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Solid Waste Management Practices in Turkey

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As an economically developing country, Turkey has very well operated integrated solid waste management applications structured on modern facilities, besides over 2,000 scattered open dump areas in the country. Integrated waste management applications seem eligible for the metropolitan cities like Istanbul and Izmit (Kocaeli). Attempts have not been encouraging for the scattered regional settlements using central storage sites due to financial shortages and received rejections from nearby settlements. Small-scale compact solid waste management systems with materials recycling and composting can be more suitable alternatives in the small-scale regional settlements. The major constituents of municipal solid waste are organic in nature and approximately a quarter of municipal solid waste is recyclable. Although paper, including cardboard, is the main constituent, the composition of recyclable waste varies strongly by the source or the type of collection point. Solid wastes need primary treatment in order to be suitable for incineration and composting. Turkey needs to give more emphasis on the usage of modern solid waste removal technologies to overcome the overgrowing solid waste disposal problems.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Solid waste management practices in Turkey
Mehmet Berkun Egemen Aras Tugce Anılan
Received: 24 June 2008 / Accepted: 20 August 2011 / Published online: 30 September 2011
ÓSpringer 2011
Abstract As an economically developing country, Tur-
key has very well operated integrated solid waste man-
agement applications structured on modern facilities,
besides over 2,000 scattered open dump areas in the
country. Integrated waste management applications seem
eligible for the metropolitan cities like Istanbul and Izmit
(Kocaeli). Attempts have not been encouraging for the
scattered regional settlements using central storage sites
due to financial shortages and received rejections from
nearby settlements. Small-scale compact solid waste
management systems with materials recycling and com-
posting can be more suitable alternatives in the small-scale
regional settlements. The major constituents of municipal
solid waste are organic in nature and approximately a
quarter of municipal solid waste is recyclable. Although
paper, including cardboard, is the main constituent, the
composition of recyclable waste varies strongly by the
source or the type of collection point. Solid wastes need
primary treatment in order to be suitable for incineration
and composting. Turkey needs to give more emphasis on
the usage of modern solid waste removal technologies to
overcome the overgrowing solid waste disposal problems.
Keywords Black Sea Solid wastes Landfill
Leachate Coastal pollution
Introduction
Since the handling and disposal of solid waste is an expensive
process, trying to minimize the generation of solid waste,
encouraging the recycling/recovery of its valuable compo-
nents, and their conversion into useful products are important.
This, consequently, lessens the amount of solid waste to be
dumped and reduces the waste management costs. The
application of an integrated solid waste management program
is a valuable tool in order to minimize the usage of natural
resources and to handle the solid wastes efficiently.
In Turkey, increased population, industrialization, and
standards of living have contributed to an increasing
amount of solid waste and its consequent disposal prob-
lems. Though developed countries have established regu-
latory programs, developing countries have generally
continued to use unsophisticated methods, such as open
dumps. Turkey, as an economically developing country,
has over 2,000 of these open dumps.
Methods of disposal of solid waste, according to the
Turkish State Statistical Institute’s (SIS) database, were as
follows: 25,014,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste were
collected, whereas 7,002,000, 351,000, and 8,000 tonnes
were disposed of in sanitary landfills, composted, and
incinerated, respectively. A total of 17,653,000 tonnes of
waste was disposed of without any control [19].
The amount of solid waste collected from municipalities
receiving waste collection services were given with yearly
averages (Table 1)[20].
According to the results of the municipal solid waste
statistics (Table 2)[20]:
A total number of 25 facilities, of which 18 were
controlled landfill sites, three were waste incineration
plants, and four were composting plants, were covered.
M. Berkun (&)T. Anılan
Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical
University, Trabzon 61080, Turkey
e-mail: berkun@ktu.edu.tr
E. Aras
Department of Civil Engineering, Gumushane University,
Gumushane 29100, Turkey
123
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313
DOI 10.1007/s10163-011-0028-7
A total amount of 7,136,000 tonnes of waste, of which
39,130 tonnes were hazardous and 7,096,932 tonnes
were nonhazardous, were brought to 18 controlled
landfill sites. The total capacity of these sites was
309.5 million tonnes. The amount of waste disposed of
in controlled landfill sites were 7,078,179 tonnes.
