of edible leaves, fruits, wild vegetables, roots and tubers and wildlife. But it is at times
when few cultivated varieties of food are available-during seasonal shortages and droughts-that forest foods are
most appreciated. In southeastern Nigeria, for example, the leaves of the forest trees Pterocarpus sp.,
Myrianthus arboreus and Ceiba pentandra are highly valued because they flush at the end of the dry season,
providing a vegetable during this "hungry period". Similarly, the fruit of Treculia africana, Chrysophyllum
albidum,and Dacryodes edulis is popular since it matures with the early rains during the crop planting season
(Okigbo, 1975).
Ogle and Grivetti (1985) conducted one of the most extensive studies of wild food consumption. They
found that throughout Swaziland more than 200 species of wild plants are commonly consumed. Wild leaves
such as those of Grewia sp. are consumed primarily in the spring and summer, while fruits are eaten during the
winter and spring when they supply the main source of vitamin C. Other forest/bush foods are also used
seasonally, most notably mushrooms, caterpillars and termite larvae. In Upper Shaba, Zaire, women are reported
to spend several hours a day collecting mushrooms during the early rainy season (Parent, 1977). The potential of
mushroom cultivation as a nutritional component in forestry development efforts has been demonstrated
conclusively in successful pilot activities in Bhutan, Thailand and Mexico.
According to Wachiira, (1987) Wild leaves are popular in the rainy season in the Machakos district of
Kenya. It has been estimated by a study team that these foods contribute 35 percent by weight to the diet at that
time Fruits are also consumed seasonally, especially by children. Ximeia caffra and Sclerocerva birrea fruits are
so popular that they are found increasingly on farms. In the Kathama area, wild fruits have long been valued as
buffer food resources in famines and food shortages.
Campbell, (1986) carried out a study on forest fruit consumption in Zimbabwe revealed that peak
collection and consumption of wild fruit do not take place during the main fruiting season, but rather when
cultivated food supplies dwindle and requirements for agricultural labour are at their lowest Thus fruits are
consumed when they are most needed rather than when they are most plentiful. Despite the diversity of forest
fruits (at least in some regions), the three species Diospyros mespiliformis, Strychnos cocculoides and Azanza
garckeana are most popular. They are generally consumed as snacks (by 95 percent of those surveyed), but in
some households they are consumed in meals as well. The fruiting season of some fruit-trees, including
mangoes, can be easily manipulated and the potential benefits of this type of intervention merit further research.
In Zambia's Luangwa valley, Marks (1976) noted that wild foods are important components of the diet,
especially during the hunger period. In Mukupu village, for example, in September wild vegetable foods provide
ingredients in 42 percent of the meals served (compared with cultivated vegetables, used in only 10 percent of
the meals at this time of year). By comparison, in June wild vegetables are used in only 7 percent of the dishes
compared to cultivated varieties which at this time feature in more than half the meals.
In many regions hunting is also a seasonal activity, undertaken during the off-peak agricultural season.
In the rain forests of Zaire, hunting is at its peak in July and August (the slack period in agriculture), and at its
lowest level during the planting season (Mankoto ma Mbaelele, 1987). Similarly, in the Boualé region of Côte
d'Ivoire, hunting and gathering are at their peak in the agricultural slack period (Blanc-Pamard, 1979).
According to (Getahun, (1974), in Ethiopia, Pterocarpus sp. and Myrianthus sp. are highly valued for
their dry season flushes which provide leaves when few other vegetables are available
According to Ostberg, (1988) in the semi-arid Pokot region of Kenya, tuyunwo (Balanites aegyptiaca)
is highly valued because it produces during the dry season even in drought years when few foods are available.
Trees also provide valued bee fodder for honey production; honey is used to produce the traditionally popular
mead drink (Ostberg, 1988).
In India it is estimated that 80 percent of the forest dwellers in Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and
Himachal Pradesh depend on forests for 25-50 percent of their annual food requirements (CSE, 1985). These
resources are especially important during food hardship periods. Surin and Badhuri (1980) relate that the tribal
peoples living in the Chotanagpu plateau depend on forest foods for four to five months when agricultural
production is impracticable. Many varieties of mushroom, fruit, leaves, and seeds are consumed. Of particular
importance are sal seeds (Shorea robusta) which are boiled with mahua flowers (Mahua-Bassia latifolia) as
a substitute for grain staples.
