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Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs

  • Ecole Normale de Kouba, Algeria

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Background: Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). Methods: The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. Results: RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 µl of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.
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Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe
anti-inflammatory drugs
Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem
*, Abdelkrim Kameli
, Mohamed Amine
, Fairouz Saidi
and Maamar Mekarnia
Laboratoire Eco-Physiologie Ve
tale, De
partement des Sciences Naturelles, Ecole Normale
rieure de Kouba, Alger, Algeria;
Laboratoire Biotechnologies Ve
tales, De
partement de
Biologie, Universite
Saad Dahleb de Blida, Algeria;
Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Produits
Bioactifs et Valorisation de la Biomasse, Ecole Normale Supe
rieure de Kouba, Alger, Algeria;
Extral-Bio de Production des Huiles Essentielles et Cosme
tiques Bio, route de
Chiffa, Blida, Algeria
Background: Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search
for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries.
Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose
geranium (RGEO).
Methods: The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major
components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan-
induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three
different doses.
Results: RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that
observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory
activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 mlof
RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to
demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis
confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-
inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.
Keywords: essential oils; rose geranium; citronellol; anti-inflammatory effect; skin inflammation; histopathology; carrageenan;
*Correspondence to: Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem, Laboratoire Eco-Physiologie Ve´ge´tale, De´partement
des Sciences Naturelles, Ecole Normale Supe´rieure de Kouba, BP 92, 16050 Vieux-Kouba, Alger, Algeria,
Tel: 213557283091, Email:
Received: 2 August 2013; Revised: 16 September 2013; Accepted: 16 September 2013; Published: 7 October 2013
he World Health Organization projected that 80%
of people in emerging nations rely on medicinal
plants for primary health care needs. The cost of
acquiring synthetic drugs, their insufficient supplies,
the side effects associated with their uses, and the belief
that plants hold the cure for many disease conditions
(including inflammatory disorders) has led to a reawa-
kening of interest in the utilization of plants and plant
extracts in recent years. There is a need to expand
scientific investigation into medicinal plants especially
those claiming to have beneficial effects in serious
illnesses (1, 2).
Commercially available anti-inflammatory drugs exert a
wide range of side effects and are either too potent or too
weak. Consequently, the search for new anti-inflammatory
compounds has been a priority for the pharmaceutical
industry. Medicinal plants continue to be an important
source of new chemical substances with potential ther-
apeutic effects (3). Numerous natural products have been
tested in various animal models for the development of
new anti-inflammatory agents. Plant essential oils (EO)
are used as folk medicine against various kinds of inflam-
matory diseases. Some of them have also been scientifi-
cally shown to possess medicinal activities, including
(page number not for citation purpose)
Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013. # 2013 Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 -
anti-inflammatory activities, in experimental systems
in vitro and in vivo (46).
In Algeria, the use of medicinal plants as anti-
inflammatory drugs is a common practice, although in
most cases the active principles of the plants are
unknown. Therefore, the study of plant species should
still be seen as a logical research strategy, in search for
new anti-inflammatory drugs. The variety of climatic and
geographic conditions in Algeria provides a rich source of
vegetation, comprising many species of plants (7).
Among these plants, rose geranium, which belongs to
the Geraniaceae family, has been widely used for its
antibacterial and antifungal actions. The RGEO is
extracted from the leaves and stems of the plant by steam
distillation. The RGEO is composed of various chemical
constituents such as linalool, citronellol, geraniol, and
their esters (8, 9). Rose geranium is one of the most
fragrant species and its EO is used in the perfumery and
cosmetics industry. It is also used as a flavoring agent and
as a spice. Further, the RGEO is non-toxic, non-irritant,
generally non-sensitizing, and it is not known to cause
any other side effects. The therapeutic properties of
RGEO include being an antidepressant, antiseptic and
wound-healing (vulnerary). RGEO may also be one of
the best oils for diverse dermatological problems such as
oily or congested skin, eczema, and dermatitis (10, 11).
Presently, there are no published scientific data to
validate the popular claims of anti-inflammatory activity
of the plant. The purpose of the present study was to
evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of RGEO using
the carrageenan-induced paw edema and croton oil-
induced ear edema tests. In addition, we describe the
identification of the various constituents of RGEO by gas
chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS).
Material and methods
Plant material and EO extraction
Rose-scented geranium was cultivated in the aromatic
garden of ‘Extral-Bio’ Company (Blida city, Algeria).
The aerial parts of the plant were collected in September
2012. Identification of the plant was confirmed by the
National Institute of Agronomy (Algiers, Algeria).
EO was obtained by steam distillation of fresh plant
material (Extral-Bio Company) in a stainless steel
distillation apparatus (alembic) for 3 h. The procedure
consists of passing water vapor at low pressure through a
tank containing the aromatic plant parts. The steam
captures the oil trapped in micro-pockets within the plant
tissue. The steam then passes through a cold-water
refrigerated serpentine to be condensed into liquid.
Upon exit, the collected liquid is a mixture of oil
and floral water, which are easily separated using a
Florentine vase. The RGEO thus obtained was dried
over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and stored at
48C until tested.