30,911 tonnes of hazardous waste were brought to
three incineration plants having a total capacity of 44
thousand tonnes per year. 29,807 tonnes of this waste
were incinerated and 1,104 tonnes were transferred to
controlled landfill sites. In addition to that, 5,586 ton-
nes of ash and slag remaining from incineration were
disposed of in controlled landfill sites. Two incinera-
tion plants with energy recovery produced 11,212 MW
of electricity.
339,114 tonnes of waste were brought to four com-
posting plants having a total capacity of 606 thousand
tonnes per year. After the sorting processes, 165,351
tonnes of waste were sent to composting units and
29,256 tonnes of compost were produced. 160,000 ton-
nes of mixed and undifferentiated waste were trans-
ferred to controlled landfill sites.
85% of 1,583,519 m
3
of leachate collected in 13
disposal and recovery facilities was discharged into the
sewerage systems of municipalities after being treated
in the leachate treatment plants within the facilities,
and the remaining 15% was discharged without treat-
ment. Collected leachate was sprayed onto wastes in
eight facilities and evaporated in two facilities.
Since incineration and sanitary landfill are expensive
both in initial investment and throughout their operation,
their use is mostly confined to developed countries, while
open dumping, at lower cost, is the method used in eco-
nomically developing countries. Turkey’s traditional
means of disposing of solid waste has been to dump it at
the open sites or at sea, which means that solid wastes are
just dumped without any precautions being taken. Serious
accidents, such as the methane explosion at the Umraniye
open dump, Istanbul, in April 1995, which killed 39 peo-
ple, or the slippage of a huge mass of solid waste from the
Istanbul Kemerburgaz open dump onto the neighboring
road in May 1996, demonstrate the significant threat posed
by this method of disposal [10].
Turkey’s municipal solid waste generally consists of
wastes generated from residential and commercial areas,
industries, parks, and streets, and is not sorted at the
source, but collected in the same waste bins. Data are
available about the amount of solid waste in each of these
groups. The only data available have been obtained by
investigations conducted at the source residential areas.
Municipal solid waste per capita is determined from the
Table 1 Number and population of municipalities served by municipal waste services and amount of waste collected seasonally [20]
Waste collected
Year Turkey’s
total
population
Population of
municipalities
Number of
municipalities
questioned
Population of
municipalities
questioned
Total
amount
(tonnes/
year)
Per capita
(kg/capita-
day)
Amount of
waste in
summer
(tonnes/
summer)
Amount
(tonnes/
day)
Per capita
(kg/capita-
day)
Amount of
waste in
winter
(tonnes/
winter)
Amount
(tonnes/
day)
Per capita
(kg/capita-
day)
2001 67,803,927 53,407,613 3,215 53,377,431 25,133,696 1.35 12,534,609 67,301 1.32 12,599,087 69,341 1.36
2002 67,803,927 53,421,379 3,215 53,391,197 25,373,134 1.34 12,700,895 68,425 1.32 12,672,239 69,387 1.34
2003 67,803,927 53,430,733 3,215 53,400,551 26,117,539 1.38 12,858,960 70,800 1.37 13,258,579 71,312 1.38
2004 67,803,927 53,935,050 3,213 53,903,955 25,013,520 1.31 12,783,745 68,153 1.30 12,229,775 67,455 1.29
2006 70,586,256 58,581,515 3,225 58,581,515 25,279,971 1.21 12,749,850 69,349 1.21 12,530,121 68,363 1.19
2008 70,586,256 58,581,515 3,225 58,581,515 24,360,863 1.15 13,306,071 66,775 1.16 11,054,792 65,271 1.13
306 J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313
123
amount of solid waste transported to the disposal areas. The
data obtained in this way are not dependable, because the
amount of solid waste taken to the final disposal areas does
not reflect the actual amount of solid waste generated.