1. The flowers are used as tonic, analgesic and diuretic, traditionally used as cooling agent, tonic,
aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent and for the treatment of helminths, acute and chronic tonsillitis,
pharyngitis as well as bronchitis
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 32 | P a g e
2. The bark is used for rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, diabetes mellitus, decoction for rheumatism,
bleeding and spongy gums. It is a good remedy for itch, swelling, fractures and snake- bite poisoning,
internally employed in diabetes mellitus, fruits are astringent and largely employed as a lotion in chronic
ulcer, in acute and chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
3. Madhuca longifolia leaves are expectorant and also used for chronic bronchitis, Cushing‟s disease,
verminosis, gastropathy, dipsia, bronchitis, consumption, dermatopathy, rheumatism, cephalgia and
4. The seeds fat has emuluscent property, used in skin disease, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles and
sometimes as galactogogue.
Vitamins A and C
ethylcinnamate, sesquiterene alcohol, α-terpeneol, -monocaprylic ester of
eythrodiol and 3β-capryloxy oleanolic acid. α- and β- amyrin acetates
α- and β- amyrin acetates
Nut shell
n-hexacosanol quercetin and dihyroquercetin, β-sitosterol and its 3β-Dglucoside.
arachidic, linolelic, oleic, myrisic, palmitic and stearic acids, α-alanine, aspartic
acid, cystine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, lysine, methionine, proline, serine,
threonine, myricetin, quercetin, Mi-saponin A & B.
β-carotene and xanthophylls; erthrodiol, palmitic acid, myricetin and its 3- O-
arabinoside and 3-O-L-rhamnoside, quercetin and its 3-galactoside; 3β-caproxy and
-palmitoxy- olean-12-en-28-ol, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and its 3-O-β-
Dglucoside, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol- β-Dglucoside, n-hexacosanol, -
caproxyolcan- 12-en-28-ol, β-carotene, n-octacosanol, sitosterol, quercetin.
Table 1: Traditional Uses Of Madhuca Longifolla
Used Ethno medical
Anti-inflammatory, anti
ulcer, and hypoglycaemic
Ethanolic &
crude alkaloid
Seshagiri M. et al 2007
Antidiabetic activity
Methanol, water,
petroleum ether
K Pavan Kumar et al
Antihyperglycemic and
Ethanolic extract
Srirangam Prashanth et al
Analgesic activity
Aqueous and
alcoholic extracts
Dinesh Chandra et al 2001
Leaves &
Wound healing activity
Ethanolic extract
Smita Sharma et al 2010
Nephro and hepato
Ethanolic extract
S. Palani et al 2010
Antioxidant activity
Ethanolic extract
S. Palani et al 2010
Cytotoxic activity
Petroleum ether,
acetone and
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
Antibacterial activity
Aqueous ,
methanol and
Tambekar al.
and stem
Antimicrobial activity
Hexane, ethanol
Mangesh Khond et al.
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 33 | P a g e
and water
Antioxidant activity
70% ethanolic
Samaresh Pal Roy et al
Anti inflammatory,
analgesic and
antipyretic activity
Neha Shekhawat et al.
Hepatoprotective activity
M. Umadevi et al 2011
Anti inflammatory
Ethanol extract
saponin mixture
Ramchandra D. et al
and stem
Astringent, Stimulant,
Demulcent, Rheumatism,
and Nutritive.
Mangesh Khond et al.
Verminosis, gastropathy,
bronchitis, consumption,
cephalgia and
Y. Vaghasiya et al 2009
Rheumatism, bleeding
and spongy
Tambekar al.
Rheumatism, ulcer and
Srirangam Prashanth et
al 2010
Skin diseases
Srirangam Prashanth et.
al 2010
Effective to alleviate pain
Srirangam Prashanth et
al 2010
Itch, swelling, fractures
snake-bite poisoning
K Pavan Kumar et al
Expectorant, chronic
and cushing’s disease
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
Tonic, analgesic and
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
Cure cough
Roasted flowers
S. Palani et al 2010
Asthma and phthisis
Roasted fruits
S. Palani et al 2010
Rumi Ghosh et al 2009
ND: Not Defined, Yadav Priyanka 2012
Madhuca has following health benefits:
1. Bronchitis: Flowers of Madhuca are used to treat chronic bronchitis problem. Flowers are also used in
treatment of cough.
