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Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A review of its traditional uses and nutritional proporties

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Abstract

This article discussed various health benefits of Madhuca longifolia (. Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. It is widely known as 'Butter nut tree' is a large size tree. It is both wild and cultivated. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural areas. Mahua seeds are rich in edible fats so they have economic importance. Mahua fruits are used as vegetable and widely consumed by the tribes of western Odisha. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as medicinal herbs and is useful for external application in treating skin diseasesa, rheumatism, headache, chronic constipaption, piles, haemorrhoids and sometimes used as an emetic and galactagogue. Mahua oil is used for manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India. Madhuca longifolia is reported by various scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides. The tree is considered a boon by the tribal's who are forest dwellers and keenly conserve this tree. The tribes consider the mahua tree and the mahua drnk as paprt of their cultural heritage. So it is very much necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the wild forest.
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention
ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714
www.ijhssi.org Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013ǁ PP.30-36
www.ijhssi.org 30 | P a g e
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review of Its Traditional
Uses and Nutritional Properties
Mishra Sunita1 & Padhan Sarojini2
Professor1 & Research Scholar2
1School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India
2School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India
ABSTRACT: This article discussed various health benefits of Madhuca longifolia (. Madhuca longifolia
(Mahua) belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. It is widely known as ‘Butter nut tree’ is a large size tree. It is
both wild and cultivated. Mahua flower are used as a food as well as used as an exchanger in tribal and rural
areas. Mahua seeds are rich in edible fats so they have economic importance. Mahua fruits are used as
vegetable and widely consumed by the tribes of western Odisha. Madhuca longifolia is also considered as
medicinal herbs and is useful for external application in treating skin diseasesa, rheumatism, headache, chronic
constipaption, piles, haemorrhoids and sometimes used as an emetic and galactagogue. Mahua oil is used for
manufacturer of laundry soaps and detergent, and also used as cooking oil in various tribal region of India.
Madhuca longifolia is reported by various scientist that it contain sapogenins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins,
flavonoids and glycosides. The tree is considered a boon by the tribal’s who are forest dwellers and keenly
conserve this tree. The tribes consider the mahua tree and the mahua drnk as paprt of their cultural heritage. So
it is very much necessary to create awareness among the people to conserve the wild forest.
Keywords: butter nut tree, medicinal herbs, mahua, mainstream, sapotaceae
I. INTRODUCTION
Banerji and Mitra, (1996) studied that Mahua (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. syn. Madhuca latifolia
Macb.) belonging to the family Sapotaceae, is one of those multipurpose forest tree species that provide an
answer for the three major Fs i.e. food, fodder and fuel. It is widely distributed in the South Asian countries.
Jayasree et al., (1998) find out that, the tree, known under the name of mahua, produces edible flowers and
fruits. The leaves of Mahua tree contain saponin, an alkaloid glucoside. Sapogenin and other basic acid have
been found in the seeds.. Mahua flowers are well known for their high reducing sugar and nutrient content They
are edible and used as a sweetener in preparation of many local dishes like halwa, kheer, puri and burfi (Patel
and Naik, 2008) in the mahua production belt of India. However, due to the lack of proper scientific
investigation and post harvest processing technologies, they are collected and subjected to open yard sun drying
till about 80% moisture is lost, before storage (Patel and Naik, 2008). This process results in heavy microbial
load and degrades their food value, finally making them suitable only for the liquor distillation units and as
cattle feed. This way a precious, organic and easily available source of natural sugar is being under-utilized.
According to Sahay and Singh, (1996) Mahua flowers undergo a series of unit operations before reaching the
final step of processing, and the value added products development designs, and fabrication of particular
equipments and structures for such unit operations as handling, transport, processing and storage and also for
assessing the behaviour of the product quality, require the knowledge of their physical properties. Physical
properties of mahua flowers are essential for the design of equipments for drying, cleaning, grading, storage and
value added products.
Mahua is a large deciduous tree growing widely under dry tropical and sub tropical climatic conditions.
Madhuca Longifolia distributed in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhatisgadh, Jharkhand,
Bihar, Uttar Ppradesh. It is an important tree for poor, greatly valued for its flowers and its seeds known as tora.
The tree has religious and aesthetic value in the tribal culture. The trees with best girth in forest are often Mahua
trees as it is protected and cared by forest dwellers. Mahua tree can be found in forests, revenue, and private
land. The early settlers had rights to specific Mahua trees occurring near the village in private, revenue and
forestlands. Some trees may even be located at long distance from the village but are recognized as being
associated to a family. These rights are only for harvesting flowers but not for fruits and have been practiced.
These rights have passed from generation to generation. When father divides the property among his sons, he
also divides Mahua tree between them but keeps some for himself till the end, as it becomes an easy source of
income. In absence of sons, harvesting rights are given to daughters when they get married. Sometimes villagers
of one region, in dearth of Mahua, visit relatives who have trees in abundance.
