An overview of construction and demolition waste management in Canada: A lifecycle analysis approach to sustainability

ArticleinClean Technologies and Environmental Policy 15(1) · February 2012with 9,486 Reads 
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Abstract
The construction and demolition (C&D) waste generated by the Canadian construction industry accounts for 27 % of the total municipal solid waste disposed in landfills. However, it is evident that over 75 % of what the construction industry generates as waste has a residual value, and therefore could be recycled, salvaged and/or reused. The need for comprehensive and integrated waste management mechanisms, technologies, rating systems and policies is widely recognized. Owing to increasing C&D waste volumes, shortage of landfills and long-term adverse environmental, economic and social impacts of the disposed C&D waste, sustainable C&D waste management is becoming increasingly essential to protect public health and natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a conceptual C&D waste management framework to maximise the 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) and minimise the disposal of construction waste by implementing sustainable and comprehensive strategy throughout the lifecycle of construction projects. In addition, a life cycle based C&D waste sustainability index is developed. This approach can be used to make decisions related to selection of material, sorting, recycle/reuse and treatment or disposal options for C&D waste.

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  • ... The life cycle produces waste at every stage, including construction. The construction waste is produced during the entire construction process such as when there is material damage, excess procurement, and human error [4]. Much amount of waste comes from the results of construction industry activities, especially in construction and demolition activities. ...
  • ... As depicted in literature, the lack of interest of contractors, poor knowledge in the designing stage, use of low-quality products and lack of expertise in material handling, and issues related to the delivery of materials has led to the generation of C&D waste (Kofoworola and Gheewala 2008). Poor C&D waste management has led to environmental impacts, health issues, land depletion, soil and water pollution, and economic impacts (Coelho and Brito 2012;Elgizawy et al. 2016;Lingard et al. 2000;Nitivattananon and Borongan 2007;Wahi et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2010;Yeheyis et al. 2013). In order to manage the C&D waste, various strategies, i.e., 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle), waste hierarchy, client awareness, and zero waste concept are being followed (Ling and Nguyen 2013;Nitivattananon and Borongan, 2007;Zaman 2015). ...
    Conference Paper
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    The construction industry, being the largest industry, generates massive quantities of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste. Generation of C&D waste leads to issues related to environmental pollution, adverse health issues, economic issues, social issues, and undesirable landfill creations. Strategies such as the 3R concept (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle), and waste hierarchy are followed in the construction industry for C&D waste management. Although such strategies are applied to manage the C&D waste, C&D waste management is still in a primary stage. In order to eliminate C&D waste, the Zero waste concept emerged as a potential solution. Zero waste means the elimination of waste through redesigning the product lifecycle. Strategies such as eco-design, industrial symbiosis, closed-loop supply chain management, innovative technology, product stewardship, life-cycle assessment, and environmental management system (EMS) are employed to implement the zero waste concept in the construction industry. Although adopting zero waste concept in the construction industry has several benefits, only limited studies could be found on zero waste management in the construction industry. Therefore, this paper aims to review the available strategies to implement zero waste concept in the construction industry by critically reviewing the secondary data on waste management studies performed in the construction industry.
  • ... Research (Yeheyis et al., 2013) has shown that lifecycle analysis should be conducted in order to incorporate sustainability at every stage, and the demolition stage produces the highest amount of waste. Not to be confused with demolition, deconstruction involves a careful dismantling of building materials to ensure reuse and recycling (Thomsen et al., 2011). ...
    Thesis
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    The construction industry in the UK is one of the major sectors that drive the economy. The construction industry is a very important industry worldwide. However, it produces the highest amount of waste in the world. According to the EU waste hierarchy, waste should be prevented, re-used, recycled, recovered or disposed following the listed order. The UK, in compliance with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), are able to recover about 90% of their waste. Nonetheless, construction and demolition waste is the highest source of waste deposited on the landfills. This research aims to explore the role of project managers’ behaviour in waste reduction. The theoretical framework used for the literature review is based on Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behaviour, and waste prevention. There is not much literature on waste from a behavioural point of view, however, Teo and Loosemore (2001) state that waste is a behaviour. Furthermore, behaviour is influenced by intentions, habits, and external conditions (Egmond and Bruel, 2007). Ahmad et al. (2010) state that attitude is a determinant of commitment towards work. Lee and Chen (2013) state that committed workers are more likely to perform better than non-committed workers. Based on this, the attitudes of the project managers were measured. An objectivist approach was taken towards the research to ensure the truth found is truly objective and based on evidence. A positivist theoretical perspective was taken in order to detach the researcher’s personal influence on the research and in order to eliminate bias. Due to the nature of the construct developed after the literature review, a statistical analysis is required in order to test the construct. Thus a survey research was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The questionnaire targetted 381 project managers in the construction industry and was administered through the APM research webpage a total of 71 responses were collected (19% rate of return). The quantitative data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential analysis (Spearman’s Correlation test), while the qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. The result from the study shows that the project managers have a positive attitude towards waste prevention. However, the project managers believe that the clients do not pay much attention towards sustainability. The result also suggest the use of SVM to prevent waste. Also, the result from the Spearman’s analysis shows a positive monotonic relationship between waste avoidance and waste generated from off-cuts (r=0,337), and between waste avoidance and waste from design error (r=0,295). This research recommends that the design should be finalised before construction phase in order to reduce waste generation. However, for better generalisability, a bigger sample size should be targetted.
  • ... Once factors are estimated, identified on the basis of the eigenvalues and rotated, it is possible to construct the weights to be attributed to each indicator as the scaled-to-one value of the factor loading square, in proportion to the variance explained by each factor (Nardo et al., 2008). Despite some limitations of interpretability of the results due to a lower degree of explicability of the meaning of the single components (Gan et al., 2017) and to the need to analyze indicators with a good level of correlation (Nardo et al., 2008), this methodology still allows to reduce the risk of double weighting, otherwise implicit in the EWI and EWP techniques (Yeheyis et al., 2013). The regression analysis allows the estimation of weights through a linear model, in our case on a fixed-effects panel regression, in which the regressors are the indicators making up the composite indicator, and the dependent variable is a proxy of the benefit associated with a high level of the composite indicator (Nardo et al., 2008). ...
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    This technical report proposes a set of metrics and a methodology to measure the progress that European countries are making towards the development and integration of capital markets. Based on six priorities linked to the achievement of a well-functioning and integrated European capital market, we identify a set of indicators and analyze country performance for the period 2007-2018 by using a composite measure, both in a static and a dynamic environment. In order to account for country specificities and differences in dynamic trajectories, we use robust clustering to identify groups of countries and follow their development through time.
  • ... Demolition or deconstruction needs special attention. Because, if the results of this stage are reused or recycle, they can reduce pollution, save energy and reduce environmental pollution and preserve natural resources [1]. Demolition needs to be conducted for the structures that experience conditions such as, affected by disasters, changes in the function of buildings, reconstruction of cities [2], rapid economic development [3], serviced age issues permitted [4] and property damage [5]. ...
  • ... Cheng and Ma (Cheng and Ma 2013) developed an add-on application manager for CDW. Yehesis et al (Yeheyis et al. 2013) proposed a conceptual CDW management framework to maximize the 3Rs and minimize the disposal of construction waste by BIM building projects LCA. Sáez et al (Villoria Sáez et al. 2018) pointed out that the major CDW quantity corresponds to vertical envelope in building retrofit. ...
    Preprint
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    Building Information Modeling (BIM) has become a versatile tool to analyze the building life cycle and to achieve efficient use of natural resources and raw materials, as well as waste reduction, reuse and recycling towards the goal of a decarbonized building stock for 2020 in Europe. This work proposes a new methodology to introduce embodied energy (EE), carbon emissions (CE), construction & demolition waste (CDW), and urban solid waste (USW) indicators into BIM models to assess environmental impact following the work breakdown structure of the Andalusian Construction Cost Database (ACCD). A case study of a social residential block is presented, focused on the concrete structure analysis because of its high impact. The results grouped by tasks and indicators show the preponderant role that concrete plays in the environmental impact. It is also observed that steel does not consume as much energy as concrete, does not provoke so many CE and offers the possibility of recycling while reducing waste quantity. When analyzed by task, the foundations present much less impact than the superstructure. Furthermore, each square meter of the typical housing block generates 76.11kg of CDW, being 75.77 kg of mixed waste, mainly concrete and 0.34 kg of steel waste.
  • ... Scenario 1 is business-as-usual (BAU) with 2017 as a baseline. [31,32], EU [33,34], China [35], Japan [36], India [37], Brazil [38], Canada [39,40], Russia [41], Australia [42,43], Mexico [44,45], Indonesia [46], Nigeria [47,48], Pakistan [49,50]. The data source of concrete proportion in China derives from the field investigation and in Indonesia and Bangladesh refer to the India. ...
  • ... the CRD sites(Yeheyis et al., 2013). These days, the recycled wood sector is facing some 535 critical challenges in Quebec. ...
    Article
    This paper addresses a two-stage stochastic model for eco-efficient reverse logistics network design (RLND). The goal of this optimization model is to maximize the expected profit and minimize landfilling activities to give more incentive for materials recycling. The model considers a source separation option that allows the separation of the collected materials at an early stage of the reverse logistics channel. The quantity of waste generated and the recycling rates at the collection centers are uncertain due to the variable quality of the collected batches. We solved the model using the combination of a Sampling Average Approximation procedure and the ε-constraint method. An application is illustrated through the case study of wood waste recycling from the construction, renovation, and demolition (CRD) industry in the province of Quebec in Canada. This research reveals that the source separation strategy provides better control of the impact of uncertainties, not only for the economic performance but also from an environmental perspective. The results highlight the necessity to evaluate the interaction between environmental policies to avoid conflicting objectives. Finally, the case study demonstrates the complexity of the reverse logistics network in the CRD industry and the challenge to achieve eco-efficiency under uncertainty.
