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The study was focused mainly on the biodeterioration of the external wood of the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga (1924), and the sacral wooden buildings in Eastern Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures included windows, stairs, walls, roofs, fences, benches etc. Roofs, walls and fences were the most commonly decayed outdoor structures, while roof constructions and ceilings were the most often deteriorated indoor structures. Fungi from the phyla Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Protozoa (Myxomycota) were identified. Common fungal genera were Antrodia, Gloeophyllum, Athelia, Hyphoderma, Hyphodontia, Pharenochaete, Postia and Botryobasidium. Mainly corticoid and poroid species were recorded in the wooden structures. The protection measures against the fungal attack should include a proper maintenance of roofs as well as the decrease/elimination of the vegetation around the buildings. The historical value of biodeteriorated structures should be taken into consideration before applying the protection/renovation measures.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
Available
online
at
www.sciencedirect.com
Biodeterioration
of
external
wooden
structures
of
the
Latvian
cultural
heritage
Ilze
Irbea,, Mitko
Karadelevb, Ingeborga
Andersonea, Bruno
Andersonsa
aLatvian
State
Institute
of
Wood
Chemistry,
Dzerbenes
str.
27,
Riga,
1006,
Latvia
bInstitute
of
Biology,
Faculty
of
Natural
Science,
St.
Ciril
and
Methodius
University,
Gazi
Baba
bb,
P.O.
Box
162,
Skopje,
1000,
The
Republic
of
Macedonia
a
r
t
i
c
l
e
i
n
f
o
Article
history:
Received
12
January
2012
Accepted
26
January
2012
Available
online
28
February
2012
Keywords:
Biodeterioration
Cultural
heritage
External
woodwork
Wood-decay
fungi
Latvia
a
b
s
t
r
a
c
t
The
study
was
focused
mainly
on
the
biodeterioration
of
the
external
wood
of
the
Latvian
Ethnographic
Open-Air
Museum,
Riga
(1924),
and
the
sacral
wooden
buildings
in
Eastern
Latvia
(Latgale).
The
inspected
wooden
structures
included
windows,
stairs,
walls,
roofs,
fences,
benches
etc.
Roofs,
walls
and
fences
were
the
most
commonly
decayed
outdoor
structures,
while
roof
constructions
and
ceilings
were
the
most
often
deteriorated
indoor
structures.
Fungi
from
the
phyla
Basidiomycota,
Ascomycota
and
Protozoa
(Myxomycota)
were
identified.
Common
fungal
genera
were
Antrodia,
Gloeophyllum,
Athelia,
Hypho-
derma,
Hyphodontia,
Pharenochaete,
Postia
and
Botryobasidium.
Mainly
corticoid
and
poroid
species
were
recorded
in
the
wooden
structures.
The
protection
measures
against
the
fungal
attack
should
include
a
proper
maintenance
of
roofs
as
well
as
the
decrease/elimination
of
the
vegetation
around
the
buildings.
The
historical
value
of
biodeteriorated
structures
should
be
taken
into
consideration
before
applying
the
protection/renovation
measures.
©
2012
Elsevier
Masson
SAS.
All
rights
reserved.
1.
Research
aims
The
present
study
was
focused
mainly
on
the
biodeterioration
of
external
wood
in
the
heritage
objects
such
as
the
Latvian
Ethno-
graphic
Open-Air
Museum,
Riga
(1924),
and
the
sacral
wooden
buildings
in
Eastern
Latvia
(Latgale).
The
research
consisted
of
the
damage
diagnosis
in
situ,
identification
of
fungi,
and
examination
of
the
attacked
materials.
2.
Introduction
Cultural
monuments
form
a
constituent
of
the
cultural
and
his-
torical
heritage
of
Latvia
and
are
most
commonly
encountered
as
cultural
and
historical
landscapes
and
individual
territories,
as
well
as
building
complexes
and
separate
buildings,
pieces
of
art
etc.,
the
future
preservation
of
which
is
crucial
regarding
the
national
and
public
interests
of
Latvia,
as
well
as
international
interests.
There
are
8519
cultural
monuments
registered
in
Latvia,
including
76
medieval
castles
or
ruins,
142
manors,
136
Lutheran
churches,
65
Catholic
churches,
36
Orthodox
churches,
etc.
[1].
Wood
is
one
of
the
oldest
construction
and
decorative
mate-
rial
used
in
buildings,
and
is
a
material
widely
used
in
Latvian
buildings.
In
Latvia,
forests
still
occupy
about
50%
of
the
total
area.
In
appropriate
environmental
conditions,
wood
outdoors
Corresponding
author.
Tel.:
+37
1
67
54
51
37;
fax:
+37
1
67
55
06
35.
E-mail
addresses:
ilzeirbe@edi.lv
(I.
Irbe),
mitkok@pmf.ukim.mk
(M.
Karadelev),
brunoan@edi.lv
(I.
Andersone),
bruno.andersons@edi.lv
(B.
Andersons).
and
indoors
can
be
degraded
by
brown-rot,
white-rot,
or
soft-rot
fungi.
The
most
important
wood-degrading
fungi
within
buildings
in
Europe
and
North
America
are
the
ones
that
cause
brown
rot
in
conifers.
White-rot
fungi,
which
preferentially
attack
hardwoods,
are
less
common
in
buildings
[2].
Only
three
fungal
species
are
often
mentioned
as
most
frequent
house-rot
fungi
in
Europe:
Serpula
lacrymans,
Coniophora
spp.,
and
Antrodia
spp.
[3].
Our
previous
research
on
wood
decay
fungi
in
Latvian
buildings
had
summarised
the
results
of
12-year
(1996–2007)
investigations
with
totally
inspected
300
private
and
public
buildings,
as
well
as
more
than
20
cultural
monuments
[4].
A
total
of
60
species
of
wood
decay
fungi
were
identified
on
the
constructive
and
decorative
materials.