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II. MAHUA FLOWERS AS A SEASONAL GRAIN SUBSTITUTE IN INDIA
In most agricultural communities people rely on seasonal crop production. For many rural people, and
especially for the poor, these cycles entail periods of food shortage. It is at these critical periods that the
importance of forest foods is greatest. Of course, forests and fallow lands provide food resources in most
seasons, in the form of edible leaves, fruits, wild vegetables, roots and tubers and wildlife. But it is at times
when few cultivated varieties of food are available-during seasonal shortages and droughts-that forest foods are
most appreciated. In southeastern Nigeria, for example, the leaves of the forest trees Pterocarpus sp.,
Myrianthus arboreus and Ceiba pentandra are highly valued because they flush at the end of the dry season,
providing a vegetable during this "hungry period". Similarly, the fruit of Treculia africana, Chrysophyllum
albidum,and Dacryodes edulis is popular since it matures with the early rains during the crop planting season
(Okigbo, 1975).
Ogle and Grivetti (1985) conducted one of the most extensive studies of wild food consumption. They
found that throughout Swaziland more than 200 species of wild plants are commonly consumed. Wild leaves
such as those of Grewia sp. are consumed primarily in the spring and summer, while fruits are eaten during the
winter and spring when they supply the main source of vitamin C. Other forest/bush foods are also used
seasonally, most notably mushrooms, caterpillars and termite larvae. In Upper Shaba, Zaire, women are reported
to spend several hours a day collecting mushrooms during the early rainy season (Parent, 1977). The potential of
mushroom cultivation as a nutritional component in forestry development efforts has been demonstrated
conclusively in successful pilot activities in Bhutan, Thailand and Mexico.
According to Wachiira, (1987) Wild leaves are popular in the rainy season in the Machakos district of
Kenya. It has been estimated by a study team that these foods contribute 35 percent by weight to the diet at that
time Fruits are also consumed seasonally, especially by children. Ximeia caffra and Sclerocerva birrea fruits are
so popular that they are found increasingly on farms. In the Kathama area, wild fruits have long been valued as
buffer food resources in famines and food shortages.
Campbell, (1986) carried out a study on forest fruit consumption in Zimbabwe revealed that peak
collection and consumption of wild fruit do not take place during the main fruiting season, but rather when
cultivated food supplies dwindle and requirements for agricultural labour are at their lowest Thus fruits are
consumed when they are most needed rather than when they are most plentiful. Despite the diversity of forest
fruits (at least in some regions), the three species Diospyros mespiliformis, Strychnos cocculoides and Azanza
garckeana are most popular. They are generally consumed as snacks (by 95 percent of those surveyed), but in
some households they are consumed in meals as well. The fruiting season of some fruit-trees, including
mangoes, can be easily manipulated and the potential benefits of this type of intervention merit further research.
In Zambia's Luangwa valley, Marks (1976) noted that wild foods are important components of the diet,
especially during the hunger period. In Mukupu village, for example, in September wild vegetable foods provide
ingredients in 42 percent of the meals served (compared with cultivated vegetables, used in only 10 percent of
the meals at this time of year). By comparison, in June wild vegetables are used in only 7 percent of the dishes
compared to cultivated varieties which at this time feature in more than half the meals.
In many regions hunting is also a seasonal activity, undertaken during the off-peak agricultural season.
In the rain forests of Zaire, hunting is at its peak in July and August (the slack period in agriculture), and at its
lowest level during the planting season (Mankoto ma Mbaelele, 1987). Similarly, in the Boualé region of Côte
d'Ivoire, hunting and gathering are at their peak in the agricultural slack period (Blanc-Pamard, 1979).
According to (Getahun, (1974), in Ethiopia, Pterocarpus sp. and Myrianthus sp. are highly valued for
their dry season flushes which provide leaves when few other vegetables are available
According to Ostberg, (1988) in the semi-arid Pokot region of Kenya, tuyunwo (Balanites aegyptiaca)
is highly valued because it produces during the dry season even in drought years when few foods are available.
Trees also provide valued bee fodder for honey production; honey is used to produce the traditionally popular
mead drink (Ostberg, 1988).
In India it is estimated that 80 percent of the forest dwellers in Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and
Himachal Pradesh depend on forests for 25-50 percent of their annual food requirements (CSE, 1985). These
resources are especially important during food hardship periods. Surin and Badhuri (1980) relate that the tribal
peoples living in the Chotanagpu plateau depend on forest foods for four to five months when agricultural
production is impracticable. Many varieties of mushroom, fruit, leaves, and seeds are consumed. Of particular
importance are sal seeds (Shorea robusta) which are boiled with mahua flowers (Mahua-Bassia latifolia) as
a substitute for grain staples.