  • ... The building sector generates 30% of the world's greenhouse gases [8] and 40%-50% of water pollution to the environment [1]. Additionally, it contributes 40% of the total solid waste in developed countries [9]. To address these issues, the construction of green buildings (GB) focuses on improving building energy efficiency and alleviating construction's negative impacts on the environment and resources [10]. ...
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    Since the energy crisis in the 1960s, crucial research and activities were spurred to improve energy efficiency and decrease environmental pollution. To deal with the various problems the construction industry are facing, the concept of green buildings (GBs) has been gradually shaped and put forward all over the world, and green building rating systems (GBRSs) have been developed. The concept of GBs covers a wide range of elements, and its definition is constantly updated as the construction industry develops. This paper compares the development of backgrounds and statuses of green building development in various countries. It also presents an overview of the green building development situation within these countries, summarizing two influences for GB development: one external and the other internal. External factors include GB development policy support, economic benefits, and certification schemes. Internal factors are the development and application of GB technology, the level of building management, and how users interact with the GB technology. Currently, 49 worldwide green building standards and application have been sorted out, including 18 standard expert appraisal systems. Moreover, it discusses the research results and lessons learned from green building projects in different countries and summarizes their achievements and challenges. To correctly understand and use green building technology, it is essential to improve the policy and incentive system, improve the professional quality and technical ability of employees and accredited consultants, constantly develop and update the evaluation system, strengthen technological innovation, and integrate design and management. This paper aims to draw a clear roadmap for national standard development, policy formulation, and construction design companies, provide solutions to remove the obstacles, and suggest research direction for future studies.
  • ... In other words, the overall effect of construction waste management will heavily rely on its related information and processes throughout the life of the project when integrated. The entire life cycle of construction waste management would receive the energetic participation of all stakeholders including, government, customers, contractors (including construction and demolition contractors), suppliers and management companies, and various departments (Nguyen et al., 2018b;Yeheyis et al., 2013). As construction waste management process should be done within the scope of project management, all stakeholders stand responsible for it. ...
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    As a developing country, Vietnam has a huge social demand for infrastructure. Ho Chi Minh City, where plenty of construction projects are made to cater to social needs, is seen as an economic center of preeminent importance. The development of construction projects in terms of quantity entails, among other things, the burden of construction wastes. In fact, the collection, classification, and treatment of wastes are not paid due attention by construction contractors. Furthermore, there remains a scarcity of enterprises investing in construction waste treatment plants and poor management of wastes. A major part of the waste is poorly treated, causing negative environmental effects. Hence, this paper identified factors affecting the management of construction wastes in Vietnam. A survey was used to collect the data for the analysis. The results illustrate that the critical factors affecting the management of construction wastes in Vietnam are: (1) Ecological design; (2) Optimization of design for reduction of material consumption and construction waste; (3) Recycling and reuse of construction wastes; (4) Workers' awareness of construction wastes; and (5) On-site waste sorting.
  • ... Na Espanha, 25-30% dos resíduos sólidos gerados são provenientes de atividades de construção e de demolição, mas, ainda assim, apenas 15% dos RCD são reaproveitados, ao contrário de outros países europeus cuja média de reutilização dos RCD chega a 70% (Rodríguez et al., 2015). No Canadá, 27% dos resíduos dispostos em aterro sanitário são RCD, o que denota uma falha, ainda, na política de reaproveitamento desses resíduos (Yeheyis et al., 2013). No contexto canadense, a madeira corresponde a 50% dos resíduos de demolição e a 30% dos resíduos de construção, uma realidade diferente da brasileira, na qual grande parte dos RCD corresponde a resíduos classe A (Brasil, 2002). ...
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    Resumo A construção civil é um dos setores econômicos que mais impactam o meio ambiente. O volume de resíduos de construção e demolição (RCD) gerados nas cidades e a sua disposição inadequada são fatores que potencializam a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa da produção dos RCD em Belo Horizonte, MG. Como parte da análise qualitativa, realizou-se um levantamento do atual estado da gestão e do gerenciamento dos RCD gerados na cidade com vistas a entender a viabilidade do uso dos RCD reciclados como insumo na construção civil da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH). Após essa etapa, foi realizada coleta e caracterização dos RCD na estação de reciclagem de entulho (ERE/ SLU), situada na BR040. Utilizou-se o método de amostragem de acordo com a norma pertinente. Por meio da análise gravimétrica, observou-se que 95,5% do total de RCD produzidos é do tipo A, o que indica um grande potencial técnico e econômico de reaproveitamento diretamente na construção civil. Os resultados apontam, portanto, a necessidade de diretrizes para a aplicação destes resíduos de volta na construção civil e para a criação de políticas de educação ambiental.
  • ... Considering developed countries, though Canada has vast land space available for landfilling, its larger cities are facing challenges, managing their C&DW being dumped in landfills (Yeheyis et al., 2013). Scandinavian countries are using recycled C&D waste at high ratios. ...
    Article
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    Cost effective management of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) has become a serious issue with increased construction activity and modern urban lifestyle which is damaging environment, eating up resources and causing rapid land use changes. These factors have influenced the construction industry significantly and therefore gained the practitioners' attention in recent past. New strategies of C&DW reduction management are being devised and reported; this research aims at providing a better C&DW management technique which will benefit the construction industry in terms of waste reduction and consequent cost-benefit. The main focus of this research is restrained to prefabrication of construction material and its effects on economy of tall buildings. The data collected from traditional methods for CDW management and prefabrication factories is based on interviewed surveys from project managers, quantity surveyors and experienced site managers. The collected data is then processed into System dynamics using "VENSIM PLE" by creating causal relationships with dependent and independent variables. Economic theory in contrast with conventional and prefabrication methods of construction has been incorporated in this study. Results show that usage of prefabrication technique proves to be more economical in managing C&DW. Construction waste management through prefabrication technique shows a reduction of cost around 79% as compared to that in construction through conventional methods. This suggests that prefabrication technique can considerably reduce C&DW as well as costs for its management accordingly.
  • ... The building sector consumes a large amount of natural resources [1], contributing to their depletion and to the emission of a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) [2]. The growing interest in environmental issues has led to several studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) since it is recognized as a powerful tool to predict the overall environmental impacts of buildings [3,4]. ...
  • ... SimaPro database and the LCA software, Athena impact estimator and Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES), are the commonly used software in North America to assess the life cycle impacts of a product or a process (Han and Srebric 2011) land and water (ALW), eutrophication (EN), tropospheric ozone formation (TOF) and depletion of nonrenewable energy resources (DNR) can be used in identifying potential environmental impacts (Yeheyis et al. 2013) (Ahamed et al. 2016) . Moreover, the BEES weight schemes can be used to aggregate the above environmental impacts and quantify an environmental score for each alternative (Cooper 2007) ). ...
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    Electricity generation using solar photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the key low-emission energy technologies that reduce building net operational level emissions compared to the fossil fuels-based energies. Small-scale grid-tie solar (PV) systems are being widely used in many parts of the world. These systems would be benefitted to the investors by reducing household level operational GHG emissions and securing low energy prices for long-term. Solar (PV)-based electricity generation in Canada can be improved immensely to achieve local emission targets while securing healthier energy rates for the consumers. However, there is a lack of knowledge on life cycle impacts of solar (PV)-based electricity generation in single-family detached households in Canadian regions with low-emission grid electricity. The objective of this study is to conduct an investigation to obtain the feasibility of small-scale solar (PV) systems for households in South British Columbia mountain climate region, Canada using life cycle thinking approach. The effect of domestic activities and transportation was used to identify the net energy use of the household throughout its entire life. The life cycle impact assessment and the life cycle cost assessment results were used to compare the impacts of different household alternatives. The results of this study showed that households with solar (PV) systems and electric transportation facilities indicated comparatively lower environmental impacts and higher long-term financial benefits. However, the upfront costs of households with solar systems are relatively high which may have adverse effects on the purchasing decisions. The short-term use of solar (PV) systems may result in higher cost and environmental impacts.
  • ... Page 1085 FGIC2019 efficiency of resources, where a common approach is to achieve an appropriate level of reduction, recycling and reuse (Yeheyis et al., 2013). These approaches are aimed at encouraging technology adoption in order to minimize construction and demolition impacts. ...
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    The construction industry’s contributions to Greenhouse gas emissions have generated several discussions among the construction stakeholders in recent times. Granted that the construction industry has been contributing significantly to the economy as well as employment in most countries for decades, the industry’s resource consumption is, at the same time, damaging to a sustained human environment. This paper empirically explored the organizational technology orientation and perceived organizational usefulness that could improve construction Malaysian construction firm’s sustainability performance. Close-ended structured copies of questionnaire survey were employed to collect data from large Malaysian construction firms, and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling technique was used to analyze the 172 responses. The results indicated that both technology orientation and perceived organizational usefulness are capable of influencing the construction firms’ sustainability performance. The implication is that this study’s model can predict the sustainability performance of the sampled construction firms. Some implications for research and practice, as well as future recommendations, were highlighted.
