ArticleLiterature Review

Impact of coffee on liver diseases: A systematic review

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Abstract

Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Its health benefits including improved overall survival have been demonstrated in a variety of disease states. To examine the association of coffee consumption with liver disease, a systematic review of studies on the effects of coffee on liver associated laboratory tests, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was performed. Coffee consumption was associated with improved serum gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in a dose dependent manner in individuals at risk for liver disease. In chronic liver disease patients who consume coffee, a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, a lowered mortality rate in cirrhosis patients, and a lowered rate of HCC development were observed. In chronic hepatitis C patients, coffee was associated with improved virologic responses to antiviral therapy. Moreover, coffee consumption was inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, in patients with chronic liver disease, daily coffee consumption should be encouraged.

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... Almost 30 years ago, an association between coffee caffeine consumption and a decreased risk of liver disease was established [19]. Over 100 compounds have been identified in coffee extracts, and the synergistic effects of several compounds could contribute to the hepatoprotective health benefits reported worldwide by the scientific community [20,21]. In this section, we review the most recent literature, summarizing the effects observed on NAFLD of caffeine and two phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (CA), widely consumed in the human diet and present in most plants (including coffee); and chicoric acid (ChiA), a derivative of caffeic and tartaric acids, isolated for the first time from Cichorium intybus, but occurring in several plants. ...
... Here, we will review the main findings described in those systematic reviews. Saab S. et al. [21] reviewed all the studies published from 1986 to 2012, covering both observational and case-controlled studies. They explored the interaction between coffee consumption in liver-associated tests, viral hepatitis, NAFLD, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. ...
... They explored the interaction between coffee consumption in liver-associated tests, viral hepatitis, NAFLD, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. As regards NAFLD, extensive evidence has highlighted the beneficial effect of coffee consumption and caffeine (IUPAC name: 1,3,7trimethylpurine-2,6-dione)-the most abundant component in coffee beans-as the main compound responsible for the decreased risk of disease development [21][22][23]. ...
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The booming prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults and children will threaten the health system in the upcoming years. The “multiple hit” hypothesis is the currently accepted explanation of the complex etiology and pathophysiology of the disease. Some of the critical pathological events associated with the development of NAFLD are insulin resistance, steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Hence, attenuating these events may help prevent or delay the progression of NAFLD. Despite an increasing understanding of the mechanisms involved in NAFLD, no approved standard pharmacological treatment is available. The only currently recommended alternative relies on lifestyle modifications, including diet and physical activity. However, the lack of compliance is still hampering this approach. Thus, there is an evident need to characterize new therapeutic alternatives. Studies of food bioactive compounds became an attractive approach to overcome the reticence toward lifestyle changes. The present study aimed to review some of the reported compounds with beneficial properties in NAFLD; namely, coffee (and its components), tormentic acid, verbascoside, and silymarin. We provide details about their protective effects, their mechanism of action in ameliorating the critical pathological events involved in NAFLD, and their clinical applications.
... There is Level 1 evidence to support the role of coffee consumption in reducing the risk of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis [14,15]. Similarly, there is evidence reporting the beneficial health effects of coffee consumption, ranging from improved liver enzymes, in the form of lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, serum alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase, through to improvements in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduced risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [16]. This meta-analysis concluded that there are benefits to encouraging daily intake of coffee for patients with chronic liver disease [16]. ...
... Similarly, there is evidence reporting the beneficial health effects of coffee consumption, ranging from improved liver enzymes, in the form of lower levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, serum alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase, through to improvements in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduced risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [16]. This meta-analysis concluded that there are benefits to encouraging daily intake of coffee for patients with chronic liver disease [16]. ...
... Anty et al. found that regular filtrated (filtered) coffee, but not espresso coffee, was associated with a lower level of fibrosis [34]. This is supported by numerous studies that have shown a hepatoprotective role for filtered coffee, while unfiltered coffee may be potentially harmful [16]. Anty et al. proposed that the potentially beneficial compound(s) that exert the hepatoprotective role are present in filtered coffee but not in espresso [34]. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and has been shown to be beneficial in limiting progression in chronic liver disease in general. However, research surrounding the impact of coffee consumption on NAFLD progression is limited. This systematic review aimed to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the progression of liver disease, specifically for cases of NAFLD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched for published studies that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on the progression of NAFLD. The results are presented in a narrative synthesis with principal summary measures, including odds ratios, p-values, and differences in mean coffee intake in relation to severity of NAFLD. Five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. There was no trial evidence among NAFLD patients, rather all studies were of a cross-sectional design. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist, four studies received a positive rating, with the remaining study receiving a neutral rating. Overall, four out of the five studies reported a statistically significant relationship between coffee consumption and the severity of fibrosis. Methods around capturing and defining coffee consumption were heterogeneous and therefore an effective dose could not be elucidated. Results suggest that higher coffee consumption is inversely associated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis in individuals with NAFLD. However, further research is required to elucidate the optimum quantity and form/preparation of coffee required to exert this hepatoprotective role.
... Diet modification, consisting of a low-calorie, low-fat, low-carbohydrate, and high-protein diet, called energy restriction strategies, can also be considered [1]. Based on the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and Asia-Pacific and The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines, the Mediterranean diet is considered for NAFLD patients [1], [30]. The recommended deficit diet per day to induce a weight loss is 500-1000 g/week by 500-1000 kcal. ...
... Furthermore, based on the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (IASL), the recommended amount of fat and carbohydrate should be less than 30% and not more than 50% of total calories, respectively [2], [20]. The other option includes coffee consumption, which may be considered because it has been known for its liver-protective ability among NAFLD patients by reducing histological severity and liver-related outcomes and inversely related to the steatohepatitis severity [30]. Therefore, regular coffee consumption should be encouraged among NAFLD patients. ...
... Other than that, fish oil or omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be considered because it reduces hepatic steatosis and improves serum triglyceride, gamma-glutamyltransferase, as well as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in NAFLD patients [32]. Unfortunately, the AASLD guideline stated omega-3 fatty acid should not be used as a specific treatment of NAFLD or NASH, but it can be considered to treat hypertriglyceridemia in NAFLD patients [1], [30]- [34]. Salomone et al. stated that fructose-containing foods should be avoided because it may appear as one major factor for initiation of hepatic steatosis and its progression to NASH and more severe liver fibrosis stages [33]. ...
Article
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The continuing rise of obesity epidemic in the global population has been markedly associated with the escalating occurrence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition represents a complex metabolic imbalance, primarily characterized by excessive intrahepatic accumulation of triglycerides, known as hepatic steatosis. This pathophysiological process is initiated by the disproportionation between the uptake of dietary fatty acids in plasma, as well as the increase of de novo fatty acid synthesis, which is not equally accompanied by the exportation and oxidation of fatty acid in the form of triglycerides. As mentioned earlier, the underlying metabolic process becomes a significant risk factor for developing cardiometabolic complications, involving type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. This review presents a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of obesity and NAFLD to determine innovative management approaches for the prevention and treatment of the disease
... Associated with more favorable liver-related outcomes and lower rates of advanced liver fibrosis. 65 Mediterranean diet Reduces liver steatosis. 66 Statin use May improve liver chemistries and fibrosis; can be safely used even in the presence of an elevated ALT. ...
... 63,64 Beyond weight loss, more favorable liverrelated outcomes and lower rates of advanced liver fibrosis are observed in those consuming filtered coffee; a reduction in liver steatosis also is observed with adherence to a Mediterranean diet. 65,66 In NAFLD, statins may improve liver chemistries and fibrosis; this class of medications can be used safely even in the presence of an elevated ALT. 11,67 As a risk factor for chronic liver disease, alcohol consumption of ≥ 4 drinks per day or > 14 drinks per week for men or > 7 drinks per week for women should be avoided in patients with NAFLD. ...
... The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have been confirmed by in vitro studies and animal models [46][47][48]. Multiple prior studies have demonstrated protective effects of coffee on liver function ranging from improving liver chemistries to slowing the progression of liver disease [5,[49][50][51][52]. ...
... The beneficial effects of coffee in liver disease occur in a dose-dependent manner [53,54]. Higher doses of coffee consumption are more likely to improve serum enzyme concentration, specifically aminotransferases [49,54]. High consumption of coffee also exerts immune-boosting on NAFLD independent of antioxidant effects [53]. ...
Article
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Background and aims: Coffee consumption has been suggested to reduce the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While several studies report inverse correlation with coffee drinking, others have suggested more than 2 cups of coffee every day decrease the risk of liver cancer or HCC. However, controversy exists about the exact dose that would provide protective benefit. Therefore, we aimed to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies that investigated the association of coffee consumption and risk of HCC and/or liver cancer. Our outcomes were the evaluation of the association of coffee with HCC or liver cancer development along with the amount of coffee needed to prevent HCC or liver cancer. Methods: We performed a PubMed/MEDLINE/EMBASE/Ovid/Google Scholar search of original articles published in English from 1996 to June 2019, on case-control or cohort or prospective studies that associated coffee with liver cancer or HCC. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of the two conditions for coffee drinking and then stratified this into increments of one cup of coffee per day. Twenty studies were identified. The analysis was performed using random effects models from the methods of DerSimonian and Laird with inverse variance weighting. The Cochrane Q and the I 2 statistics were calculated to assess heterogeneity between studies. A p<0.10 value for chi-square test and I 2 <20% were interpreted as low-level heterogeneity. Probability of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and with the Egger's test. Results: The overall RR was 0.69 (95%CI 0.56-0.85; p<0.001) with significant heterogeneity between the studies. We performed subgroup analysis over the increments of 1 cup of coffee. Higher doses of coffee consumption were associated with a significant decrease in the risks of developing HCC or liver cancer. The funnel plot did not show significant publication bias. Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that drinking coffee provides benefits with a reduction in the risk of HCC or liver cancer. Higher doses of coffee have higher benefits in terms of risk reduction. However, further biological and epidemiological studies are required to determine the exact mechanism and to study specific subgroups such as viral hepatitis B or C related HCC.
... Recently, there are increasing reports that regular oral coffee is associated with reduced risk of various liver diseases (Saab et al., 2014). Therefore, to update the data in this field, we developed a research synthesis that includes the pathophysiological mechanisms, results of experimental and clinical studies, mechanisms of drug resistance and ways to overcome them, adverse effects of caffeine, recent patents in this field, and future developments. ...
Article
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We have previously shown that adenosine A1AR antagonists, adenosine A2aAR antagonists, and caffeine have significant inhibitory effects on the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver fibrosis. Many recent studies have found that moderate coffee consumption is beneficial for various liver diseases. The main active ingredient of coffee is caffeine, which is a natural non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. Moreover, numerous preclinical epidemiological studies and clinical trials have examined the association between frequent coffee consumption and the risk of developing different liver diseases. In this review, we summarize and analyze the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of caffeine on various liver diseases, with an emphasis on cellular assays, animal experiments, and clinical trials. To review the prevention and treatment effects of caffeine on different liver diseases, we searched all literature before 19 July 2022, using “caffeine” and “liver disease” as keywords from the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. We found that moderate coffee consumption has beneficial effects on various liver diseases, possibly by inhibiting adenosine binding to its receptors. Caffeine is a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of various liver diseases.