III. USE AS TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
1. The flowers are used as tonic, analgesic and diuretic, traditionally used as cooling agent, tonic,
aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent and for the treatment of helminths, acute and chronic tonsillitis,
pharyngitis as well as bronchitis
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2. The bark is used for rheumatism, chronic bronchitis, diabetes mellitus, decoction for rheumatism,
bleeding and spongy gums. It is a good remedy for itch, swelling, fractures and snake- bite poisoning,
internally employed in diabetes mellitus, fruits are astringent and largely employed as a lotion in chronic
ulcer, in acute and chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
3. Madhuca longifolia leaves are expectorant and also used for chronic bronchitis, Cushing‟s disease,
verminosis, gastropathy, dipsia, bronchitis, consumption, dermatopathy, rheumatism, cephalgia and
hemorrhoids
4. The seeds fat has emuluscent property, used in skin disease, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles and
sometimes as galactogogue.
IV. PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF MAHUA
Flower
Vitamins A and C
Bark
ethylcinnamate, sesquiterene alcohol, α-terpeneol, -monocaprylic ester of
eythrodiol and 3β-capryloxy oleanolic acid. α- and β- amyrin acetates
Fruits
α- and β- amyrin acetates
Nut shell
n-hexacosanol quercetin and dihyroquercetin, β-sitosterol and its 3β-Dglucoside.
Seeds
arachidic, linolelic, oleic, myrisic, palmitic and stearic acids, α-alanine, aspartic
acid, cystine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, lysine, methionine, proline, serine,
threonine, myricetin, quercetin, Mi-saponin A & B.
Leaves
β-carotene and xanthophylls; erthrodiol, palmitic acid, myricetin and its 3- O-
arabinoside and 3-O-L-rhamnoside, quercetin and its 3-galactoside; 3β-caproxy and
-palmitoxy- olean-12-en-28-ol, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and its 3-O-β-
Dglucoside, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol- β-Dglucoside, n-hexacosanol, -
caproxyolcan- 12-en-28-ol, β-carotene, n-octacosanol, sitosterol, quercetin.
V. TRADITIONAL USES OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA
Table 1: Traditional Uses Of Madhuca Longifolla
Place,
Country
Part(s)
Used Ethno medical
Uses
Preparation(s)
Reference(s)
India
Seeds
cake
Anti-inflammatory, anti
ulcer, and hypoglycaemic
activity
Ethanolic &
crude alkaloid
extract
Seshagiri M. et al 2007
India
Bark
Antidiabetic activity
Methanol, water,
&
petroleum ether
K Pavan Kumar et al
2011
India
Bark
Antihyperglycemic and
antioxidant
Ethanolic extract
Srirangam Prashanth et al
2010
India
Flower
Analgesic activity
Aqueous and
alcoholic extracts
Dinesh Chandra et al 2001
India
Leaves &
bark
Wound healing activity
Ethanolic extract
Smita Sharma et al 2010
India
Leaves
Nephro and hepato
protective
activity
Ethanolic extract
S. Palani et al 2010
India
Leaves
Antioxidant activity
Ethanolic extract
S. Palani et al 2010
India
Leaves
Cytotoxic activity
Petroleum ether,
chloroform,
ethanol
acetone and
water
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
India
Bark
Antibacterial activity
Aqueous ,
ethanol,
methanol and
acetone
Tambekar D.H.et al.
2010
India
Leaves
and stem
Antimicrobial activity
Hexane, ethanol
chloroform,
Mangesh Khond et al.
2009
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bark
acetone
and water
India
Bark
Antioxidant activity
70% ethanolic
extract
Samaresh Pal Roy et al
2010
India
Aerial
part
Anti inflammatory,
analgesic and
antipyretic activity
Methanolic
extract
Neha Shekhawat et al.
2010
India
Flowers
Hepatoprotective activity
Methanolic
activity
M. Umadevi et al 2011
India
Seeds
Anti inflammatory
Ethanol extract
and
saponin mixture
Ramchandra D. et al
2009
India
Leaves
and stem
bark
Astringent, Stimulant,
Emollient,
Demulcent, Rheumatism,
Piles
and Nutritive.
ND
Mangesh Khond et al.
2009
India
Leaves
Verminosis, gastropathy,
Dipsia,
bronchitis, consumption,
dermatopathy,
rheumatism,
cephalgia and
hemorrhoids
ND
Y. Vaghasiya et al 2009
India
Bark
Rheumatism, bleeding
and spongy
gums
Decoction
Tambekar D.H.et al.