  • ... SimaPro database and the LCA software, Athena impact estimator and Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES), are the commonly used software in North America to assess the life cycle impacts of a product or a process (Han and Srebric 2011) land and water (ALW), eutrophication (EN), tropospheric ozone formation (TOF) and depletion of nonrenewable energy resources (DNR) can be used in identifying potential environmental impacts (Yeheyis et al. 2013) (Ahamed et al. 2016) . Moreover, the BEES weight schemes can be used to aggregate the above environmental impacts and quantify an environmental score for each alternative (Cooper 2007) ). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Electricity generation using solar photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the key low-emission energy technologies that reduce building net operational level emissions compared to the fossil fuels-based energies. Small-scale grid-tie solar (PV) systems are being widely used in many parts of the world. These systems would be benefitted to the investors by reducing household level operational GHG emissions and securing low energy prices for long-term. Solar (PV)-based electricity generation in Canada can be improved immensely to achieve local emission targets while securing healthier energy rates for the consumers. However, there is a lack of knowledge on life cycle impacts of solar (PV)-based electricity generation in single-family detached households in Canadian regions with low-emission grid electricity. The objective of this study is to conduct an investigation to obtain the feasibility of small-scale solar (PV) systems for households in South British Columbia mountain climate region, Canada using life cycle thinking approach. The effect of domestic activities and transportation was used to identify the net energy use of the household throughout its entire life. The life cycle impact assessment and the life cycle cost assessment results were used to compare the impacts of different household alternatives. The results of this study showed that households with solar (PV) systems and electric transportation facilities indicated comparatively lower environmental impacts and higher long-term financial benefits. However, the upfront costs of households with solar systems are relatively high which may have adverse effects on the purchasing decisions. The short-term use of solar (PV) systems may result in higher cost and environmental impacts.
  • ... Zorpas et al. (2015) claimed that most of the household waste could be separated at source for recycling, proposed to raise public awareness and involve government and NGOs to reach zero waste in the future. Poon et al. (2001) and Yeheyis et al. (2013) conducted a detailed characterization of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) at construction sites. It was recommended that C&DW should be separated at the source which would be achieved by increasing taxes for its disposal. ...
  • ... The Netherlands has achieved 100% recycling of EOL concrete and has a more advanced concrete recycling and CDW management system than China (Zhang et al., 2018;Huang et al., 2018), Australia (Tam et al., 2010), Canada (Yeheyis et al., 2013) and other European member states (Eurostat, 2018). The most common practice for concrete recycling in the Netherlands is simply crushing and subsequent use as a base in road construction, which is considered a low-grade or low value-added route. ...
    Article
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    The increasing volume of Construction and demolition waste (CDW) associated with economic growth is posing challenges to the sustainable management of the built environment. The largest fraction of all the CDW generated in the member states of the European Union (EU) is End-of-life (EOL) concrete. The most widely applied method for EOL concrete recovery in Europe is road base backfilling, which is considered low-grade recovery. The common practice for high-grade recycling is wet process that processes and washes EOL concrete into clean coarse aggregate for concrete manufacturing. It is costly. As a result, a series of EU projects have been launched to advance the technologies for high value-added concrete recycling. A critical environmental and economic evaluation of such technological innovations is important to inform decision making, while there has been a lack of studies in this field. Hence the present study aimed to assess the efficiency of the technical innovations in high-grade concrete recycling, using an improved eco-efficiency analytical approach by integrating life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). Four systems of high-grade concrete recycling were analyzed for comparison: (i) business-as-usual (BAU) stationary wet processing; (ii) stationary advanced dry recovery (ADR); (iii) mobile ADR; (iv) mobile ADR and Heating Air Classification (A&H). An overarching framework was proposed for LCA/LCC-type eco-efficiency assessment conforming to ISO standards. The study found that technological routes that recycle on-site and produce high-value secondary products are most advantageous. Accordingly, policy recommendations are proposed to support the technological innovations of CDW management .
  • ... The proportion of construction debris (by weight) that is landfilled in each country shows between 13% and 60% compared with the total amount of waste (Table 1). Yeheyis et al. [13] The reduction of waste from construction will have numerous benefits, including natural resource conservation and reducing the use of virgin materials to produce construction materials, cost reductions from reducing the amount of construction materials, and reducing expenses from waste disposal [14]. Also, reducing waste creates a competitive advantage for stakeholders in the construction industry especially subcontractors, main contractors, and real estate developers. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Rapid growth in construction activities as a result of a growing population and urbanization in many parts of the world generates a large amount of waste from construction. To reduce and manage these wastes, a comprehensive understanding of the construction waste generation factors is needed. The purpose of this study is to identify the contributing factors of construction waste in Thailand’s construction industry. The causes of construction waste were identified through an extensive literature review. A total of 28 causes of construction waste were identified and grouped into the four categories: design and documentation, material and procurement, construction method and planning, and human resources. To determine the significant level of each factor, a structured questionnaire survey was carried out to gather information from contractors about causes of construction material waste. The results show that the categories contributing to construction waste ranks as design and documentation, human resources, construction methods and planning, and material and procurement, respectively. Meanwhile, factors from each category were also determined and ranked. Design change, inattentive working attitudes and behaviors, ineffective planning and scheduling, and material storage were among the highest impact factors on construction waste generation in each category. Identifying the significance levels of waste generation factors will help the industry’s stakeholders build suitable strategies to manage construction waste more effectively.
  • ... In comparison with other countries and regions in the world (Fig. 4, Table S.17) (Yeheyis et al. 2013), China contributes a great amount to CDW generation and accounts for over 75% of the global generation, which is approximately 4.5 times higher than that of the 28 countries in the European Union (Sáez et al. 2011;European Commission 2016). This is arguably due to the continued increase in construction ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    As China and other developing countries continue to urbanize over the next decades, construction and demolition waste (CDW) management has been becoming a significant challenge for urban sustainability in terms of the environment, economy, and safety. However, accurate estimations or statistics of CDW generation are absent from the official national report in spite of their importance to devise sensible interventions to tackle CDW-related problems. This paper examines and compares the applications of three prevailing methods for estimating CDW, including the weight-per-construction-area method (WAM), buildings’ life span-based method, and weight-per-capita method. Specifically, China has been chosen as the case study. This study implies that the weight-per-construction-area method is more appropriate because of the data availability and accuracy at a city or national level. The results of WAM indicate that a total of 4.1 billion metric tons (Bt) of CDW were generated in China in 2016, mainly from demolition waste (85%). Taking the changes of buildings’ life span into account, a projection analysis reveals that the cumulative CDW generation will be 50 Bt between 2017 and 2040 in China (equal to approximately 38 years cumulative generation of global municipal solid waste). Overall, the findings provide some methodological options for scholars, practitioners, and decision-makers to more accurately estimate the amount of the CDW and to develop a more environmentally sound management strategy.
  • ... Influenced by life cycle assessment, scholars in this school have conceptualized waste management in terms of both materials/ resource usage and waste (Yeheyis et al., 2013). Innovative practices associated with waste management seek to reduce unnecessary use of natural resources (Osmani, 2012), lower energy consumption (Mansour and Ali, 2015), and place less burden on landfills (Jaillon and Poon, 2010) while also reducing costs. ...
  • ... Cheng y Ma (Cheng y Ma 2013) desarrollaron un administrador de aplicaciones adicionales para CDW. Yehesis et al. (Yeheyis et al. 2013) propusieron un marco conceptual de gestión de CDW para maximizar las 3R y minimizar la eliminación de residuos de construcción por LCA de proyectos de construcción BIM. Sáez et al. (Villoria Sáez et al.2018) señalaron que la mayor cantidad de CDW corresponde a la envoltura vertical en la modernización del edificio. ...
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    Building Information Modeling (BIM) constituye una herramienta versátil para analizar el ciclo de vida de los edificios y el uso eficiente de los recursos, reducción, reuso y reciclado de residuos de construcción y demolición hacia un parque edilicio sin carbono para 2020 en Europa. Este trabajo propone una nueva metodología para incorporar indicadores: energía incorporada, emisiones de CO2, residuos de construcción y demolición además de sólidos urbanos, en modelos BIM que evalúan el impacto ambiental siguiendo la estructura de la Base de Costes de la Construcción de Andalucía (BCCA). Se eligió un bloque de vivienda social en Sevilla, como caso de estudio, para focalizarse en el análisis de su estructura de hormigón armado debido a su alto impacto.Los resultados agrupados por tarea e indicador muestran el rol preponderante del hormigón. Por el contrario, el acero demuestra ser menos energo-consumidor, generando menos emisiones y permitiendo reducir los residuos mediante reciclaje. Según la discriminación por tareas, se destaca el bajo impacto de las fundaciones frente a la superestructura resistente. Asimismo, cada metro cuadrado de construcción típica genera 76,11 kg de residuo de construcción y demolición, siendo 75,77 kg mixto proveniente del hormigón y 0,34 kg, del acero.
  • ... As PCA/FA reduces the dimensionality of the actual datasets (indicators), these techniques are used when a large number of indicators need to be taken (Gan et al., 2017). Also, they reduce the risk of double weighting, which may occur in case of the equal weighting method (Yeheyis et al., 2013). The PCA/FA approach has been used by experts for weighting different indicators in CIs studies the Business Climate Indicator, EPI, and CDI (Singh et al., 2012). ...