The first gas burning power plant in Istanbul with 6 MW
capacity, a steam engine turbine generator with 5.2 MW
inbuilt capacity in Izmit, and sanitary landfilling applica-
tions in some major cities with recovery and recycling have
been encouraging alternatives for the future applications.
In this paper, a general overview of solid waste data and
management practices including waste recovery and recy-
cling initiatives with some employed case studies in Tur-
key were given.
Collection, transport, and disposal
The collection and transport of solid waste is the respon-
sibility of the municipalities by law. Household solid
wastes are transported by municipality-owned trucks
(6–20 m
3
capacity) equipped with a hydraulic press.
Metallic bins and containers are used to collect the muni-
cipal solid waste from the households. Typical bin sizes are
400 and 800 l. The local municipalities supply containers
and bins, and the residents are required to bring their solid
waste into these bins within plastic waste bag supplied by
the market.
The solid waste disposal methods have lately become a
major public concern in Turkey. Open dumps are the
majority of the municipal solid waste disposal sites.
Although the numbers of sanitary landfills seem very small,
it corresponds to almost 20% of municipal solid waste
being land filled (Tables 2and 3). It is also known that
several other municipal landfills are in the project or bid-
ding phases. Therefore, within the next 10 years, more than
50% of municipal solid waste in Turkey is expected to be
land filled.
Recycling and materials recovery
Solid waste recovery and recycling has been a long-
standing commercial activity in Turkey. Glass and paper
recycling have been conducted at industrial scales since the
1950s [12]. With the recent investments in the recycling
industry, almost all types of the plastic materials, glass,
paper, and metals can be recycled at industrial levels.
Turkey, as one of the biggest steel scrap importers of the
world, recycles more than 2 million tonnes of steel scrap
annually. The recycling of nonferrous metals is also
widespread and conducted at an industrial scale, including
aluminum, copper, lead, and silver. The scrap metal recy-
cling industry is essentially built on small- and medium-
Table 2 Main waste indicators of municipalities [20]
Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2008
Number of municipalities served by municipal waste services 1,985 2,126 2,172 2,275 2,579 2,921 2,984 3,018 3,028 3,115 3,129
Amount of municipal waste collected (1,000 tonnes/year) 17,757 20,910 22,483 24,180 24,945 25,134 25,373 26,118 25,014 25,280 24,361
Amount of municipal waste per capita (kg/capita-day) 1.10 1.27 1.37 1.46 1.51 1.35 1.34 1.38 1.31 1.21 1.15
Amount of municipal waste per capita in summer season (kg/capita-day) 1.04 1.19 1.29 1.41 1.46 1.32 1.32 1.37 1.30 1.21 1.16
Amount of municipal waste per capita in winter season (kg/capita-day) 1.15 1.31 1.42 1.50 1.54 1.36 1.34 1.38 1.29 1.19 1.13
Controlled landfill number 2 6 688121215162237
Capacity (1,000 tonnes) 76,750 202,527 202,527 216,690 216,690 261,282 277,195 278,015 278,060 376,974 390,478
Amount of waste disposed of (1,000 tonnes/year) 809 1,444 2,847 4,364 5,258 8,304 7,047 7,432 7,002 9,942 10,037
Composting plant number 2 2 222345544
Capacity (1,000 tonnes/year) 245 245 245 245 245 299 664 667 667 605 551
Amount of waste brought to composting plant (1,000 tonnes/year) 192 159 179 180 166 218 383 326 351 268 276
Incineration plant number 0 1 122333332
Capacity (1,000 tonnes/year) 0 9 9 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44
Amount of medical waste incinerated (1,000 tonnes/year) 0 0.3 3 9 15 779868
Rate of population served by waste disposal and recovery facilities in total
population (%)
5 6 10 15 16 26 25 25 26 34 39
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313 307
123
scale scrap dealers spread around the country. This type of
operation is also valid for most of the collection and
recovery of recyclable municipal solid waste.