MS analyses
GC analyses were performed using a Hewlett-Packard
(HP, Palo Alto, CA, USA) gas chromatograph equipped
with a flame ionization detector and HP5-MS capillary
column (30 m, 0.32 mm, 0.25 mm film thickness). The
oven temperature was programmed isothermally for 8
min at 458C and then 452408Cat28C/min for 15 min.
Injector and detector temperatures were 250 and 2808C,
respectively. Carrier gas was nitrogen at a flow rate of
1.2 ml/min in split mode 1:70 with an injection volume of
1 ml. The composition of RGEO was computed by the
normalization method from the GC peak areas.
GCMS analyses were performed using a Hewlett-
Packard GC system interfaced with a mass spectrometer
equipped with an HP5-MS capillary column (30 m, 0.32
mm, 0.25 mm film thicknesses). For GCMS detection,
electron ionization with ionization energy of 70 eV
was used. Helium was the carrier gas at a flow rate of
1.2 ml/min with an injection volume of 1 ml. Injector
and detector temperatures were set at 250 and 2808 C,
Identification of the components of rose geranium
volatile oil were made by matching their recorded mass
spectra with the mass spectra data bank (Wiley 7N and
NIST 2002 libraries) and by comparing their reten-
tion indices (RIs) relative to a series of hydrocarbons
(C7C28) with literature values (12).
Experimental animals
Carrageenan-induced paw edema and croton oil-induced
ear edema was carried out on male Swiss mice (2530 g).
Male animals were purchased from the laboratory of
toxicology of Antibiotical Saidal Company (Medea,
Algeria) and were housed in groups of six per standard
cage, on a 12 h light/dark cycle with free access to food
and water. They were acclimatized to laboratory condi-
tions for at least 1 week before testing. The food was
withdrawn on the day before the experiment, but free
access to water was allowed. A minimum of six animals
was used in each group.
Determination of median lethal dose (LD
of the RGEO was estimated in mice by using the
method of Hilan et al. (13). In a preliminary test, animals
in groups of three received 10, 100, or 1,000 mg/kg of
RGEO suspended in the vehicle (1% v/v Tween 80).
Animals were observed for 24 h for signs of toxicity and
number of deaths. The LD
was calculated as the
geometric mean of the dose that resulted in 100%
mortality and that which caused no deaths.
Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem et al.
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Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 -
In vivo
anti-inflammatory activity assay
Carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice
The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the
carrageenan-induced paw edema test (14). Paw edema
was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of the carrageenan 1%
suspension in isotonic saline (w/v) into the sub-plantar
region of the left hind paw of the mouse.
RGEO doses of 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg and vehicle
(0.2% Tween 80 in 0.9% NaCl) were administrated
(0.5 ml per animal) orally (per os) 30 min before injection
of the edematogenic agent to different groups of mice
for each treatment (n 6 per group). Diclofenac sodium
dissolved in 0.9% NaCl (50 mg/kg, oral) was used as
a reference drug. Paw thickness was measured before the
application of the inflammatory substance and every
30 min for 4 h after induction of inflammation. The
difference in footpad thickness was measured by a gauge
calliper (Facom, Paris, France).
Mean values of treated groups were compared with
those of control group (vehicle) and analyzed statistically.
The data obtained for the various groups are reported as
means9standard deviation (SD) and expressed in mm.
The percentage inhibition of the inflammatory reaction
was determined for each animal by comparison to the
controls and calculated by the formula:
I (%)
where I (%) percent inhibition of edema, (DPV)t the
change in paw volume in the treated mice, and (DPV)c
the change in paw volume in the control mice.
Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice
To estimate the anti-inflammatory activity of RGEO in
vivo, we used the acute inflammation model of croton oil-
induced mouse ear edema according to the method
described by Sosa et al. (15). An acetone solution of
croton oil (100 mg/15 ml) was carefully applied to the inner
surface of the left ear of each mouse. The right ear
remained untreated. Vehicle (2 ml/kg) and different doses
of the RGEO (200 or 400 ml/kg) were applied topically to
the left ear about 30 min before the croton oil treatment.
As a reference, we applied 1 mg/ear of the non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium 1% gel
(Voltaren Emulgel, Novartis, France). For evaluation of
the activity, two different ways were followed:
1) The thickness of each ear was measured with a
gauge calliper 4 h after induction of inflammation.
The edema was expressed as the difference between
the right and left ears.
2) Four hours after induction of inflammation, the
mice were sacrificed and a tissue sample (a plug 5
mm in diameter) was removed with a Punch Biopsy
(LCH Medical products, Paris, France) from both
treated (left) and untreated (right) ears. The percen-
tage inhibition of the inflammation was determined
for each animal by comparison to the controls and
calculated by the following formula:
I (%)
where I (%)percent inhibition of edema, (DWT)t the
change in weight of ear tissue in the treated mice, and
(DWT)cthe change in weight of ear tissue in the control
Histopathological examination of mouse ear tissue
For morphological assessment of cutaneous inflamma-
tion, biopsies from control and treated ears of mice in
each treatment group were collected at the end of the
experiment. Samples were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and
decalcified. Fixed tissues were serially sliced at a thick-
ness of 5.0 mm using a microtome (Leica, Nussloch,
Germany). The sections were stained with Harry’s
Hematoxylin-Eosin. The tissues were examined by a light
microscope (Olympus) without blinding and graded for
edema as mild (), moderate (), or severe ().