S.
lacrymans
(46.7%),
Antrodia
(12.7%)
and
Coniophora
(5.9%)
species
were
the
most
frequently
recorded
fungi
in
Latvian
buildings.
3.
Experimental
3.1.
Materials
3.1.1.
Inspected
objects
The
Latvian
Ethnographic
Open-Air
Museum,
founded
in
1924,
is
one
of
the
oldest
open-air
museums
in
Europe.
One
hundred
and
eighteen
ancient
buildings
from
different
Latvian
regions
Vidzeme,
Kurzeme,
Zemgale,
Latgale,
Augˇ
szeme
were
moved
to
the
museum.
Homesteads,
churches,
windmills,
smithies
and
brick-kilns
from
the
17th
to
the
beginning
of
the
20th
cen-
turies
are
exhibited
in
the
museum.
A
total
of
78
buildings
and
other
1296-2074/$
see
front
matter
©
2012
Elsevier
Masson
SAS.
All
rights
reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.culher.2012.01.016
S80
I.
Irbe
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
wooden
constructions
were
investigated
regarding
wood
biodete-
rioration.
Besides,
the
study
of
fungal
deterioration
was
focused
on
the
Eastern
part
of
Latvia
(Latgale
region),
where
12
wooden
heritage
objects
(churches,
chapels,
synagogue)
were
surveyed:
1.
Alexander
Nevsky
Orthodox
Church,
1850,
the
city
of
Dau-
gavpils;
2.
Ambeli
Catholic
Church,
1882,
Daugavpils
district;
3.
Berzgale
Catholic
Church,
1750,
Preil¸i
district;
4.
Berzhi
Catholic
Chapel,
1791,
Balvi
district;
5.
Feimani
Catholic
Church,
1760,
Rezekne
district;
6.
Indrica
Catholic
Church,
1655–1658,
Kraslava
district;
7.
Rezekne
Synagogue,
1909,
the
city
of
Rezekne;
8.
Rozentova
Catholic
Church,
1780,
Rezekne
district;
9. Ruduski
Old
believers
Church,
1859,
Kraslava
district;
10. Rugaji
Orthodox
Church,
1916,
Balvi
district;
11. Saksmale
Catholic
Chapel,
Balvi
district;
12.
Skeltova
Orthodox
Church,
1836,
Kraslava
district.
The
investigation
was
focused
on
outdoor
wooden
items
(walls,
stairs,
doors,
window
frames,
roofs,
fences,
poles,
benches,
etc.).
The
damaged
indoor
structures
(ceilings,
roof
constructions,
floors,
etc.)
were
included
in
the
study
for
comparison
of
the
biodeterioration
ratio
outdoors/indoors.
3.2.
Methodologies
3.2.1.
Identification
of
microorganisms
The
fungal
material
(mainly
fruiting
bodies)
was
collected
in
paper
and
plastic
bags,
delivered
to
the
laboratory,
dried
at
room
temperature
and
prepared
for
microscopy.
The
identification
of
wood-inhabiting
fungi
was
performed
by
using
light
microscopy,
reagents
(Melzer,
5%
KOH,
Cotton
blue,
Sulphovanillin)
and
the
reference
books.
Basidiomycetes
were
identified
according
to
the
keys
[5–13].
All
corticoid
species
were
referred
to
the
group
of
Corticiaceae
s.
lat.
[9].
Myxomycetes
were
identified
according
to
the
key
[14],
ascomycetes
according
to
the
keys
[9,15]
and
anamorphic
fungi
according
to
the
key
[16].
In
the
case,
when
the
only
available
material
was
brown-rotted
wood,
it
was
examined
visually
and
recorded
as
unidentified
brown-rot.
The
fungal
names
are
given
in
compliance
with
the
fungal
database
Index
Fungorum
[17].
The
representative
fungal
specimens
were
deposited
in
the
mycological
collection
(herbarium)
at
the
Laboratory
of
Wood
Biodegradation
and
Protection
Latvian
State
Institute
of
Wood
Chemistry
(LSIWC).
3.3.
Experimental
data
and
results
3.3.1.
The
Latvian
Ethnographic
Open-Air
Museum
Most
of
the
totally
inspected
78
buildings
in
the
Latvian
Ethno-
graphic
Open-Air
Museum
were
in
good
condition,
although
certain
buildings
and
constructions
sustained
considerable
fungal
damage.
A
total
of
58
fungal
species
belonging
to
the
phyla
Basidiomy-
cota,
Ascomycota
and
Myxomycota
were
identified
outdoors
and
indoors.
The
majority
of
the
fungi
were
recorded
on
wood
outdoors
(51
species),
including
roofs,
outer
walls,
doorsteps,
fences,
poles,
logs,
benches,
beehives,
etc.
(Table
1
).
All
species
were
saprobes,
typical
destroyers
of
softwoods.
The
primary
construction
material
was
pine
and
spruce,
although
some
structures,
for
example,
fences
and
old
beehives
were
built
from
hardwood.
Roofs,
walls
and
fences
were
the
most
commonly
infected
outdoor
structures
(Fig.
1).
15
lignicolous
fungi
were
found
in
roof
constructions
(boards,
laths,
and
shingles),
14
species
in
fences,
and
11
species
in
log
walls
of
buildings.
The
most
fre-
quent
genera
found
in
the
exterior
wood
were
Antrodia,
Athelia,
Botryobasidium,
Gloeophyllum,
Hyphoderma,
Hyphodontia,
Mycena
and
Postia.
The
majority
of
fungi
in
outdoor
structures
were
corticoid
species
(26).
For
a
long
time,
corticoid
species
had
been
considered
to
be
of
secondary
importance
in
wood
decay,
although
later
they
have
proved
to
be
responsible
for
active
wood
decay
in
buildings,
where
they
produce
a
typical
white
rot
[13].