  • ... Paz et al. (2018) afirmam que a grande maioria das cidades brasileiras não possui um sistema adequado de coleta e descarte dos resíduos de construção e demolição. Desta forma, a deposição irregular do RCD nas ruas, rios e outros espaços ilegais é ampliada em função da ausência da gestão correta dos resíduos nos canteiros de obras (MAHAYUDDIN et al., 2008).A gestão incorreta e a deposição do RCD em áreas irregulares promove diversos impactos ambientais como, por exemplo: poluição visual, inundação causada pelo estreitamento das margens dos rios, poluição de cursos d'água e do solo, intensificação de enchentes, incentivo à deposição de outros tipos de resíduos, além da proliferação de vetores nos centros urbanos(PINTO, 2005; CAVALLARO, 2007;KARPINSK et al., 2009; FERREIRA e PINTO, 2010;BRASIL, 2010; AGOPYAN e JOHN, 2011;DELONGUI et al., 2011; LU e TAM, 2013;YEHEYIS et al., 2013; IKAU et al., 2016). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Identificar áreas de deposição para Resíduos de Construção e Demolição (RCD) e gerenciá-los adequadamente é uma tarefa desafiadora para muitos países em desenvolvimento. Planejar uma estratégia que seja sustentável na gestão de resíduos é um passo crítico para os tomadores de decisão. As ferramentas tecnológicas de análise de decisão multicritério (MCDA) e Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG) têm sido utilizadas na gestão do RCD. Portanto, para apoiar tomadores de decisão e pesquisadores, os objetivos deste artigo são apresentar revisão bibliográfica de aplicações das ferramentas MCDA e SIG na gestão de RCD, além de fornecer sugestões para futuros trabalhos. Desta forma, foi realizada uma breve revisão dos conceitos fundamentais, seguida pela análise de artigos relacionados às aplicações de MCDA e SIG na gestão de RCD. A partir dos artigos analisados, observa-se que os estudos que utilizaram MCDA e SIG na aplicados à gestão de RCD são predominantemente direcionados a resolução de problemas envolvendo a localização de instalações. Todavia, notou-se a ausência de estudos que utilizem estas ferramentas aplicadas, de forma integrada, aos resíduos de construção e demolição. Desta forma, recomenda-se a aplicação de MCDA e SIG para resolução de problemas de localização dos resíduos gerados pela construção civil.
  • ... The first research on modern prefabricated houses was presented in the book "Prefab" [17], and at least until 2013, there were no organized studies related to the ecological dimension in prefabricated housing or on how the technology of so-called "ecological housing" could be transferred to the realm of prefabricated housing technology [3]. Within this scope, and knowing that energy efficient features of prefabricated housing units should be aligned with those of "green" buildings, these housing units should be geared to improve urban biodiversity and local eco-systems by means of sustainable land use [18,19] as well as through the reduction of construction and demolition waste [20,21]. At the same time, the recycling rate -the percentage of reused and recycled materials in new buildings -has to be above 90% in order to achieve the mitigation of the environmental impacts of construction and demolition waste [22]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This paper aims to examine the integration of environmental systems and strategies in environmentally friendly and technologically advanced, off–grid prefabricated housing units. The study is based on a comprehensive precedent and literature review of current and proposed applications of prefabricated assembly methods and their inherent potential, in terms of both design and construction, to incorporate the integration of the systems mentioned above. A fundamental classification and taxonomy of the current state of the field was performed, based on three key design aspects pertaining to the issue of environmental design: Energy efficient structures, bioclimatic design and ecological approach to design. All cases are addressed in terms of the challenges faced in optimizing the overall design performance so that it leads to an affordable and spatially flexible and site adaptable construction and also in minimizing the units’ lifecycle operational costs with an emphasis on energy consumption. Based on the above taxonomy and optimization techniques, the research team is working on a new, off-grid prefabricated residential model, the “Prefab Eco Smart House”, aiming to blend prefabrication technology, bioclimatic design, integration of renewable energy sources, innovation in architectural design, comfort and technological excellence. The ultimate aim of this effort is to critically present the range of typologies and their various alternatives, which can be applied on a “green” prefabricated building unit in Cyprus, in ways which optimize its design and energy potential.
  • ... Particularly in Canada, approximately 52% of the 11 million tonnes of annual solid C&D waste is held by concrete. 4,5 In such a context, recycling and refining these waste tires and C&D waste into crumb rubber (CR) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) can serve as a significant and environmentally friendly alternative to natural virgin aggregates. ...
  • ... 110,[111][112][113], infrastructure networks have only recently been investigated for their anthropogenic stocks. The residues from buildings and infrastructure have been studied from various angles, such as examining waste management practices in major economies like Canada [114], Germany [115], the United States [116], the United Kingdom [117], China [118], Australia [119] and Malaysia [120]. The performance of waste management has been evaluated from the perspective of sustainability, feasibility, viability [121], and waste [122,123]. ...
    Technical Report
    Full-text available
    The traditional mining sector uses resource assessments to estimate the mineability of natural resources. The results are communicated to investors, authorities and corporate management boards in a standardized manner, at least on a country level. The recycling sector also requires estimates of recoverable anthropogenic resources. Evidence-based resource assessment, including the selection of parameters for characterising resources and methods for assessing their recoverability, is essential to obtain comparable estimates over time and across scales. Within this report, the COST Action MINEA presents a practical and user-friendly knowledge base for facilitating anthropogenic resource assessments. The fouces is on extractives industry residues, residues in landfills, residues from municipal solid waste incineration as well as construction & demolition waste flows. The key objectives are: 1. To relate current knowledge levels, gaps and future needs to assessments of viability of anthropogenic resource recovery. 2. To review case studies that demonstrate anthropogenic resource assessment in combination with resource classification in order to communicate the viability of anthropogenic resource recovery. We encourage academics, businesses and government organisations to use this report for: designing and developing case studies, future planning, developing standards for characterizing resource quantities and evaluating their recoverability, and collecting and harmonizing resource statistics.
  • ... Zorpas et al. (2015) claimed that most of the household waste could be separated at source for recycling, proposed to raise public awareness and involve government and NGOs to reach zero waste in the future. Poon et al. (2001) and Yeheyis et al. (2013) conducted a detailed characterization of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) at construction sites. It was recommended that C&DW should be separated at the source which would be achieved by increasing taxes for its disposal. ...
    Article
    A detailed characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) beyond a standard compositional analysis may offer insights useful for improving waste management systems. The present paper contributes to the scarce literature in the field by presenting new data from a rapidly developing Central Asian city, the capital of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan. Three sampling campaigns (each 1 week long) have been conducted at the city landfill over a 1-year period (2018–2019), and a detailed characterization for selected waste components and sub-components has been performed. The major fractions of MSW were organics (46.3%), plastics (15.2%), paper (12.8%), and diapers (5.9%). The detailed composition analysis showed high LDPE (low-density polyethylene) content (5.5%) mostly comprised of plastic bags (4.5%), transparent glass (3.2%), pharmaceuticals (0.4%), and fine (i.e., < 12 mm) organic fraction content (29%). The MSW generation rate of Nur-Sultan was estimated as 1.47 kg capita−1 day−1 based on the field collection as well as literature data. Among sustainable waste management recommendations addressed for Nur-Sultan and applicable to other cities in Central Asia, composting is recommended due to high organics fraction in MSW and its great potential to reduce the landfilled waste volume and to help valorizing the waste.
  • ... With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the construction industry has developed rapidly, and the accompanying construction waste has increased dramatically. Due to the large cost of traditional landfill methods and serious environmental pollution, reusing the construction waste resources is imperative [1,2]. As a product of the recycling construction waste, recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has its own advantages in terms of economy and protection for the environment. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    In this paper, the bond deterioration mechanism of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with a full replacement ratio was studied through experimental and numerical simulations. To study the bond behavior and the bond slip between section steel and RAC, nine push-out specimens were designed using the control variable method. The effects of the concrete strength, the embedded length, the cover thickness, and the lateral stirrup ratio on the bond behavior and the bond slip were investigated in detail. The loading process and failure mode of the specimens were observed, and the test curves of the loading end and free end of the specimens were analyzed. Based on the experiment, the finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate the specimens, and the simulation results were analyzed by comparing the experiment data. The analysis of the results showed that the developed model is capable of representing the characteristic bond strength value between section steel and RAC with sufficient accuracy, and the main differences of bond slip between the simulation and the test results are the slippage at the limit state and the moment at which the free end starts to slip.
  • ... Their study is amongst the very first applications of BIM for EoL planning [30]. A conceptual framework for lifecycle-based integrated CDW management is proposed by Yeheyis et al. [79], for which they have anticipated a Construction Waste LCA-based Sustainability Index (CWLSI). They developed a methodology to calculate the environmental, social and economic sub-indices for CDW decision-making assessment in relation to material selection, sorting, recycling, reuse and CDW treatment. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This article is the second part of a two-part study, which explored the extent to which Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used for End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) scenario selection to minimise the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). The conventional literature review presented here is based on the conceptual landscape that was obtained from the bibliometric and scientometric analysis in the first part of the study. Seven main academic research directions concerning the BIM-based EoL domain were found, including social and cultural factors, BIM-based Design for Deconstruction (DfD), BIM-based deconstruction, BIM-based EoL within LCA, BIM-aided waste management, Material and Component Banks (M/C Banks), off-site construction, interoperability and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The analysis highlights research gaps in the path of raw materials to reusable materials, i.e., from the deconstruction to M/C banks to DfD-based designs and then again to deconstruction. BIM-based EoL is suffering from a lack of a global framework. The existing solutions are based on local waste management policies and case-specific sustainability criteria selection. Another drawback of these ad hoc but well-developed BIM-based EoL prototypes is their use of specific proprietary BIM tools to support their framework. This disconnection between BIM tools and EoL tools is reportedly hindering the BIM-based EoL, while no IFC classes support the EoL phase information exchange.