... In OV, immune and EMT/migration/invasion-related pathways were observed, such as "TCR, " "IL3, " "E-cadherin signaling in the nascent adherens junction, " "RUNX2 regulates genes involved in cell migration, " "Adherens junction, " and "Stabilization and expansion of the E-cadherin adherens junction" pathways. Importantly, these pathways have been reported to impact cell and/or organ functions and/or tumorigenesis [72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82]. Collectively, our results show that CTpathway accurately identifies well-known cancer risk pathways. ...
Article
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Background Pathway enrichment analysis (PEA) is a common method for exploring functions of hundreds of genes and identifying disease-risk pathways. Moreover, different pathways exert their functions through crosstalk. However, existing PEA methods do not sufficiently integrate essential pathway features, including pathway crosstalk, molecular interactions, and network topologies, resulting in many risk pathways that remain uninvestigated. Methods To overcome these limitations, we develop a new crosstalk-based PEA method, CTpathway, based on a global pathway crosstalk map (GPCM) with >440,000 edges by combing pathways from eight resources, transcription factor-gene regulations, and large-scale protein-protein interactions. Integrating gene differential expression and crosstalk effects in GPCM, we assign a risk score to genes in the GPCM and identify risk pathways enriched with the risk genes. Results Analysis of >8300 expression profiles covering ten cancer tissues and blood samples indicates that CTpathway outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods in identifying risk pathways with higher accuracy, reproducibility, and speed. CTpathway recapitulates known risk pathways and exclusively identifies several previously unreported critical pathways for individual cancer types. CTpathway also outperforms other methods in identifying risk pathways across all cancer stages, including early-stage cancer with a small number of differentially expressed genes. Moreover, the robust design of CTpathway enables researchers to analyze both bulk and single-cell RNA-seq profiles to predict both cancer tissue and cell type-specific risk pathways with higher accuracy. Conclusions Collectively, CTpathway is a fast, accurate, and stable pathway enrichment analysis method for cancer research that can be used to identify cancer risk pathways. The CTpathway interactive web server can be accessed here http://www.jianglab.cn/CTpathway/. The stand-alone program can be accessed here https://github.com/Bioccjw/CTpathway.
... It is also claimed to protect the gastrointestinal tract against oxidative stress (Cordoba et al., 2020;Liang;David, 2014). A lot of benefits and advantages of coffee such as a reduced risk of liver, kidney and, to some extent, premenopausal breast and colorectal cancers are mentioned in many scientific studies (Ferreira et al., 2019;Harpaz et al., 2017;Saab et al., 2014;Nkondjock, 2009). In addition coffee has some mental benefits over physical ones like improving energy levels, improving various aspects of brain function such as memory and mood (Brice et al., 2002;Philippa et al., 2021;Samoggia, 2019;Wilhelmus, 2017). ...
Article
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Nowadays coffee is a popular beverage around the world used in many food industries such as chocolate, dairy industry and also confectionery. Therefore, its quality required special attention. On the other hand, heavy metals have been attracted the attention in food products due to their toxicity and health risks in the food chain. Since coffee is a desirable widely used drink in the world for different age groups, this study aims to measure the concentration of heavy metals and some other elements in several brands of coffee powder from Iran and Turkey markets. After sample collection and preparation, heavy metals were measured using ICP-MS according to the AOAC method. The results showed that fortunately lead, cadmium, cobalt, silver, chromium, and mercury were not detected in any coffee samples. Also, it was observed that Nickel was only found in 3 samples, which was less than the standard limits. The pH of all samples was measured and the range was 5.03 to 6.32 in Iranian and Turkish samples. However, there was a lack of evidence in heavy metals amounts in coffee, this study reveals successful practical information in this field in Iranian and Turkish market but also according to the importance of this issue, further comprehensive studies is needed all over the world.
... Filtered coffee contains negligible amount of diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol are removed by paper filters), but filtration better preserves chlorogenic acid than forced pressurization [44] . Diterpenes levels are also affected by brewing strength (i.e., the concentration of coffee grounds per liter of water) [45] . Compared to filtered coffee, espresso has higher concentration of caffeine [40,46] , but it is typically consumed in much smaller quantities. ...
Article
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Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. It is a complex chemical mixture composed of thousands of physiologically active compounds, including caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol). Recently, coffee has emerged as a beverage with various health benefits, in particular in liver disease. Several epidemiological and observational studies demonstrated an inverse association between coffee consumption and primary liver cancer risk. The biological mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effect of coffee are still not completely understood. This article reviews the current available literature about the association between coffee consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma risk and the proposed mechanisms by which coffee exerts its chemopreventive properties.
... To some extent, it is also linked to decrease the risk of premenopausal breast cancer and colorectal cancer, whereas, it does not have any relation with the cancers of the prostate, ovary and pancreas. Nevertheless, drinking coffee can help in reducing the death rate of patients suffering from liver cancer [87,88]. Gan et al. [89] defined the significant association of coffee consumption with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer if less than five cups of coffee are consumed per day. ...
... The potential mechanisms for the hepatoprotection of coffee involve caffeine, phenolic compounds, and melanoidins. Caffeine has been implicated in increasing insulin sensitivity [84] and restraining the hepatic fibrinogenesis pathway by downregulating the production of connective tissue growth factor induced by transforming growth factor-β1, by upregulating the peroxisome-proliferator-activatedreceptor γ (PPARγ), and by inhibiting the synthesis of focal adhesion kinase and actin [85]. Phenolic compounds, melanoidins, and caffeine are responsible for antioxidant effects that prevent free radical tissue damage by reducing reactive oxygen species, which, in turn, play a central part in the inflammation processes of NAFLD [86]. ...
Article
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Abstract Background & Aims Recent epidemiological studies have indicated that NAFLD is pathologically associated with a sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary habits and metabolic syndrome. An umbrella review of meta-analyses was performed to summarize the quality of evidence regarding the epidemiologic associations between lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in regards to risk and treatment. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Embase Database from inception until June 1, 2021. Meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the associations of lifestyle as well as metabolic syndrome with NAFLD risk or treatment were screened. We assessed meta-analyses of observational studies based on random-effect summary effect sizes and their P values, 95% prediction intervals, heterogeneity, and small-study effects. For meta-analyses of RCTs, outcomes with a random-effect P
...  Coffee reduces risk of liver cancer: Italian researchers found that coffee consumption lowers the risk of liver cancer by 40% [15]. Also, it has been indicated in literature that coffee intake probably reduces the risk of liver cancer [16].  Coffee lowers risk of liver diseases: There was no evidence to suggest that coffee intake was different among people with or without PBC. ...
Article
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The study outlined the effect of health on Coffee farmers and consumers. Numerous health benefits of Coffee consumption were identified despite several side effects when consumed in large quantity overtime. It was observed that benefits of coffee consumption outweigh the negative implication. Therefore, Coffee consumption should be encouraged as it is useful in treating some illnesses that would otherwise cost fortune when treated with conventional drugs. Also, with the reported occurrence of caffeine a safe, clean processing and preservative method should be encouraged. Government should also motivate more research on coffee utilization in drug industries because of presence of caffeine, in order to stimulate production as this would also help boost the gross domestic production (GDP). Health and safety training should also be encouraged through extension agents to lecture farmers on personal protective techniques (PPT), as this will improve the health of Coffee farmers for efficient production.
... Als Folge ist die HCC-Inzidenz, insbesondere bei männlichen Jugendlichen, deutlich rückläufig[39,40]. In Deutschland wurde die HBV-Vakzinierung 1995 durch die STIKO eingeführt.Kaffeekonsum ist bei Patienten mit chronischen Lebererkrankungen sowohl mit einem verminderten Risiko einer Fibrose-Progression als auch einer HCC-Risiko-Reduktion assoziiert[45]. Der protektive Effekt ist abhängig von der täglichen Kaffeemenge. Die Risikoreduktion für eine Progression der Lebererkrankung bzw. ...
... 97,103,114 A meta-analysis by Saab et al. confirmed a previously held statement that caffeine consumption reduces the risk of NAFLD and also improves fibrosis in patients with NASH. 118 Much research has been performed to develop effective and safe pharmacological treatments for NAFLD. However, to date, dietary restrictions and lifestyle modifications remain the only universally accepted therapeutic options. ...
Article
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The obesity pandemic has resulted in an increasing demand for liver transplantation and has significantly altered the profile of liver transplant candidates in addition to affecting posttransplantation outcomes. In this review, we discuss a broad range of clinical approaches that warrant attention to provide comprehensive and patient‐centred medical care to liver transplant recipients, and to be prepared to confront the rapidly changing clinical challenges and ensuing dilemmas. Adipose tissue is a complex and metabolically active organ. Visceral fat deposition is a key predictor of overall obesity‐related morbidity and mortality. Limited pharmacological options are available for the treatment of obesity in the liver transplant population. Bariatric surgery may be an alternative in eligible patients. The rapidly increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global concern; NAFLD affects both pre‐ and posttransplantation outcomes. Numerous studies have investigated pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of NAFLD and some of these have shown promising results. Liver transplant recipients are constantly exposed to numerous factors that result in intestinal microbiota alterations, which were linked to the development of obesity, diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome (MS), NAFLD, and hepatocellular cancer. Microbiota modifications with probiotics and prebiotics bring gratifying results in the management of metabolic complications. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is successfully performed in many medical indications. However, the safety and efficacy profiles of FMT in immunocompromised patients remain unclear. Obesity together with immunosuppressive treatment, may affect the pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic properties of coadministered medications. Individualized immunosuppressive regimens are recommended following liver transplantation to address possible metabolic concerns. Effective and comprehensive management of metabolic complications is shown to yield multiple beneficial results in the liver transplant population and may bring gratifying results in improving long‐term survival rates. The obesity pandemic has resulted in an increasing demand for liver transplantation and has significantly altered the profile of liver transplant candidates in addition to affecting posttransplantation outcomes. Metabolic syndrome following liver transplant is a common phenomenon and is implicated as an important contributor to decades‐long unimproved long‐term outcomes after organ transplant procedure. In this review, we discuss a broad range of clinical approaches that warrant attention to provide comprehensive and patient‐centred medical care to liver transplant recipients, and to be prepared to confront the rapidly changing clinical challenges and ensuing dilemmas.
... Caffeine is found in coffee and tea and is taken by many people through various foods. There are research reports that caffeine may have a protective effect against NAFLD and reduce the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase [125][126][127][128]. The underlying mechanism was investigated and it was found that autophagy results in reduced lipid levels in the liver [129][130][131]. ...
Article
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Interleukin (IL)-6 has been studied since its discovery for its role in health and diseases. It is one of the most important pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-6 was reported as an exacerbating factor in coronavirus disease. In recent years, it has become clear that the function of muscle-derived IL-6 is different from what has been reported so far. Exercise is accompanied by skeletal muscle contraction, during which, several bioactive substances, collectively named myokines, are secreted from the muscles. Many reports have shown that IL-6 is the most abundant myokine. Interestingly, it was indicated that IL-6 plays opposing roles as a myokine and as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this review, we discuss why IL-6 has different functions, the signaling mode of hyper-IL-6 via soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and the involvement of soluble glycoprotein 130 in the suppressive effect of hyper-IL-6. Furthermore, the involvement of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family molecules in the secretion of sIL-6R is described. One of the functions of muscle-derived IL-6 is lipid metabolism in the liver. However, the differences between the functions of IL-6 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and the functions of muscle-derived IL-6 are unclear. Although the involvement of myokines in lipid metabolism in adipocytes was previously discussed, little is known about the direct relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and muscle-derived IL-6. This review is the first to discuss the relationship between the function of IL-6 in diseases and the function of muscle-derived IL-6, focusing on IL-6 signaling and lipid metabolism in the liver.
