Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Haiti: Past, Present, and Future

National Center for Environmental Health, and Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 10/2013; 89(4):665-670. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0217
Source: PubMed


Haiti has the lowest rates of access to improved water and sanitation infrastructure in the western hemisphere. This situation was likely exacerbated by the earthquake in 2010 and also contributed to the rapid spread of the cholera epidemic that started later that same year. This report examines the history of the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector in Haiti, considering some factors that have influenced WASH conditions in the country. We then discuss the situation sine the earthquake and subsequent cholera epidemic, and the responses to those events. Finally, drawing on Haiti's National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti 2013-2022, we suggest some actions that could help bring about long-term WASH improvements for the future. Because the current WASH situation has evolved over decades of limited attention and resources, it will take a long-term, sustained effort to improve the situation.

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Available from: Molly Patrick, Jan 15, 2016
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    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
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    ABSTRACT: The current epidemic of El Tor cholera in the Caribbean republic of Haiti is one of the largest single outbreaks of the disease ever recorded. The prospects are that the epidemic will continue to present challenges to workers in public health medicine, epidemiology, and allied fields in the social sciences for years to come. This article introduces geographers to the environmental context of the Haiti cholera epidemic, the principal data sources available to analyze the occurrence of the epidemic, and evidence regarding its geographical origins and dispersal during the first thirty months of the epidemic, October 2010 through March 2013. Using weekly case data collated by the Haitian Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population (MSPP), techniques of time series analysis are used to examine inter- and intradepartmental patterns of cholera activity. Our analysis demonstrates a pronounced lag structure to the spatial development of the epidemic (Artibonite and northern departments → Ouest and metropolitan Port-au-Prince → southern departments). Observed variations in levels of epidemiological integration, both within and between departments, provide new perspectives on the spatiotemporal evolution of the epidemic to its March 2013 pattern.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Annals of the Association of American Geographers