Measurement of CO2, CO, SO2, and NO emissions from coal-based thermal power plants in India
Measurements of CO2 (direct GHG) and CO, SO2, NO (indirect GHGs) were conducted on-line at some of the coal-based thermal power plants in India. The objective of the study was three-fold: to quantify the measured emissions in terms of emission coefficient per kg of coal and per kWh of electricity, to calculate the total possible emission from Indian thermal power plants, and subsequently to compare them with some previous studies. Instrument IMR 2800P Flue Gas Analyzer was used on-line to measure the emission rates of CO2, CO, SO2, and NO at 11 numbers of generating units of different ratings. Certain quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) techniques were also adopted to gather the data so as to avoid any ambiguity in subsequent data interpretation. For the betterment of data interpretation, the requisite statistical parameters (standard deviation and arithmetic mean) for the measured emissions have been also calculated. The emission coefficients determined for CO2, CO, SO2, and NO have been compared with their corresponding values as obtained in the studies conducted by other groups. The total emissions of CO2, CO, SO2, and NO calculated on the basis of the emission coefficients for the year 2003–2004 have been found to be 465.667, 1.583, 4.058, and 1.129 Tg, respectively.
Available from: T V Ramachandra
- "The present centralised system of electricity generation has caused enormous environmental pollution through GHG emission, waste water discharge and changing the landscape . Transmission and Distribution losses due to sparsely located load centers, theft and pilferage of electricity is one of the major issues affecting the reliability of the electricity supply. "
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ABSTRACT: Decentralised electric energy generation using available renewable energy resources can meet the regional demand by reducing the transmission losses and stress on central grid. The current communication explores village wise availability of renewable energy resources in Uttara Kannada district in the central Western Ghats region. All the taluks of the district receive solar insolation >5 kWh/m 2 /day annually and coastal and hilly terrain experiences wind speed >3 m/s are most suited for decentralised energy harvesting. Integrated energy system would ensure elevate the livelihood with reliable electricity supply throughout the year. A fraction of (2-10%) available rooftop is adequate to mount solar panels to supply domestic electricity. Sufficient land is available as the estimate indicates less than 5% of current wasteland is sufficient to deploy decentralised electricity generation for meeting the current domestic and irrigation energy demand. Most of the villages in the district are blessed with abundant bioenergy of more than 10000 million kWh/annum which can suffice the heating and electric energy requirement. Similarly, 0.1 to 0.5 million kWh of biogas energy available in most of the villages which can be used for cooking and electricity generation. The annual energy requirement of the villages in the district can efficiently supplied from locally available resources in decentralised way.
Available from: Alvaro Ochoa
- "Ainda de acordo com Villela e Silveira, 2009, a emissão total de uma usina termoelétrica usando diesel é cerca de 1,2 vezes maior que a mesma utilizando gás natural. Chakraborty et al., 2008, realizaram medições on-line da emissão de CO 2 , CO, SO 2 e NO em centrais termoelétricas da Índia. O estudo foi realizado para quantificar a emissão medida em termos do coeficiente de emissão por kg de carvão e por kWh de eletricidade. "
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ABSTRACT: Resumo: O mundo moderno necessita cada vez mais de energia para manter seu padrão de crescimento e conforto. O consumo de energia quadruplicou desde a segunda intensificação de problemas sócio-ambientais, tais como a emissão excessiva de poluentes atmosféricos, a redução da camada de ozônio e suas implicações sobre o equilíbrio climático, tornara aumentando a importância do impacto ecológico provocado por ela. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre a dispersão de gases poluentes emitidos por uma termoelétrica a gás natural. As emi foram monitoradas com a termoelétrica funcionando à plena carga, através de medições efetuadas nas chaminés com um analisador de gases. A dispersão de poluentes foi simulada numericamente através do modelo AERMOD e as concentrações máximas encontradas foram comparadas com os níveis aceitáveis do CONSELHO NACIONAL DO MEIO AMBIENTE. As concentrações dos poluentes também foram estimadas pelo método da PLUMA GAUSSIANA SIMPLES em alguns pontos. Um breve comparativo entre os Modelos foi feito e indicados em tabela. O modelo AERMOD mostrou ser uma ferramenta importante no monitoramento da dispersão de poluentes num raio de 50 quilômetros da fonte.
Available from: Anup Krishna Prasad
- "In the last 30 years, the total installed capacity and the number of thermal power plants (TPPs) in India have increased ∼10 times (National Thermal Power Corporation—NTPC, http://www.ntpc.co.in). The NO 2 emission from TPPs in India was estimated at 1.129 Tg based on emission coefficients for the year 2003–2004 (Chakraborty et al. 2008). The sub-regional NO x emission (inventory) estimates by Garg et al. (2001) were 2.63 and 3.46 Tg during year 1990 and 1995, respectively. "
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ABSTRACT: The oxides of nitrogen--NO(x) (NO and NO(2))--are an important constituent of the troposphere. The availability of relatively higher spatial (0.25° grid) and temporal (daily) resolution data from ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) onboard Aura helps us to better differentiate between the point sources such as thermal power plants from large cities and rural areas compared to previous sensors. The annual and seasonal (summer and winter) distributions shows very high mean tropospheric NO(2) in specific pockets over India especially over the Indo-Gangetic plains (up to 14.2 × 10(15) molecules/cm(2)). These pockets correspond with the known locations of major thermal power plants. The tropospheric NO(2) over India show a large seasonal variability that is also observed in the ground NO(2) data. The multiple regression analysis show that the influence of a unit of power plant (in gigawatts) over tropospheric NO(2) (×10(15) molecules/cm(2)) is around ten times compared to a unit of population (in millions) over India. The OMI data show that the NO(2) increases by 0.794 ± 0.12 (×10(15) molecules/cm(2); annual) per GW compared to a previous estimate of 0.014 (×10(15) molecules/cm(2)) over India. The increase of tropospheric NO(2) per gigawatt is found to be 1.088 ± 0.18, 0.898 ± 0.14, and 0.395 ± 0.13 (×10(15) molecules/cm(2)) during winter, summer, and monsoon seasons, respectively. The strong seasonal variation is attributed to the enhancement or suppression of NO(2) due to various controlling factors which is discussed here. The recent increasing trend (2005-2007) over rural thermal power plants pockets like Agori and Korba is due to recent large capacity additions in these regions.
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