The scrap dealers and individual collectors mostly
conduct the recovery of plastics, paper, glass, and metal
from municipal solid waste. These individual collectors
and scrap dealers purchase the used packaging (mostly
paper and cardboard) from commercial units, markets, and
business centers and reprocess (sort and bale) these mate-
rials to sell directly to the industrial recycling facilities. In
addition, scavenging and collection from the waste bins is a
widespread activity. Since this type of collection and
recovery process is a part of ‘‘unregistered’’ economic
activity, it is difficult to specify figures reflecting the actual
collection and recovery. However, estimates made by
experienced individuals working in this field indicates that
the total amount of municipal solid waste recovered in
Turkey is probably over 1.0 million tonnes/year. Separate/
curbside collection of the recyclable materials has started
within the last 10 years in Turkey. Currently, more than 60
municipal recovery programs (glass, paper, metal, and
plastics) are operational nationwide. These pilot programs
have been a useful tool to develop relevant statistical basis
for solid waste recovery activities.
The Secretariat General for EU Affairs reported that
the recycling and recovery of packaging waste rate was
well above 40% in Turkey [8]. However, most of these
activities operate within the hands of private entrepre-
neurs and waste collectors working on streets and in
waste yards. This is obviously driven by the fact that a
strong used material market operates in Turkey, as well as
by the limited economic conditions in the country that
provide an employment opportunity for this sector. Paper
and cardboard are collected through the scrap/waste
dealers and delivered to recycling facilities nationwide.
There exists approximately 30 medium- to large-scale
paper recyclers, operating with capacities exceeding
50 tonnes/day. The output of these facilities is mostly the
packaging cardboard made out of recycled paper. Glass
recycling also works on the free market principles, which
is mostly operated by the Glassworks Co. of Turkey,
consuming more than 90% of the collected used glass
bottles. The collection and recovery scheme is essentially
the same as paper and cardboard recovery. In addition to
Table 3 Amount of disposed/
recovered waste brought to
controlled landfill sites by type
of waste and disposal/recovery
methods [20]
Type of waste Controlled land
filled (tonnes/year)
Sold or donated
(tonnes/year)
Hazardous Nonhazardous Hazardous Nonhazardous
Total 57,338 9,979,785 5 1,619,699
Chemical wastes 1,537 211,222
Waste oils 2
Sludges from the treatment of industrial
wastewater and purification
of process water
3,044 168,435 –
Medical wastes 37,195 2,688
Metallic wastes 113,385
Glass wastes 307 199,892
Paper and cardboard wastes 1,528 800,734
Rubber wastes 161,236
Plastic wastes 1,254 316,673
Wood wastes 914 12,173
Textile wastes 278,938 8,958
Discarded equipment and vehicles 77 761 127
Waste batteries and accumulators 173 3
Vegetable wastes 293,224 351
Animal wastes from food processing 90,924
Manure 42,275 –
Household and similar wastes 7,851,580
Mixed and undifferentiated wastes 15 249,646 6,170
Sorting residues 104,586
Sludges from urban wastewater treatment 34,660
Mineral wastes 15,297 646,843
308 J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313
123
glass bottle banks spread around large cities, private
entrepreneurs and scrap dealers collect, sort, and prepare
used glass bottles for recycling.
Significant efforts have been made, in recent years, to
increase the number of glass bottle banks and separate
collection systems. The plastics and metal packaging
collection system is essentially the same. PET recycling
has been an industrial activity since the establishment of a
major PET recycling plant in 1992. Currently, three
industrial-scale PET recycling plants exist in Turkey, with
a total operating capacity exceeding 25,000 tonnes per
year. HDPE, LDPE, and PVC post-consumer bottle
recycling has also been a long-standing operation and has
been evolving since the oil crises in the 1970s. Several
small-scale plastics recyclers (like PVC recycling opera-
tions) exist, since these facilities can be established with
fairly low initial investments. In summary, a strong
market demand exists for almost all types of packaging
waste, regardless of its nature. Current scrap material
prices are indicative of the world market influences.