2. Orchitis (Testis inflammation): Madhuca leaves are boiled and used for relief from orchitis.
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 34 | P a g e
3. Rheumatism: A decoction is prepared by boiling bark in water and taken internally to get relief from
rheumatism. Oil obtained from seeds can also be applied on the affected areas.
4. Diabetes: Bark decoction is proven to be effective for cure of diabetes.
5. Piles: Oil extracted from seeds have laxative properties, which helps cure chronic constipation and
6. Eczema: Madhuca leaves are effective in treatment of eczema. The leaves coated with sesame oil is
heated over fire and applied on the affected area to get relief from eczema.
7. Gums: 4 ml of the liquid extract obtained from bark is mixed with 300 ml of water is used as a gargle
to get relief from spongy and bleeding gums.
8. Tonsillitis: The above preparation is also used for cure of chronic and acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
9. Burns: Leaves ash is mixed with ghee and is used for cure of scalds and burns. To get relief from
itching, bark paste is applied locally.
10. Lactation: Madhuca flowers are used to increase the milk production in feeding mothers. Seeds also
have the same property.
1. Mahua flowers: Table 2: Nutritional Properties Of Mahua
Source: Kureel R.S, 2009
Stored quantity of Mahua flowers depends on the need of the family. The poorer the family more is the
storage. The storage products are consumed by the tribes in off season.
Usually the tribals do not store these products for long, as they generate earnings to them especially
during lean periods secondly Mahua flowers being hygroscopic, absorb atmospheric moisture and get spoiled.
The flowers of Mahua tree are fermented to produce an alcoholic drink called Mahua, country liquor. Tribals of
Bastar in Chhattisgarh, Odisha. Santhals (Jharkhand) and North Maharashtra consider the tree and Mahua drink
as part of their cultural heritage. Tribal men and women both consume this drink and is an obligatory item
during celebrations and evening activities. They consumed this liquor in all type of celebrations.
Mahua seeds contain about 40% pale yellow semi-solid fat. The seed oil is commonly known as
„Mahua Butter‟. The oil content of the seed varied from 33 to 43% weight of the kernel. For the tribals of India,
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 35 | P a g e
Mahua oil is by far the most important tree seed oils. Fresh Mahua oil from properly stored seeds is yellow in
colour with a not unpleasant taste. The oil is used as cooking oil by most of the tribes in Odisha, Chhattisgarh,
and Maharashtra etc.
Refractive index
Saponification value
Iodine value
Unsaponifiable matter (%)
Palmitic C 16:0 (%)
Stearic Acid C 18:0 (%)
Oleic Acid C C18:0 (%)
Linolic Acid C18:2 (%)
Source: Kureel R.S, 2009
The oil is used for edible and cooking purposes. It is one of the ingredients of hydrogenated Vanaspati.
It is also used mainly in the manufacture of soaps, particularly laundry chips. It is also used as illuminant and
hair oil, especially in rural parts in the neighborhood of production centers.
1. Fodder: Leaves, flowers and fruits are lopped for goats and sheep. Seed cake is also fed to cattle.
2. Timber: The heartwood is reddish brown, strong, hard and durable; very heavy (929 kg/cu. m), takes a
fine finish. It is used for house construction, naves and felloes of cartwheels, door and window frames
3. Erosion control: Mahua has a large spreading superficial root system that holds soil together
4. Shade or shelter: The wide spreading crown provides shade for animals. Reclamation: Mahua is
planted on wasteland with hard lateritic soils in India.
5. Nitrogen fixing: Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and root colonization have been
observed in mahua.