The
diversity
of
white-rot
fungi
as
well
as
the
frequency
of
white-rot
damage
prevailed
more
than
twice
over
the
brown-rot,
which
was
influenced
by
the
high
diversity
of
corticoid
species
in
constructions.
According
to
previously
published
data
[10],
the
majority
of
white-rot
fungi
are
corticoids,
and
almost
all
of
them
attack
coniferous
wood.
The
authors
report
that
corticoids
in
forest
ecosystems
commonly
grow
on
fallen
trunks,
although
construc-
tion
materials
of
different
kind
are
often
favourable
habitats.
It
is
known
[12]
that
only
a
small
part
of
decay
fungi
cause
brown
rot
in
forest
ecosystems.
The
number
of
brown-rot
species
in
Europe
and
North
America
comprises
22%
and
18%
of
the
total
number,
respec-
tively.
We
suppose
that
the
dominance
of
white-rot
corticoids
in
outdoor
constructions
is
related
to
the
location
of
the
museum
in
the
woody
area,
resembling
a
natural
habitat
with
favourable
conditions
for
the
development
of
corticoids.
Our
previous
inves-
tigations
[4]
confirmed
a
higher
diversity
of
white-rot
species
in
buildings
in
comparison
with
brown
rots,
while
the
frequency
of
decay
types
was
opposite:
brown-rot
damage
(78.1%)
dominated
over
the
white-rot
one
(21.9%),
and
brown
rot
was
characteristic
for
indoor
wood.
In
several
cases,
serious
damage
was
caused
by
poroid
species.
For
example,
Gloeophyllum
sepiarium
was
a
typical
wood
destroying
species
in
roofs
and
fences,
while
G.
abietinum
was
common
in
fences.
Another
species,
G.
trabeum,
an
obligatory
fungus
of
the
European
Standard
EN
113
[18],
was
found
for
the
first
time
in
the
external
wooden
structure
(beehive
support)
in
the
museum.
G.
trabeum
is
considered
to
be
a
very
rare
species
in
Latvian
myco-
biota
[19].
In
Latvia,
no
Gloeophyllum
species
have
been
found
in
window
structures,
while
these
species
in
Europe
are
impor-
tant
destroyers
of
windows,
which
accumulate
moisture
due
to
inappropriate
window
construction
[3].
The
modern
windows
with
wooden
lists
holding
the
pane
are
reported
to
be
totally
damaged
after
5
years
[13].
Wooden
elements,
before
reassem-
bling
and
permanent
placing
in
the
territory
of
the
museum,
in
the
1950s–1960s,
had
been
pre-treated
with
a
sodium
fluoride
contain-
ing
wood
preservative
by
introducing
it
through
drill
holes.
Later,
in
the
1970s,
the
wooden
elements
were
treated
with
ammonium
silicofluoride
by
the
dipping
method.
In
general,
the
preserva-
tion
was
sufficient,
because
the
old
log
walls
were
attacked
by
fungi
occasionally.
Most
of
the
old
structures
were
free
of
fun-
gal
damage,
especially
those
located
in
exposed
areas.
The
roof
coverings
(shingles,
poles,
boards),
fences
and
other
outdoor
struc-
tures
partly
consisted
of
replaced
wood,
having
no
high
historical
value.
We
suppose
that
the
fungal
diversity
in
the
external
wood
of
the
museum
demonstrated
mainly
the
biodegradation
of
chem-
ically
non-protected
wood
elements
of
small
size
or
those
being
in
ground
contact.
3.3.2.
Cultural
monuments
in
Eastern
Latvia
(Latgale)
The
mycological
investigation
in
Latgale
showed
that
seven
of
the
thirteen
inspected
wooden
heritage
objects
were
attacked
by
wood-inhabiting
fungi
(Table
2).
A
total
of
20
fungal
species
were
identified
in
the
exterior
and
interior
wood
of
the
heritage
objects.
The
majority
of
the
species
were
from
the
phylum
Basidiomycota
(17),
more
specifically,
from
the
families
Atheliaceae,
Schizopo-
raceae,
Fomitopsidaceae,
Hyphodermataceae,
Hymenochaetaceae,
Mycenaceae,
etc.
The
rest
of
the
species
belonged
to
the
phyla
Ascomycota
(two)
and
Myxomycota/Protozoa
(one).
I.
Irbe
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
S81
Table
1
Taxonomy,
occurrence
and
decay
type
of
fungi
collected
in
outdoor
wooden
objects
of
the
Latvian
Ethnographic
Open-Air
Museum,
Riga.
Fungal
species
Taxonomy:
Order/Family
Occurrence
outdoors
Rota
B/W
Basidiomycota
Acanthophysellum
fennicum
(Laurila)
Bernicchia
&
Gorjón Russulales,
Stereaceae
Fence
W
Antrodia
sinuosa
(Fr.)
P.
Karst.
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Roof
B
Antrodia
sp.
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Doorstep
B
Antrodia
xantha
(Fr.)
Ryvarden
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Log
B
Fibroporia
vaillantii
(DC.)
Parmasto Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae Bench B
Artomyces
pyxidatus
(Pers.)
Jülich Russulales,
Auriscalpiaceae Beehive W
Athelia
decipiens
(Höhn.
&
Litsch.)
J.
Erikss.
Atheliales,
Atheliaceae
Beehive
W
Athelia
epiphylla
Pers.
Atheliales,
Atheliaceae
Wall
W
Athelia
neuhoffii
(Bres.)
Donk Atheliales,
Atheliaceae
Wall,
pug
mill,
roof
W
Botryobasidium
candicans
J.
Erikss.
Cantharellales,
Botryobasidiaceae
Roof
boards
W
Botryobasidium
leave
(J.
Erikss.)
Parmasto
Cantharellales,
Botryobasidiaceae
Fence
W
Botryobasidium
subcoronatum
(Höhn.
&
Litsch.)
Donk
Cantharellales,
Botryobasidiaceae
Roof
board
W
Botryobasidium
vagum
(Berk.
&
M.A.