The tissue samples were also examined for epidermal
hyperplasia and for inflammatory cell infiltration (mono-
nuclear and/or polymorphonuclear cells) in the dermis
inflammation phase.
Statistical analysis
Results of the paw edema of the mice are reported
as mean9SD. Comparison between groups was made
by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed
by Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison test. Differences
with P B0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Statistical data analysis was determined by probit analysis
using XLStats 2013 Pros statistical software (Addinsoft,
Paris, France).
Results and discussion
Chemical composition of volatile oil
The EO was obtained by steam distillation in a stainless
steel alembic from fresh aerial part of rose-scented
geranium. The rose geranium oil obtained is a yellowish-
green liquid. It has a strong lemon-rose odor. The EO
was obtained with a yield of 0.15% (v/w). In a recent
study (16), it has been reported that a higher yield is
obtained during spring/summer (0.1%) than during
autumn/winter, with an average yield of 0.06%.
The volatile oil was analyzed by GC-MS. Qualitative
and quantitative studies of the oil volatile profiles are
listed in Table 1 in order of their retention indices.
In total, 20 compounds representing 83.5% of the EO
were identified. Citronellol (29.1%), geraniol (12.6%),
Anti-inflammatory activity of RGEO
Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 - 3
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citronellyl formate (8.1%), geranyl tiglate (7.1%), and
linalool (4.5%) were the major compounds in the oil,
with minor quantities of geranyl butyrate (2.0%) and
geranyl acetate (1.6%). Other constituents were found
in smaller amounts ( B2%). The rose geranium oil con-
sisted mainly of oxygenated monoterpenes (76.9%) and
oxygenated sesquiterpenes (3.3%).
The data presented here are consistent with previous
reports (9, 17), which demonstrated that rose geranium oils
are characterized by citronellol (22.032.9%) as the most
important component. However, our results diverge from
those published by other studies (18). Generally, the
observed differences in chemical composition of rose
geranium oils, when compared with those reported in
previous studies could be due to a number of factors,
including differences in climatic conditions and geogra-
phical locations, season at the time of collection, and
fertilization (17, 19). Previous reports revealed that
although the chemical composition of the RGEO differed
owing to the geographical origin, compounds such as
alcohols, ketones, esters, and mainly aldehydes have
consistently been recorded (8, 17).
Determination of median lethal dose (LD
The RGEO did not cause any mortality in the mice in doses
up to 1,000 mg/kg. Therefore, we suggest that oral LD
the tested volatile oil 1,000 mg/kg. Thus, this oil can be
considered as highly safe. Geranium oils were granted
GRAS status (Generally Recognized As Safe) and ap-
proved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
for food use (8).
Anti-inflammatory activity of EO
Carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice
The anti-inflammatory effect of EO was evaluated in
carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, an animal
model widely employed to assess the anti-edematogenic
effect of natural products. Carrageenan is commonly
used as a phlogistic (inflammation-inducing) agent. The
resulting signs and symptoms of inflammation can be
measured as an increase in paw thickness due to the
The anti-inflammatory effect of the EO (100400 mg/kg)
was evaluated in the paw edema model (n 6 per group).
As shown in Table 2, the oral administration of EO at
doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg resulted in 30, 38 and
73% reduction in paw edema, respectively. Furthermore,
the inhibition of paw edema resulting from a 100-mg/kg
EO dose was not significantly different from that of
diclofenac (50 mg/kg) (73.1% vs. 80.8%, P0.05). This
is the first demonstration that oral administration of
RGEO produces significant anti-inflammatory effects.
This evidence allows us to suggest that the anti-
inflammatory actions of RGEO are related to the
inhibition of one or more intracellular signaling pathways
involved in the effects of several inflammatory mediators.
A study carried out by Abe et al. (20) showed that the EO
of geranium suppressed the adherence response of human
neutrophils in vitro, and the intra-peritoneal administra-
tion of this oil to mice lowered induced neutrophil
recruitment into the peritoneal cavity.
Results from an investigation carried out on a number
of EOs established that a single intra-peritoneal injection
of RGEO clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced
foot paw edema, and repeated administration of the oil
suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results re-
vealed that RGEO suppressed both acute and chronic
inflammatory responses in mice (21, 22).
Attempts have been made to identify the component(s)
responsible for such bioactivities (23). Some plant con-
stituents, particularly alcohol terpenoids (geraniol and
citronellol), have been reported to be useful in the manage-
ment of inflammatory processes (2326). Our results are
in agreement with those reported in the literature for
other EOs rich in monoterpenic alcohol and showing
Table 1
. Chemical profile of rose geranium essential oil
extracted by steam distillation
No. Compounds
RI Content %
1 a-Pinene 926 0.85
2 Linalool 1,125 4.52
3 cis-Rose oxide 1,129 0.92
4 trans-Rose oxide 1,131 0.36
5 Menthone 1,156 4.21
6 Citronellol 1,167 29.13
7 Geraniol 1,271 12.62
8 Citronellyl formate 1,275 8.06
9 Geranyl formate 1,300 3.46
10 Citronellyl acetate 1,342 0.43
11 a-Copaene 1,356 1.13
12 Geranyl acetate 1,366 1.58
13 Caryophellene 1,391 1.76
14 Citronellyl propanoate 1,444 0.66
15 a-Agarofuran 1,545 0.4
16 Geranyl N-butyrate 1,562 2.02
17 Phenylethyl tiglate 1,584 1.26
18 10-epi-gamma-Eudesmol 1,619 3.31
19 Citronellyl tiglate 1,667 0.48
20 Geranyl tiglate 1,700 7.14
Total identified 83.45
Oxygenated monoterpenes 76.85
Monoterpene hydrocarbons 1.13
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 3.31
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 2.16
RIs (retention indices) were calculated on the HP-5 MS column
relative to C7-C28 n-alkanes.