2010
India
Bark
Rheumatism, ulcer and
tonsillitis
ND
Srirangam Prashanth et
al 2010
India
Flower
Skin diseases
Juice
Srirangam Prashanth et.
al 2010
India
Seeds
Effective to alleviate pain
Oil
Srirangam Prashanth et
al 2010
India
Bark
Itch, swelling, fractures
and
snake-bite poisoning
ND
K Pavan Kumar et al
2011
India
Leaves
Expectorant, chronic
bronchitis
and cushing’s disease
ND
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
India
Flowers
Tonic, analgesic and
diuretic
ND
Saluja. M.S. et al 2011
India
Flowers
Cure cough
Roasted flowers
S. Palani et al 2010
India
Fruits
Asthma and phthisis
Roasted fruits
S. Palani et al 2010
India
Leaves
Antihyperglycemic
activity
Hydroethanolic
extract
Rumi Ghosh et al 2009
ND: Not Defined, Yadav Priyanka et.al 2012
VI. HEALTH BENEFITS OF MADHUCA
Madhuca has following health benefits:
1. Bronchitis: Flowers of Madhuca are used to treat chronic bronchitis problem. Flowers are also used in
treatment of cough.
2. Orchitis (Testis inflammation): Madhuca leaves are boiled and used for relief from orchitis.
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3. Rheumatism: A decoction is prepared by boiling bark in water and taken internally to get relief from
rheumatism. Oil obtained from seeds can also be applied on the affected areas.
4. Diabetes: Bark decoction is proven to be effective for cure of diabetes.
5. Piles: Oil extracted from seeds have laxative properties, which helps cure chronic constipation and
piles.
6. Eczema: Madhuca leaves are effective in treatment of eczema. The leaves coated with sesame oil is
heated over fire and applied on the affected area to get relief from eczema.
7. Gums: 4 ml of the liquid extract obtained from bark is mixed with 300 ml of water is used as a gargle
to get relief from spongy and bleeding gums.
8. Tonsillitis: The above preparation is also used for cure of chronic and acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
9. Burns: Leaves ash is mixed with ghee and is used for cure of scalds and burns. To get relief from
itching, bark paste is applied locally.
10. Lactation: Madhuca flowers are used to increase the milk production in feeding mothers. Seeds also
have the same property.
VII. NUTRITONAL ASPECTS OF MAHUA
1. Mahua flowers: Table 2: Nutritional Properties Of Mahua
SL.NO
FLOWER
1.
19.8
2.
6.37
3.
0.5
4.
50.62
5.
54.24
6.
3..43
7.
54.06
8.
4.36
9.
8
10.
2
Source: Kureel R.S et.al, 2009
Stored quantity of Mahua flowers depends on the need of the family. The poorer the family more is the
storage. The storage products are consumed by the tribes in off season.
Usually the tribals do not store these products for long, as they generate earnings to them especially
during lean periods secondly Mahua flowers being hygroscopic, absorb atmospheric moisture and get spoiled.
The flowers of Mahua tree are fermented to produce an alcoholic drink called Mahua, country liquor. Tribals of
Bastar in Chhattisgarh, Odisha. Santhals (Jharkhand) and North Maharashtra consider the tree and Mahua drink
as part of their cultural heritage. Tribal men and women both consume this drink and is an obligatory item
during celebrations and evening activities. They consumed this liquor in all type of celebrations.
2. MAHUA SEED OIL
Mahua seeds contain about 40% pale yellow semi-solid fat. The seed oil is commonly known as
„Mahua Butter‟. The oil content of the seed varied from 33 to 43% weight of the kernel. For the tribals of India,
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And
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Mahua oil is by far the most important tree seed oils. Fresh Mahua oil from properly stored seeds is yellow in
colour with a not unpleasant taste. The oil is used as cooking oil by most of the tribes in Odisha, Chhattisgarh,
and Maharashtra etc.
SL.NO
PROPORTIES
VALUE
1.
Refractive index
1.452-1.462
2.
Saponification value
187-197
3.
Iodine value
55-70
4.
Unsaponifiable matter (%)
1-3
5.
Palmitic C 16:0 (%)
24.5
6.
Stearic Acid C 18:0 (%)
22.7
7.
Oleic Acid C C18:0 (%)
37.0
8.
Linolic Acid C18:2 (%)
14.3
Source: Kureel R.S et.al, 2009
The oil is used for edible and cooking purposes. It is one of the ingredients of hydrogenated Vanaspati.
It is also used mainly in the manufacture of soaps, particularly laundry chips. It is also used as illuminant and
hair oil, especially in rural parts in the neighborhood of production centers.
VIII. COMMON USES OF MAHUA
1. Fodder: Leaves, flowers and fruits are lopped for goats and sheep. Seed cake is also fed to cattle.
2. Timber: The heartwood is reddish brown, strong, hard and durable; very heavy (929 kg/cu. m), takes a
fine finish. It is used for house construction, naves and felloes of cartwheels, door and window frames
3. Erosion control: Mahua has a large spreading superficial root system that holds soil together
4. Shade or shelter: The wide spreading crown provides shade for animals. Reclamation: Mahua is
planted on wasteland with hard lateritic soils in India.