Curtis)
D.P.
Rogers
Cantharellales,
Botryobasidiaceae
Pole
W
Coniophora
puteana
(Schumach.)
P.
Karst.
Boletales,
Coniophoraceae
Wall
board
B
Crustoderma
dryinum
(Berk.
&
M.A.
Curtis)
Parmasto
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
Log
B
Dacryobolus
sudans
(Alb.
&
Schwein.)
Fr.
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Fence
B
Galerina
hypnorum
(Schrank)
Kühner
Agaricales,
Strophariaceae
Pole
W
Gloeophyllum
abietinum
(Bull.)
P.
Karst. Gloeophyllales,
Gloeophyllaceae Fence,
pole B
Gloeophyllum
sepiarium
(Wulfen)
P.
Karst. Gloeophyllales,
Gloeophyllaceae Fence,
porch,
roof
B
Gloeophyllum
trabeum
(Pers.)
Murrill Gloeophyllales,
Gloeophyllaceae
Beehive
support
B
Gloiothele
citrina
(Pers.)
Ginns
&
G.W.
Freeman
Russulales,
Peniophoraceae
Fence
W
Haplotrichum
capitatum
(Link)
Link
Cantharellales,
Botryobasidiaceae
Fence
W
Hyphoderma
obtusiforme
J.
Erikss.
&
Å.
Strid
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
Roof
shingle,
roof
board
W
Hyphoderma
praetermissum
(P.
Karst.)
J.
Erikss.
&
Å.
Strid
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
Loghouse
wall
W
Hyphoderma
puberum
(Fr.)
Wallr. Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
Fence
W
Hyphodontia
alutaria
(Burt)
J.
Erikss.
Hymenochaetales,
Schizoporaceae
Roof
W
Hyphodontia
aspera
(Fr.)
J.
Erikss.
Hymenochaetales,
Schizoporaceae
Wall,
drainpipe
W
Hyphodontia
detritica
(Bourdot)
J.
Erikss.
Hymenochaetales,
Schizoporaceae
Roof
boards
W
Hypochnicium
punctulatum
(Cooke)
J.
Erikss.
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
Roof
W
Mycena
silvae-nigrae
Maas
Geest.
Agaricales,
Mycenaceae
Pole
W
Mycena
stipata
Maas
Geest.
&
Schwöbel
Agaricales,
Mycenaceae
Log,
pole
W
Phlebiopsis
gigantea
(Fr.)
Jülich Polyporales,
Phanerochaetaceae Loghouse
wall
W
Postia
fragilis
(Fr.)
Jülich Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Pole
B
Postia
guttulata
(Peck)
Jülich
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Fence
B
Postia
tephroleuca
(Fr.)
Jülich Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
Beehive
B
Resinicium
bicolor
(Alb.
&
Schwein.)
Parmasto
Incertae
sedis
Fence
W
Schizophyllum
commune
Fr.
Agaricales,
Schizophyllaceae
Wall,
beehive
W
Exidiopsis
calcea
(Pers.)
K.
Wells
Auriculariales,
Auriculariaceae
Fence
W
Stereum
sanguinolentum
(Alb.
&
Schwein.)
Fr.
Russulales,
Stereaceae
Wood
drainpipe
W
Tapinella
panuoides
(Fr.)
E.-J.
Gilbert
Boletales,
Tapinellaceae
Roof
boards
B
Tomentella
cf.
cinerascens
(P.
Karst.)
Höhn.
&
Litsch.
Thelephorales,
Thelephoraceae
Fence
Tomentella
terrestris
(Berk.
&
Broome)
M.J.
Larsen
Thelephorales,
Thelephoraceae
Wall
board
Trechispora
farinacea
(Pers.)
Liberta Trechisporales,
Hydnodontaceae Roof
board
W
Trichaptum
fusco-violaceum
(Ehrenb.)
Ryvarden Polyporales,
Polyporaceae
Loghouse
wall
W
Tubulicrinis
glebulosus
(Fr.)
Donk
Polyporales,
Tubulicrinaceae
Pole,
wood
drainpipe
W
Tubulicrinis
subulatus
(Bourdot
&
Galzin)
Donk
Polyporales,
Tubulicrinaceae
Roof
shingle
W
S82
I.
Irbe
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
Table
1
(Continued)
Fungal
species
Taxonomy:
Order/Family
Occurrence
outdoors
Rota
B/W
Ascomycota
Dasyscyphus
sp. Helotiales,
Hyaloscyphaceae Roof
shingle
Tapesia
sp. Helotiales,
Dermateaceae
Roof
shingle
Trichoderma
sp.
Hypocreales,
Hypocreaceae
Log
Myxomycota
Reticularia
lycoperdon
Bull.
Liceida,
Tubiferaceae
Well
Lycogala
epidendrum
(L.)
Fr. Liceida,
Tubiferaceae Fence,
beehive –
Tubifera
ferruginosa
(Batsch)
J.F.
Gmel. Liceida,
Tubiferaceae Fence,
wall –
aRot:
brown
(B)/white
(W).
Wood
biodegradation
mainly
occurred
indoors
(86%),
while
external
structures
were
damaged
only
in
14%
cases
(outer
walls
of
the
Berzhi
Chapel,
Rezekne
Synagogue
and
tower
boards
of
the
Ruduski
Church).
This
is
in
compliance
with
our
previous
findings
[4],
which
demonstrated
the
majority
of
wood
decay
cases
indoors
(83%),
while
outdoor
damages
occurred
in
17%
cases.
Con-
trary
results
were
obtained
in
the
Latvian
Ethnographic
Open-Air
Museum,
where
the
majority
of
the
fungal
species
were
recorded
on
wood
outdoors.
We
suppose
that
the
high
fungal
frequency
out-
doors
was
determined
by
the
colonisation
of
particular
wooden
structures
such
as
fences,
poles,
benches
etc.,
which
were
absent
in
other
heritage
objects.