... The beneficial effects of coffee consumption might be due to the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of its phytochemical compounds that may protect against diseases triggered by inflammation like cancer 30 . Additionally, coffee consumption has been linked with a better profile of markers of liver injury that could be another mechanism though which coffee may lower liver cancer risk 31,32 . ...
Article
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There is evidence that diet and nutrition are modifiable risk factors for several cancers, but associations may be flawed due to inherent biases. Nutritional epidemiology studies have largely relied on a single assessment of diet using food frequency questionnaires. We conduct an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies to evaluate the strength and validity of the evidence for the association between food/nutrient intake and risk of developing or dying from 11 primary cancers. It is estimated that only few single food/nutrient and cancer associations are supported by strong or highly suggestive meta-analytic evidence, and future similar research is unlikely to change this evidence. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, esophageal, head & neck and liver cancer. Consumption of dairy products, milk, calcium and wholegrains are inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with risk of liver cancer and skin basal cell carcinoma. Diet and food intake have been associated with a risk of developing different types of cancer but individual nutritional epidemiology studies are prone to inherent bias. Here, the authors perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and show the level of evidence for associating food and nutrients to cancer risk.
... The beneficial effects of coffee in chronic liver diseases have been reported in numerous human and animal studies (46)(47)(48)(49). Coffee is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 and AhR signalling pathways. ...
Article
Background: Coffee consumption has been shown to reduce the risk of liver fibrosis and is capable of inducing human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A genes. UGT1A enzymes act as indirect antioxidants catalyzing the elimination of reactive metabolites, which in turn are potent initiators of profibrotic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of UGT1A genes as effectors of the protective properties of coffee in bile duct ligation (BDL) induced liver fibrosis. Methods: Fourteen days BDL with and without coffee pre- and co-treatment was performed in htgUGT1A-WT and htgUGT1A-SNP mice. Hepatic UGT1A mRNA expression levels, serum bilirubin and aminotransferase activities were determined. Liver fibrosis was assessed by collagen deposition, computational analysis of Sirius red tissue staining and expression of profibrotic marker genes. Oxidative stress was measured by hepatic peroxidase concentrations and immunofluorescence staining. Results: UGT1A transcription was differentially activated in the livers of htgUGT1A-WT mice after BDL, in contrast to a reduced or absent induction in the presence of SNPs. Co-treated (coffee + BDL) htgUGT1A-WT-mice showed significantly increased UGT1A expression and protein levels and a considerably higher induction compared to water drinking WT mice (BDL), whereas in co-treated htgUGT1A-SNP mice absolute expression levels remained below those observed in htgUGT1A-WT mice. Collagen deposition, oxidative stress and the expression of profibrotic markers inversely correlated with UGT1A expression levels in htgUGT1A-WT and SNP mice after BDL and coffee + BDL co-treatment. Conclusions: Coffee exerts hepatoprotective and antioxidative effects via activation of UGT1A enzymes. Attenuated hepatic fibrosis as a result of coffee-mediated UGT1A induction during cholestasis was detected, while the protective action of coffee was lower in a common low-function UGT1A SNP haplotype present in 10% of the Caucasian population. This study suggests that coffee consumption might constitute a potential strategy to support the conventional treatment of cholestasis-related liver diseases.
... The following potential correlates/confounders were taken into consideration to test the relationship between cannabis use and HOMA-IR: (1) individual characteristics: age, sex, BMI (<18.5 kg/m 2 , 18.5-25 kg/m 2 ; >25 kg/m 2 ), and time since enrollment, in years; (2) HIV-related variables: HIV immune-virological status, exposure to specific classes of antiretroviral agents, history of progression to AIDS, CD4 cell count (<200/mm 3 ; 200-350/mm 3 , >350/mm 3 ), receipt of HIV treatment, injecting drug use HIV transmission category; (3) HCV-related variables: HCV genotype, history of HCV treatment and clearance of HCV at enrollment, cirrhosis (elastometry >12.5 Kpa); and (4) consumption behaviors: drug use (any psychotropic drug use, excluding cannabis), tobacco smoking, alcohol use (elevated alcohol consumption), coffee consumption (3 or more cups per day vs fewer than 3 cups), the former figure corresponding to the value found to be beneficial for liver fibrosis [21], liver enzymes [22], and response to HCV treatment [23]). Variables with P values < .20 or known correlates/confounders (eg, coffee consumption) in the univariate analysis were introduced and maintained in the final model if their inclusion significantly improved the model (P < .05 ...
... 408 It is also important to note that apart from caffeine, other compounds found in coffee, including cafestol and kahweol, may also have beneficial effects by upregulating anti-oxidant pathways. 409 In addition, coffee intake is thought to be beneficial among patients with chronic liver disease such as NAFLD or NASH. [410][411][412] Therefore, coffee is recommended as a chemopreventive measure against HCC in patients with chronic liver disease by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. ...
Article
The liver is endowed with an amazing regenerative capacity that allows it to withstand an enormous amount of damage. Nevertheless, it is precisely this highly regenerative capacity that renders it susceptible to dysplasia and liver cancer. Liver cancer is not only one of the most common cancers but also one of the deadliest. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, accounting for up to 70%–90% of all cases, but treatment options for advanced stages remain scarce. Therefore, a great deal of effort has gone into identifying early diagnostic markers as well as novel therapies, both local and systemic, for the treatment of this deadly disease. In this review, we aim to shed light into the current therapeutic landscape of HCC with an emphasis on the available treatments, ranging from surgical and local-ablative therapy for early and intermediate stages of the disease to systemic therapies for advanced cancer treatments. We will also address the molecular mechanisms and limitations of currently available systemic therapies and the causes of treatment resistance and finally summarize the emerging future avenues and novel concepts that are promising.
... The inverse association of coffee consumption with liver diseases has been well documented by different researchers 13,26,27 . The CpG cg14476101 and its annotated gene (PHGDH) have been reported in previous studies to be associated with fatty liver disease and adiposity 28,29 . ...
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Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10−7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10−6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases. While coffee and tea consumption has been associated with risk of diseases, their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here the authors present a large EWAS on coffee and tea consumption in cohorts of European and African-American ancestries, finding that coffee consumption is associated with differential DNA methylation levels at multiple CpGs.
... There was also a decreased risk of progression to cirrhosis, lowered mortality rate in cirrhotic patients, and a reduced rate of hepatocellular carcinoma development. 89 Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these effects and determine the quantity associated with histologic improvements in NAFLD. ...
Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD has grown proportionally with the rise in obesity, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Currently, in the absence of approved pharmacologic treatment, the keystone of treatment is lifestyle modification focused on achieving a weight loss of 7%-10%, cardiovascular exercise, and improving insulin sensitivity. The primary aim of this review is to outline the effect of different dietetic approaches against NAFLD and highlight the important micronutrient components in the management of NAFLD.
... However, absolute alcohol abstinence is mandatory in advanced fibrosis and NASH-cirrhosis to reduce the risk of worsening liver dysfunction and HCC [169]. Coffee was shown to be protective in NAFLD, as in liver disease of other etiologies, reducing histological severity and liver-related outcomes [170]. ...
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Overwhelming evidence suggests an association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely speculative. It is, however, likely that common mechanisms contribute to the development of CVD and NAFLD, with lifestyle factors such as smoking, sedentary lifestyle with poor nutrition habits and physical inactivity being major candidates. These behavioral factors, on a predisposing genetic background, trigger changes in gut microbiota, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, leading to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity as well as atherosclerosis. Treatment options to counteract both the progression and development of CVD and NAFLD include lifestyle interventions, optimal medical therapy of comorbid conditions and, as final possibility, bariatric surgery. As no causal pharmacotherapy of NAFLD is available, further research is urgently needed to address the unmet need of a growing population with NAFLD and CVD.
... (20) Interestingly, coffee consumption can be considered as a potential lifestyle modification based on the EASL guidelines; this modification is suggested given a recent systematic review that demonstrated that coffee consumption is inversely related to the severity of steatohepatitis. (20,33) Further work has shown that more than 3 cups of coffee per day is associated with a lower risk of CVD and risk of death post-myocardial infarction. (20,(34)(35)(36) Inadequate physical activity or sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor associated with NAFLD and CVD. ...
Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multisystemic disease and a rapidly growing cause of chronic liver disease in children and adults worldwide. Diagnosis and management of extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypothyroidism, psoriasis, and extrahepatic malignancy are crucial for the treatment of patients with NAFLD. The leading cause of death in NAFLD is primarily from CVD, followed by liver-related mortality, extrahepatic cancer, liver cancer, and diabetes-related mortality. Therefore, clinicians need to identify high-risk patients earlier in the disease course and be aware of the extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD to improve liver disease outcomes. In this review, we focus on the monitoring and management of the extrahepatic manifestations of NAFLD.
... To some extent, it is also linked to decrease the risk of premenopausal breast cancer and colorectal cancer, whereas, it does not have any relation with the cancers of the prostate, ovary and pancreas. Nevertheless, drinking coffee can help in reducing the death rate of patients suffering from liver cancer [87,88]. Gan et al. [89] defined the significant association of coffee consumption with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer if less than five cups of coffee are consumed per day. ...
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offee is one of the massive tropical crops in developing countries and historically understudied in subjects of crop nutrition and administration. Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) plant belongs to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family. It is known as the most widely recognized Coffea species created comprehensively summing up to over 75% of the all-out Coffea creation. Its compounds are a complex mixture of different chemicals that have many health benefits. The usage of various parts of a coffee plant, along with its oil is verified for the manufacturing of ancient medicines that helped in curing a number of ailments. These traditional uses were scientifically proven by many studies including psychoactive responses, neurological and metabolic disorders. Coffee oil consists mainly of triglycerol and fatty acids along with antioxidants. It also possesses some biologically active fatty acids that are anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic in nature. This paper provides the medicinal properties and scientific review of Arabica coffee oil. C Abstract www.als-journal.com
... In those who cannot undergo phlebotomy, the iron chelator deferoxamine has been shown to be effective in the removal of excess iron from the liver and ultimately contributing to fibrosis control [91] . Benefits of iron chelation were also demonstrated by Deugnier et al [92] who conducted a study assessing the efficacy of deferasirox in individuals with beta thalassemia. Results demonstrated stability of Ishak fibrosis staging score or improvement (change of ≤ 2) in 82.6% of patients, and improvement of mean Ishak necroinflammatory score by a mean value of -1.3 (P < 0.001) in individuals treated for at least 3 years. ...