5. Nitrogen fixing: Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and root colonization have been
observed in mahua.
6. Soil improver: The seed cake has been used as fertilizer
7. Ornamental: Mahua is occasionally planted as an avenue tree.
8. Boundary or barrier or support: It is planted along the boundaries of fields.
9. Intercropping: M. latifolia can be raised with agricultural crops.
IX. CONCLUSION
The study therefore indicates that mahua tree gives significantly high quantity of oil. The oil is rich in
PUFA and has desirable level of oleic and stearic acid to be used as cocoa substitute in confectionary products
and production of margarines, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The mahua oil also has potential for
alternative fuel options for diesel. The flowers are used as vegetable, for making cake, liquor etc. mahua is used
to cure Bronchitis, Rhematism, Diabetes, Piles, Eczema, Gums, Burns etc and flower juice is used in the
treatment of various disease and ailments. The seeds are thus valuable in meeting demands for food and food
supplements with functional, health-promoting properties in addition to industrial uses. As for the better
potential, good quality of mahua tree should be cultivated through plant tissue culture by means of micro
propagation. The research workers have to come along with the people of tribal community, so they may have
more and valuable knowledge. In coming next generation the importance of plant and mahua tree is going to be
Madhuca Lonigfolia (Sapotaceae): A Review Of Its Traditional Uses And
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increase because of their effectiveness, easy availability, low cost and comparatively being devoid of toxic
effect. Madhuca Indica has found several of pharmacological activity, yet several other activities have to be
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... Sapogenin and other basic acid have been found in the seeds. The flowers of this plant are well-known for their nutrient content and high reducing sugar (Mishra and Padhan, 2013) [9] . The seeds oil has emollient properties and has been used in skin diseases, rheumatism and head ache. ...
... Sapogenin and other basic acid have been found in the seeds. The flowers of this plant are well-known for their nutrient content and high reducing sugar (Mishra and Padhan, 2013) [9] . The seeds oil has emollient properties and has been used in skin diseases, rheumatism and head ache. ...
Research
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In the plant kingdom Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) and Clerodendrum infortunatum (Bhant) bears widely proven spectrum of medicinal properties. Mahua oil is used in medicine as embroilment, cure the skin diseases, rheumatism, headache, laxative, piles and haemorrhoids. Under the present study, phytochemical analysis of different extract of leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum and oil cakes of Madhuca longifolia were prepared with the five different solvents viz; distilled water, methanol, acetone, dichloromethane and hexane, which revealed the presence of various bioactive compounds. Quantitative analysis showed that among both the plant sources, Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) yielded higher total phenols (70.43±0.183mg/g in methanol) in comparison with Clerodendrum infortunatum (29.17±0.119mg/g in methanol). Methanol gave good results for extraction of phenols. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that Clerodendrum infortunatum (Bhant) leaves yielded higher flavonoid content (12.17±0.132 mg/g in acetone) and total tannins (13.87±0.086 mg/g in acetone) among both the plant extracts. Among the extraction solvents, acetone gave good results for extraction of flavonoids and tannins compared to distilled water, methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antimicrobial activity of both the plant extracts showed maximum zone of inhibition at 5% against both test organisms viz. Staphylococcus pasteuri (Gram positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram negative). Therefore the extracts of these two plants can be used for antimicrobial finish on textiles by various methods of finish application.
... 20-24 number of stamens are present and staminoids are absent. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] ...
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Madhuca longifolia (koen) macbr is an ever-green tree belonging to family sapotaceae commonly known as mahua. The leaf is used by the indigenous people of Australia in curing bleeding, gums, expectorant, cushing`s disease, wound healing activity and various ailments. The present study comprises macroscopy, microscopy, histochemistry, physicochemical parameters, phytochemical studies and florescence analysis. Pharmacognosy is the initial step for determining the status of organ of plant considered as a crude medicine; hence the current study was done, TLC of flavonoid as a chemical constituents present in the drug for establishing the biomarker compound. These studies will help in future for establishing the pharmacopoeial drug standards.
... M. longifolia flowers, fruits and leaves are edible (Fern 2014) and oil extracted from its seed is used for the manufacture of soaps and candles and is a remedy for seed pests and diseases (Orwa et al 2009). In ChotaNagpur plateau, Shorea robusta M. longifolia seeds boiled with flowers used as a substitute for grain staples by the tribals (Sunita et al 2013). The nectar produced by flowers is an excellent M. longifolia and valuable source of feeding for honey bees in the periods of scarcity (Singh and Upadhyay 2008). ...