Compounds listed in order of elution from an HP-5 MS column.
Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem et al.
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Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 -
a very strong anti-inflammatory effect. Further, the
major constituents of the oil, namely citronellol, geraniol,
and linalool, were previously shown to possess anti-
inflammatory activities (20, 27). It has been reported
(24) that RGEO might be beneficial in the prevention/
treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in which inflam-
mation is part of the pathophysiology.
Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice
Since we found that RGEO has anti-inflammatory
activity in carrageenan-induced edema, we evaluated its
activity further in croton oil-induced ear edema to assess
the potential anti-inflammatory effect of topically applied
RGEO in vivo. The results showed dose-dependent
reduction of ear edema (Table 3). RGEO at doses of
200 or 400 ml/kg applied topically produced 73 and 88%
inhibition of ear edema, respectively. Diclofenac sodium
(40 mg/kg) produced 85% inhibition of croton oil-
induced inflammation, and this effect was not statistically
different from that observed with the maximum dose of
RGEO. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
report to demonstrate that Algerian RGEO possesses
significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Increased skin thickness is often the first hallmark
of skin irritation and local inflammation. This parameter
is an indicator of a number of processes that occur dur-
ing skin inflammation, including increased vascular per-
meability, edema and swelling within the dermis, and
proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. In our study,
treatment with EO (200 or 400 ml/kg) caused signifi-
cant decreases in edematous ear thickness of 0.19 and
0.15 mm, respectively.
In accordance with our results, Abe et al. (20) reported
that cutaneous application of EOs, especially RGEO, can
suppress inflammatory symptoms observed as reductions
in neutrophil accumulation and edema. More recently,
the efficacy of RGEO and geraniol was tested against
vaginal candidiasis as well as vaginal inflammation and
Candida growth form. The vaginal application of RGEO
successfully suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina
and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal
washing, demonstrating the protective effect of RGEO
and its main monoterpene against vaginal inflammation
in mice (25).
Topical application of certain EOs, including RGEO,
is popular in the practice of aromatherapy and body
massage. Several of these oils are used to treat inflam-
matory conditions with neutrophil accumulation: rheu-
matoid arthritis, aphthous stomatitis, and bacterial or
fungal infections (20).
Histopathology analyses of ear tissue
We examined H&E-stained ear sections from croton oil
treated animals. Local application of croton oil resulted
in a marked increase in ear thickness with clear evidence
of epidermal hyperplasia, edema, and substantial inflam-
matory cell infiltration in the dermis with associated
connective tissue disturbance (Fig. 1C and D). Based on
the histological assessment, RGEO treatment reduced
edematous ear thickness and associated pathological
indicators to an extent comparable to the positive
control, diclofenac (Fig. 1B). The results of the histo-
pathology analysis were similar in carrageenan and
croton oil-induced edema methods. These results directly
Table 2
. Effect of rose geranium essential oil on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (n6)
Treatment Dose (mg/kg) Thickness of the left hind paw (mm), mean9SD Inhibition of paw edema (%)
Negative control 20 3.190.15
RGEO 400 390.05
RGEO 200 2.8890.11
RGEO 100 2.8190.17
Diclofenac 50 2.7690.12
Groups if mice were pretreated with vehicle (control group, 20 mg/kg, p.o., n6) diclofenac (50 mg/kg) or rose geranium essential oil at
doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg (p.o., n6/group) 30 min before carrageenan-induced paw edema. Means within the same column
followed by the same small letter are not significantly different (P 0.05) according to ANOVA one-way analysis followed by Tukey’s post
hoc multiple comparison test.
Table 3
. Topical application of rose geranium essential oil
prevents croton oil-induced ear edema in mice
Treatment Dose (ml/kg)
Weight edema
(mg) mean9SD Inhibition (%)
Negative Control 50 23.7597.67
RGEO 200 11.2593.30
RGEO 400 8.7592.21
Diclofenac 40 9.2593.09
Data are presented as mean (mm)9standard deviation (SD)
(n6 per group).
Means within the same column followed by the same small letter
are not significantly different (P0.05) according to ANOVA one-
way analysis followed by Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison
Anti-inflammatory activity of RGEO
Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 - 5
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illustrate the effects of RGEO within the target tissue,
providing further evidence that RGEO ameliorates cro-
ton oil-induced contact dermatitis. Our results are in
agreement with a study by Al-Reza et al. (28), whose
histological analysis revealed that Jujuba fruit oil inhi-
bited the inflammatory responses of skin inflammation.
RGEO is used as an antibacterial and antifungal
agent in folk medicine as well as a food preservative.