It
has
been
mentioned
before
that
these
structures
are
replaced
from
time
to
time
and
mostly
would
not
be
attributed
to
historical
wood.
All
fungal
species
were
saprobes,
characteristic
colonisers
of
conifers.
Pine
and
spruce
were
used
as
a
construction
material
in
the
inspected
objects.
Mainly
corticoid
species,
which
cause
white
rot,
were
identified
in
the
buildings,
followed
by
several
poroid
and
agaric
species
(Table
2).
A
poroid
species
growing
exclusively
as
saprobe
on
conifers
was
Postia
caesia.
This
species
seldom
grows
on
construction
wood,
and
only
one
finding
was
registered
on
extensively
decayed
ceiling
boards.
Certain
species
such
as
Coniophora
puteana
and
S.
lacrymans
were
typical
colonisers
of
construction
wood.
Several
Fig.
1.
Poroid
fungus
Antrodia
sinuosa
in
the
roof
construction
(a)
and
corticoid
species
Dacriobolus
sudans
on
fence
(b)
at
the
Open-Air
Museum.
Fig.
2.
Ruduski
Old
believers
Church
(a)
and
the
fruiting
body
of
Mycena
galericulata
in
the
roof
construction
(b).
I.
Irbe
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
S83
Table
2
Fungal
species,
taxonomy,
location
and
decay
type
in
the
cultural
heritage
of
Eastern
Latvia
(Latgale).
Fungal
species
Taxonomy:
Order/Family
Object
No.aOccurrence
outdoors/indoors
Rotb
B/W
Basidiomycota
Antrodia
sinuosa
(Fr.)
P.
Karst. Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
10
Wall
B
Athelia
sp.
Atheliales,
Atheliaceae
10
Wall
W
Athelia
neuhoffii
(Bres.)
Donk
Atheliales,
Atheliaceae
2,
9
Roof
construction,
shingles;
bell
construction
W
Ceraceomyces
sublaevis
(Bres.)
Jülich Boletales,
Amylocorticiaceae 9 Roof
construction,
shingles W
Coniophora
puteana
(Schumach.)
P.
Karst. Boletales,
Coniophoraceae 10
Floor
B
Fomitopsis
rosea
(Alb.
&
Schwein.)
P.
Karst. Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
4
Ceiling
B
Hyphoderma
argillaceum
(Bres.)
Donk
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
4
Balcony
beam
W
Hyphoderma
occidentale
(D.P.
Rogers)
Boidin
&
Gilles
Polyporales,
Meruliaceae
9
Roof
construction,
shingles
W
Hyphodontia
aspera
(Fr.)
J.
Erikss. Hymenochaetales,
Schizoporaceae
9
Roof
construction,
shingles
W
Hyphodontia
breviseta
(P.
Karst.)
J.
Erikss.
Hymenochaetales,
Schizoporaceae
4
Ceiling;
balcony
floor
W
Mycena
sp.
Agaricales,
Mycenaceae
4
Balcony
beam
W
Mycena
galericulata
(Scop.)
Gray
Agaricales,
Mycenaceae
9
Roof
construction,
shingles
W
Peniophorella
pubera
(Fr.)
P.
Karst.
Incertae
sedis
9,
4
Ceilings
W
Phanerochaete
sordida
(P.
Karst.)
J.
Erikss.
&
Ryvarden
Polyporales,
Phanerochaetaceae
10
Ceiling
W
Phellinus
chrysoloma
(Fr.)
Donk
Hymenochaetales,
Hymenochaetaceae
4
Inner
and
outer
wall
W
Postia
caesia
(Schrad.)
P.
Karst.
Polyporales,
Fomitopsidaceae
4
Ceiling
B
Serpula
lacrymans
(Wulfen)
J.
Schröt. Boletales,
Serpulaceae 5,
11 Wall;
plaster
in
basement B
Trechispora
farinacea
(Pers.)
Liberta Trechisporales,
Hydnodontaceae
4,
9
Roof
construction,
shingles;
outer
wall
W
Tubulicrinis
calothrix
(Pat.)
Donk
Polyporales,
Tubulicrinaceae
2
Roof
single
W
Unidentified
brown-rot
x
7
Outer
walls
B
Ascomycota
Hyaloscypha
leuconica
(Cooke)
Nannf. Helotiales,
Hyaloscyphaceae 9 Tower
boards –
Peziza
cerea
Sowerby Pezizales,
Pezizaceae
4
Balcony
beam
Myxomycota
Hemitrichia
serpula
(Scop.)
Rostaf.
Trichiida,
Trichiaceae
4
Balcony
floor
aObject
No.
(1–12)
and
the
description
are
given
in
Section
3.1
Materials.
bRot:
brown
(B)/white
(W).
species
such
as
Hyaloscypha
leuconica,
Peziza
cerea
and
Hemitrichia
serpula
occurred
on
wooden
debris
due
to
extra
moisture
although,
in
general,
they
are
not
significant
as
saprobes
causing
wood
decay.
Some
of
the
observed
species
typically
growing
in
forests
were
Athelia
neuhoffii,
Ceraceomyces
sublaevis,
Hyphoderma
argillaceum,
Hyphoderma
occidentale,
Hyphodontia
breviseta,
Phanerochaete
sor-
dida,
Phellinus
chrysoloma,
Trechispora
farinacea
and
Tubulicrinis
calothrix.
Damaged
roof
constructions
were
the
main
reason
for
the
fungal
development
inside
the
buildings.
Most
severe
wood
decay
as
a
result
of
the
leaking
roof
was
observed
in
the
ceil-
ing
and
roof
construction
of
the
Ruduski
Old
believers
Church
(1859)
(Fig.
2).
The
structures
were
attacked
by
the
following
decay
fungi:
P.
sordida,
Peniophorella
pubera,
A.
neuhoffii,
Hyphodon-
tia
aspera,
H.
occidentale,
Mycena
galericulata,
C.
sublaevis
and
T.
farinacea.