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M. longifolia (J. Koenig ex L.) J.F. Macbr., also known as Mahua, is facing issues of gradual depletion and poor regeneration due to overexploitation and climate change. Present study highlights the distribution of suitable habitats of under the varying climatic M. longifolia conditions in eastern India using Maxen . At present about ~ 29,550.29 Km area possesses suitable habitat for the distribution of t 2 M. longifolia in the eastern region, with prominent distribution in Jharkhand comprising ~ 72% of total suitable area followed by Chhattisgarh with ~ 17 % area. The future projections for the year 2050 indicated an increase in suitable habitat area in the range of ~1.2- 2.7% with southward shifting but the pattern of distribution is getting confined to a narrower geographical range as compared to the existing extent. Variable Bio_3 (isothermality) followed by elevation was the major predictor variable in limiting the distribution of for the present as well as future M. longifolia climatic scenario. The outcome of the study provides an insight on suitable habitats of and promotion and conservation strategies M. longifolia on predicted areas shall enable better growth scenario and contribute towards socioeconomic upliftment of tribal communities in the region.
... [56] All parts of the Madhuca longifolia tree are used in traditional medicine, due to its various pharmacological properties like antipyretic, analgesic, anti inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. [57] So it is also called as the universal panacea of ayurvedic medicine. [58] Our institution is passionate about high quality evidence based research and has excelled in various fields. ...
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Background: Success of a root canal therapy depends on how well a clinician eradicates the microorganisms from the complex root canal system. Synthetic irrigants have been associated with harmful side effects. Herbal products with minimal side effects are gaining importance. Objectives: To evaluate the biocompatibility of novel irrigant from Madhuca longifolia seed extract on the L929 cell lines. Methods: The extract was prepared by using 10 gm of the powdered sample of Madhuca longifolia with 85% methanol using Soxhlet extraction method. L929 fibroblast cell lines were purchased and cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere at 37°C in the cell growth Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium. Cytotoxicity test was performed using MTT assay. The median lethal concentration of the test samples were expressed as the percentage survival of the cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc least-significant difference test was done. Results: Saponin extract showed 75% cell viability but Sodium hypochlorite showed a cell viability of 22%. Madhuca longifolia saponin seed extract at 300 and 400 micrograms concentration had a higher percentage of cell viability than the positive control, Sodium hypochlorite. Results were statistically significant with P value less than 0.05. Conclusion: Madhuca longifolia seed extract has been proven to be more biocompatible than sodium hypochlorite. It is also proven to have good antibacterial properties. Madhuca longifolia has the potential to be used as an intracanal irrigant.
... During food shortages in India, a mixture of Mahua flower and salted seeds (Shorea robusta) was used as the primary substitute for food grains. [7]. About 35% to 47% [8] of Mahua seeds contain a particular type of oil used to make various cleansers and candles. ...
Article
This investigation demonstrated a split-injection endeavour fuelled with biodiesel-ethanol strategies’ synergistic capabilities to meet the CI engine’s emissions-performance-stability prospect. The split injection attempt at different injection angles for each pilot and main injection. Here ethanol was injected into the inlet manifold for various periods. Analysis of the COVIMEP response from each injection technique showed that the corresponding test engine was more stable when powered by biodiesel instead of diesel or biodiesel-ethanol dual fuel. Except for a few cases, the engine’s stability was found within the acceptable limit powered by dual fuel. The maximum Exergy Efficiency and minimum Equivalent Brake Specific Energy Consumption were 48.79% and 21.03% better than biodiesel operation, 45.19% and 27.36% better than diesel operation. The results have shown that the minimum values of NOx, Soot and UHC of biodiesel-ethanol operation are 12.15%, 121%, 12.90% lower than Biodiesel 256.70%, 87%, 9.67% lower than diesel, respectively. This study also demonstrated various tribological aspects of lube oil through degradation rate analysis. Thus, the study revealed synergistic advantages of an existing CI engine running with Split Injection mode to achieve adequate performance and emission characteristics through biodiesel-ethanol RCCI techniques.
... The harvesting rights rest with daughters even when they get married. In some villagers of the region, when Mahua tree(s) die(s), the villagers visit relatives who own trees in abundance for collection (Sunita & Sarojini, 2013). ...
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Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia bark (EMLB-1: 100 mg/kg and EMLB-2: 200 mg/kg was prepared and anti-stress activity was investigated by Anoxia induced stress in mice, Immobilisation stress in rats and Swimming endurance test in mice. EMLB-2 exhibited remarkable effect as enhanced convulsion time in anoxia stress model and displayed significant effect as improved swimming time in mice in swimming endurance test. Both doses EMLB-1 and 2 reduced the serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and cortisol in rats as equated to control. Also, EMLB-2 produced remarkable protective effects on organs such as liver, adrenal gland, spleen and testes. The present experiments demonstrated that the EMLB possessed significant mood elevating action though future investigations called to ascertain the actual method of action involved in its anti-stress property.
