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For millennia, mankind has shaped landscapes, particularly through agriculture. In Europe, the age-old interaction between humans and ecosystems strongly influenced the cultural heritage. Yet European farmland is now being abandoned, especially in remote areas. The loss of the traditional agricultural landscapes and its consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services is generating concerns in both the scientific community and the public. Here we ask to what extent farmland abandonment can be considered as an opportunity for rewilding ecosystems. We analyze the perceptions of traditional agriculture in Europe and their influence in land management policies. We argue that, contrary to the common perception, traditional agriculture practices were not environmentally friendly and that the standards of living of rural populations were low. We suggest that current policies to maintain extensive farming landscapes underestimate the human labor needed to sustain these landscapes and the recent and future dynamics of the socio-economic drivers behind abandonment. We examine the potential benefits for ecosystems and people from rewilding. We identify species that could benefit from land abandonment and forest regeneration and the ecosystem services that could be provided such as carbon sequestration and recreation. Finally, we discuss the challenges associated with rewilding, including the need to maintain open areas, the fire risks, and the conflicts between people and wildlife. Despite these challenges, we argue that rewilding should be recognized by policy-makers as one of the possible land management options in Europe, particularly on marginal areas.
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Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes
in Europe
Laetitia M. Navarro
and Henrique M. Pereira
Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Faculdade de Cie
ˆncias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal;
Departamento de
Engenharia Civil, Arquitectura e Georrecursos, Instituto Superior Te
´cnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
For millennia, mankind has shaped landscapes,
particularly through agriculture. In Europe, the
age-old interaction between humans and ecosys-
tems strongly influenced the cultural heritage. Yet
European farmland is now being abandoned,
especially in remote areas. The loss of the tradi-
tional agricultural landscapes and its consequences
for biodiversity and ecosystem services is generat-
ing concerns in both the scientific community and
the public. Here we ask to what extent farmland
abandonment can be considered as an opportunity
for rewilding ecosystems. We analyze the percep-
tions of traditional agriculture in Europe and their
influence in land management policies. We argue
that, contrary to the common perception, tradi-
tional agriculture practices were not environmen-
tally friendly and that the standards of living of
rural populations were low. We suggest that cur-
rent policies to maintain extensive farming land-
scapes underestimate the human labor needed to
sustain these landscapes and the recent and future
dynamics of the socio-economic drivers behind
abandonment. We examine the potential benefits
for ecosystems and people from rewilding. We
identify species that could benefit from land aban-
donment and forest regeneration and the ecosys-
tem services that could be provided such as carbon
sequestration and recreation. Finally, we discuss
the challenges associated with rewilding, including
the need to maintain open areas, the fire risks,
and the conflicts between people and wildlife.
Despite these challenges, we argue that rewilding
should be recognized by policy-makers as one of
the possible land management options in Europe,
particularly on marginal areas.
Key words: farmland abandonment; land-use
change; passive management; ecosystem services;
land sharing; land sparing.
Deforestation and the loss of natural habitats re-
main major global concerns. Nonetheless, although
scenarios for the next decades project the contin-
uation of these dynamics in tropical ecosystems,
the projections made for much of the Northern
Hemisphere are quite the opposite (Pereira and
others 2010). In fact, most deforestation in Europe
occurred before the industrial revolution (Kaplan
and others 2009), and the amount of forests and
scrubland is now increasing following the land
abandonment that began in the mid-twentieth
century (FAO 2011), a trend that is expected to
continue over the next few decades (van Vuuren
and others 2006).
Natural vegetation recovery is a complex process
that occurs during the progressive alleviation of
Received 6 October 2011; accepted 15 April 2012;
published online 30 June 2012
Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article
(doi:10.1007/s10021-012-9558-7) contains supplementary material,
which is available to authorized users.
Author Contributions: HMP developed the ideas for the paper. LMN
conducted the research and wrote the initial draft, which was then edited
by HMP.
*Corresponding author; e-mail:
Ecosystems (2012) 15: 900–912
DOI: 10.1007/s10021-012-9558-7
Ó2012 The Author(s). This article is published with open access at
agricultural use (Hobbs and Cramer 2007; Stoate
and others 2009). This reduction in land-use
intensity, including abandonment at the extreme, is,
at the local scale, explained by a combination of
socio-ecological drivers (MacDonald and others
2000; Rey Benayas and others 2007)suchaslow
productivity and aging of the population. These
factors interact between them and with the ecolog-
ical dynamics of succession, creating positive feed-
back loops, which increase the irreversibility of
farmland abandonment in marginal areas, and
reduce the effectiveness of subsidies awarded to
farmers to halt abandonment (Figueiredo and
Pereira 2011; Gellrich and others 2007). In Europe,
there has been a decline of 17% of the rural popu-
lation since 1961 (FAOSTAT 2010). Some parishes
of Mediterranean mountain areas have lost more
than half of their population in a similar period
´zar and others 2000; Pereira and others 2005).