However, glass, paper, and PET recycling are being
conducted at fairly high industrial capacities, which is
another important recyclable item in household solid
waste. Used beverage and tin cans are being recycled
together with steel scrap by the steel smelters. Several
small-scale aluminum recyclers are spread around the
country and a major aluminum can recycler recently
started operation in the western part of Turkey, with a
capacity of 12,000 tonnes/year. Due to the high intrinsic
economic value of aluminum cans, the aluminum col-
lection and recycling rate is fairly high, exceeding 60%
recovery rate.
The district municipality of Bakirkoy established the
only recycling center in Istanbul, though it is, in reality, a
sorting center rather than a recycling center. It has been
operated as a pilot project covering the nearby districts of
Bakirkoy. In chosen districts, residents collect packaging
wastes such as glass, plastic bottles, cartons, and metal
containers in the plastic bags/containers distributed to them
by the municipality. These wastes are collected and
transferred to the Bakirkoy waste separation center on
certain assigned days of the week by the municipality’s
vehicles. The laborers sort them manually and compact
them to reduce their size, and then they are sent to different
factories to be reused and converted into useful products.
Recently, Kadikoy has become another district munici-
pality which has started a waste-recycling program. The
solid wastes will be sorted at source and then collected and
transferred to the recovery center located in the same dis-
trict. After the final separation of the solid wastes manually
in the center, they will be crushed, pressed, and converted
to granules, bailed, and sold to the industry for further
processing and recycling.
Materials recovery facilities can be self-sufficient if
operated at capacities exceeding 70% of the established
capacity, whereas the initial investment to set up large-
scale collection and recovery schemes is the major barrier
that the municipalities have to overcome. Participation rate
measurements indicated that, although 80–85% of citizens
are willing to participate in municipal recovery programs,
the actual participation varies between 35–45%.
Costs and financing
Cost data on solid waste management in Turkey is usually
highly controversial and complicated, due to the nature of
the subject. The cost data is further complicated by the
specifics of the municipal region and the cost-accounting
methodology employed. Revenues are sufficient to cover the
general operational costs of material recovery facilities if
operated at full capacities. Depending on the source com-
position or depending on the collection method employed, a
relatively acceptable commercial profit can be retained.
Costs of items are categorized with different types of col-
lection methodology. Collections through bring-centers
yield relatively high investment costs and low operational
costs, whereas the door-to-door collection of recyclable
materials by plastic bags has the lowest investment cost.
However, the continuing consumption of plastic bags yields
relatively higher operational costs [11,22]. Material
recovery facilities are usually self-sufficient if operated at
their established capacities, whereas the initial investment to
set up large-scale collection and recovery schemes still
remains to be the major barrier for the municipalities.
Landfill leachate
Although solid waste leachate disposal into the sea directly
without treatment is a generally used practice in coastal
settlements, recently built sanitary landfills have treatment
facilities. Leachate characteristics and treatability have
been investigated by Ozkaya et al. [13], Inanc et al. [9],
Pala and Erden [14], and Timur and O
¨zturk [21]. Leachate
compositions of some major Turkish cities show that the
organic and heavy metal concentrations are higher than the
Turkish wastewater discharge limits (Table 4). Leachate
treatment for organic and heavy metal removal before
discharge is compulsory according to the Turkish waste-
water discharge regulations. Although existing landfill
leachate treatment have inadequacies in most of the
deposition sites, recently built modern integrated solid
waste treatment systems have leachate treatment using
second- (aerobic–anaerobic) and third-stage (metal
removal–filtering) treatment facilities.
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313 309
123
Medical waste
The number of private and government hospitals in Turkey
is constantly increasing. This increases the quantity of
medical wastes. The amount of medical waste collected
separately by destination is given in Table 5[18].