The results of our present study together with those
of other researchers give strong impetus to the considera-
tion of RGEO as a potentially useful anti-inflammatory
agent both for the prevention and treatment of acute
or chronic inflammatory skin diseases. In addition,
study of the major chemical constituents of RGEO might
accelerate the development of new, effective, and safe
anti-inflammatory drugs.
Conflict of interest and funding
The authors have not received any funding or benefits
from industry or elsewhere to conduct this study.
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Fig. 1. Histopathology sections of mouse ear biopsies representing keratin, epidermal, dermal, and cartilage layers
(magnification xl00). Harry’s hematoxylin-eosin stained sections were scored as mild (), moderate (), and severe ()
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Citation: Libyan Journal of Medicine 2013, 8: 22520 - 7
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... International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts (IJCRT) f322 residue in the extract are some of the challenges encountered when using different extraction methods [6]. These shortcomings have led to the consideration of the use of new green extraction techniques and procedures that may contribute to environmental preservation by reducing the use of solvents, fossil energy and generation of hazardous substances [6]. ...
... f322 residue in the extract are some of the challenges encountered when using different extraction methods [6]. These shortcomings have led to the consideration of the use of new green extraction techniques and procedures that may contribute to environmental preservation by reducing the use of solvents, fossil energy and generation of hazardous substances [6]. However, the high capital cost of these alternatives and the level of expertise required to operate the instruments effectively, has precluded their wide acceptance [7] such that soxhlet extraction and steam distillation methods are still widely accepted options in the laboratory. ...
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The present work has been studied on investigation of harvesting conditions of Geranium plantation. Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) commonly known as rose-scented pelargonium, rose-scented geranium or rose geranium is one of the many fragrant species of Pelargonium, belonging to the family Geraniaceae. Geranium oil is one of the top 20 essential oils in the world, which has wide application in perfumery, cosmetics and flavor industry etc. It forms a part of many high-grade perfumes, antifungal, insect repellant and antibacterial activity; thus, it has extensive use in medicinal and agrochemical field. In literature, several authors were used different traditional extraction methods; such as soxhlet extraction, hydro distillation, solvent extraction and steam distillation etc. In this work, author has used the most promised technique as steam distillation for geranium oil extraction. The purpose of this work is to investigate the suitable conditions of geranium harvesting and method of suitability for extraction of geranium with higher yield in limited facilities and lower cost. Finally, author has conducted detailed analysis on soil for harvesting conditions of geranium plants and characterization of geranium oil by using GC-Analysis.
... 27 The stabilization/protection of the membranes of lysosomes could be the probable mechanism of action of L. cornuta extracts when used to decrease inflammation during wound healing since it aids the release of less tissue-damaging enzymes to the inflamed site. 26,27 The Carrageenan-induced paw oedema/swelling technique described by Boukhatem et al. 57 and Rahman et al. 35 was adopted to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the studied plant extract. Carrageenan, a polysaccharide extracted from algae (Chondrus crispus), 58,59 induces inflammation in a highly sensitive and reproducible way. ...
... 60,61 Upon introducing carrageenan into mice's hind paw, it acts as a thermal and chemical stimulus, thus provoking the mice's immune defence mechanisms to respond, with the aim of destroying and clearing the stimulus. 35,57,59 In the process, complex inflammatory mechanisms evoke the development of oedema, which is the physical manifestation of inflammation. 62 The development of the swelling (oedema) in the sub plantar tissue of the mice after injection of carrageenan is caused by the release of serotonin, prostaglandin, bradykinin, histamine, among other pro-inflammatory mediators. ...
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The root and leaf extracts of Launaea cornuta have been locally used in traditional medicine for decades to manage inflammatory conditions and other oxidative-stress-related syndromes; however, their pharmacologic efficacy has not been scientifically investigated and validated. Accordingly, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) efficacy, acute oral toxicity, and qualitative phytochemical composition of the aqueous root extract of L. cornuta. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the 2,2-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test methods were used to determine the studied plant extract's antioxidant activity. Besides, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the studied plant extract was investigated using in vitro (anti-proteinase and protein denaturation), ex vivo (membrane stabilization), and in vivo (carrageenan-induced paw oedema in Swiss albino mice) methods. The studied plant extract demonstrated significant in vitro antioxidant effects, which were evidenced by higher DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activities, in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Generally, the studied plant extract exhibited significant in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy, respectively, and in a concentration/dose-dependent manner compared with respective controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, the studied plant extract did not cause any observable signs of acute oral toxicity, even at the cutoff dose of 2000 mg/Kg BW (LD 50 > 2000 mg/Kg BW), and was thus considered safe. Additionally, qualitative phytochemistry revealed the presence of various antioxidant-and anti-inflamma-tory-associated phytochemicals, which were deemed responsible for the reported pharmacologic efficacy. Further studies to characterise bioactive molecules and their mode(s) of pharmacologic efficacy are encouraged.