6. Soil improver: The seed cake has been used as fertilizer
7. Ornamental: Mahua is occasionally planted as an avenue tree.
8. Boundary or barrier or support: It is planted along the boundaries of fields.
9. Intercropping: M. latifolia can be raised with agricultural crops.
The study therefore indicates that mahua tree gives significantly high quantity of oil. The oil is rich in
PUFA and has desirable level of oleic and stearic acid to be used as cocoa substitute in confectionary products
and production of margarines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The mahua oil also has potential for
alternative fuel options for diesel. The flowers are used as vegetable, for making cake, liquor etc. mahua is used
to cure Bronchitis, Rhematism, Diabetes, Piles, Eczema, Gums, Burns etc and flower juice is used in the
treatment of various disease and ailments. The seeds are thus valuable in meeting demands for food and food
supplements with functional, health-promoting properties in addition to industrial uses. As for the better
potential, good quality of mahua tree should be cultivated through plant tissue culture by means of micro
propagation. The research workers have to come along with the people of tribal community, so they may have
more and valuable knowledge. In coming next generation the importance of plant and mahua tree is going to be
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And 36 | P a g e
increase because of their effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and comparatively being devoid of toxic
effect. Madhuca Indica has found several of pharmacological activity, yet several other activities have to be
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... The tribal communities use seed oil for cooking. Now a days, the use of Mahua butter in the manufacture of vanaspati ghee, soaps has been reported moreover, it is used as illuminant and hair oil also [14]. The seed oil content of Mahua ranges in between 32 to 57 per cent. ...
... It has characteristic properties viz. [14]. Although, the bark, leaves and entire plant parts of Madhuca species are useful for medicine or industrial use. ...
... But specific to seeds extract, it is found to be an anti -inflammatory, antiulser, hypoglyuacemic and effective to alleviate pain. Seed oil extracted from Mahua has emuluscent property, used in skin disease, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles and sometimes found to be as galactogogue [14]. The Mahua introduced from India to Australia and Polynesia [1,15]. ...
Tree breeding is the applied branch of biology deal with application principles of genetics, reproductive biology and economics to the genetic improvement and management of forest tree species. The selection of candidate plus tree (CPTs) is considered as an important and foremost stage in tree improvement program in forest species. The tree breeding or tree improvement is a branch of forestry, emerging as an integral part of afforestation and reforestation activities along with commercial production of forest products through the development of genetically improved planting stock for utilization. Tree improvement simply underlines the application of forest genetics principles within a given silvicultural system for the process of improving the genetic quality of the forest, with the goals to improve the genetic value of the population. In general, the tree improvement program comprises the all practices which are designed to produce genetically more desirable trees individuals. Mahua (Madhuca longifolia (L.) J. F. Macbr.) is a multipurpose tropical forest tree mainly harvested in the wild in Southern Asia for its edible flowers and oil yielding seeds. The recent modern era evolved biotechnological tools must be utilized for fasten the tree breeding program. The elite germplasm may be screened at seedling stage must be evaluated as rootstock for desirable traits.
... Sapogenin and other basic acid have been found in the seeds. The flowers of this plant are well-known for their nutrient content and high reducing sugar (Mishra and Padhan, 2013) [9] . The seeds oil has emollient properties and has been used in skin diseases, rheumatism and head ache. ...
... Sapogenin and other basic acid have been found in the seeds. The flowers of this plant are well-known for their nutrient content and high reducing sugar (Mishra and Padhan, 2013) [9] . The seeds oil has emollient properties and has been used in skin diseases, rheumatism and head ache. ...
In the plant kingdom Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) and Clerodendrum infortunatum (Bhant) bears widely proven spectrum of medicinal properties. Mahua oil is used in medicine as embroilment, cure the skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles and haemorrhoids. Under the present study, phytochemical analysis of different extract of leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum and oil cakes of Madhuca longifolia were prepared with the five different solvents viz; distilled water, methanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane, which revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds. Quantitative analysis showed that among both the plant sources, Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) yielded higher total phenols (70.43±0.183mg/g in methanol) in comparison with Clerodendrum infortunatum (29.17±0.119mg/g in methanol). Methanol gave good results for extraction of phenols. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that Clerodendrum infortunatum (Bhant) leaves yielded higher flavonoid content (12.17±0.132 mg/g in acetone) and total tannins (13.87±0.086 mg/g in acetone) among both the plant extracts. Among the extraction solvents, acetone gave good results for extraction of flavonoids and tannins compared to distilled water, methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antimicrobial activity of both the plant extracts showed maximum zone of inhibition at 5% against both test organisms viz. Staphylococcus pasteuri (Gram positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative). Therefore the extracts of these two plants can be used for antimicrobial finish on textiles by various methods of finish application.
... It is also reported to be beneficial for heart, skin and eye diseases. Sunita and Sarojini, (2013) [61] referred that tribal people offer raw flowers to lactating mother for increasing their lactation. ...