Fig.
3.
Berzhi
Catholic
Chapel
(a)
and
Postia
caesia
in
the
ceiling
(b).
S84
I.
Irbe
et
al.
/
Journal
of
Cultural
Heritage
13S
(2012)
S79–S84
Another
heritage
object,
the
Berzhi
Catholic
Chapel
(1791),
the
oldest
wooden
building
in
the
Balvi
district
(Fig.
3),
was
subjected
to
extensive
fungal
damage
from
inside
and
outside,
including
the
walls,
ceiling,
roof
construction
and
balcony.
Both
the
missing
water
pipes
and
the
leaking
roof
promoted
the
biodeterioration
of
the
wooden
structures.
The
moisture
content
of
indoor
wooden
parts
reached
55%.
The
chapel
was
attacked
by
the
wood-inhabiting
fungi
T.
farinacea,
P.
chrysoloma,
H.
argillaceum,
Mycena
sp.,
P.
cerea,
P.
caesia,
Fomitopsis
rosea,
P.
pubera,
H.
breviseta
and
H.
serpula.
Two
species,
namely
F.
rosea
and
P.
chrysoloma,
were
new
species
for
the
Latvian
building
mycobiota.
F.
rosea
is
not
a
common
fungus,
usually
found
in
old
huts
at
mountain
to
subalpine
elevations
[9,13].
The
leaking
roof
was
the
reason
for
an
extensive
development
of
the
true
dry-rot
fungus
S.
lacrymans
in
the
Saksmale
Catholic
chapel.
The
outer
walls
of
the
Rezekne
Synagogue
(1909),
one
of
the
oldest
buildings
in
the
city
of
Rezekne,
were
subjected
to
extensive
brown-rot
damage.
We
suppose
that
an
important
factor,
leading
to
the
roof
damages
of
the
church
and
chapels,
was
the
presence
of
trees,
which
ensured
the
sedimentation
of
leaves,
the
accumulation
of
extra
moisture
and
a
favourable
microclimate
for
fungal
develop-
ment
in
the
roofs
and,
subsequently,
in
indoor
structures.
The
lack
of
water
pipes
was
another
important
reason
leading
to
the
wood
biodegradation
in
outer
walls
due
to
water
accumulation
at
the
foundation
and
regular
moistening
of
walls.
4.
Conclusions
Roofs,
walls
and
fences
were
the
most
frequently
decayed
structures
of
the
surveyed
cultural
monuments.
The
fungi
more
frequently
occurred
in
the
outdoor
structures
of
the
Open-Air
Museum,
while
indoor
damages
dominated
in
the
sacral
buildings.
The
mycobiota
of
outdoor
wooden
structures
as
well
as
indoor
roof
constructions
and
ceilings
was
equal
to
that
of
natural
envi-
ronments.
The
greatest
fungal
diversity
was
provided
by
corticoid
species.
The
predominance
of
white-rot
species,
represented
by
corti-
coids,
in
the
external
woodwork
could
be
explained
by
the
location
of
the
Open-Air
Museum
in
a
woody
area,
where
the
source
of
infection
and
a
favourable,
moist
microclimate
was
ensured.
The
high
diversity
of
white
rot
forming
corticoids
in
the
interior
wood
of
Latgale
buildings
could
be
explained
by
damaged
roofs
and
the
presence
of
surrounding
trees.
The
historical
value
of
the
biodeteriorated
external
structures
should
be
taken
into
consideration
before
applying
the
protec-
tion/renovation
measures.
Particular
wooden
structures
such
as
fences,
poles,
benches
etc.
would
not
always
be
attributed
to
heritage
structures.
Biodeterioration
of
the
roof
construction,
followed
by
a
leakage,
had
caused
the
most
serious
damage
in
external
and
internal
wood.
The
protection
measures
against
the
fungal
attack
should
include
a
proper
maintenance
of
roofs
as
well
as
the
decrease/elimination
of
the
vegetation
around
the
buildings.
Acknowledgements
The
research
leading
to
these
results
has
received
funding
from
the
European
Community’s
Seventh
Framework
Programme
Project
“The
implementation
of
research
potential
of
the
Latvian
State
Institute
of
Wood
Chemistry
in
the
European
Research
Area”
(WOOD-NET)
(under
grant
agreement
No.
203459).
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... The study of Irbe et al. (2012) focused mainly on the deterioration of external wooden elements of buildings in Latvia. A total of 46 genera and species of Basidiomycota fungi were found on wooden buildings in the open-air museum (including 31.8% ...
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The paper presents the results of surveys on the diversity of wood-destroying fungi in buildings and wooden engineering structures outdoors in Poland. The respondents reported a total of 48 species and genus of wood-degrading Basidiomycetes . The greatest species diversity of wood-degrading fungi was found on open-air engineering structures (33 species), the second location in terms of biodiversity was unused residential buildings (30 species), the lowest biodiversity was found in the used residential buildings (21 species).The most common fungi in the buildings were Serpula lacrymans (24.8%), Coniophora puteana (14.1%) and Fibroporia vaillantii (13.8%). The prevalence of S. lacrymans and C. puteana in buildings in Poland is similar to the European average. The occurrence of indoor polypores group ( Amyloporia sinuosa, Fibroporia vaillantii, Neoantrodia serialis ) in Poland is twice as high as the European average. Donkioporia expansa , which is numerous in buildings in Western Europe, is sporadically recorded in Poland (0.1%).
... Schmidt and Huckfeldt (2011) reported a list of 117 species and genera of indoor wood-decay fungi in Germany. Irbe et al. (2012) presented a list of 46 species and genera of fungi destroying the exterior of wooden buildings in Latvia. Haas et al. (2019) reported a list of 40 species of fungi infesting wood in buildings in Styria (Austria). ...
... The study of Irbe et al. (2012) focused mainly on the deterioration of external wooden elements of buildings in Latvia. A total of 46 genera and species of Basidiomycota fungi were found on wooden buildings in the open-air museum (including 31.8% ...