... Dipsacus inermis an edible perennial herb which is extensively used in Kashmiri traditional medicine for treatment of wide range of ailments like body ache, cough, swelling and sore throat (Bhat et al., 2012;Khan et al., 2016;Jeelani et al., 2017;Kanta et al., 2018). Plants have always been considered as rich source of the new anti-inflammatory agents due to their extensive use in folk medicine (Boukhatem et al., 2013). The genus Dipsacus has provided various anti-inflammatory compounds including, Caffeoylquinic acids, Caffeic acid, Dipsacus saponin B and C, etc. (Zhao and Shi, 2011). ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Dipsacus inermis Wall. is an edible Himalayan herb which is extensively used in traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine against various inflammation related disorders. Aim of the study: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Dipsacus inermis Wall. methanol extract (DIME) by using in vitro and in vivo models and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of action. Materials and methods: The in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of DIME was determined in LPS stimulated J774A.1 cells. The inhibitory effect of DIME on COX-2, PGE2 and inflammatory cytokines was determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. The suppression of ROS in response to DIME was determined by flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 and IκB degradation was determined by western blotting. Results: Significant inhibition of NO, COX-2, PGE2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 was found in response to DIME in LPS stimulated J774A.1 cells. The extract was found to down regulate the LPS induced expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2 along with inhibition of intracellular ROS. The in vivo studies carried on Wistar rats showed significant preventive effect of DIME against acetic acid induced increase in vascular permeability and carrageenan induced paw edema along with stabilization of histopathological alterations. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that DIME has significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect which is mediated by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our data opened a promising new pharmacological approach of designing anti-inflammatory drugs by studying individual fractions of the plant extract.
... The use of geranium essential oil is highly efficient against different dysfunctions on the skin physiology, including acne, dry skin, skin aging, dermatitis or eczema. This is commonly ascribed to the high concentration of specific EOCs, among which are included linalool, geranyl formate, citronellol, and geraniol, which contribute to the restoration of the skin native elasticity and the enhancement of the blood circulation to the skin [147]. Furthermore, geranium essential oil allows regulating the hydration balance on the skin and the renewal of skin cells, which are very important aspects for mitigating the effects of acne [148]. ...
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The current consumer demands together with the international regulations have pushed the cosmetic industry to seek new active ingredients from natural renewable sources for manufacturing more eco-sustainability and safe products, with botanical extract being an almost unlimited source of these new actives. Essential oils (EOs) emerge as very common natural ingredients in cosmetics and toiletries as a result of both their odorous character for the design and manufacturing of fragrances and perfumes, and the many beneficial properties of their individual components (EOCs), e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, nowadays, the cosmetic industry includes EOs or different mixtures of their individual components (EOCs), either as active ingredients or as preservatives, in various product ranges (e.g., moisturizers, lotions and cleanser in skin care cosmetics; conditioners, masks or antidandruff products in hair care products; lipsticks, or fragrances in perfumery). However, the unique chemical profile of each individual essential oil is associated with different benefits, and hence it is difficult to generalize their potential applications in cosmetics and toiletries, which often require the effort of formulators in seeking suitable mixtures of EOs or EOCs for obtaining specific benefits in the final products. This work presents an updated review of the available literature related to the most recent advances in the application of EOs and EOCs in the manufacturing of cosmetic products. Furthermore, some specific aspects related to the safety of EOs and EOCs in cosmetics will be discussed. It is expected that the information contained in this comprehensive review can be exploited by formulators in the design and optimization of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts.
... A nanoemulsion containing geranium oil in macrophages was shown to inhibit COX-2 gene expression as well as other inflammatory mediators 45 . The essential oils of Pelargonium spp are famed for their soothing and anti-inflammatory effects 46 . Eugenol, a phenylpropene also detected in our study is known to inhibit COX-2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells 47 . ...
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We investigated the antineoplastic activities of extracts of Pelargonium inquinans leaves, a plant native to South Africa on acute leukemia cell lines, U937 and Jurkat and the inflammatory effect (nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase-2) on RAW 264.7 cells. The extracts of Pelargonium inquinans have significant cytotoxicity especially on U937 cells and pro-inflammatory release of nitric oxide on RAW 264.7 macrophages. The GC-MS study of the essential oil showed it had more than a hundred compounds. This study showed that Pelargonium inquinans have antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory activities which can be further explored in In Vivo studies.
... El aceite esencial de citronela es utilizado ampliamente en la industria cosmética, principalmente en perfumes y en la industria alimentaria como saborizante y conservante (Atailia y Djahoudi, 2015). Algunas investigaciones han reportado su actividad antiinflamatoria, antioxidante, hipoglucemiante, antimicrobiana e inmunoestimulante (Boukhris et al., 2012;Boukhatem et al., 2013). ...
Citronella (Pelargonium graveolens) is a medicinal aromatic plant that has bioactive compounds such as citronellol and ge-raniol. The objective of this work was to evaluate the propagation of citronella using the leaves and the establishment of the new plant under shade net. The treatments that were used for rooting were soil and peat moss. There was a greater rooting in leaves sown in soil (91%) than in leaves sown inpeat moss (67%). The leaves rooted in both substrates had a 91% survival after transplantation. However, the leaves rooted in soil presented 10.15 times longer root length compared to peat moss. While the number of roots in the leaves sown in soil and peat moss was similar. No significant changes were observed in the dasometric measurements (height, crown, and basal diameter) of citronella plants. The dry matter yield per citronella plant was 1.07 times higher in soil compared to peat moss. During the rooting and establishment of citronella there were no pests or diseases, which is beneficial for this crop avoiding the use of agrochemicals. The vegetative propagation of citronella leaves was better using the soil as a substrate, which allowed the obtaining of new plants.