Although the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has
developed regulations aimed to ensure the appropriate
handling and processing of medical waste, there are
shortcomings and difficulties to uphold the regulations in
practice. This can be achieved by the integrated study of
local administrations. Istanbul is a model city to all other
cities in Turkey related to medical waste management. The
findings of the case study carried out showed that medical
wastes collected from hospitals constituted 41% of the total
solid wastes collected, with the remainder (59%) being
municipal waste. The estimated quantity of medical waste
from the hospitals was about 22 tonnes/day, representing
an average generation rate of 0.63 kg/bed-day, which is
below the average range of 1.5–3.9 kg/bed-day of medical
waste in other countries [5].
Results and discussion
According to the results of Municipal Waste Statistics
Survey 2008, which was applied to all municipalities, waste
services were given in 3,129 municipalities out of 3,225
(Table 1). The amount of waste collected from municipal-
ities receiving waste collection services was 13.31 million
Table 4 Landfill leachate characteristics of Turkish cities [3,6,7,15]
City TRWC
Istanbul (Kemerburgaz
landfill site)
Bursa Trabzon Gaziantep Izmir (Harmandalı
landfill site)
BOD
5
(mg/l) 35,000 8,084 500–15,625 10,750–11,000 250
COD (mg/l) 15,490 51,400 14,865 2,431–37,024 16,200–20,000 400
TKN (mg/l) 1,985 35,000 1,793 1,602–2,730 1,350–2,650 40
NH
3
-N (mg/l) 1,880 1,615
NH
4
-N (mg/l) 1,012 1,379–2,430 1,120–2,500
NO
x
-N (mg/l) 87 60.7–285
Total P (mg/l) 1.72 26.17 1.85 7.7–14.4 10
TSS (mg/l) 4,430 2,561 4,487 350
Volatile acids (mg/l) 7,700–9,500
Cl
-
(mg/l) 4,120 3,961 5,725–9,702
pH 7.86 6.42 7.73 7.90–7.30 7.3–7.8 6–10
Alkalinity (mg CaCO
3
l
-1
) 12,130 8,509 11,855 12,897–18,150 7,050–12,100
Iron (mg/l) 73 248 2.66–25.2
Copper (mg/l) 0.2 6.83 0.26–1.45 2
Manganese (mg/l) 3.36 0.20–0.85
Zinc (mg/l) 1.82 56.58 0.47–2.20 10
Nickel (mg/l) 0.7 1.23–5.80 5
Lead (mg/l) 23.8 0.67–1.91 3
Chromium (mg/l) 9.62 0.00–2.24 5
Cadmium (mg/l) 0.12–0.25 2
TRWC Turkey’s receiving water criteria
Table 5 Amount of medical waste collected separately by destina-
tion [18]
Disposal methods Number of
municipalities
a
Amount of medical
waste (tonnes/year)
Turkey 495 69,628
Metropolitan municipality’s
dumping site
34 10,542
Municipality’s dumping site 223 19,233
Another municipality’s
dumping site
20 341
Controlled landfill 22 15,732
Incineration plant 35 13,846
Burial 112 6,733
Burning in an open area 49 3,201
a
Includes district and subdistrict municipalities served by metro-
politan municipalities
310 J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313
123
tonnes in summer and 11.05 million tonnes in winter,
adding up to an annual total of 24.36 million tonnes.