... It is also reported to be beneficial for heart, skin and eye diseases. Sunita and Sarojini, (2013) [61] referred that tribal people offer raw flowers to lactating mother for increasing their lactation. ...
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There are quite a large number of indigenous and underutilized fruit crops, which are being used by the local inhabitants. In fact for people living in villages, these underutilized fruits are the only source of protective food to meet their vitamins and minerals requirements in their poor diet. Because of their curative properties, these fruits have been used in Indian system such as Ayurvedic and Unani since time immemorial. Apart from their nutritive and medicinal values quite a few of these underutilized fruits have excellent flavor and very attractive color. They are rich in vitamins, minerals, and nutrients and have medicinal potential. These crops have many advantages like easier to grow and hardy in nature, producing a crop even under adverse soil and climatic conditions. So, exploitation of underutilized horticultural crops can become a solution to the social problem of health and nutrition insecurity, poverty and unemployment
... The bark of Mahua is used to treat diabetics, ulcers, rheumatism, tonsillitis and bleedings. Mahua oil is traditionally used in skin diseases, rheumatism, headache and laxative, [4]. The flowers of Mahua are used as cooling agent, astringent and also it is used to treat acute and chronic tonsillitis, aphrodisiac, pharyngitis and bronchitis [4]. ...
... Mahua oil is traditionally used in skin diseases, rheumatism, headache and laxative, [4]. The flowers of Mahua are used as cooling agent, astringent and also it is used to treat acute and chronic tonsillitis, aphrodisiac, pharyngitis and bronchitis [4]. The leaves are the major component of Mahua tree that can be used as wound healing hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, astringent, and used for bronchitis, cephalgia and Cushing's disease. ...
... Also, M. zapota bark has been used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, fever, as analgesic, and anti-inflammatory (Bano and Ahmed, 2017). Madhuca Lonigfolia flowers have been used in Indian traditional medicine as aphrodisiac, tonic, demulcent, cooling agent, and for the treatment of helminthes, acute and chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and bronchitis (Sunita and Sarojini, 2013). M. Lonigfolia bark was used to treat rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, diabetes, and its decoction was used for rheumatism, to stop wound bleeding. ...
... Additionally, M. Lonigfolia leaf was used to treat bronchitis, Cushing's disease, verminosis, gastrointestinal disorders, constipation, dermatopathy, rheumatism, and hemorrhoids (Yadav et al., 2012). M. Lonigfolia seed cake was reported to exert an emulsifying characters and was used to treat skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, as laxative, and as a galactogogue (Sunita and Sarojini, 2013). (Sparg et al., 2004;Vincken et al., 2007). ...
Sapotaceae is a flowering plants family reported for its richness in triterpenoid saponins. Sapotaceae comprises a large number of fruit-producing plants of nutritional and medicinal value. Different species of family Sapotaceae received a considerable interest owing to their rich triterpenoid saponins content of a myriad pharmacological effects and health benefits. Several databases were searched for collecting papers for this review in the scope of phytochemistry, bioactivity and record of triterpenoid saponins from family Sapotacese such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus and Reaxys from 1990 till now. Triterpenoid saponins reported from Sapotaceae plants are mostly of protobassic acid, 16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, bayogenin, and oleanolic acid derivatives with both monodesmosidic and/or bidesmosidic attached sugar side chains. Besides, the most frequently attached sugar units are glucose, glucoronic acid, apiose, xylose, rhamnose, and arabinose. The reported health effects of Sapotaceae plants in folk medicine in relation to their bioactive saponins were also reviewed with special attention to anti-inflammatory, antiulcer activity, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. This review aims to present a holistic compile on the phytochemical and biological diversity of triterpenoid saponins reported from family Sapotaceae with future perspectives.
...  Nitrogen fixing: Vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhizal associations and root colonization have been observed in mahua. Ornamental: Mahua is occasionally planted as an avenue tree(Mishra and Padhan, 2013). ...