Article
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Recent progress in our understanding of the pathways linked to progression from hepatic insult to cirrhosis has led to numerous novel therapies being investigated as potential cures and inhibitors of hepatic fibrogenesis. Liver cirrhosis is the final result of prolonged fibrosis, which is an intimate balance between fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis. A number of these complex mechanisms are shared across the various etiologies of liver disease. Thankfully, investigation has yielded some promising results in regard to reversal of fibrosis, particularly the indirect benefits associated with antiviral therapy for the treatment of hepatitis B and C and the farnesoid receptor agonist for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis and metabolic associated fatty liver disease. A majority of current clinical research is focused on targeting metabolic associated fatty liver disease and its progression to metabolic steatohepatitis and ultimately cirrhosis, with some hope of potential standardized therapeutics in the near future. With our ever-evolving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, these therapeutics focus on either controlling the primary disease (the initial trigger of fibrogenesis), interrupting receptor ligand interactions and other intracellular communications, inhibiting fibrogenesis, or even promoting resolution of fibrosis. It is imperative to thoroughly test these potential therapies with the rigorous standards of clinical therapeutic trials in order to ensure the highest standards of patient safety. In this article we will briefly review the key pathophysiological pathways that lead to liver fibrosis and present current clinical and experimental evidence that has shown reversibility of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, while commenting on therapeutic safety.
... However, espresso consumption was not found to be benefi cial. 45,46 Does pharmacotherapy play any role? ...
Article
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Globally, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly and constitutes a signicant healthcare burden due to associated complications including hepatic (cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer) and non-hepatic (cardiovascular deaths) disorders. It is closely linked to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome but moderate alcohol consumption frequently coexists. Recently, genetic polymorphisms were implicated in the development of non-obese NAFLD. Apart from liver biopsy, in order to assess for steatosis, fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advances in non-invasive serum tests and elastography have provided similarly accurate, more accessible and safer alternatives for risk strati cation. As for treatment in 2020, weight loss and lifestyle modication remain the central strategy. Unfortunately, no pharmacological agents have been approved thus far, but there are a number of potential therapies in the pipeline for fibrosis and NASH. Treatment of underlying metabolic disorders is important. While the term NAFLD was coined in the 1980s, more recent understanding may support a change in nomenclature highlighting its strong metabolic roots.
... Coffee is the most popular and widely consumed beverage in the world. It has been estimated that approximately 3.5 billion cups of coffee are consumed around the world each day [4][5][6]. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated the protective association of coffee intake with the Yang Zhang and Zhipeng Liu are contributed equally. ...
Article
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PurposeEpidemiological studies support a protective role of habitual coffee and caffeine consumption against the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between coffee intake and the risk of NAFLD. Methods We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using SNPs associated with habitual coffee intake in a published genome-wide association study (GWAS) as genetic instruments and summary-level data from a published GWAS of NAFLD (1122 cases and 399,900 healthy controls) in the UK Biobank. The causal relationship was estimated with the inverse weighted method using a 4-SNP and 6-SNP instrument based on the single largest non-UK Biobank GWAS (n = 91,462) and meta-analysis (n = 121,524) of GWAS data on habitual coffee intake, respectively. To maximize power, we also used up to 77 SNPs associated with coffee intake at a liberal significance level (p ≤ 1e-4) as instruments. ResultsWe observed a non-significant trend towards a causal protective effect of coffee intake on NAFLD based upon either the 4-SNP (OR: 0.76; 95% CI 0.51, 1.14, p = 0.19) or 6-SNP genetic instruments (OR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.48, 1.25, p = 0.29). The result also remains non-significant when using the more liberal 77-SNP instrument. Conclusion Our findings do not support a causal relationship between coffee intake and NAFLD risk. However, despite the largest-to-date sample size, the power of this study may be limited by the non-specificity and moderate effect size of the genetic alleles on coffee intake.
... Similarly, various components included in coffee, such as polyphenols, exert a chemoprotective effect; dipertenos such as cafestol and kahweol have a protective role in hepatocarcinogenesis; and caffeine has an antifibrotic effect due to its interaction with TGF-B and CTGF (23) . Therefore, due to its components and the molecular reactions that it triggers in the organism, it is demonstrated that coffee has hepatoprotective, antifibrotic, anticarcinogenic and chemoprotective properties (24) . ...
Article
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Introduction: Coffee is a beverage that is consumed every day in our society, especially in medical society, but its consumption is not something new, in reality, it has been consumed for more than a millennium, as incredible as it might seem. It is certainly very attractive, both for its flavor and for its stimulating effects, where caffeine also plays a role in its popularity. Coffee is a mixture of thousands of different compounds, such as carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, alkaloids, nitrogenous molecules and phenolic compounds, all of them have a great impact in human health. But there is a lot of controversy about whether its effects on the body are beneficial or harmful, mostly in relationship with liver diseases. Methods: The following metasearchers were used to retrieve the articles quoted: PubMed and BVS. Also, we used the following data bases: Wiley, Academic Search Complete, ScienceDirect and OvidSP. For our exclusion criteria, at first, we read all the titles and abstracts of the articles we found, and then we read the full articles. Results:There are a lot of studies about the association of the coffee with liver diseases, but most of them are retrospective. The most important diseases that have relationship with the coffee consumption are liver cirrhosis, liver fibrosis and liver neoplasm. In all of them the coffee has a great impact, because the coffe compounds have an important role in the molecular pathways of these diseases. Conclusion: Coffee has an important role in liver health, it has been shown that there is an inverse relationship between coffee and liver diseases, regardless of its etiology. Whether due to cirrhosis, fibrosis, or liver carcinoma, which is achieved by consuming more than 2 cups a day. This benefit is due to a reduction of certain liver enzymes.
... Coffee consumption has been suggested to lower several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes [5], metabolic syndrome [6], coronary heart disease [7], liver disorders [8], and several types of cancers [9]. The bioactive compounds in coffee, such as caffeine and chlorogenic acids, have been investigated as potential compounds that lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. ...
Article
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Habitual coffee consumption and its association with health outcomes may be modified by genetic variation. Adults aged 40 to 69 years who participated in the Korea Association Resource (KARE) study were included in this study. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on coffee consumption in 7868 Korean adults, and examined whether the association between coffee consumption and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined was modified by the genetic variations in 4054 adults. In the GWAS for coffee consumption, a total of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24.11-13 (rs2074356, rs11066015, rs12229654, rs11065828, and rs79105258) were selected and used to calculate weighted genetic risk scores. Individuals who had a larger number of minor alleles for these five SNPs had higher genetic risk scores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the association. During the 12 years of follow-up, a total of 2468 (60.9%) and 480 (11.8%) participants were diagnosed as prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Compared with non-black-coffee consumers, the OR (95% CI) for ≥2 cups/day by black-coffee consumers was 0.61 (0.38–0.95; p for trend = 0.023). Similarly, sugared coffee showed an inverse association. We found a potential interaction by the genetic variations related to black-coffee consumption, suggesting a stronger association among individuals with higher genetic risk scores compared to those with lower scores; the ORs (95% CIs) were 0.36 (0.15–0.88) for individuals with 5 to 10 points and 0.87 (0.46–1.66) for those with 0 points. Our study suggests that habitual coffee consumption was related to genetic polymorphisms and modified the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined in a sample of the Korean population. The mechanisms between coffee-related genetic variation and the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined warrant further investigation.
... Two large systematic reviews have shown that coffee leads to a relative risk reduction of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality secondary to all causes. 128,129 In terms of NAFLD, two meta-analysis have demonstrated that coffee can reduce the incidence of NAFLD, in addition to decreasing the risk of liver fibrosis among patients with established NAFLD. 130,131 A non-linearity curve relationship between coffee consumption and the development of NAFLD is described, with more than 3 cups per day reducing the incidence of NAFLD significantly. ...
Article
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and affects approximately one third of adults in the United States. The disease is becoming a global epidemic as a result of the rising rates of obesity and metabolic disease. Emerging data suggest weight loss of ≥10% overall body weight is beneficial in resolving steatosis and reversing fibrosis. Prospective trials comparing various diets are limited by lack of sufficient power as well as pre- and post-treatment histopathology, and therefore no specific diet is recommended at this time. In this narrative review we examine the pathophysiology behind specific macronutrient components that can either promote or reverse NAFLD to help inform more specific dietary recommendations. Overall, the data supports reducing saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and red and processed meats in the diet, and increasing the consumption of plant-based foods. Diets that incorporate these recommendations include plant-based diets such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, Mediterranean, vegetarian, and vegan diets.
Article
Kopi Lampung (Coffea canephora var. Robusta) digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam mengobati penyakit karena memiliki efek sebagai antioksidan, antiinflamasi, dan antidiabetes hingga menurunkan risiko kanker. Uji keamanan terhadap obat herbal dilakukan untuk mengetahui dosis aman untuk dikonsumsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek toksisitas akut ekstrak etanol biji kopi Lampung (EBKL) terhadap tikus wistar berdasarkan jumlah kematian, perubahan berat badan, dan indeks organ relatif. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental pada 25 ekor tikus Wistar jantan yang dibagi 5 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, dan kelompok perlakuan EBKL dosis 625 mg/KgBB, EBKL dosis 1250 mg/KgBB, EBKL dosis 2500 mg/KgBB, dan EBKL dosis 5000 mg/kgBB. Pengamatan penelitian berupa jumlah kematian, perubahan berat badan, dan indeks organ tikus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol biji kopi Lampung menyebabkan kematian pada hewan coba, yaitu pada EBKL dosis 2500 mg/Kg BB dan 5000 mg/Kg BB dan nilai LD50 pada dosis ≥2500 mg/kgBB (p<0.05). Dari hasil penelitian terdapat perubahan berat badan yang signfikan pada dosis 5000 mg/kgBB (p<0.05), dan perbedaan signifikan indeks organ relatif hati pada dosis 5000 mg/kgBB (p<0.05) serta indeks organ relatif jantung pada dosis 2500 mg/kgBB dan 5000 mg/kgBB (p<0.05). Ekstrak etanol biji kopi lampung memiliki manfaat untuk kesehatan karena kandungan antioksidannya. Namun demikian, keamanan untuk digunakan sebagai terapi tetaplah harus memperhatikan dosis efektif dan batas keamanannya karena terdapat perubahan indeks organ relatif pada hati dan jantung setelah pemberian EBKL. Pada penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak etanol biji kopi Lampung tergolong dalam kategori sedikit toksis.