This review article is a draw upon published research articles for evaluation of the therapeutic abilities of Pelargonium graveolens.This article comprise and investigate the collected evidence for preserving the therapeutic abilities of P.graveolens. Various articles were reviewed and many different medicinal applications of the Pelargonium genus were discovered. Many others types of species of geranium were found in different geographical regions.But,the main focus in the reviewed articles, however, was on the species Pelargonium graveolens (P. graveolens). P. graveolens shown many positive benets. Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) is a source of nest quality of fragrance and its essential oils (EOs) are used as antibacterial and antifungal agent. The major benets that were reviewed were the plant's antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-fungal activities. Other noteworthy benets that were reviewed include hypoglycemic ,anti-inammatory and anti-reprotoxic activities as well as fairly low toxicity levels.
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The healing of a burn wound is a complex process that includes the re-formation of injured tissues and the control of infection to minimize discomfort, scarring, and inconvenience. The current investigation’s objective was to develop and optimize a geranium oil–based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with pravastatin (Gr-PV-NE). The geranium oil and pravastatin were both used due to their valuable anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. The Box–Behnken design was chosen for the development and optimization of the Gr-PV-NE. The fabricated formulations were assessed for their droplet size and their effects on the burn wound diameter in experimental animals. Further, the optimal formulation was examined for its wound healing properties, antimicrobial activities, and ex-vivo permeation characteristics. The produced nanoemulsion had a droplet size of 61 to 138 nm. The experimental design affirmed the important synergistic influence of the geranium oil and pravastatin for the healing of burn wounds; it showed enhanced wound closure and improved anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions. The optimal formulation led to a 4-fold decrease in the mean burn wound diameter, a 3.81-fold lowering of the interleukin-6 serum level compared to negative control, a 4-fold increase in the inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus compared to NE with Gr oil, and a 7.6-fold increase in the skin permeation of pravastatin compared to PV dispersion. Therefore, the devised nanoemulsions containing the combination of geranium oil and pravastatin could be considered a fruitful paradigm for the treatment of severe burn wounds.
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Pelargonium graveolens, rose-scented geranium, is commonly used in the perfume industry. P. graveolens is enriched with essential oils, phenolics, flavonoids, which account for its tremendous biological activities. Laser light treatment and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation can further enhance the phytochemical content in a significant manner. In this study, we aimed to explore the synergistic impact of these two factors on P. graveolens. For this, we used four groups of surface-sterilized seeds: (1) control group1 (non-irradiated; non-colonized group); (2) control group2 (mycorrhizal colonized group); (3) helium-neon (He-Ne) laser-irradiated group; (4) mycorrhizal colonization coupled with He-Ne laser-irradiation group. Treated seeds were growing in artificial soil inculcated with Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833, in a climate-controlled chamber. After 6 weeks, P. graveolens plants were checked for their phytochemical content and antibacterial potential. Laser light application improved the mycorrhizal colonization in P. graveolens plants which subsequently increased biomass accumulation, minerals uptake, and biological value of P. graveolens. The increase in the biological value was evident by the increase in the essential oils production. The concomitant application of laser light and mycorrhizal colonization also boosted the antimicrobial activity of P. graveolens. These results suggest that AMF co-treatment with laser light could be used as a promising approach to enhance the metabolic content and yield of P. graveolens for industrial and pharmaceutical use.
Wound infection and disinfection mainly rely on the type of wounds and the development of a novel and effective way of wound repairing or healing materials. Development of novel anti-infective formulations depends on the type of wounds and mechanism of healing the wound. Nowadays, wound healing and management is quite a challenging area of research, whereas development of anti-infective formulations needs an extensive information on the pathogenesis of wound infection and its healing. This seems to be a much more complicated process which is controlled by different exogenous and endogenous factors. In the elderly, systemic disorders like diabetes, immunosuppression, venous disease, and metabolic deficiencies also affect the healing of wounds. Apart from this, accumulation of some pathogenic bacteria in skin wounds occurs where they are aggregated and immobilized in an adhesive matrix of extracellular polymeric substances which leads to the weak penetration of antibiotics and subsequently makes it difficult to eradicate the bacteria completely. This happens due to the host clearance mechanisms, i.e., antibodies and phagocytes through the microbial biofilm. In addition, toxins produced from bacteria lead to an excessive, detrimental inflammatory response such as development of antibiotic resistance and delayed wound healing followed by prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, wound infections and its healing have emerged as a big cause of death and burden toward the healthcare system. Based on the above scenario, different anti-infective therapies and formulations were suggested which will be described in this chapter. Several antimicrobial therapies as well as antimicrobials are used for wound healing which is discussed in this chapter. Besides this, some naturally derived antimicrobials such as essential oil and honey also play a key role in curing wounds. In addition, nanoparticles also help in wound healing by an excellent approach to speeding up the recovery of acute and chronic wounds, by energizing proper movement through the different phases of healing.