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Results of research on the diversity of wood-rot fungi found in buildings and outdoor wooden engineering structures in Poland are presented in this article. A total of 47 species and genera of wood-rot fungi from Basidiomycota (19 brown rot fungi, 28 white rot fungi) and 1 genus from Ascomycota (1 fungus that does not cause wood decay) were found in damaged buildings. The greatest number of wood-rot fungi was reported on outdoor wooden engineering structures (33 species), followed by unoccupied residential buildings (30 species). The lowest diversity was found in occupied residential buildings (20 species). A total of 34 species and genera of fungi were found in all examined structures, out of which 17 species caused brown rot, 16 caused white rot, and 1 did not cause wood decay.
... Schmidt and Huckfeldt1 reported a list of 117 species and genera of indoor wood-decay fungi in Germany. Irbe et al. (2012) presented a list of 46 species and genera of fungi destroying the exterior of wooden buildings in Latvia. In order to e ciently collect research results from PABM experts, a data entry form was created and made available to experts online. ...
... The study of Irbe et al. (2012) focused mainly on the deterioration of external wooden elements of buildings in Latvia. A total of 46 genera and species of Basidiomycota fungi were found on wooden buildings in the open-air museum (including 31.8% ...
Full-text available
Preprint
This paper presents the results of research on the diversity of wood-rot fungi found in buildings and outdoor wooden engineering structures in Poland. A total of 47 species and genera of wood-rot fungi from Basidiomycota (19 brown rot fungi, 28 white rot fungi) and 1 genus from Ascomycota (1 fungus which does not cause wood decay) was found in damaged buildings. The greatest number of wood-rot fungi was reported on outdoor wooden engineering structures (33 species), followed by unoccupied residential buildings (30 species). The lowest diversity was found in occupied residential buildings (20 species). A total of 34 species and genera of fungi were found in all examined structures, out of which 17 species caused brown rot, 16 caused white rot, and 1 did not cause wood decay.
... That is why we only describe the rots briefly. First, brown rot is the most important wood-degrading rot in buildings in Europe and North America [25] . During the process of brown rotting, the wood acquires a browner colour, and only the cellulose is being removed, which causes the wood to collapse and pulverise. ...
... Brown rot fungi usually colonise softwood [11] . Second, white rot, which mainly attacks hardwoods, is less common [25] . This rot usually decomposes cellulose and lignin, so the wood can lose colour and look whiter. ...
Article
Cultural heritage includes everything that mankind has created in the past and has impacted the development of culture. These objects can be subject to biodeterioration, including the activity of microorganisms, which can lead to the incalculable loss of records of our history. Therefore, it is essential to identify the microorganisms present on the surface of historical objects, monitor their metabolic activity, and based on this knowledge, find a possible way to protect the cultural heritage. This paper focuses on the most endangered cultural heritage objects (wooden objects, written documents, audio-visual materials, textiles, stone objects, paintings, and stained-glass windows), describes the materials that these objects are made of and the reasons for their biodeterioration. Furthermore, we provide an overview of all microbial identification methods used in the field of cultural heritage since 2005, when the first next-generation sequencing technique originated.
... The measurements were conducted on four different wood species: Fir and beech wood were widely used in eastern Europe for the construction of roofs and ceilings [34] and musical instruments [35], while poplar and oak wood found wide use as support in painting in Italy and Germany, respectively [36,37]. For each type of wood, two samples were realized as follows and reported in Figure 2: ...
... All samples are cut along the same grain line. Fir and beech wood were widely used in eastern Europe for the construction of roofs and ceilings [34] and musical instruments [35], while poplar and oak wood found wide use as support in painting in Italy and Germany, respectively [36,37]. For each type of wood, two samples were realized as follows and reported in Figure 2: ...
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In this work, the dielectric permittivity of four kinds of wood (Fir, Poplar, Oak, and Beech Tree), used in Italian Artworks and structures, was characterized at different humidity levels. Measurements were carried out using three different probes connected to a bench vector network analyzer: a standard WR90 X-band waveguide, a WR430 waveguide, and an open-ended coaxial probe. In particular, we investigated the dispersion model for the four wood species, showing how a log-fit model of the open-ended data presents a determination coefficient R2 > 0.990 in the 1–12 GHz frequency range. This result has proven helpful to fill the frequency gap between the measurements obtained at different water contents with the two waveguide probes showing an R2 > 0.93. Furthermore, correlating the log-fit vertical shift with the water content, it was possible to find a calibration curve with a linear characteristic. These experimental results will be helpful for on-site non-invasive water monitoring of wooden artworks or structures. Moreover, the final results show how the open-ended coaxial probe, with a measurement deviation lower than 7% from the waveguide measurements, may be used directly as a non-invasive sensor for on-site measurements.
... In the case of S. gausapatum, numerous fully developed, dry, fruiting bodies were observed on the basis of the iconostasis on torn-off wooden fragments. Fruiting bodies of representatives of these two genera were observed before on wood drainpipes of the Latvian Ethnographic open-air museum (S. sanguinolentum) and wooden chairs, benches, and barrel vaults that are part of the Republic of North Macedonia cultural heritage collection (S. hirsutum) [63,64] indicating that if environmental conditions are favorable and objects neglected wood-decay fungi will fructificate. Furthermore, the isolation of Botryotrichum murorum (syn. ...