Chapter
The development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies in chronic HCV infection has been associated with increased expectations regarding the prognosis of this infection in the medical community, as the possibility of HCV eradication is now in sight. While the cure of the HVC infection has been associated with a dramatic decrease in its systemic complications, the impact on the progression of the liver disease, especially in patients with cirrhosis, is still controversial. Furthermore, the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antiviral therapy is debatable, with studies presenting an increased prevalence of HCC early after the introduction of these therapies, as well as newer contradicting studies. This chapter aims to examine the current literature data available regarding the impact of new HCV therapies in the incidence and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Article
El café es una de las bebidas más consumidas en el mundo y su popularidad no está basada en su valor nutricional o sus potenciales beneficios a la salud, si no en su sabor placentero y las propiedades estimulantes de la cafeína. Esto es respaldado por las últimas estadísticas publicadas por la Organización Internacional del Café (ICO, por sus siglas en inglés) según la cual aproximadamente 1.4 billones de tazas de café son consumidas diariamente además del hecho de que la taza de consumo global se ha duplicado en los últimos 50 años por causa de la apertura de nuevos mercados. La amplia aceptación del café está ligada a sus propiedades sensoriales las cuales a su vez están fuertemente influenciadas por una cadena de eventos que inician desde la cosecha y las practicas postcosecha (i.e., fermentación, lavado, secado, tamizado, eliminación de granos defectuosos y almacenamiento), seguidas por el tueste, molido y empacado del producto para su posterior comercialización. No obstante, existen otros factores que también afectan las propiedades organolépticas de la bebida tales como, pero no limitado a: el pH y temperatura del agua, las mezclas realizadas antes o después del tueste, la especie y/o variedad de café, las adulteraciones, la incorporación de aditivos, el método de preparación de la bebida, el tipo de recipiente en el que se sirve la infusión, entre otros. El presente artículo presenta una breve descripción de los factores que afectan la calidad de la taza relacionados con el procesamiento del grano oro del café. Sin embargo, aunque los factores ya mencionados son tomados en consideración por los catadores, para fines comerciales, la calidad del café está y siempre estará en manos del consumidor. Después de todo la mejor prueba es cuando la persona lo prueba. Palabras clave: organoléptica, perfil de tueste, endotérmica, exotérmico, ma-croscópica, microscópica, reacción Maillard, caramelización.
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Effect of coffee consumption on human health has always been under debate. This study is an effort to summarize all possible outcomes of coffee consumption on human health including both positive and negative effects. The most common benefits of coffee consumption include the increased agility and mood stability. It has been reported to lower the risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes, CVDs, various types of cancer including hepatic cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, colon cancer, malignant melanoma and endometrial cancer, some neurodegenerative disorders such as. Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis as well as general and cause-specific mortality and improves the musculoskeletal activity. Coffee is rich in pharmacologically active components including caffeine and caffeic acid which exhibit excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-malarial activity. Coffee is also known to influence a person’s life span as it has inverse relation with telomeres length. It also prevents from gallstone formation. Most commonly reported negative effects of coffee consumption on human health are heartburn, diuresis and addiction. Pregnant and post-menopausal women are also advised to cut short the use of coffee. Overall, coffee has a great number of health protecting effects on humans resulting in less hospitalization and less mortality.
Article
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising worldwide, paralleling the epidemic of obesity. The liver is a key organ for the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Various types of fats and carbohydrates in isocaloric diets differently influence fat accumulation in the liver parenchyma. Therefore, nutrition can manage hepatic and cardiometabolic complications of NAFLD. Even moderately reduced caloric intake, which leads to a weight loss of 5%-10% of initial body weight, is effective in improving liver steatosis and surrogate markers of liver disease status. Among dietary patterns, the Mediterranean diet mostly prevents the onset of NAFLD. Furthermore, this diet is also the most recommended for the treatment of NAFLD patients. However, clinical trials based on the dietary interventions in NAFLD patients are sparse. Since there are only a few studies examining dietary interventions in clinically advanced stages of NAFLD, such as active and fibrotic steatohepatitis, the optimal diet for patients in these stages of the disease must still be determined. In this narrative review, we aimed to critically summarize the associations between different dietary patterns, obesity and prevention/risk for NAFLD, to describe specific dietary interventions' impacts on liver steatosis in adults with NAFLD and to provide an updated overview of dietary recommendations that clinicians potentially need to apply in their daily practice.
Article
Purpose The importance of nutrition is often underrecognized in the routine clinical care of patients with chronic liver disease. Nutrition therapy plays a significant role in the management of alcohol-related liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In patients with cirrhosis from any etiology, malnutrition and sarcopenia are directly related to mortality, and nutritional interventions play an important role in the management of these patients. This review explores the role of nutritional intervention as adjuvant therapy across all chronic liver disease. Methods A narrative, qualitative systematic review was performed via searches of PubMed for nutritional aspects in the care of chronic liver disease. Findings Nutritional therapy plays a critical role in the management of chronic liver disease. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, specific macronutrient management can lead to weight loss and improved outcomes in these patients. In patients with alcohol-related liver disease, chronic cholestatic liver disease, and decompensated cirrhosis, caloric and protein intake plays a vital role improving outcomes in these patients. Micronutrient deficencies are also common in these patients and require supplementation to prevent other complications of malnutrition. Assessment and management of nutrition should accompany the typical care plan of patients with chronic liver disease. Implications This review of nutritional therapy in chronic liver disease highlights the current evidence-based and societal recommendations of macronutrient and micronutrient management across the spectrum of all chronic liver disease. (Clin Ther. 2022;44:XXX–XXX) © 2022 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.
Article
Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide with increasing incidence. Effective antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) became available in the last 7 years but despite the WHO Hepatitis elimination targets, they are not universally available today in all regions for all the patients, indicating still a bleak outlook for CHC-associated HCC in the next decades. Aim To assess the HCC incidence in relation to interferon (IFN)-based antiviral treatment response and baseline characteristics of a large cohort of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients from a single institution. Methods We retrospectively collected data of CHC patients, who were diagnosed between 1989 and 2011 and treated at the AKH-University Hospital of Vienna before the introduction of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) only therapy. We analysed the HCC incidence in patients with a sustained virological response (SVR) and without SVR according to the patients' baseline characteristics. Results Our study included 2134 patients, who were treated or not treated with IFN-based antiviral treatment and had long-term follow-up available. The overall HCC incidence in this cohort was 6.2% (132 HCC cases over a median follow-up period of 9 years). According to the baseline fibrosis stage, the overall HCC incidence was: 1.1% in patients with baseline fibrosis stage F0-2, 8.2% in F3 and 20.6% in F4 patients. The HCC incidence was significantly higher in non-SVR and no-treatment group as compared with SVR patients: 12.4% vs 1.9%, P < .0001, 7.3% vs 1.9%, P < .0001. In multivariate analysis, lower platelet count (odds ratio-OR = -0.1, 95% CI: 0.15-0.63), for the SVR group and presence of cirrhosis (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.59-8.17), ALBI grade >=2 (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0-5.3) for the non-SVR group were independently associated with HCC occurrence. For the group of patients with no treatment, the only predictor for HCC was high baseline alpha-fetoprotein values (OR = 10.2, 95% CI: 2.2-47.9). Conclusion The achievement of SVR significantly reduces the risk for HCC occurrence during long-term follow-up. However, the risk remains high in successfully treated patients with low platelet count and in patients who did not achieve SVR with more advanced liver disease. These risk factors should be considered in decision-making of HCC surveillance in this settling.
Article
Background Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and is popular for its characteristic flavor and rich organoleptic properties. Aim Based on published articles, the aims of this review are i) study the association between coffee consumption and benefits to human health; ii) the effects of coffee consumption on some pathologies; and iii) provide a description of coffee’s bioactive compounds. Discussion Coffee presents bioactive compounds, which include phenolic compounds, especially chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acid), trigonelline, and diterpenes, such as cafestol and kahweol. These compounds are related to the beneficial effects for human health, including high antioxidant activity, antimutagenic activity, hepatoprotective action, reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, decreased incidence of inflammatory diseases, reduced menopausal symptoms, and others. Coffee’s bioactive compounds are caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, cafestol and kahweol, which are closely related to coffee’s beneficial effects. Conclusion The present review clarified that the benefits of moderate coffee consumption outweigh the associated risks.
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Background and aims The association between lifestyle factors and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease severity and progression has been investigated to a lesser extent compared with susceptibility to the disease. We aimed to assess the impact of lifetime coffee and tea consumption on MS severity. Methods Design: a cross-sectional study. Two hundred and eight patients (139 women and 69 men) consecutively admitted to the Department of Neurology in Novara, Italy were asked about their lifetime consumption of coffee and tea. The lifetime intensity of consumption (cups/day) was estimated as the weighted sum of the mean number of standard cups drunk per day at different ages. A measure of cumulative lifetime load of the exposure was expressed in terms of cup-years. Disease severity was estimated by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS). HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-A*02 genotyping was performed in 167 patients. Results The MSSS was not associated with the status of coffee or tea consumer, or the amount of cups/day or cup-years. The Odds Ratios (OR) for falling in the upper tertile of the MSSS distribution was 1.30 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47-3.58) for coffee consumers of 1-3 cups/day and 1.14 (95%CI: 0.33-3.95) for 4-8 cups/day vs. non-consumers. The OR was 0.69 (95%CI: 0.35-1.34) for tea consumers vs. non-consumers. The results did not change substantially after controlling for age at onset, education, smoking status, and alcoholic drinking. However, heavy consumers of coffee (4-8 cups/day) more frequently had a progressive form than small consumers (1-3 cups/day) and non-consumers (19% vs. 14% vs. 0%), and the age at MS onset was significantly higher (36.6±10.3; 31.5±9.5; 28.6±8.1 years, p=0.001). Conclusions Coffee or tea intake is not associated with different severity of MS. However, we cannot exclude a possible effect of higher doses of coffee for a subgroup of patients.
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Elevated circulating activity of adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) is associated with liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the liver of NAFLD patients, ADA2-positive portal macrophages are significantly associated with the degree of liver fibrosis. These liver macrophages are CD14- and CD16-positive and co-express chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3, indicating infiltrative monocyte origin. Human circulatory monocytes release ADA2 upon macrophage differentiation in vitro. When stimulated by recombinant human ADA2 (rhADA2), human monocyte-derived macrophages demonstrate upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes, including PDGF-B, a key pro-fibrotic cytokine. This PDGF-B upregulation is reproduced by inosine, the enzymatic product of ADA2, but not adenosine, and is abolished by E359N, a loss-of-function mutation in ADA2. Finally, rhADA2 also stimulates PDGF-B production from Kupffer cells in primary human liver spheroids. Together, these data suggest that infiltrative monocytes promote fibrogenesis in NAFLD via ADA2-mediated autocrine/paracrine signaling culminating in enhanced PDGF-B production.
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Background & Aims Only a minority of excess alcohol drinkers develop cirrhosis. We developed and evaluated risk stratification scores to identify those at highest risk. Methods Three cohorts (GenomALC-1: n=1690, GenomALC-2: n=3037, UK Biobank: relevant n=6898) with a history of heavy alcohol consumption (≥80 g/day (men), ≥50 g/day (women), for ≥10 years) were included. Cases were participants with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Controls had a history of similar alcohol consumption but no evidence of liver disease. Risk scores were computed from up to eight genetic loci identified previously as associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis and three clinical risk factors. Score performance for the stratification of alcohol-related cirrhosis risk was assessed and compared across the alcohol-related liver disease spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results A combination of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (PNPLA3:rs738409, SUGP1-TM6SF2:rs10401969, HSD17B13:rs6834314) and diabetes status best discriminated for cirrhosis risk. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the extreme score quintiles (Q1-Q5) of the 3-SNP score, based on independent allelic effect size estimates, were 5.99 (4.18;8.60) (GenomALC-1); 2.81 (2.03;3.89) (GenomALC-2); and 3.10 (2.32;4.14) (UK Biobank). Patients with diabetes and high-risk score, compared to those without diabetes and a low-risk score, had ORs increased to 14.7 (7.69;28.1) (GenomALC-1) and 17.1 (11.3;25.7) (UK Biobank). Patients with cirrhosis and HCC had significantly higher mean risk scores than patients with cirrhosis alone (0.76±0.06 versus 0.61±0.02, p=0.007). Score performance was not significantly enhanced by information on additional genetic risk variants, body mass index or coffee consumption. Conclusions A risk score based on three genetic risk variants and diabetes status can provide meaningful risk stratification for cirrhosis in excess drinkers, allowing earlier prevention planning including intensive intervention. LAY SUMMARY Excessive chronic drinking leads to liver cirrhosis in some people, but so far there is no way to identify those at high risk of developing this debilitating disease. Our study has developed a genetic risk score (GRS) test that can identify patients at high risk and shows that the risk of cirrhosis is increased >10-fold with just two risk factors - diabetes and high GRS. Risk assessment using this test has potential for early and personalised management of this disease in high-risk patients.