According to the survey results, the daily amount of
municipal waste per capita was calculated as 1.16 kg in
summer, 1.13 kg in winter, and 1.15 kg for the yearly
average. Of the 24.36 million tonnes of waste collected in
municipalities in 2008, 41.3% was disposed of in a
municipality’s dump, 9.3% in a metropolitan municipality’s
dump, 1.4% in another municipality’s dump, 1% by burning
in an open area, 0.4% by burial, 0.2% by dumping into lakes
and rivers, 44.9% was transferred to controlled landfills, and
1.1% was brought to composting plants. In 2008, the total
capacity of 37 controlled landfill sites was 390 million
tonnes and a total amount of 11,656,827 tonnes of waste
were brought to these sites. 93.9% of the incoming waste
was municipal waste and 6.1% was waste brought by other
economic sectors and wastes transferred from incineration
and composting facilities. 10,037,123 tonnes of waste was
disposed of in controlled landfill sites and 1,619,704 tonnes
of waste was sold or donated. In addition to that, in three
sterilization facilities, which came into operation in 2008
with an overall capacity of 13 thousand tonnes/year,
3,153 tonnes of medical waste was sterilized. 2,688 tonnes
of the sterilized waste was transferred to controlled landfill
sites and 465 tonnes was transferred to municipal dumping
sites. In 2008, 29,117 tonnes of hazardous waste was
incinerated in two incineration plants having a total
capacity of 44 thousand tonnes per year, and 6,806 tonnes
of hazardous waste was transferred to controlled landfills. In
2008, 275,752 tonnes of waste was brought to four com-
posting plants having a total capacity of 551 thousand
tonnes per year. After the sorting processes, 143,000 tonnes
of waste was composted and 46,827 tonnes of compost
were produced. 120,906 tonnes of waste which cannot be
composted was transferred to controlled landfill sites.
11,808 tonnes of waste was sold.
The composition of municipal solid waste varies by the
source of waste; however, in all cases, organic constituents
account for more than 50% of municipal solid waste.
However, regardless of the source of collection, whether it
is commercial, residential, or a tourist site, the majority of
the material collected is composed of paper and cardboard.
Glass packaging ranks second, with an average of 20–25%
(by weight) and plastics constitute 15–20% of the outputs
of the material recovery facilities.
Organic components can be assumed to be 50–55%,
whereas recyclable and others (ash and slag, dust, etc.) can
be assumed to be 20–25%. Significant alterations may be
presented due to the condensed population, type of con-
sumption and specific nature of waste sources, seasonal
changes, and demographic factors. Generated waste quan-
tities in some big cities show substantial changes compared
to others. This can be caused by the percentage differences
of the low income level population densities in these cities.
Higher waste generation in winter can be caused by the ash
and slag disposal. Differences in the municipal solid waste
quantities in some big cities can be caused by the popu-
lation density variations and by the types of the industrial
establishments. The presence of high percentages of ash
and slag in the wastes is caused by the used coal for winter
heating (Tables 6and 7).
Integrated waste management applications seem eligible
for the metropolitan cities like Istanbul and Izmit in the
western Black Sea region. Attempts have not been
encouraging for the scattered regional settlements region
using central storage sites due to financial shortages and
received rejections from nearby settlements (e.g., south-
eastern Black Sea region). So, the application of small-
scale compact solid waste management systems with
materials recycling and composting can be more suitable
alternatives in the small-scale regional settlements. Solid
wastes of Turkey are deficient in nitrogen but rich in
organic carbon, causing an inappropriate C/N ratio for
composting with high water contents (Table 8). Low
calorific values of the wastes indicate unsuitability for
Table 6 Household solid waste (HSW) composition in Turkey [16]
Season HSW
(kg/capita-day)
Organic and
wet (%)
Ash and
slag (%)
Recyclable
(%)
Summer 0.6 80.21 2.61 17.18
Winter 0.5 46.2 45.89 7.9
Average 0.57 68.87 17.04 14.09
Table 7 Municipal solid waste in Turkey [17]
Municipal solid waste
(kg/capita-day)
Treatment of solid waste
Year: 1994 2001
Summer 0.9
Winter 1.0 Landfill (%) 4.7 15
Average 0.97 Composting (%) 1.1 2.0
Table 8 Solid waste characteristics of the major cities in Turkey
[13]
City pH C
(%)
N
(%)
C/N
ratio
Water
content (%)
L. cal. value
(kJ/kg)
Trabzon 6.32 35.12 0.51 68.50 76.25 1,703
Istanbul 7.99 21.32 0.84 34.00 47.60 3,773
Ankara 4.94 24.42 1.61 15.28 76.42 460
Izmir 6.94 25.50 1.20 27.50 50.25 1,042
J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2011) 13:305–313 311
123
incineration. Sanitary landfills and associated power plants
(e.g., Istanbul 6 MW plant) seem to be appropriate disposal
methods, while composting seems to be potentially appli-
cable. Although gas burners cause considerable gas emis-
sions in the landfill sites, greenhouse emissions from
landfills are also an emulous matter of concern, both of
which have not been extensively studied countrywide.