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Book Available online at: PREFACE We are delighted to publish our book entitled "Advances in Microbiology Volume I". This book is the compilation of esteemed articles of acknowledged experts in the fields of microbiology and life science providing a sufficient depth of the subject to satisfy the need of a level which will be comprehensive and interesting. It is an assemblage of variety of information about advances and developments in life science. With its application oriented and interdisciplinary approach, we hope that the students, teachers, researchers, scientists and policy makers will find this book much more useful. The articles in the book have been contributed by eminent scientists, academicians. Our special thanks and appreciation goes to experts and research workers whose contributions have enriched this book. We thank our publisher Bhumi Publishing, India for compilation of such nice data in the form of this book. Finally, we will always remain a debtor to all our well-wishers for their blessings, without which this book would not have come into existence.-Editors Advances in Microbiology Volume I CONTENTS
... Hair tonics Antioxidant property [28] Mahuva [44,45] Sunflower Oil ...
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In the last few years, more and more studies on the biological properties of essential oils (EOs) especially antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in vitro and food model have been published in all parts of the world. Herbal oils have been utilized for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes for over 2,500 years, according to historical records. It is inherited knowledge that has been passed down from generation to generation that provides a mostly untapped source for cosmetic formulation development. Recently, consumers have developed an everincreasing interest in natural products as alternatives for artificial additives or pharmacologically relevant agents. Among them, EOs have gained great popularity in the food, cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical industries. Despite the reportedly strong antimicrobial activity of EOs against food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, their practical application as preservatives is currently limited owing to the undesirable flavor changes they cause in food products. As a result, the current survey was done to explore cosmetic potential herbal on the topical application of herbal oil for skincare, hair care, foot care, eye care, nail care, lip care, and dental care, data was collected. The collected data was double-checked against authentic Siddha literatures, and the results are evaluated for chemical compositions and other factors and relevant pharmacological activities. Nonetheless, more studies are necessary to the applicability of various EOs on other food models with their utility as therapeutic or cosmetic agent.
Seminary Hills (Latitude 21°9'57"North and Longitude 79°3'47" East) play an important role in maintaining ecological and environmental balance of the rapidly- growing Nagpur city. Majority of the area of Seminary Hills lie under protected forest area. Seminary Hills Forest represents the unique vegetation of tropical dry deciduous forest, and shows presence of trees like Tectona grandis L.f., Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd., Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guill. & Perr., characteristics of tropical dry deciduous forest. The survey was conducted to explore the valuable tree species and enrich the knowledge of ethnobotanical plants in the area. Study revealed occurrence of 49 tree species belonging to 19 families in the area. Majority of the trees belong to the family Fabaceae (43%). Survey showed that virtually all the recorded tree species have medicinal and economical value. Stem/Bark (78%) of the plants was most useful part followed by leaves (59 %, fruit and seeds (45 %), roots (33 %), flowers (29 %), gum (12 %). In 6% of the trees, all the parts were found to be useful. Knowledge gained about the diversity and uses of trees will generate awareness among people regarding importance and conservation of these plant species.
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Mahua is a tropical tree mostly seen widely in the central and north Indian plane forest. It is known as the warehouse of no of phytochemicals and mostly used by the tribal people. It has numerous benefits in pharmaceutical and food industry. In Ayurveda the flowers have application in medicines with cooling properties. Mahua flowers are edible and consumed by the tribal mostly. It is rich in antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and used as food in tribal area. It is also used as an exchange of buying goods. The fruits of mahua are utilized as vegetable and mostly prepared curries by rural tribal peoples. However, the mahua tree is considered as medicinal tree and very useful for curing diseases like piles, skin diseases, headache, ulcer, constipation and many more. Mahua flower is not only used for the production of liquor but also used as an ingredient for the making of biscuit, cake, jam, jelly and sauces etc. The tree is considered as gold in forest dwellers and measured as fortunate thing for tribal. Oil is extracted from the flower used in cosmetic industry as well as for the purpose of cooking. Mahua tree is considered as a cultural heritage for the tribal people.
The aim of the present study was to explore the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca longifolia (ML) in healthy, glucose loaded and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. All three animal groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) and the standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 500 μg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment. The extract exhibited a dose dependent hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models as compared with the standard antidiabetic agent glibenclamide. The antioxidant activity of the bark was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging activity. The results of the assay were then compared with a natural antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The hypoglycemia produced by the extract may be due to the increased glucose uptake at the tissue level and/or an increase in pancreatic β-cell function, or due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption and a good source of compounds with antioxidant properties. Finally the study indicated the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia to be a potential antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and the extract also exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity and superoxide scavenging activity.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of flowers of Madhuca longifolia using paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Two doses of methanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (2 gm/kg). The methanolic extract showed significant (p<0.005) protective effect by lowering serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and total bilirubin, and by increasing serum levels of total protein and albumin in the selected model. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The present study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of M. longifolia validating the traditional use of flowers.