Article
Hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in plasma low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol (TC), is the leading cause of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study examined the effect of Heukcha extract (HCE), a naturally post‐fermented green tea extract, on diet‐induced hypercholesterolemia and related NAFLD in hamsters that metabolize lipids in a similar fashion to humans. The 10‐week‐old golden Syrian hamsters were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard, and some were also given HCE (200 or 500 mg/kg/day) orally for 12 weeks. The HCE did not affect the body weight gain, food intake, or the calorie intake. HCD significantly (p < 0.05) increased LDL (0.9 to 2.1 mmol/L), TC (2.7 to 7.8 mmol/L), and triglyceride (TG; 2.3 to 4.0 mmol/L), which was significantly decreased by 27.7%, 17.3%, and 60%, respectively, by HCE. HDL was significantly increased by HCD (0.6 to 1.6 mmol/L), but it was not affected by HCE administration. Furthermore, HCE suppressed HCD‐induced liver oxidative stress, fibrosis, and lipid accumulation almost to control levels. Interestingly, HCE significantly increased the protein level of cholesterol 7 alpha‐hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate‐limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by 1.5‐fold in the liver. The present data suggest that HCE could be a functional food ingredient that can suppress the occurrence of diet‐induced hypercholesterolemia and NAFLD, possibly by increasing the expression of CYP7A1.
Chapter
The unique anatomy, physiology, and metabolism of the liver make it especially susceptible to insult from a variety of metabolic, infectious, immune-mediated, toxic, and carcinogenic sources. A large number of nutraceutical compounds have been proposed to aid in the maintenance or recovery of liver health though antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antifibrotic, antiproliferative, or antineoplastic mechanisms. This chapter summarizes hepatic pathophysiology and discusses the effects of select nutraceuticals on the liver.
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Bei legalen Drogen handelt es sich um Substanzen, die einfach und rechtmäßig erhältlich sind. Der Konsum und Besitz von diesen Substanzen und der Handel mit ihnen sind straffrei und sie können im Supermarkt, am Kiosk oder in der Tankstelle um die Ecke erworben werden. Doch Vorsicht: Legal bedeutet auf keinen Fall, dass diese Substanzen harmlos sind, denn den Körper interessiert das kleine Wörtchen „legal“ kein bisschen, und nur weil diese Suchtmittel ohne strafrechtliche Folgen zu erwerben sind, rechtfertigt dies die negativen Folgen für Gesundheit und Lebensqualität nicht.
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Introduction: Sustained high alcohol intake is necessary but not sufficient to produce alcohol-related cirrhosis. Identification of risk factors, apart from lifetime alcohol exposure, would assist in discovery of mechanisms and prediction of risk. Methods: We conducted a multicenter case-control study (GenomALC) comparing 1,293 cases (with alcohol-related cirrhosis, 75.6% male) and 754 controls (with equivalent alcohol exposure but no evidence of liver disease, 73.6% male). Information confirming or excluding cirrhosis, and on alcohol intake and other potential risk factors, was obtained from clinical records and by interview. Case-control differences in risk factors discovered in the GenomALC participants were validated using similar data from 407 cases and 6,573 controls from UK Biobank. Results: The GenomALC case and control groups reported similar lifetime alcohol intake (1,374 vs 1,412 kg). Cases had a higher prevalence of diabetes (20.5% (262/1,288) vs 6.5% (48/734), P = 2.27 × 10) and higher premorbid body mass index (26.37 ± 0.16 kg/m) than controls (24.44 ± 0.18 kg/m, P = 5.77 × 10). Controls were significantly more likely to have been wine drinkers, coffee drinkers, smokers, and cannabis users than cases. Cases reported a higher proportion of parents who died of liver disease than controls (odds ratio 2.25 95% confidence interval 1.55-3.26). Data from UK Biobank confirmed these findings for diabetes, body mass index, proportion of alcohol as wine, and coffee consumption. Discussion: If these relationships are causal, measures such as weight loss, intensive treatment of diabetes or prediabetic states, and coffee consumption should reduce the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis.
Article
Patients with chronic liver disease are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most patients diagnosed with HCC have limited treatment options and a poor overall prognosis, with a 5-year survival less than 15%. Preventing the development of HCC represents the most important strategy. However, current guidelines lack specific recommendations for primary prevention. Lifestyle factors may be central in the pathogenesis of HCC, and primary prevention strategies focused on lifestyle modification could represent an important approach to the prevention of HCC. Both experimental and epidemiologic studies have identified promising chemopreventive agents for the primary prevention of HCC.
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Abstract Background Number of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cases is increasing over time due to alteration of food habit, increase incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lack of exercise. Liver biopsy is the test for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD, but nowadays several biochemical markers, scoring systems, and imaging studies are available to diagnose and stage NAFLD which is linked to end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer, and elevated cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Therefore urgent diagnosis and management are required to avoid complications related to NAFLD. This review summarizes recent advances in diagnosis and medical management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Main text Recently published studies from PubMed, Red Cross, Copernicus, and also various previous studies were reviewed. We have discussed various non-invasive methods for detection of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and hepatic fibrosis. Non pharmacological therapies for NAFLD, indications, and approved medications for NAFLD and other commonly used non-approved medications have been discussed in this review article. Conclusions Multiple non-invasive tests are available for diagnosis of NAFLD, and its different stages however gold standard test is liver biopsy. NALFD without NASH and significant fibrosis is treated by lifestyle modifications which include moderate to vigorous exercise and diet modification. To improve hepatic steatosis, minimum of 3–5% of body weight loss is necessary, but > 7–10% weight reductions is required for histological improvement in NASH and fibrosis. Pharmacotherapy is indicated when patient is having NASH with significant fibrosis.
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Objectives-This report presents final 2011 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.
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Liver disease afflicts over 10% of the world population. This includes chronic hepatitis, alcoholic steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which are the most health-threatening conditions drawing considerable attention from medical professionals and scientists. Patients with alcoholism or viral hepatitis are much more likely to have liver cell damage and cirrhosis, and some may eventually develop HCC, which is unfortunately, and very often, a fatal malignancy without cure. While liver surgery is not suitable in many of the HCC cases, patients are mostly given palliative support cares or transarterial chemoembolization or systemic chemotherapies. However, HCC is well known to be a highly chemoresistant tumour, and the response rate is <10–20%. To this end, alternative medicines are being actively sought from other sources with hopes to halt the disease's progression or even eliminate the tumours. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has begun to gain popularity worldwide for promoting healthcare as well as disease prevention, and been used as conventional or complementary medicines for both treatable and incurable diseases in Asia and the West. In this article, we discuss the laboratory findings and clinical trial studies of Chinese herbal medicines (particularly small molecule compounds) for the treatment of liver disease ranging from fibrosis to liver cancer.
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This report presents final 2008 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. Information reported on death certificates, which is completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. In 2008, a total of 2,471,984 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 758.3 deaths per 100,000 standard population, a decrease of 0.2 percent from the 2007 rate and a record low figure. Life expectancy at birth rose 0.2 years, from 77.9 years in 2007 to a record high 78.1 years in 2008. The age-specific death rate increased for age group 85 years and over. Age-specific death rates decreased for age groups: less than 1 year, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 65-74 years. The age-specific death rates remained unchanged for age groups: 1-4, 45-54, 55-64, and 75-84 years. The 15 leading causes of death in 2008 remained the same as in 2007, but Chronic lower respiratory diseases and suicide increased in the ranking while stroke and septicemia decreased in the ranking. Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in 2008 after more than five decades at number three in the ranking. Chronic lower respiratory diseases is the third leading cause of death for 2008. The infant mortality rate decreased 2.1 percent to a historically low value of 6.61 deaths per 1000 live births in 2008. The decline of the age-adjusted death rate to a record low value for the United States and the increase in life expectancy to a record high value of 78.1 years are consistent with long-term trends in mortality.
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This report presents 2009 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal characteristics including age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, hypertension during pregnancy, attendant at birth, method of delivery, and infant characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality). Birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status also are presented. Selected data by mother's state of residence are shown, as well as birth rates by age and race of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 4.13 million births that occurred in 2009 are presented. Denominators for population-based rates are postcensal estimates derived from the U.S. 2000 census. The number of births declined to 4,130,665 in 2009, 3 percent less than in 2008. The general fertility rate declined 3 percent to 66.7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years. The teenage birth rate fell 6 percent to 39.1 per 1,000. Birth rates for women in each 5-year age group from 20 through 39 years declined, but the rate for women 40-44 years continued to rise. The total fertility rate (estimated number of births over a woman's lifetime) was down 4 percent to 2,007.0 per 1,000 women. The number and rate of births to unmarried women declined, whereas the percentage of nonmarital births increased slightly to 41.0. The cesarean delivery rate rose again, to 32.9 percent. The preterm birth rate declined to 12.18 percent; the low birthweight rate was stable at 8.16 percent. The twin birth rate increased to 33.2 per 1,000; the triplet and higher-order multiple birth rate rose 4 percent to 153.5 per 100,000.
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Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline. In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).
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Some phytochemicals present in coffee have a potential antioxidant role which seems to protect the human body against cardiovascular diseases, liver disease and malignancies. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common disease with limited therapeutic options. This study investigated the antioxidant effect of coffee by measuring antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation markers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We performed a case-control study at the University Hospital, Mexico City. Anthropometric, metabolic, dietary and biochemical variables of all patients were determined and compared. The presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was established by ultrasonography. All patients completed a dietary questionnaire in order to determine their of coffee consumption. Catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured in all of the patients. Seventy-three subjects with and 57 without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were included. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease had significantly higher body mass index, blood glucose, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance and insulin values in comparison to patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the one hand, there was a significant difference in coffee intake between the groups (p < 0.05, for all comparisons). There was no significant difference between groups in catalase (0.39 ± 0.74 vs. 0.28 ± 0.69 nM/min/mL), superoxide dismutase (5.4 ± 3.45 vs. 4.7 ± 2.1 U/mL) or thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (4.05 ± 1.87 vs. 3.94 ± 1.59 µM/mL). A high intake of coffee has a protective effect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease however there was no significant difference in the antioxidant variables analyzed.
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Coffee is a truly global commodity and a major foreign exchange earner in many developing countries. The global coffee chain has changed dramatically as a result of deregulation, new consumption patterns, and evolving corporate strategies. From a balanced contest between producing and consuming countries within the politics of international coffee agreements, power relations shifted to the advantage of transnational corporations. A relatively stable institutional environment where proportions of generated income were fairly distributed between producing and consuming countries turned into one that is more informal, unstable, and unequal. Through the lenses of global commodity chain analysis, this paper examines how these transformations affect developing countries and what policy instruments are available to address the emerging imbalances.
