Our hypothesis was that carbohydrate, fat, and protein content of meals affect satiety, glucose homeostasis, and hormone secretion. The objectives of this crossover trial were to examine satiety, glycemic-insulinemic response, and plasma peptide levels in response to two different recommended diabetes diets with equivalent energy content. One traditional reference breakfast and one test breakfast, with lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content, were randomly administered to healthy volunteers (8 men, 12 women). Blood samples were collected, and satiety was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS) before and 3 h following meals. Plasma glucose was measured, and levels of C-peptide, ghrelin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and adipokines were analyzed by Luminex. Greater satiety, VAS total and delta area under the curve (tAUC and dAUC) (P < .001), and lower glucose postprandial peak (max) and change from baseline (dmax) (P < .001), was observed following test meal compared with reference meal. Postprandial increments of C-peptide, insulin, and GIP were suppressed after test meal compared with reference meal [tAUC (P = .03, .006, and .004), dAUC (P = .006, .003, and .02), max (P = .01, .007, and .002), and dmax (P = .004, .008, and .007), respectively]. Concentrations of other peptides were similar between meals. A lower carbohydrate and higher fat and protein content provides greater satiety and attenuation of C-peptide, glucose, insulin, and GIP responses compared with the reference breakfast but does not affect adipokines, ghrelin, glucagon, GLP-1, and PAI-1.
adipokines, blood glucose, diet, gastrointestinal hormones, humans, satiety