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As several sub-Saharan African countries are entering into the commercial production of geranium essential oils, this work sought to characterize the oil quality of Pelargonium sp. based on organoleptic, physicochemical and chemical properties from different Southern and East African countries to highlight the importance of germplasm selection in the commercial production of oils and to develop base-line yield information. In 2002, Rwanda began to rebuild their essential oil industry, and locally available Pelargonium cultivars were introduced into cultivation trials. The organoleptic evaluation and chemical profile (citronellol 13%, linalool 18% and geraniol 35%) showed that these oils were not suitable for international markets, but may have an important role in domestic markets. In an effort to upgrade the essential oil industry to higher standards, new geranium plantlets of the Bourbon type were obtained from South Africa and distributed to several sites in Southern and Eastern Africa. The newly introduced cultivar yielded essential oils with a suitable organoleptic and chemical profile (citronellol 31%, linalool 3% and geraniol 7%). In Zambia, a commercial grower was also producing geranium oils that were later deemed not suitable for international markets. While in Madagascar, a country with a long history of producing geranium in small land units by many small-scale commercial farmers, those samples analyzed in this study were found to produce high quality oil similar to the Bourbon type. These results clearly demonstrate that the selection and introduction of a specific strain or chemotype with the acceptable organoleptic and chemical profiles are among the key factors needed to obtain high quality essential oils that will meet international expectations and standards, prerequisites for the successful establishment and sustainability of an essential oil targeted for the global trade.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at
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There are many diseases that are associated with inflammation, such as infections by bacteria, virus and protozoa, autoimmune diseases such as arthritis and diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. There are many medications available to prevent or minimize the progression of the inflammation; they include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, but they have some secondary effects. Traditional medicine has been used to address the health demands of the population and nowadays it presents many opportunities in health care. Essential oils are use in this medicine to treat many diseases. In a review of the last five years it was found that several essential oils with anti-inflammatory activity were isolated from 43 plants. In some cases, oils of the same genus but different species have this activity, such as the essential oils obtained from three species of genus Origanum, as well as three oils from three species of the Citrus genus, and three from the Pimpinella genus. In many cases the essential oil composition obtained has been determined, and in some cases the anti-inflammatory activity of the main compounds of these essential oils has been evaluated, such as carvacrol and isoeugenol, which showed an important anti-inflammatory activity. On the basis of this review, we can say that some essential oils could be an important source for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at the Experimental Farm of the University of Pretoria, South Africa to investigate the changes in herbage yield, oil yield and the variation in the concentration of the major components of rose-scented geranium. The essential oil was isolated by steam-distillation and the composition was determined by gas chromatography (GC). The results revealed that herbage yield increased over time in the first four (autumn/winter) and five (spring/summer) months of the respective harvesting cycles. The plants harvested in the spring/summer cycle had higher herbage yield and oil percentage than plants harvested in the autumn/winter cycle. The decrease in oil percentage was associated with low night temperatures in the autumn/winter cycle. The geraniol content decreased with decreasing night temperatures in autumn/winter while the citronellol content showed a tendency to increase. Geraniol followed a similar trend when regressed against plant shoot age in both experimental cycles. The decrease in geraniol content with respect to plant shoot age, therefore, increased the citronellol: geraniol ratio in both experimental cycles. The spring/summer harvesting season was superior to the autumn/winter season in all commercial aspects of rose-scented geranium oil production.
Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver grass) is well known as an eco-friendly plant that prevents soil erosion and rehabilitates metalliferous polluted land. V. zizanioides is also the major source of vetiver oil for medicine and perfumery. Our study identified 25 compounds in V. zizanioides essential oil (VZ-EO). The major components were cedr-8-en-13-ol (12.4%), α-amorphene (7.80%), β-vatirenene (5.94%) and α-gurjunene (5.91%). VZ-EO may suppress the inflammatory responses of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including nitric oxide production and cell apoptosis, by regulating the expression of the inflammation-related enzymes heme oxygenase-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (inducible cyclooxygenase) and the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interferon-β. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of VZ-EO correlated with its antioxidant activity of decreasing LPS-induced superoxide anion production and malondialdehyde levels.
The pharmacology and antimicrobial action of selected commercial, plant essential oils was studied to relate bioactivity with the chemical components. Spasmogenic action induced by oils on Guinea-pig ileum in vitro was related to a high terpene content, mainly the pinenes, β-cymene, and limonene. Many of the essential oils that induced spasmogenic activity were also strong antibacterial agents. A correlation was observed between spasmogenetic action of essential oils on smooth muscle and stimulating action in man in vivo as measured by contingent negative variation studies. Different samples of the same essential oil often showed differences in the chemical composition as well as bioactivity. Adulteration of essential oils can therefore be shown by bioactivity, which may be more relevant if the essential oils are used for medical or paramedical purposes including aromatherapy using just the aroma or together with body massage.
Geraniol is a commercially important terpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants. It is one of the most important molecules in the flavour and fragrance industries and is a common ingredient in consumer products produced by these industries. In addition to its pleasant odour, geraniol is known to exhibit insecticidal and repellent properties and used as a natural pest control agent exhibiting low toxicity. Geraniol has been suggested to represent a new class of chemoprevention agents for cancer. Other biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and some vascular effects have also been investigated. The effect of geraniol as a penetration enhancer for transdermal drug delivery has also attracted the attention of researchers and formulation scientists. This review aims to coherently discuss some of the most important applications of geraniol and unites the results obtained from several studies reporting the biological properties of this molecule.