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Role of caffeine consumption in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients and the interaction with alcohol consumption is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between caffeine and alcohol consumption and liver stiffness in chronic HBV-infected patients. Chronic HBV-infected patients who underwent transient elastography examination in 2006-2008 were studied. Advanced fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness > 9 kPa for patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or > 12 kPa for those with elevated ALT according to previous validation study. Caffeine and alcohol consumption was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Excessive alcohol intake was defined as 30 g/day in men and 20 g/day in women. The liver stiffness of 1045 patients who completed the questionnaire was 8.3 ± 6.2 kPa. Two hundred and sixteen (20.7%) patients had advanced fibrosis. Ninety-five (19.0%) patients who drank ≥ 1 cup of coffee had advanced fibrosis, compared with 121 (22.2%) patients who drank < 1 cup (P = 0.21). The amount of caffeine intake had positive correlation with the amount of alcohol intake (r(s) = 0.167, P < 0.001). Although 231 (22.1%) patients reported alcohol consumption, only 11 (1%) had excessive alcohol intake. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis among patients with mild to moderate alcohol intake (26, 18.8%) was comparable to that among non-drinkers (190, 21.0%) (P = 0.57). Caffeine intake does not affect liver stiffness in chronic HBV-infected patients. Patients who drink coffee regularly tend to drink alcohol. Most chronic HBV-infected patients do not have excessive alcohol consumption. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis among mild to moderate alcohol drinkers was low in this population.
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Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced markers of hepatic cell damage, reduced risk of chronic liver disease, and cirrhosis across a variety of populations. Data on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in high-risk populations, are sparse. This study examines the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption, and the risk of developing HCC within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women, a relatively high-risk population for HCC. Baseline data on coffee consumption and other dietary and lifestyle factors were collected through in-person interviews at enrollment between 1993 and 1998. As of 31 December 2006, 362 cohort participants had developed HCC. High levels of coffee or caffeine consumption were associated with reduced risk of HCC (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, individuals who consumed three or more cups of coffee per day experienced a statistically significant 44% reduction in risk of HCC (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.00, p = .049) after adjustment for potential confounders and tea consumption. These data suggest that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of developing HCC in Chinese in Singapore.
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Recent epidemiological studies have reported a dose-dependent protective effect of coffee on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with risk reduction ranging from 30% to 80% in daily coffee drinkers compared with non-drinkers. This study examined whether coffee has a similar protective effect when consumed in moderate quantities in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers, a group at high risk of developing liver cancer. A case-control design was employed. 234 HBV chronic carriers (109 cases and 125 controls) were recruited from the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong from December 2007 to May 2008. Data collection included review of medical records and face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions adjusting for age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, tea consumption and physical activity were conducted with dose-response analysis. Moderate coffee consumption significantly reduced the risk of HCC by almost half (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.97) with a significant dose-response effect (χ²=5.41, df=1, p=0.02), reducing the risk for moderate drinkers by 59% (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.89). The findings provided evidence to support the protective effect of coffee consumption in moderate quantities in HBV chronic carriers.
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This report presents final 2006 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant and maternal mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. It also presents more detailed information than previously presented about the mortality experience of the American Indian or Alaska Native and the Asian or Pacific Islander populations. Information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). In 2006, a total of 2,426,264 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 776.5 deaths per 100,000 standard population, a decrease of 2.8 percent from the 2005 rate and a record low historical figure. Life expectancy at birth rose 0.3 years, from a revised 2005 value of 77.4 years to a record 77.7 years in 2006. Age-specific death rates increased for those aged 25-34 years but decreased for most other age groups: 5-14 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and 85 years and over. The 15 leading causes of death in 2006 remained the same as in 2005. Heart disease and cancer continued to be the leading and second-leading causes of death, together accounting for almost half of all deaths. The infant mortality rate in 2006 was 6.69 deaths per 1,000 live births. Mortality patterns in 2006, such as the decline in the age-adjusted death rate to a record historical low, were generally consistent with long-term trends. Life expectancy increased in 2006 from 2005.
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The relationship between coffee drinking and the risk of digestive tract neoplasms was analyzed in a case-control study of 50 cases of cancer of the mouth or pharynx, 209 of the esophagus, 397 of the stomach, 455 of the colon, 295 of the rectum, 151 of the liver, 214 of the pancreas, and 1944 control subjects admitted for acute, non-digestive tract disorders. There was no significant or consistent association between coffee and cancers of the mouth or pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, or pancreas. In particular, for pancreatic cancer, the multivariate relative risks for the intermediate and upper tertiles were 1.05 and 1.01, respectively. There were significant inverse trends in risk with measures of coffee consumption for colon and rectal cancers, the multivariate relative risks according to tertiles of coffee consumption being 0.86 and 0.64 for colon and 0.97 and 0.66 for rectum. This apparent protection is in agreement with some (but not all) previous epidemiological evidence and finds a possible biological interpretation in terms of interference on bile secretion, causing reduced bile acid and neutral sterol concentrations in the bowel. In conclusion, the results of this study, the major interest of which lies in the opportunity of drawing up an overall pattern of risk for various digestive neoplasms, offer further reassurance as regards the effects of coffee on digestive tract carcinogenesis.
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Glutathione (GSH) S-transferase is a major detoxification enzyme system that catalyzes the binding of a variety of electrophiles, including reactive forms of chemical carcinogens, to GSH. Green coffee beans fed in the diet induced increased GSH S-transferase activity in the mucosa of the small intestine and in the liver of mice. A potent compound that induces increased GSH S-transferase activity was isolated from green coffee beans and identified as kahweol palmitate. The corresponding free alcohol, kahweol, and its synthetic monoacetate are also potent inducers of the activity of GSH S-transferase. A similar diterpene ester, cafestol palmitate, isolated from green coffee beans was active but less so than was kahweol palmitate. Likewise, the corresponding alcohol, cafestol, and its monoacetate showed moderate potency as inducers of increased GSH S-transferase activity. Kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate were extracted from green coffee beans into petroleum ether. The petroleum ether extract was fractionated by preparative normal-phase and reverse-phase liquid chromatographies successively. Final purification with silver nitrate-impregnated thin-layer chromatography yielded the pure palmitates of cafestol and kahweol. The structures were determined by examination of the spectroscopic data of the esters and their parent alcohols and by derivative comparison.
Article
Since most heavy drinkers do not develope alcoholic cirrhosis, other causes or predisposing factors are probable. The authors studies traits of 128, 934 adults who underwent health examinations at the Oakland and San Francisco, California, facilities of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program from January 1978 to December 1985 in relation to subsequent hospitalization or death from cirrhosis of the liver. In analyses adjusted for nine covariates, past and current alsohol drinking were strongly related to cirrhosis risk, but usual choice of alcoholicnm beverage had no independent relation. Cigarette smoking was independently related to risk of alcoholic cirrhosis, with cigarette smokers of a pack or more per day at trebled risk compared with lifelong nonsmokers. Coffee drinking, but not tea drinking, was inversely related to alcoholic cirrhosis risk, with persons who drank four or more cups per day at one-fifth the risk of noncoffee drinkers. This inverse relation between coffee consumption and risk of alcoholic cirrhosis was consistent in many subsets, including persons free of gastrointestinal disease and those with 5 or more years before hospitalizatilon or death. Cigarette smoking and coffee consumption were not consistently related to risk of hospitalization or death for nonalcoholic cirrhosis. These data could mean that cigarette smoking promotes alcoholic cirrhosis and that coffee drinking might be protective. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 1248–57
Article
Objective: This report presents final 2009 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. Methods: Information reported on death certificates, which is completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Results: In 2009, a total of 2,437,163 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 741.1 deaths per 100,000 standard population, a decrease of 2.3% from the 2008 rate and a record low figure. Life expectancy at birth rose 0.4 years, from 78.1 years in 2008 to a record-high 78.5 years in 2009. Age-specific death rates decreased for age groups: under 1 year, 1-4, 15-24, 55-64, 65-74, and 75-84. The age-specific death rates remained unchanged for age groups 5-14, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 85 years and over. The 15 leading causes of death in 2009 remained the same as in 2008. The infant mortality rate decreased 3.3% to a historically low value of 6.39 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009. Conclusion: The decline of the age-adjusted death rate to a record low value for the United States and the increase in life expectancy to a record high value of 78.5 years are consistent with long-term trends in mortality.
Article
Background & Aims: Coffee drinking has been suggested to protect against liver injury, but it is uncertain whether this is of clinical significance. We examined the relationship of coffee and tea consumption with the incidence of hospitalization or death from chronic liver disease (CLD). Method : Participants in the population-based, first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1971 - 1975, were asked about coffee and tea consumption, which was categorized as < 1 cup (mean, 0.2 cups), 1 to 2 cups, and > 2 cups per day (mean, 4.0 cups). A second analysis included persons who, in 1982 - 1984, were asked more detailed questions on coffee and tea drinking. Participants were followed through 1992 - 1993 for a hospital or death certificate diagnosis of CLD or cirrhosis (ICD-9-CM 571). Hazard rate ratios for CLD according to coffee and tea intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Among 9849 persons followed for a median of 19.0 years (range, 0.02 - 22.1), the cumulative incidence of CLD was 1.4%. In multivariate analysis, participants who drank > 2 cups per day had less than half the rate of CLD as those who drank < 1 cup per day (hazard ratio, 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.24 - 0.78). Protection by coffee and tea was limited to persons at higher risk for liver diseases from heavier alcohol intake, overweight, diabetes, or high iron saturation. Among 9650 participants who provided detailed drink information in 1982 - 1984, intake of regular ground coffee and of caffeine was associated with lower incidence of CLD. Conclusions: Coffee and tea drinking decreases the risk of clinically significant CLD.
Article
Proceedings: AACR 101st Annual Meeting 2010‐‐ Apr 17‐21, 2010; Washington, DC Background: Dietary intake of isothiocyanates (ITC), found in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables, has been suggested as a protective factor against the development of cancer at various sites including the colon, lung, and urinary bladder in humans. Epidemiologic evidence of association between dietary intake of ITC and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, remains scant. One of the proposed routes of ITC protection may be through its modification of phase I and II detoxification enzymes. Some studies have shown that this modifying effect may vary by sex. Methods: We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of ITC at baseline and the risk of developing HCC in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women enrolled between 1993 and 1998. Dietary intake of ITC was derived from a validated, semi-quantified comprehensive food frequency questionnaire administered to subjects in person by trained interviewers at baseline. We had complete follow-up for incidence of cancer and death among cohort participants through computer linkage to databases of the population-based death and cancer registries. As of 31 December 2007, 394 cohort participants who were free of cancer at baseline developed HCC. The diagnoses of all HCC cases were verified through manual review of pathological reports and medical records. The hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCC with dietary ITC intake were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: High intake of dietary ITC was associated with a reduced risk of HCC in men, but no protective effect was observed in women. Compared with the lowest tertile of ITC intake, men in the highest tertile of ITC experienced a 30% reduction in risk of developing HCC (HR=0.70, 95% CI = 0.51-0.97). After excluding HCC cases which occurred within two years post-enrollment, the inverse ITC-HCC risk association strengthened. The HRs (95% CIs) for the second and third tertiles of ITC were 0.97 (0.72-1.30) and 0.66 (0.46-0.94), respectively, when compared with the lowest tertile of intake (P for trend = 0.03). Dietary indole-3-carbinol, another breakdown product of glucosinolate, glucobrassicin, also found in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables, was not significantly associated with risk of HCC in either men or women. Among those cases which occurred with more than two years follow-up, a statistically significant interaction between sex and ITC intake (p=0.01) was observed. Conclusion: High intake of dietary ITC led to a reduced incidence of HCC in men. The gender differential effect of ITC on HCC development suggests that ITC might have influence on the metabolism of sex hormones that have differential impact on HCC between men and women. Citation Format: {Authors}. {Abstract title} [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 101st Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2010 Apr 17-21; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2010;70(8 Suppl):Abstract nr 2817.