  • ... An unexpected result was the low ranking for Material Losses as a consequence that the PMs and QMs could influence. Green buildings produce less construction and demolition waste because of the construction waste management plans implemented [64,65]. Thus, it was expected that managers would rank Material Loss higher. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The quality performance of a green building will have an overarching effect on its objectives because of the high compliance needed to achieve superior performance expectations. Achieving sustainability objectives is challenging and requires the collaboration of diverse professionals that resume unique responsibilities. In this study, the different managerial practitioners involved in green-building projects were investigated in terms of their awareness levels regarding the quality performance measures, their perceived abilities to influence quality failure consequences, the degree to which the cost-of-quality (CoQ) of components can be evaluated, and the effect the sustainability traits have on the quality performance. Accordingly, a survey approach was adopted, and the results were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-squared (χ²) test, the relative importance index (RII), Mann–Whitney U-Test, and Student’s T-test. According to the results, the priorities of the different managerial types and their overall impressions of cost computability were different, which needs to be considered when CoQ evaluations are done based on practitioners’ views. In addition, the sustainability traits of green buildings impact achieving quality metrics with the consequences of design rework occurring in the construction stage may lead to denouncing sustainability traits. The results of this research study reveal the need to consider the differences between managerial types when evaluating CoQ for projects and the increased sensitivity for such evaluation in a green building context. The paper contributes to underscoring the important connection between quality performance and sustainability traits of a green building project and calls for researchers to formulate methods with more rigor to reach a set structure for quality cost accounting as an industry standard. Intricate evaluation methods will enable strategic decision making on quality performance budgets to be more substantiated.
  • ... Excessive consumption and a throwaway culture have generated excessively high waste production values per inhabitant [2,6,7]. Consequently, the increase in waste volumes, the scarcity of landfills and the adverse long-term environmental, economic and social impacts of waste generation mean that sustainable management is essential to protect public health and natural ecosystems [8]. According to some research [8], much of the population has little idea about the origin and destination of goods, the destructive impact of pollution on human health, and the importance of maintaining productive and biologically diverse ecosystems [8]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The United Nations General Assembly has pointed out that education is an essential tool for properly instructing society to achieve sustainable development, in terms of values, skills, knowledge or abilities. Within this framework, this research focuses on environmental attitude and awareness as an influential element in the teaching and learning processes. The main objective of the study was to diagnose and evaluate emotional, teaching self-efficacy and environmental awareness variables of teachers in primary and secondary education training within the framework of waste. The sample was made up of 160 teachers in training. As a measurement instrument, a questionnaire was designed, developed and validated consisting of three different parts to measure the variables under investigation. The descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the data shows attitudinal, emotional and self-efficacy differences according to the categories examined, revealing the need to promote an improvement in the attitude towards certain environmental actions in future teachers. The results suggest that education has a relevant role in sustainability, and its importance and inclusion in the curricula of the different educational stages should be recognized.
  • ... Likewise, Alshahed (2017) revealed that 90% of the Ministry of Public Works' (MPW) projects suffer from delay, whilst the volume of waste materials in Kuwaiti construction is huge for such a small country, as shown in Figure 2. For instance, a comparison of the construction waste in Kuwait with that of Canada, as a large country, shows that construction and demolition waste in the Canadian industry amount to approximately 9 million tones per year, whilst in Kuwait, the figure was around 10 million tonnes per year (Yeheyis, Hewage, Alam, Eskicioglu, & Sadiq, 2013). Kuwait (Statista, 2018) In addition, there is a lack of awareness and a limited adoption of advanced project management techniques and tool, such as BIM (Abdulfattah et al., 2017) and Lean Construction (Al-Adwani, Mollasalehi, & Fleming, 2018). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    After the Government of Kuwait launched the 2035 vision of Kuwait, the development of a sustainable built environment industry become one of the country's priority topics. Yet, the construction industry is confronting numerous challenges including time and cost overruns, waste, and low industry performance. Globally, delays in projects is the most common problem in this industry and specifically in Kuwait. However, several studies revealed that using advanced project management approaches such as Lean Construction and Building Information Modelling can improve the performance of the construction industry, therefore, overcoming these challenges. This paper aims to investigate the challenges facing construction projects in Kuwait, the implementation of Lean Construction and BIM approaches in this industry; in an attempt to find a suitable solution to address these issues. Thus, this study delivers a comprehensive awareness into the causes of delays in construction projects in Kuwait from reviewing the relevant literature and by examining the findings of the distributed online questionnaire. This questionnaire targeted 141 specialists in the construction industry who are involved in public-sector construction projects in Kuwait including clients, contractors, and consultants. The findings of the questionnaire revealed that delays in projects and a lack of collaboration and communication between stakeholders are the main challenges facing this industry.
  • ... Shima et al. (2005) analyze a new technology to recycle concrete, based on heating and rubbing. Yeheyis et al. (2013) propose a study to optimize the waste management, maximize the reduction, reuse and recycle wastes and reduce their disposal in landfills in the Canadian construction industry. ...
  • ... As the number and complexity of CDW management alternatives increase, the demand for an applicable framework for assessment of different alternatives is more emphasized. Different approaches, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) (Butera et al., 2015;Simion et al., 2013;Yeheyis et al., 2013), Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA) (Begum et al., 2006;Doan and Chinda, 2016;Yuan et al., 2011), and Material Flow Analysis (MFA) (Hsiao et al., 2002;Hu et al., 2010;Huang et al., 2013), have been proposed in the literature for CDW. It should be noted that different approaches have been widely used for CDW management and only limited studies have applied Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in this field. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) has recently received significant attention in the most developing countries, such as Iran. Since CDW generation is unavoidable, so development and implementation of an appropriate CDW management is widely recognized as an essential need. Different alternatives in CDW management have been proposed and implemented currently. In this study, a novel framework was established based on the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach in order to assess different CDW management alternatives in Tehran, Iran. Proposed alternatives (including landfilling, recycling, reusing, and reduction) were investigated with respect to 16 different individual criteria. The criteria were divided into four different groups, namely environmental, social, technical, economic. A database in this study was established through a questionnaire survey. The relative significance of alternatives with respect to each criterion was assessed. The obtained results revealed that reduction has the highest and landfilling has the lowest priorities. Furthermore, it was found that economic criteria have the highest and social criteria have the lowest importance among the studied criteria. Also, the proposed framework can be used as a beneficial tool that will assist decision-makers in determining the most suitable CDW management alternatives in the case of different criteria that are completely/partially in conflict.
  • ... C&D waste get generated due to the errors in design, lack of knowledge in material handling, poor material planning decisions and due to changes in building design (Yeheyis, et al., 2013). Furthermore, when the required data for the selection of construction method, inadequate knowledge in sequential order of construction activities, C&D waste get generated. ...
  • ... Over the last three decades, it has been known that the Construction Industry consumes a huge amount of natural resources, as it was responsible for over 40% in the 1990s (Rees, 1999) and nowadays this number only falls to around 32% (Yeheyis et al., 2013). Not only consuming, the Construction Industry is also responsible for one quarter of the solid waste (Yeheyis et al., 2013) generated worldwide, and it can reach bigger numbers in countries under development like Brazil, where waste generated by the Construction Industry reaches over 60% (ABRELPE, 2018). ...
    Article
    The Construction Industry is responsible for over 30% of the extraction of natural resources, as well as 25% of solid waste generated in the world. This happens because the construction sector mostly adopts a linear economic model of “take, make, dispose”, using materials to the construction of buildings and disposing them at the end of life, since they are assembled for one time use and don’t retain potential for reuse. Over the last decades, a paradigm shift has been occurring in the industry at large, with the adoption of a Circular Economy model, that aims at keeping the materials in a closed loop to retain their maximum value, therefore with a greater potential of reducing the waste generation and resources extraction for the Construction Industry. This article aims at finding the recent developments of how Circular Economy can be used inside the construction industry. To achieve this goal, a systematic literature review was conducted, including 45 articles that were divided into six areas of research: development of Circular Economy, reuse of materials, material stocks, Circular Economy in the built environment, LCA analysis and material passport. An analysis of the content of these articles was made and the knowledge gaps in this area were identified, as well as table with known Circular Economy practices for the Construction Industry was created divided by life cycle stages. Finally, a discussion of each area of research and their findings is made.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    El auge en el uso de materiales aislantes en edificación es debido al incremento de los requerimientos de confort térmico y de ahorro energético marcados por las normativas actuales en la construcción de viviendas. Las lanas minerales son, el aislante más empleado en edificación la Unión Europea, por lo que resulta imprescindible su reciclaje o reutilización frente al actual impacto ambiental que produce su depósito en vertedero. Esta investigación analiza el comportamiento térmico de los morteros de cemento aditivados con diferentes tipos de residuos de materiales aislantes procedentes de construcción y demolición para su reciclaje buscando obtener morteros más aislantes, lo que además contribuirá a implementar los criterios de la economía circular en el sector de la construcción. Para la constatación de la hipótesis se elaboran probetas de mortero de cemento con diferentes porcentajes (30%,40%,50%) de tres tipos distintos de residuos de fibras procedentes de lanas minerales (lana de roca RW, fibra de vidrio FG y residuos mixtos MIX). Se determina el coeficiente de conductividad térmica de los morteros reciclados mediante la utilización de un Analizador de Conductividad Térmica TCi de la casa C-TERM Technologies, con un rango de capacidades de prueba (0.0 W/m.K a 220 W/m.K) en un amplio rango de temperaturas (–50˚C a 200˚C). El instrumento utiliza un sensor de reflectancia de calor de un solo lado, interfacial, que aplica una fuente de calor constante y momentánea a la muestra, permitiendo medir tanto su conductividad térmica como su difusividad térmica. Se obtienen con ello las propiedades termo-físicas del material, puesto que son inversamente proporcionales al grado de incremento en el voltaje del sensor. Tanto las propiedades térmicas de los materiales y productos para la edificación, como los procedimientos para la determinación de los valores térmicos declarados y de diseño son los especificados en la norma UNE EN-10456:2012. Se observa que el coeficiente de conductividad se reduce con la incorporación de fibras, y que según se aumenta el porcentaje de adición mejora el comportamiento térmico del material de manera proporcional. Esto es debido a que como aseguran otros autores la incorporación de residuos disminuye la densidad de los morteros, por lo que mejora su coeficiente de conductividad térmica de manera proporcional a la cantidad de residuo empleado. Cabe destacar que los morteros elaborados con residuo de lana de roca son los que mejor comportamiento térmico ha presentado en este ensayo. Los resultados demuestran una mejora en el comportamiento térmico de los compuestos al disminuir de manera significativa su conductividad térmica, por lo que queda demostrado que incorporación de residuos de lanas minerales a una matriz de mortero de cemento no solo resulta una alternativa viable para su reciclaje, sino que además se sugiere como material idóneo para aplicaciones constructivas que requieran una mejora energética del edificio.