... The harvesting rights rest with daughters even when they get married. In some villagers of the region, when Mahua tree(s) die(s), the villagers visit relatives who own trees in abundance for collection (Sunita & Sarojini, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia bark (EMLB-1: 100 mg/kg and EMLB-2: 200 mg/kg was prepared and anti-stress activity was investigated by Anoxia induced stress in mice, Immobilisation stress in rats and Swimming endurance test in mice. EMLB-2 exhibited remarkable effect as enhanced convulsion time in anoxia stress model and displayed significant effect as improved swimming time in mice in swimming endurance test. Both doses EMLB-1 and 2 reduced the serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen and cortisol in rats as equated to control. Also, EMLB-2 produced remarkable protective effects on organs such as liver, adrenal gland, spleen and testes. The present experiments demonstrated that the EMLB possessed significant mood elevating action though future investigations called to ascertain the actual method of action involved in its anti-stress property.
... Mahua oil is highly valued for their sensorial properties and health claims due to their balanced fatty acid composition (Ramadan et al. 2006). The popularity of mahua oil among a section of society is due to its medicinal applications in headache, emetic, laxative, hemorrhoids, emollient, rheumatism, constipation, skin disease, piles etc. (Sunita and Sarojini 2013). The oil is a well-known nutraceutical product that contains several natural ingredients with high nutritional values along with long shelf life (Mahajan et al. 2018). ...
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Madhuca latifolia Macbride (commonly known as Mahua) is an important multipurpose tree with great socioeconomic relevance. The post-harvest spoilage of fruits and seeds due to improper handling and filthy storage conditions is a major limitation to quality oil products. Therefore, a study was carried out to find the best storage medium and optimum duration to retain better oil content and other oil quality parameters. In order to evaluate the change in oil content and other quality parameters, the extracted and pre-treated mahua seeds were stored in 3 container bags (polythene, plastic and jute), kept under two storage environment (light and dark) and subjected to two air exposure (closed and open condition) were monitored at a monthly interval till 180 days. The oil content, saponification value and iodine value of the stored seeds were decreased with time while specific gravity, acid value and free fatty acid in the stored seeds increased. The oil content during storage was in order of polythene bag (44.09%) > cotton bag (42.78%) > plastic bag (33.89%). The closed plastic container exposed to light was the best storage method for retaining higher oil content. On the other hand, closed polythene bag kept in dark was the best storage method for retaining higher saponification value and this treatment combination is suggested to be good for soap industry.
... Mahua flowers are renewable, cheap carbohydrate substrate which comes from the non-agricultural environment such as a forest. Due to its sweet nature of flower, it is also used for the preparation of different kinds of Indian food dishes including kheer, puri, halwa etc. (Mishra and Pradhan 2013). The flowers of Mahua are medicinally important for various diseases and act as an aphrodisiac, galactagogue and carminative. ...
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The aim of the present study was to check the sugar content variability within the flowers of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia from Northern Western Ghats of India. For this study, vast survey was conducted during March-April of 2016 and total 99 accessions were collected for morphological and sugar analysis of flowers. From the study, it was revealed that accession ML01 has the highest amount of sugar (70.29 %) content compared to other accessions. Accession ML57 showed the highest amount of 100 flower weight. The present study will be useful for identifying high sugar containing germplasm from Northern Western Ghats. The mass multiplication of promising germplasms with the development of grafting techniques would pave ways for generating employment with economic stability to the tribal community of Western Ghats.
Article
Madhuca longifolia (J.Koenig) J.F.Macbr. belongs to the family Sapotaceae, also commonly known as mahua or butternut tree. Each part of the plant is known for its unique medicinal properties. This review aims to enhance the existence of application and extend the therapeutic potential of Madhuca species in Pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, agriculture and the food industry. Madhuca longifolia and all its products are widely used as a traditional and herbal medicine system. Even though they are used traditionally by a population of local areas, the potential of therapeutic existence is still uncovered. This systematic review is an exhaustive compilation of detailed data on phytochemistry, wide ethnopharmacological uses, medicinal properties and commercial application of mahua in different sectors. With the potential of spasmogenic, oxytocic, uterotonic, anti-bacterial, anti implantation, anti-tumor, anti-progestational, antiestrogenic activity against menorrhagia and anti-cancer, and many more. M. longifolia is also used in stomach ache, snake bite, scorpion bite, bone fractures, treatment of piles, joint pains, increase lactation, etc. It can contribute towards the development of the pharmaceutical sector and food industry too. Positively it will provide a path for future research for the development of herbal drugs and other products for agriculture and the food industry.
Article
The aim of the present study was to explore the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic bark extract of Madhuca longifolia (ML) in healthy, glucose loaded and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. All three animal groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) and the standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 500 μg/kg. Serum glucose level was determined on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of treatment. The extract exhibited a dose dependent hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models as compared with the standard antidiabetic agent glibenclamide. The antioxidant activity of the bark was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging activity. The results of the assay were then compared with a natural antioxidant ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The hypoglycemia produced by the extract may be due to the increased glucose uptake at the tissue level and/or an increase in pancreatic β-cell function, or due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption and a good source of compounds with antioxidant properties. Finally the study indicated the ethanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia to be a potential antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and the extract also exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity and superoxide scavenging activity.