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The mycobiome of the cave Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, housing the peculiar fresco painting of “The Bald-headed Jesus”, was analyzed via culture-dependent and -independent methods. Salt efflorescence, colored patinas, and biofilm, as well as biopitting, discolorations, and fruiting bodies of wood-decay fungi were observed on surfaces within the church. Microscopic analyses showed an abundance of fungal structures, i.e., conidiophores, conidia, chlamydospores, and ascospores. The estimated values of the contamination classified all surfaces as the “Danger zone”. A total of 24 fungi from 17 genera were determined as part of the culturable mycobiome, with a dominance of Ascomycota of genera Penicillium. Biodegradative profiles analyzed via plate assays demonstrated positive reactions for 16 isolates: most commonly acid production (8), followed by pigment production and ligninolytic activity (6), protein degradation (5), cellulolytic activity (3) and carbonate dissolution (2). Metabarcoding analysis showed a dominance of Ascomycota in all samples (79.9–99.7%), with high relative abundance documented for Hypoxylon fuscopurpureum on the iconostasis and unclassified Mycosphaerellaceae family within order Capnodiales on fresco and stone, as well as moderate relative abundance for unclassified Dothideomycetes, Botryolepraria lesdainii, Verrucaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. on stone walls. The used set of integrative methods pointed out species of genus Neodevriesia and H. fuscopurpureum as the main deteriogenic agents of fresco and iconostasis surfaces, respectively.
... The protection of wood against fungal attack is of great practical importance for different applications in all situations when the moisture content of wood exceeds the threshold of 20% [7], [14], [46]. EN 335 [2] indicates that this threshold can be exceeded in all use classes except Use Class 1. Also, the conservation of wood cultural heritage is a very special field where fungal degradation risk might lead to the loss of an irreplaceable object [3], [16], [24], [37] and often requires both preventive and curative treatments [26]. ...
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The present research investigates the antifungal efficiency of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil (C-EO) combined with linseed oil (LO) at different concentrations (1%, 5%, 10%) using two types of mycological tests: a qualitative screening test by agar diffusion method and a quantitative mini-block test on treated beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood.The agar diffusion test indicated improved protection of wood should be possible with a mixture of C-EO and LO from a concentration of 5%. In contrast, the mini-block test indicated that wood is partially protect by LO alone and that adding increasing quantities of C-EO gradually reduces this protection.One possible explanation of this unexpected result could be the antioxidant effect of C-EO which could negatively interfere in the oxidative curing process of LO. ESEM investigation revealed the penetration of LO and C-EO/LO mixtures into the wood structure and non-uniform fungal colonization of all the samples exposed to Postia placenta, as well as some characteristic features of consequent wood structure degradation, which was found more advanced for the untreated beech wood samples.
... The cultural heritage, which includes the molinological heritage, has been the subject of a large number of revitalisation projects managed by a range of actors involved in local development (Ehrentraut, 1996;Fuentes, 2010;Fuentes et al., 2011;Klaassen and Creemers, 2012;Irbe et al., 2012;Magnani et al., 2018). From a global perspective, projects aimed at conserving the molinological heritage have enjoyed a mixed reception, as can be seen when they are analysed (albeit not exhaustively) in terms of such factors as funding, who initiated the project, purpose, and resulting benefits. ...
Article
This study identifies the potential interrelations between nostalgia, experiential tourism and watermill heritage and its implications for the local community. The study area is represented by the catchment area of the Someșul Mare River (Romania). Some 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out attempting to grasp the perception of the local community on the role played by mills in the 18th-20th centuries, namely to show their polarization and social functions. The interviews were supplemented by 10 observation sheets filled out in the field. These contain information on the current state of the mills, the items being focused on the following aspects: type and dynamics of ownership, current use, structure of water-powered facilities, polarization area, and age. Results showed that some functional mills still exist and could be subject to investments for tourism purposes. The importance of mills for the local community stems both from the stories of the former millers or their customers and also by considering the significant number of working mills during the 18th – 20th centuries, which were cartographically reconstructed in this paper. If nostalgia can become a standalone resource in individualizing a particular tourism type, we may conclude that the watermill heritage, by all its attributes, provides strong heritage tourism potential.
... The consolidation of historical wooden structures requires a preventive, careful and in-depth diagnostic, material and scientific approach [27,45,46,47,48] , in order to correctly identify the cause of degradation, as well as techniques compatible with the historical pre-existence. Moreover, it is necessary to carry out a careful analysis of the type of wood essence, in order to trace possible kinematics to the chemical-physical characteristics of the wooden artefact [49], as well as to the vulnerability of the essence to biological attacks [50,51], through on-site analysis [52] and in laboratory [53]. The diagnostic analysis must concern the entire floor system, including permanent loads such as screeds and floors [54]. ...
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The incorporation of game elements in non-game contexts is a subject of interest in various sectors, such as business, marketing, engineering, medicine, and military. Gamification and serious games have been involved in the rapid adaptation of professional training. The main goal of game thinking is to motivate and engage learners by using game-like techniques. This paper introduces gamification as an innovative approach for police officers to develop the required competencies for upholding the ethics, principles, and values that the Ecuadorian institution and society demand of them. The aim of gamification is to improve the quality and efficiency of the transfer from theory to real-life practice in police training. The paper focuses on the use of technology in a gamified virtual learning environment that simulates scenarios based upon common incidents reported to Ecuadorian police. The evaluation was conducted with 50 police officers. Our initial evaluation demonstrates that gamification has the potential to be scaled to force-wide proportions.
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During a period of 12 years (1996 – 2007), a total of 300 private and public buildings as well as more than 20 cultural monuments had been inspected in Latvia regarding the damage by wood decay basidiomycetes. The culture heritage sites included castles, manors, churches and old buildings. The total number of fungal occurrences in wooden constructions comprised 338. Brown-rot damage occurred more frequently (78.1%) than white-rot (21.9%). A total of 60 species of wood decay fungi were identified on the constructive and decorative materials. Serpula lacrymans (46.7%), Antrodia spp. (12.7%), Coniophora spp. (5.9%) and Gloeophyllum spp. (2.9%) were the most frequently recorded fungi. Majority of decay fungi were found on wood indoors (83%), while wood outdoors was damaged only in 17% cases. Cultural heritage sites were decayed in 91 (27%) cases.
The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses
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Building mycology. Management of decay and health in buildings, E & FN Spon
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