  • Article
    The standards development, technological advancement, and lifestyle evolution lead to different scenario in the construction sector, such as the users adapting to the buildings, the buildings adapting to the users, the demolition of the buildings or parts of them, which increase the waste production and resources depletion. On this background, there is a need to conceptualize the buildings flexibility aspects into sustainability-led design. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the flexibility level of buildings by introducing six selective criteria, which are implemented in a BIM environment by coupling Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Visual Programming Language (VPL) tools. The results show that it is possible to automatically calculate the flexibility of buildings during the design process phases. Therefore, the real-time iteration potential of the method provides information for the decision-making process as a means of guiding designers towards more flexible and sustainable design choices.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) are widely recognized as the main form municipal solid waste, and its recycling and reuse are an important issue in sustainable city development. Material flow analysis (MFA) can quantify materials flows and stocks, and is a useful tool for the analysis of construction and demolition waste management. In recent years, material flow analysis has been continually researched in construction and demolition waste processing considering both single waste material and mixed wastes, and at regional, national, and global scales. Moreover, material flow analysis has had some new research extensions and new combined methods that provide dynamic, robust, and multifaceted assessments of construction and demolition waste. In this paper, we summarize and discuss the state of the art of material flow analysis research in the context of construction and demolition waste recycling and disposal. Furthermore, we also identify the current research gaps and future research directions that are expected to promote the development of MFA for construction and demolition waste processing in the field of sustainable city development.
  • Article
    The construction sector high energy consumption and GHG emissions lead to the development of easier methodologies to achieve low carbon buildings. Currently, the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is growing in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation (AECO) sector, and it assumes relevance in buildings energy simulation. Therefore, this work aims to explore the potential and limitations of applying BIM to energy management and simulation in the operation life cycle phase of a service building, and comparing it with a specific and customized tool for energy efficiency assessment of public buildings. A service building BIM model was developed in Autodesk Revit showing its utility when used as an asset for storing and organize energy-related data. The add-in Energy Analysis for Autodesk Revit allowed automatically generating the Building Energy Model (BEM) from the BIM model and performing a cloud-based simulation in Autodesk Green Building Studio (GBS). The energy consumption results obtained in GBS were compared with the results obtained with the energy simulation tool ECO.AP developed in the Portuguese National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC). It was possible to infer that the input limitations of GBS, mainly in HVAC systems customization, compromise the representation and energy performance evaluation of the building under actual operating conditions, making GBS more adequate for early buildings life cycle stages where energy simulation results may support decisions that aim to improve the buildings energy performance during the operation phase.
  • Article
    The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of recycled aggregates on structural behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. Concrete mixtures of 0.6 and 0.4 water/cement ratios were used to produce normal strength concretes and high strength concretes, respectively. Various concrete mixtures were prepared by replacing 19 mm natural coarse aggregates with 0, 25, 50, 100% recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) then used to cast RC slabs of size 500 x 300 x 100 mm thick, and 100 mm cubes. The two-way concrete slabs were reinforced orthotropically with Y12 steel bars. Workability, compressive strength, and split tensile strength properties of concrete were measured, while the RC slabs were subjected to monotonic loading until failure. The experimental results obtained were compared with theoretical failure loads predicted using the yield line theory. It was found that the use of RCA in concrete generally leads to reduction of workability and concrete strength in proportion with the RCA content incorporated into the mixture. The yield line method gave a conservative and accurate theoretical prediction of the actual ultimate loads for control concretes, predicting 10% lower values, but it exhibited loss of prediction accuracy for RCA concretes of normal strengths basically overestimating their failure loads. Accordingly, it would be unsafe to employ the yield line method for design of RCA concrete slabs of normal strengths. Generally, the adverse effects of RCA on concrete properties and structural behaviour can be mitigated significantly by adjusting mixture designs to higher strengths or by employing high strength concretes
  • Thesis
    In the construction sector, there is a need for some tools that can help in the emergence of quality and environmentally sensitive buildings. In order to carry out today's sustainable project management process more efficiently with a new perspective, the existence of tools to measure the sustainability performance of buildings is very important. These tools, which play a major role in the implementation of the concept of sustainability in the project management and contribute to the process by making simulation and analysis, have a great role in the success of the projects. However, when we look at the sustainable projects carried out in the construction sector, it is observed that the opportunities of today's information age are not used sufficiently. It was concluded that the deficiencies that are used in line with the sustainability targets and which arise in the applications are not investigated sufficiently. This study aims to investigate the sustainable project management life cycle process and the tools to be used in contrast to traditional project management with the possibilities of today's information age. In the first chapter of the study, general definitions related to the traditional project management concept are given and the studies related to the concept of sustainability and its integration into the project management process are examined. In the second chapter, a large literature study has been conducted on the tools and approaches used in sustainable project life cycle processes. In the third chapter of the study, four construction firms were interviewed in order to analyze the tools used in the sustainable project management processes in the construction sector. The datas obtained from the interviews were evaluated. In the fourth chapter, a proposal has been developed on the sustainable project management process and the tools to be used with the literature research and the evaluations made as a result of the interviews. Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Project Management, Tools, Life-cycle phases
  • Article
    This article explores how heritage values can be productively sustained or transformed by processes of building deconstruction and materials reuse, which address the increasing magnitude of demolition waste, landfill and resource use in urban development. The article starts by examining literature in heritage studies, sustainable building, and discard studies, then presents two examples from Vancouver, a Canadian city under intense development pressure, to help frame questions from project and policy contexts. Building on these questions, it reviews the relationship between heritage values and waste, gaps in deconstruction and salvage policies, the classifications of materials in deconstruction and reuse, and possible expanded uses for heritage inventories. In the Anthropocene, merely conserving designated buildings, or salvaging character-defining elements associated with heritage values, is not only inadequate, it helps to define waste, or that which does not have value. An ethic of conservation is called for that makes place for deconstruction as an acceptable reuse strategy while addressing the fate of all existing buildings and materials.
  • Chapter
    Waste generation rates remain a major problem in South Africa, especially when compared to waste recovery rates. This is largely attributed to inadequate approaches to waste management within several industries; the construction industry is one of those. This research adds knowledge to addressing and achieving sustainable waste management within the construction industry. The study investigates prevailing waste management practices among design team members and construction firms in the City of Port Elizabeth with the aim of improving prevailing waste management practices and reducing the contribution of the construction industry to South Africa’s existing waste problem. To achieve the aim and objectives of the study, a comprehensive survey of the waste management literature relating to the causes / sources of C&D waste, diversion methods, illegal dumping, and the causes of cost overruns forms part of the study. A quantitative approach was adopted, and questionnaires were distributed to construction professionals comprising construction project managers, construction managers, site managers, quantity surveyors, and architects within Port Elizabeth. A response rate of 44% was achieved. Some key findings include the lack of waste management policy and plans in construction firms, the prevalence of landfilling as the main means of disposal, poor waste and material handling affecting the cost of building projects, and the general positive attitude and behaviours of construction professionals towards illegal dumping and the environment. Sustainable waste management requires co-operation and commitment of all construction professionals from the design, planning, and management stages of a project onwards, and a top-down commitment from construction firms.
  • Chapter
    It is strongly agreed by many researchers and policymakers to lower the global warming potential (GWP) largely. Using the life cycle assessment (LCA) concept will address this problem in a better and sustainable manner. Even though it is realised to reduce the life cycle environmental impacts at the initial design stage, but the comprehensive LCA application is controlled by the uncertainties in the selection of the type of design and material. In this paper, an extensive review has been carried out to know the implementation of BIM in LCA studies. Various BIM-enabled LCA tools were studied and their pros and cons were extracted. It is identified that a considerable amount of research is done in implementing the BIM for all the LCA stages except the recycling stage. Some of the important observations made from the review are (1) an integrated procurement process to be implemented to link with the BIM. (2) Development of linking software, which is free from interoperability issues between BIM and LCA, various simulation software.