Madhuca longifolia commonly known as the 'Butter nut tree' is used traditionally in the Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of Madhuca longifolia was administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats and investigated for its antidiabetic properties. Administration of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg extract (once a day, for thirty consecutive days) significantly lowered blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, serum triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol levels showed marked improvement which indicates that the hydroethanolic extract possesses antihyperglycemic activity.
The crude methanolic extract of Madhuca indica (Sapotaceae) at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male wistar rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan-induced oedema right hind paw volume while the analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced abdominal pains, i.e. nociception response and the brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Phytochemical screening of the alcoholic extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenes. All the doses of the plant methanolic extract and the indomethacin significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation that was not dose-dependent. The plant extract reduced the acetic acid-induced pain licking. The plant extract reduced the brewer's yeast-provoked elevated body temperature in rats after 60 mins for 50 and 100 mg/kg dose range and 30 mins for 200 mg/kg dose range. The results suggest a potential benefit of M. indica methanolic extract in treating conditions associated with fever, inflammation and pain. These properties might be adduced to the presence of the phytoconstituents.
The present study deals with the microscopical and macroscopical investigation on leaves, petioles and stems of Madhuca longifolia Fam. Sapotaceae. Madhuca longifolia commonly known as 'Mahua' is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as hepatoprotective, antipyretics, anti-Inflammatory, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anti-diabetic and in wound healing activity. The transverse section of leaf shows epidermis single layered on both the surfaces and covered with thin cuticle, cortex, pith, vascular region with xylem and phloem. Leaves consists uniseriate type of trichomes. The paracytic types of stomata are present in both lower and upper surface of leaves. The transverse section of Petiole shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, vascular bundles, xylem surrounded by the phloem. The transverse section of stem shows cork, cortex, xylem, phloem and pith. The powder microscopy shows paracytic stomata, uniseriate and covering type of trichomes, parenchymatous cells and fragments of vascular tissue. The quantitative microscopical studies of leaf were also carried out and various leaf content such as palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, stomata number, stomatal index.
Method: The analgesic effect was screened through tail flick, hot plate and chemical writhing methods. The probable mechanism of action through opioid receptors was elucidated by i.m. administration of naloxone -specific antagonists 30 min before the last dose of aqueous or alcoholic extract of M.longifolia. Result: Graded doses of both aqueous and alcoholic extract of M.longifolia (4.0 to 64.0 mg/kg, i.m. X 3 days) produced dose dependent analgesic effect in all the three nociceptive methods carried out either in rats or mice. The analgesic effect exhibited by both the extracts was not antagonized by naloxone in rats only. Conclusion: The analgesic effect exhibited by both aqueous and alcoholic extracts does not mediate through opioid receptors. Analgesic effect Madhuka longifolia aqueous extract alcoholic extract tail flick method hot plate method chemical writhings Madhuka longifolia (Mahua) which belongs to Sapotaceae family and flowers have been tradition-ally used as cooling agent, tonic, aphrodisiac, as-tringent, demulcent and for the treatment of helminths, acute and chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis 1 as well as bronchitis 2 . In Bihar, LATTA is prepared by mixing and grinding the equal amount of Mahua flowers with roasted maize grain, which is claimed to be effective in arthritis to relieve pain. During the preliminary pharmacological screening of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Madhuka longifolia (M.longifolia) carried out in our laboratory, an anti-nociceptive activity for these extracts was observed. Therefore, it is thought worthwhile to investigate this activity in detail and also the probable mechanism of antinociceptive action.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and polyurea and this is the leading disease in the world causing morbidity. Many allopathic medicines are available to treat diabetes, but treatment associates with many side effects which were compensated by replacing allopathic medicine with natural drugs. Many natural drugs shown significant antidiabetic activity but all those natural drugs are not commonly available which provoked us to initiate the present study of evaluation of Antidiabetic activity of Madhuca indica. In this present study we extracted Madhuca indica by using different solvents viz. methanol, Petroleum ether and water. Among these extracts Methanolic extract of Madhuca indica has shown significant anti diabetic activity against streptozotocin and streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced diabetic models in wistar rats.