Article
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of flowers of Madhuca longifolia using paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats. Two doses of methanolic extract of Madhuca longifolia (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (2 gm/kg). The methanolic extract showed significant (p<0.005) protective effect by lowering serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and total bilirubin, and by increasing serum levels of total protein and albumin in the selected model. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The present study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of M. longifolia validating the traditional use of flowers.
Article
Madhuca longifolia commonly known as the 'Butter nut tree' is used traditionally in the Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of Madhuca longifolia was administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats and investigated for its antidiabetic properties. Administration of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg extract (once a day, for thirty consecutive days) significantly lowered blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, serum triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol levels showed marked improvement which indicates that the hydroethanolic extract possesses antihyperglycemic activity.
Article
The crude methanolic extract of Madhuca indica (Sapotaceae) at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male wistar rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan-induced oedema right hind paw volume while the analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced abdominal pains, i.e. nociception response and the brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Phytochemical screening of the alcoholic extract revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenes. All the doses of the plant methanolic extract and the indomethacin significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation that was not dose-dependent. The plant extract reduced the acetic acid-induced pain licking. The plant extract reduced the brewer's yeast-provoked elevated body temperature in rats after 60 mins for 50 and 100 mg/kg dose range and 30 mins for 200 mg/kg dose range. The results suggest a potential benefit of M. indica methanolic extract in treating conditions associated with fever, inflammation and pain. These properties might be adduced to the presence of the phytoconstituents.
Article
The present study deals with the microscopical and macroscopical investigation on leaves, petioles and stems of Madhuca longifolia Fam. Sapotaceae. Madhuca longifolia commonly known as 'Mahua' is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as hepatoprotective, antipyretics, anti-Inflammatory, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anti-diabetic and in wound healing activity. The transverse section of leaf shows epidermis single layered on both the surfaces and covered with thin cuticle, cortex, pith, vascular region with xylem and phloem. Leaves consists uniseriate type of trichomes. The paracytic types of stomata are present in both lower and upper surface of leaves. The transverse section of Petiole shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle, vascular bundles, xylem surrounded by the phloem. The transverse section of stem shows cork, cortex, xylem, phloem and pith. The powder microscopy shows paracytic stomata, uniseriate and covering type of trichomes, parenchymatous cells and fragments of vascular tissue. The quantitative microscopical studies of leaf were also carried out and various leaf content such as palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, stomata number, stomatal index.
Article
Method: The analgesic effect was screened through tail flick, hot plate and chemical writhing methods. The probable mechanism of action through opioid receptors was elucidated by i.m. administration of naloxone -specific antagonists 30 min before the last dose of aqueous or alcoholic extract of M.longifolia. Result: Graded doses of both aqueous and alcoholic extract of M.longifolia (4.0 to 64.0 mg/kg, i.m. X 3 days) produced dose dependent analgesic effect in all the three nociceptive methods carried out either in rats or mice. The analgesic effect exhibited by both the extracts was not antagonized by naloxone in rats only. Conclusion: The analgesic effect exhibited by both aqueous and alcoholic extracts does not mediate through opioid receptors. Analgesic effect Madhuka longifolia aqueous extract alcoholic extract tail flick method hot plate method chemical writhings Madhuka longifolia (Mahua) which belongs to Sapotaceae family and flowers have been tradition-ally used as cooling agent, tonic, aphrodisiac, as-tringent, demulcent and for the treatment of helminths, acute and chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis 1 as well as bronchitis 2 . In Bihar, LATTA is prepared by mixing and grinding the equal amount of Mahua flowers with roasted maize grain, which is claimed to be effective in arthritis to relieve pain. During the preliminary pharmacological screening of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Madhuka longifolia (M.longifolia) carried out in our laboratory, an anti-nociceptive activity for these extracts was observed. Therefore, it is thought worthwhile to investigate this activity in detail and also the probable mechanism of antinociceptive action.
Article
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and polyurea and this is the leading disease in the world causing morbidity. Many allopathic medicines are available to treat diabetes, but treatment associates with many side effects which were compensated by replacing allopathic medicine with natural drugs. Many natural drugs shown significant antidiabetic activity but all those natural drugs are not commonly available which provoked us to initiate the present study of evaluation of Antidiabetic activity of Madhuca indica. In this present study we extracted Madhuca indica by using different solvents viz. methanol, Petroleum ether and water. Among these extracts Methanolic extract of Madhuca indica has shown significant anti diabetic activity against streptozotocin and streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced diabetic models in wistar rats.