  • An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies Measuring the condition of the world's poor: the physical quality of life index
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  • Tools for composite indicators building, EUR 21682 EN, European Commission, Recycling waste latex paint in concrete
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  • Sustainable raw materials: construction and demolition waste Combining road safety information in a performance index
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  • Composite indicators of country performance: a critical assessment Source evaluation of solid waste in building construction
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  • Technical Report
    Full-text available
    Our society is changing so fast we need to know as soon as possible when things go wrong (Euroabstracts, 2003). This is where composite indicators enter into the discussion. A composite indicator is an aggregated index comprising individual indicators and weights that commonly represent the relative importance of each indicator. However, the construction of a composite indicator is not straightforward and the methodological challenges raise a series of technical issues that, if not addressed adequately, can lead to composite indicators being misinterpreted or manipulated. Therefore, careful attention needs to be given to their construction and subsequent use. This document reviews the steps involved in a composite indicator’s construction process and discusses the common pitfalls to be avoided. We stress the need for multivariate analysis prior to the aggregation of the individual indicators. We deal with the problem of missing data and with the techniques used to bring into a common unit the indicators that are of very different nature. We explore different methodologies for weighting and aggregating indicators into a composite and test the robustness of the composite using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Finally we show how the same information that is communicated by the composite indicator can be presented in very different ways and how this can influence the policy message.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Composite indicators are synthetic indices of individual indicators and are increasingly being used to rank countries in various performance and policy areas. Using composites, countries have been compared with regard to their competitiveness, innovative abilities, degree of globalisation and environmental sustainability. Composite indicators are useful in their ability to integrate large amounts of information into easily understood formats and are valued as a communication and political tool. However, the construction of composites suffers from many methodological difficulties, with the result that they can be misleading and easily manipulated. This paper reviews the steps in constructing composite indicators and their inherent weaknesses. A detailed statistical example is given in a case study. The paper also offers suggestions on how to improve the transparency and use of composite indicators for analytical and policy purposes ...
  • Article
    The research described in this paper extends the use of building information modeling (BIM) throughout the construction phase of the project life cycle. The owner is a military base that uses three-dimensional (3D) modeling for underground services and the footprints of the buildings. They were interested in determining the feasibility of capturing the construction process and related documents into a similar format. The research was conducted in parallel with traditional methods. The objectives of this project were to create a 3D as-built model, a four-dimensional as-built model, and attach the construction process information to the model for the owner to use after construction. A literature review indicates that BIM application stops at the preconstruction phase with a limited amount of research regarding data collection of the construction process. Significant contributions include practical 3D data collection methods and extending the BIM software products to accommodate construction process documentation. Results indicate that BIM software is not specifically prepared to accomplish these objectives and some modification to procedures as well as software were necessary for the BIM to capture the construction process documentation.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A significant part of waste generation is caused by the building and construction industry. Reduction of construction waste is therefore a major topic of the integrated chain management policy of the Dutch government. Construction companies benefit from reduced waste generation by lower purchasing costs of virgin materials. An overview is presented of the main policy areas of the Dutch government concerning sustainability. Reducing the generation of construction waste fits into this policy. Subsequently, an overview is presented from construction-waste data available in literature. Then, the waste generation during several Dutch residential construction projects has been quantified and analyzed in detail. It follows that about 1-10% by weight of the purchased construction materials, depending on the material, leave the site as waste. Furthermore, the analyses identify additional sources of waste generation as those already known, such as a lack of attention paid to the sizes of the used products, lack of influence of contractors, and lack of knowledge about construction during design activities.
  • Article
    The U.S. Army engages in a great number of construction, renovation, and demolition projects across the nation. A significant amount of debris resulting from these activities is currently disposed of in landfills. Landfilling this debris results in a large burden on the world's natural resources and an increasingly expensive problem for solid waste management. Throughout the United States, construction and demolition (C&D) waste accounts for an estimated 35 to 40 percent of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. This research project: (1) identified the primary opportunities, constraints, and means to divert C&D debris from the solid waste stream, (2) evaluated C&D material recycling technologies and materials, (3) identified construction materials from existing facilities that may be directly salvaged or reused without substantial alteration or reprocessing, and (4) developed guidelines that project managers can use to organize a construction project recycling program. This report presents an innovative approach to construction and demolition waste management. The current level of construction and demolition in the Army, and also any programs, regulations, or policies that may affect the level of construction in the future are addressed and provide the justification for increasing the level of recycling C&D waste on military installations.
  • Article
    In recent years, numerous attempts have been made to reduce the global environmental and associated socio-economic impacts of construction activities to achieve sustainable development goals. A sustainable system or activity refers to an eco-friendly, cost effective and socio-politically viable solution. This paper utilizes triple-bottom-line (TBL) sustainability criteria for the selection of a sustainable flooring system in Tehran (Iran). Three types of block joisted flooring systems – concrete, clay, and expanded polystyrene (EPS) blocks – have been investigated using life cycle analysis (LCA). Proposed approach provides a comprehensive evaluation system based on TBL criteria that are further divided into thirteen sub-criteria. It includes: (1) Environmental concerns (resource depletion, waste and emissions, waste management, climate change, environmental risk, embodied energy and energy loss); (2) Economic concerns (material cost, construction cost, and occupation and maintenance cost); and (3) Socio-political issues (social acceptance, vulnerability of area, and building weight). Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used as a multi-criteria decision making technique that helps to aggregate the impacts of proposed (sub)criteria into a sustainability index (SI) through a five-level hierarchical structure. Integration of AHP and LCA provides a framework for robust decision making that is consistent with sustainable construction practices. A detailed analysis shows that the EPS block is the most sustainable solution for block joisted flooring system in Tehran.
  • Article
    The construction industry contributes aa major portion of the waste stream in the United States. Both increased environmental awareness and increased cost for depositing waste have caused many construction companies to reevaluate their practices. So far, no scientific data are available for developing strategies to adjust to the changing parameters and requirements. This paper addresses one critical step in developing aa comprehensive waste-management system; the categorization and quantification of construction wastes. Several residential-building projects were used to test aa conceptual framework for studying the sources of solid wastes in one important segment of the construction industry. Three important categories of building materials-brick and block, dimensional lumber, and Sheetrock-were analyzed using aa ''sources-of-waste'' framework. The presented research data indicate that solid wastes in residential construction are primarily scraps resulting from cutting dimensional stock material (e.g., lumber) to size. As will be shown, many factors are related to the amount of such process waste. Strong relationships between poor productivity and high waste generation are suggested.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The IFC standard building model schema is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for achieving full interoperability between building information modeling tools. Unless the specific contents and level of detail is defined for each exchange case within a construction project workflow, the breadth and flexibility of the IFC schema leaves room for errors. The errors occur because software vendors program translators that, while compliant with the standard, do not export or import the specific data needed for the targeted exchange. The National BIM Standard approach for resolving the ambiguities of information exchange is based on 'use cases' which are precise workflow specifications. The paper describes the approach in detail, using examples from a specification developed for the domain of architectural precast concrete. It concludes that the approach, starting with formal definition of use cases by industry interest groups, is an effective method for enabling definition of model views that narrow the scope and define the detail of IFC objects needed for any given set of
  • Waste minimization strategies and the relative significance of construction waste sources were examined using a survey of 24 construction firms operating in Australia. The results indicated that a sizeable proportion of respondent firms did not have specific policies for minimizing waste. Furthermore, while a majority of firms with specific waste minimization policies made efforts to minimize waste at source, i.e. to avoid generating waste in the first place, this minimization was limited to waste generated by site offices and amenities. Potential scope exists for improving the effectiveness of waste minimization at source by addressing the sources of all waste generated during the construction phase. The survey results indicated that the five most significant sources of construction waste were design changes, leftover material scraps, wastes from packaging and non-reclaimable consumables, design/detailing errors, and poor weather. Potential opportunities for minimizing the amount of waste generated on construction project sites are identified.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A recent study on construction productivity improvement at the University of Calgary revealed the direct tool time (working time) of Alberta's commercial construction to be about 51%. This study exposed inadequate communication and unavailability of required information as the main causes for a relatively lower tool time. Use of information technology (IT) to overcome widely visible communication issues was extremely limited at the construction site level. Construction companies' hesitation to adopt new technologies was well noted whereas construction workers expressed their willingness and ability to use IT at the site level. The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept and the application of a novel communication tool (called an information booth) developed and pilot tested at a construction project. The concept and the technology presented in this paper have been tested at an actual construction project resulting in improvements in construction productivity, worker satisfaction, and efficiency. This paper also elaborates the rationale for a new technological framework (and the information booth), barriers for technology implementation, research objectives, methodology, and data analysis.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We explore to what extent composite indicators, capable of aggregating multi-dimensional processes into simplified, stylised concepts, are up to the task of underpinning the development of data-based narratives for political advocacy. A recent OECD working paper (Nardo et al., 2005, Handbook on constructing composite indicators: methodology and user guide, OECD statistics working paper, STD/DOC(2005)3) offering ‘recommended practices’ for the construction of composite indicators is briefly illustrated, together with ‘pros’ and ‘cons’ associated with the use of aggregated statistical information. An attempt is made to summarise the terms of the controversy surrounding the use of composite indicators with practical and applied examples, as well as the mostly advocacy-driven spread of these measures in recent years. As an example, we focus on desirable narratives in support of the so-called Lisbon strategy and its ongoing revision, following one of the recommendations of a recent EU study [Kok: 2004, The High Level Group on Lisbon Strategy chaired by Wim Kok, Facing the Challenge, European Communities, Luxembourg, 2004 on how to streamline and reinvigorate the EU’s Lisbon Agenda. Finally we try to establish a link between the use of composite, even for analytic purposes, and the development of a robust culture of evaluation of policies based on information [Messerlin: 2005, 35th Wincott Lecture, October 3, 2005]. Of these, we try to offer stylised examples – also from the recent literature [Sapir: 2005, Globalisation and the Reform of European Social Models, 2005, http://www.bruegel.org/] where composite indicators are used.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Of the approximately 11 million tonnes of annual solid concrete and demolition waste (C&D) in Canada, concrete accounts for about 52% by weight. However, most of this concrete is used as highway base or sent to landfills for disposal; only a very small portion of the concrete waste is reused in building construction. Considering the fact that usable natural aggregate (NA) supplies are diminishing, there will be a high demand for recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) to be used in the so called ldquogreen concrete (GC)rdquo. Using recycled concrete as aggregate will help reduce the total cost of concrete production because aggregates need not be hauled from remote locations, but obtained locally. The combination of RCA with significant quantities of fly ash or slag as replacement for Portland cement is particularly attractive from both economic and environmental perspectives. GC will reduce the demand for natural resources, the associated energy consumption, and green house gas (GHG) emissions required to produce aggregates and cement. These reductions can be considered as one of the construction industry's major contributions to Canada's GHG emission reduction objective. Although there are some guidelines/specifications established by different countries such as the UK and Japan, currently, there are no established guidelines for producing GC in Canada. This paper presents the environmental and economic benefits of increasing the use of GC in the construction industry and highlights the objectives of an ongoing research by the authors on GC.