Article
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is widely used as a marker of alcohol intake, although it is documented that other factors are also associated with serum levels of GGT. The total population of men and women aged 40–42 years in two Norwegian counties was invited to participate in a health survey program. GGT was measured in 8116 men and 8689 women—67 % of the eligible population. In sex-specific multiple regression analyses, GGT showed a positive association with body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, lntriglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and number of drinks per 2 weeks for both men and women. Glucose and ‘years of smoking’ were significant in women only. Cups of boiled coffee per day and physical activity in spare time were inversely associated with GGT level for both men and women. A significant positive interaction between alcohol intake and BMI was observed for men but not for women. The use of GGT as a marker of alcohol consumption in middle-aged persons should take into account sex, BMI and drinking of boiled coffee.
Article
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of coffee drinking on serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level in relation to alcohol drinking, smoking, and degree of obesity in middle-aged Japanese men.METHODS: From 1986 to 1994, a total of 7637 male officials of the Self-Defense Forces of Japan aged 48–59 years received a preretirement health examination. Coffee drinking was ascertained by a self-administered questionnaire, and serum GGT level was measured. After excluding 1360 men with a possible pathologic condition influencing liver enzyme levels and 182 former alcohol drinkers, effect of coffee drinking on serum GGT was examined by a multiple linear regression model and analysis of variance adjusting for alcohol drinking, smoking, and body mass index (BMI).RESULTS: The adjusted percentage of difference in serum GGT was −4.3 (95% CI = −5.0; −3.5) per cup of coffee. The inverse coffee-GGT relation was most prominent among men drinking ⩾ 30 ml of ethanol and smoking ⩾ 15 cigarettes daily; and positive associations of alcohol and smoking with GGT were attenuated by coffee drinking, more clearly among men with BMI ⩾ 25.00 kg/m2. Adjusted percentages of difference in serum GGT were −2.6% (p = 0.0003) per cup of brewed coffee, and −5.1% (p = 0.0001) per cup of instant coffee, independently of each other.CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that coffee consumption may weaken GGT-induction by alcohol, and possibly by smoking. These effect modifications by coffee may differ according to the degree of obesity.
Article
Several epidemiological studies have shown that coffee intake attenuates the progression of liver fibrosis; however, the mechanism is unclear. We investigated the direct effects of caffeine on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and assessed whether caffeine attenuated intrahepatic fibrosis in rat model of liver cirrhosis. LX-2, an immortalized human HSCs line, was used in in vitro assay system. Cell migration and proliferation were assessed in presence of various caffeine concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 10 mM), and levels of procollagen type IC and α-SMA were measured by Western blot. Severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis were compared between thioacetamide treated rats with and without caffeine supplementation. Caffeine increased HSCs apoptosis and intracellular F-actin and cAMP expression. Caffeine also inhibited procollagen type IC and α-SMA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In rat model, caffeine decreased periportal inflammation, levels of inflammatory cells (1.4±0.52 vs. 2.6±0.46, p<0.05) and fibrosis (2.1±0.35 vs. 2.9±0.84, p<0.05).TGF-β and α-SMA expressions were also reduced by caffeine. Caffeine attenuates the progression of liver fibrosis by inhibiting HSCs adhesion and activation.
Article
Results of case-control studies and of a prospective investigation in men suggest that consumption of coffee could protect against the risk of Parkinson's disease, but the active constituent is not clear. To address the hypothesis that caffeine is protective against Parkinson's disease, we examined the relationship of coffee and caffeine consumption to the risk of this disease among participants in 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). The study population comprised 47,351 men and 88,565 women who were free of Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline. A comprehensive life style and dietary questionnaire was completed by the participants at baseline and updated every 2–4 years. During the follow-up (10 years in men, 16 years in women), we documented a total of 288 incident cases of Parkinson's disease. Among men, after adjustment for age and smoking, the relative risk of Parkinson's disease was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23–0.78; p for trend < 0.001) for men in the top one-fifth of caffeine intake compared to those in the bottom one-fifth. An inverse association was also observed with consumption of coffee (p for trend = 0.004), caffeine from noncoffee sources (p for trend < 0.001), and tea (p for trend = 0.02) but not decaffeinated coffee. Among women, the relationship between caffeine or coffee intake and risk of Parkinson's disease was U-shaped, with the lowest risk observed at moderate intakes (1–3 cups of coffee/day, or the third quintile of caffeine consumption). These results support a possible protective effect of moderate doses of caffeine on risk of Parkinson's disease.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of coffee and other caffeinated drinks on liver fibrosis of severely obese European patients. A specific questionnaire exploring various types of coffee (regular filtrated coffee and espresso), caffeinated drinks, and chocolate was filled in by 195 severely obese patients. All patients had liver biopsies that were analyzed according to the NASH Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Univariate and multivariate analyses of significant fibrosis were performed. Caffeine came mainly from coffee-containing beverages (77.5%). Regular coffee and espresso were consumed in 30.8% and 50.2% of the patients, respectively. Regular coffee, espresso, and total caffeine consumption was similar between patients with and without NASH. While consumption of espresso, caffeinated soft drinks, and chocolate was similar among patients, with respect to the level of fibrosis, regular coffee consumption was lower in patients with significant fibrosis (F ⩾2). According to logistic regression analysis, consumption of regular coffee was an independent protective factor for fibrosis (OR: 0.752 [0.578-0.980], p=0.035) in a model including level of AST (OR: 1.04 [1.004-1.076], p=0.029), presence of NASH (OR: 2.41 [1.007-5.782], p=0.048), presence of the metabolic syndrome (NS), and level of HOMA-IR (NS). Espresso, but not regular coffee consumption was higher in patients with lower HDL cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, and the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of regular coffee but not espresso is an independent protective factor for liver fibrosis in severely obese European patients.
Article
During a 4-year period from January 1995 to December 1998, blood samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 333 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as from 360 controls who were hospitalized for eye, ear, nose, throat or orthopedic conditions in Athens, Greece. Coded sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by third-generation enzyme immunoassays, and information on smoking habits and beverage consumption was obtained. We found a significant dose-response, positive association between smoking and HCC risk [≥ 2 packs per day, odds ratio (OR)=2.5].This association was stronger in individuals without chronic infection with either HBV or HCV (≥ 2 packs per day, OR=2.8). Consumption of alcoholic beverages above a threshold of 40 glasses per week increased the risk of HCC (OR=1.9). We also found evidence of a strong, statistically significant and apparently super-multiplicative effect of heavy smoking and heavy drinking in the development of HCC (OR for both exposures=9.6). This interaction was particularly evident among individuals without either HBsAg or anti-HCV (OR for both exposures=10.9). Coffee intake was not positively associated with HCC risk, but the reverse could not be excluded for the subgroup of chronically infected individuals. In conclusion, tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased risk of HCC, especially when these 2 exposures occur together. Int. J. Cancer 85:498–502, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
In order to assess the interaction between alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and coffee con sumption in determining the risk of liver cirrhosis we carried out a hospital-based case-control study involving 115 patients at their first diagnosis of cirrhosis and 167 control patients consecutively enrolled in the General Hospitals of the Province of L'Aquila (Central Italy). The mean life-time daily alcohol intake (as g ethanol consumed daily) was measured by direct patient interviews, whose reproducibility was >0.80 and similar for cases and controls, as checked by interviewing the relatives of a sample of 50 cases and 73 controls. During the same patient's interview we also measured the mean consumption of coffee (daily number of cups of filtered coffee) and tobacco (life-time daily number of cigarettes smoked). A dose-effect relationship on the risk of cirrhosis was present both for alcohol intake — for which the risk was significantly increased above 100 g of daily intake — and for cigarette consumption. The latter did not however improve the goodness-of-fit of a logistic regression model including alcohol intake as covariate. By contrast, coffee consumption had a protective effect on the risk of cirrhosis and significantly improved the goodness-of-fit of such a model. Abstaining from coffee consumption determined both a significantly increased risk of cirrhosis, even for daily alcohol intake below 100 g, and a multiplicative effect with alcohol intake on this risk. In patients drinking 101 g ethanol daily the relative risk increased from 5.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–22.0) for coffee consumers to 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.3–58.1) for coffee abstainers. We conclude that: (1) tobacco smoking is likely to be a faint risk factor for cirrhosis, and studies on wider patients series should be performed for confirmation; (2) coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of cirrhosis. Whether coffee contains some hitherto unknown protective substances, or is just a marker of other life-style or dietary protective factors, deserves further clarification.
Article
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is the most common cause of primary liver disease. Although recent studies have found that coffee drinking is protective against end stage chronic liver disease, there are scarce caffeine intake data in NAFLD specifically. To investigate the effects of dietary behaviour in NAFLD patients, using four continuous cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2001-2008). Using data from four continuous cycles of NHANES, dietary intake questionnaires that list 62 nutrition components. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of NAFLD among nutrition components after adjustment for potential clinical confounders. All analyses were run using sas 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Of the 62 nutrient components used for the univariate analysis, 38% were significant (P-value <0.05) in NAFLD with caffeine consumption being higher in the control group (P-value <0.001). The multivariate analysis using demographics, clinical parameters and nutritional components found five factors independently associated with NAFLD [African American Race P-value <0.001); Male gender P-value <0.001); Obesity (BMI ≥ 30) P-value <0.001); Caffeine intake (mg) P-value <0.001) and total plain water consumption (g) P-value ≤ 0.02)]. Our analysis shows that caffeine intake is independently associated with a lower risk for NAFLD suggesting a potential protective effect. These data necessitate further research to elucidate the mechanism by which caffeine can protect against NAFLD.
Article
Unlabelled: Coffee caffeine consumption (CC) is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases, such as hepatitis C. The association of CC with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been established. The aim of this study was to correlate CC with the prevalence and severity of NAFLD. Patients involved in a previously published NAFLD prevalence study, as well as additional NASH patients identified in the Brooke Army Medical Center Hepatology clinic, were queried about their caffeine intake. A validated questionnaire for CC was utilized to assess for a relationship between caffeine and four groups: ultrasound negative (controls), bland steatosis/not-NASH, NASH stage 0-1, and NASH stage 2-4. A total of 306 patients responded to the CC questionnaire. Average milligrams of total caffeine/coffee CC per day in controls, bland steatosis/not-NASH, NASH stage 0-1, and NASH stage 2-4 were 307/228, 229/160, 351/255, and 252/152, respectively. When comparing patients with bland steatosis/not-NASH to those with NASH stage 0-