According to 2004 SIS reports, 59.4% of the CH
4
emission
is originated from solid waste disposal in Turkey.
Some solid disposal methods, as a part of integrated
solid waste management systems, have been successfully
applied in Istanbul and Izmit. But, due to the massive
solid wastes of Istanbul metropolitan city, these measures
are still far from adequate (Fig. 1). Besides recycling/
recovery, applications of composting and appropriate
incineration (for medical wastes) methods should be
encouraged in order to minimize the generation of solid
wastes. Although land filling is the cheapest method for
the disposal of solid wastes, it is getting harder to find
appropriate landfill sites each year by the ever increasing
rates of solid wastes.
Appropriate composting technology can be applied
alternatively if solid waste characteristics are suitably
adjusted for composting. The removal of medical wastes
using modern technologies (e.g., pyrolysis) is urgently
needed.
Especially for the integrated solid waste management
applications in the solid-waste-rich metropolitan cites,
methane recovery from organic substances, gas engine
generation, and heat recovery by combustion are also
important considerations for the future management poli-
cies of Turkey.
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BLACK SEA
ASIAN
SIDE
EUROPEAN
SIDE
KOMURCUODA
UMRANIYE
KUCUKBAKKALKOY
YAKACIK TUZLA
SISLI
HASDAL
ODAYERI
KISIRMANDIRA
HALKALI
YENIBOSNA
Kücükçekmece
Lake
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Ömerli Lake
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Medical Waste Incineration
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... The approach characterizes the most important practices and useful technological and managerial solutions to manage waste disposal problems. Berkun et al. [22] provided a general impression of solid waste figures and diverse waste management options together with recycling and waste recovery initiatives and some case studies applications in Turkey. Arena and Gregorio [16] presented the analysis of a waste management arrangement that was based on a wide use of material flow study and an appraisal of a particular life cycle assessment. ...
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The first edition described the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), and the use of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) to provide a way to assess the environmental and economic performance of solid waste systems. Actual examples of IWM systems and published accounts of LCI models for solid waste are now appearing in the literature. To draw out the lessons learned from these experiences a significant part of this 2nd edition focuses on case studies - both of IWM systems, and of where LCI has been used to assess such systems. The 2nd edition also includes updated chapters on waste generation, waste collection, central sorting, biological treatment, thermal treatment, landfill and materials recycling. This 2nd edition also provides a more user-friendly model (IWM-2) for waste managers. To make it more widely accessible, this edition provides the new tool in Windows format, with greatly improved input and output features, and the ability to compare different scenarios. A detailed user's guide is provided, to take the reader through the use of the IWM-2 model, step by step. IWM-2 is designed to be an "entry level" LCI model for solid waste - user-friendly and appropriate to users starting to apply life cycle thinking to waste systems - while more expert users will also find many of the advanced features of the IWM-2 model helpful. IWM-2 is delivered on CD inside the book. © 2001 Procter & Gamble Technical Centres Limited. All rights reserved.
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The open dump of Ümraniye-Hekimbaşi was the main solid disposal site of the Asiatic side of Istanbul. At this site, which was in operation since 1976, 1500–2000 tonnes of solid wastes were disposed of daily. No waste compaction was undertaken during placement. The slope formed by the solid wastes was very steep (3 vertical to I horizontal), and recently demolition wastes were disposed of on top of these wastes. On 28 April 1993, an “explosion” took place, followed by the displacement of a large mass of solid wastes which engulfed II houses causing the death of 39 people. This paper investigates the possible reasons for this accident and concludes that it was caused by the initial sliding of the solid wastes, which were not deposited in a stable way, followed by an explosion of the methane generated and retained in the landfill.
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