  • Article
    Construction waste minimisation is a topical issue in many countries. The literature shows that the design has a major influence on waste. This study was undertaken to identify major sources of site waste generation in Singapore and to develop a model to evaluate building designs from the materials waste generation point of view.The paper is based on a survey of large Singapore building contractors. The principal finding is that four pre-determined attributes under ‘design’; three attributes under ‘operation’ and one attribute under ‘material handling’ were critical site waste sources. Multi-attribute value technique was used to develop the building waste assessment score (BWAS) model from respondents’ ratings on a five-point Likert scale that generated weights for the building sub-systems. The building design appraisal system developed by the Building and Construction Authority in Singapore was modified and used to build the BWAS model. It is recommended that designers should use the model to prepare designs which have less potential to cause site waste. Contractors may use the model to select site management techniques which help them to face the waste challenge posed by the design.
  • Article
    Currently, in Ontario, Canada, around 21.7% of the total hazardous waste (HZW) collected by municipalities is waste paint. Waste latex paint (WLP) alone constitutes 12% of the total HZW. It is estimated that only 10–30% of this waste is presently being collected but this proportion is growing with public education efforts. In addition, due to increasingly more stringent environmental regulations on volatile organic compounds (VOCs), more latex-based paints will be produced compared to solvent- and oil-based alkyds. This will result in more WLP being generated annually in Ontario and across North America. The disposal cost of such waste currently varies between Can$0.90 and Can$1.40 per litre. This study was conducted in collaboration with the City of London, Ontario and the Ontario Paints and Coatings Association and aims at investigating the benefits of recycling WLP in concrete with a special focus on concrete sidewalks. WLP was used in concrete mixtures both as a partial replacement for virgin latex and for mixing water. This paper demonstrates that concrete mixtures incorporating WLP can have improved workability, higher flexural strength, lower chloride ion penetrability, better resistance to deicing salt surface scaling and can be more economic because they require less water-reducing and air-entraining admixtures. The results also indicate that the annual urban concrete sidewalk construction could use the yearly production of WLP while producing sidewalks with enhanced properties and durability.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper intends to set out clearly defined criteria for evaluating sustainability in solid waste management and have them illustrated by a modern Chinese city-Hong Kong. Following a thorough literature review, four evaluative criteria are derived: environmental desirability, economic optimization, social acceptability and equity and administrative diligence. These four criteria are then applied in the context of Hong Kong for the evaluation of the management performance of construction and demolition waste, clinical waste and chemical waste. Although the need to attain sustainability is compelling in Hong Kong, our analysis shows that the management of construction and demolition waste, clinical waste and chemical waste has failed in almost all the sustainability criteria. In terms of controlling the environmental impact from waste management, only end of pipe treatment is adequately delivered but preventive waste management programs are far from adequate. In terms of waste management economics, economic incentives have yet to be instituted for most waste generators. Thus, the present levels of waste generation in Hong Kong far exceed social and economic optimal. Furthermore, although Hong Kong has been commended by having an efficient government, the ability of the government to induce environmentally responsible behavior from private waste generators is weak and thus failing the administrative diligence criterion as well. In the management of the three types of waste, the welfare of future generations is often sacrificed for the narrower, sectoral or district community interests. The myopic environmental welfare view in the Hong Kong community is a logical result of the minimal effort devoted to build up social capital stock and environmental citizenship culture.
  • Article
    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an important technique in the successful implementation of a process or product development in the context of environmental sustainability. Attempts have been made to incorporate LCA in public and corporate processes and product related decision-making. The European Union’s eco-labeling schemes and the United Kingdom’s Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive have tried to integrate life cycle thinking with policy making. However, these efforts still have not made LCA an integral part of process and product selection and design. The absence of an easy to use tool for rapid reconnaissance is a basic limitation of the LCA application.A new life cycle indexing system — LInX — is proposed, which will facilitate the LCA application in process and product evaluation and decision-making. The LInX is comprised of four important sub-indices or attributes — environment, health and safety (EHS), cost, technical feasibility, and socio-political factors. Further, each attribute contains a number of basic parameters, e.g. EHS consists of 11 parameters. Quantification of each basic parameter is performed for the complete life cycle of a proposed process or product. An analytical hierarchy process is used to compute the weights for each basic parameter and sub-indices. A composite process is used to determine the final overall index. This paper explains the methodology for computation of the new indexing system and demonstrates it with an application.
  • Article
    This paper describes and compares aggregation techniques for Multi Expert-Multi Criteria decision-making. The process of selecting applicants for a Ph.D. program, using different aggregation operators, is presented as a case study. The focus is on applying these operators using only ordinal (sorted) information. A heuristic for determining weights in these situations is discussed. The results obtained with different aggregation methods are compared and analyzed.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The aim of this paper is to develop an aggregate stability index for the Romanian financial system, which is meant to enhance the set of analysis used by authorities to assess the financial system stability. The index takes into consideration indicators related to financial system development, vulnerability, soundness and also indicators which characterise the international economic climate. Another purpose of our study is to forecast the financial stability level, using a stochastic simulation model. The outcome of the study shows an improvement of the Romanian financial system stability during the period 1999-2007. The constructed aggregate index captures the financial turbulences periods like the 1998-1999 Romanian banking crisis and 2007 subprime crisis. The forecasted values of the index show a deterioration of financial stability in 2009, influenced by the estimated decline in the financial and economic activity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Environmental indices (EI) are commonly used to describe the status of environmental systems (e.g. air, water, soil) but the indices are subject to exaggeration or eclipsing. This paper examines the use of an ordered weight averaging operator that provides flexibility through orness, a concept that is a surrogate for a decision maker's attitude. The proposed approach is demonstrated using data from an earlier study that established water quality indices. Multiple hypothetical scenarios are also generated to demonstrate the utility and the sensitivity of the approach. Les indicateurs environnementaux (IE) sont couramment utilisés pour décrire l'état des systèmes environnementaux (p. ex., atmosphère, eau, sol), mais ces indicateurs donnent lieu à une exagération ou à une occultation. Dans le présent rapport, on étudie l'utilisation d'un opérateur de moyenne pondérée ordonnée qui s'appuie sur une mesure d'« orness » offrant une certaine souplesse, concept qui se substitue à l'attitude décisionnelle. On fait la démonstration de la démarche proposée à l'aide des données d'une étude antérieure qui dégageaient des indices de la qualité de l'eau. Plusieurs scénarios hypothétiques sont également générés pour montrer l'utilité et la sensibilité de la démarche. RES
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Here we report timed observations with subnanosecond precision of short laser pulses at a distance of nearly 24 million kilometers between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and the NASA Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). Forty MLA downlink observations and 90 uplink observations were obtained during observing sessions on 27 and 31 May 2005. Precise standard ground timing allowed a solution for spacecraft range, range rate, and acceleration, as well as clock bias. This experiment established a new distance record for laser detection and accomplished a two-way laser link at an interplanetary distance.
  • Article
    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc.
  • Article
    Methodology for the accounting, generation, and composition of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) at a regional level was explored. Six specific categories of debris were examined: residential construction, nonresidential construction, residential demolition, nonresidential demolition, residential renovation, and nonresidential renovation. Debris produced from each activity was calculated as the product of the total area of activity and waste generated per unit area of activity. Similarly, composition was estimated as the product of the total area of activity and the amount of each waste component generated per unit area. The area of activity was calculated using statistical data, and individual site studies were used to assess the average amount of waste generated per unit area. The application of the methodology was illustrated using Florida, US approximately 3,750,000 metric tons of building-related C&D debris were estimated as generated in Florida in 2000. Of that amount, concrete represented 56%, wood 13%, drywall 11%, miscellaneous debris 8%, asphalt roofing materials 7%, metal 3%, cardboard 1%, and plastic 1%. This model differs from others because it accommodates regional construction styles and available data. The resulting generation amount per capita is less than the US estimate - attributable to the high construction, low demolition activity seen in Florida.
  • Article
    The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.
  • Article
    In this paper we focus on an essential step in the construction process of a composite road safety performance indicator: the assignment of weights to the individual indicators. In the composite indicator literature, this subject has been discussed for a long time, and no agreement has been reached so far. The aim of this research is to provide insights in the most important weighting methods: factor analysis, analytic hierarchy process, budget allocation, data envelopment analysis and equal weighting. We will give the essential theoretical considerations, apply the methods on road safety data from various countries and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. This will facilitate the selection of a justifiable method. It is shown that the position of a country in the ranking is influenced by the method used. The weighting methods agree more for countries with a relatively bad road safety performance. Of the five techniques, the weights based on data envelopment analysis resulted in the highest correlation with the road safety ranking of 21 European countries based on the number of traffic fatalities per million inhabitants. This method is valuable for the development of a road safety index.