At the regional scale, the current farmland con-
traction is best explained by an increase in agricul-
tural productivity and the slowing of population
growth in Europe (Keenleyside and Tucker 2010).
Landowners and managers facing increased
agricultural market competition have resorted
mostly to one of three active management strate-
gies (Figure 1): intensification, extensification, and
afforestation. Intensification is often chosen on the
most productive soils and where good conditions
exist for mechanization (Pinto-Correia and Mas-
carenhas 1999). Extensification consists of obtain-
ing higher productivity by expanding the area of
the farm through land consolidation or in devel-
oping multiple uses of the land. This has happened
in the Montado and Dehesa areas of Portugal and
Spain, an agroforestry system that integrates
animal production, cork harvesting and cereal
cultivation, while hosting high biodiversity and
providing recreational and aesthetical benefits
(Bugalho and others 2011). Finally, in some areas
with poor farmland soils, the option has been to
plant forests, often of fast growing species (Young
and others 2005).
In this article, we discuss a fourth option: rewil-
ding abandoned landscapes, by assisting natural
regeneration of forests and other natural habitats
through passive management approaches. Rewil-
ding has seldom been considered as a land man-
agement policy, as often it faces resistance from
both the public (Enserink and Vogel 2006; Bauer
and others 2009) and the scientific communities
(Conti and Fagarazzi 2005; Moreira and Russo
2007). Arguments against rewilding include the
loss of the traditional agricultural landscape and
negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem
services (for example, Conti and Fagarazzi 2005).
This situation has given rise to a pattern of double
standards: developing countries are asked to halt
deforestation while some developed countries are
actively fighting forest regeneration on their own
land (Meijaard and Sheil 2011).
Here, we critically examine some of the argu-
ments used in support of the maintenance of the
traditional landscapes and contrast those argu-
ments with the potential benefits for ecosystem
services and biodiversity that could accrue from
rewilding. We conclude with an analysis of the
main challenges associated with rewilding aban-
doned landscapes.
The cultural importance of traditional agriculture
landscapes has been widely recognized in Europe
and the world. As of 2011, 76 of the 936 UNESCO
world heritage sites are in the ‘‘cultural landscapes’’
category (, and 29 of those
because of traditional or symbolical agricultural
practices. Examples include the ‘‘Causses and
Cevennes Mediterranean agro-pastoral cultural
landscape’’ in France or the ‘‘Mont Perdu’’ in the
´es. As much as 15 to 25% of the European
farmland can be classified as High Nature Value
farmland (EEA 2004). Of the 231 habitat types
listed in the European Habitats Directive, 41 are
associated with low-intensity agricultural manage-
ment, including semi-natural grasslands and hay
meadows (Halada and others 2011).
This has lead to a generalized push towards pol-
icies embracing the protection of extensive farming
Figure 1. Landscape management strategies plotted
against agricultural use intensity and level of manage-
ment (from active to passive): agricultural intensification,
agricultural extensification, afforestation, and rewilding.
Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe 901
systems with the dual-role of protecting biodiver-
sity and ecosystem services. Here we argue that not
all socio-ecological aspects of the maintenance of
these landscapes have been taken into account
because our perceptions of these landscapes have
been biased by our own cultural experiences. We
question three ideas associated with current poli-
cies: (1) the idea that traditional agriculture prac-
tices were environmentally friendly; (2) the idea
that traditional rural populations lived well; (3) the
idea that traditional landscapes can be kept despite
the context of recent rural exodus and future socio-
economic trends.
Were Traditional Agriculture Practices
Environmentally Friendly?
In Europe, pre-Neolithic Holocene landscapes can
most likely be described as a mosaic of old-growth
forest, scrubland, and grasslands, maintained by
the grazing of large herbivores and by fire (Sven-
ning 2002; Vera 2000, Vera 2009), although the
relative amount of open area is debated (for
example, Hodder and others 2009). Later on, and
much before the onset of modern agriculture,
European inhabitants destroyed most of Europe’s
forests on usable land. Europe is now the continent
with the least original forest cover (Kaplan and
others 2009).
The process of forest clearing might be as old as
human’s making of tools (Williams 2000). It started
in the Neolithic with the use of fire to open areas
for grazing and hunting (Pereira and others in
press). Forest loss was accelerated during Antiquity,
when the rise of classical civilizations led to large-
scale deforestation (Williams 2000; Kaplan and
others 2009). After a brief interruption caused by
the breakdown of the Roman society, the defores-
tation trend continued in the Middle Ages (inter-
rupted only by the Black Death), with an estimated
loss of 50–70% of the European forest during this
Hence humans amplified the disturbance regime
of European ecosystems and expanded the open
area considerably (Pereira and others in press),
creating and maintaining ‘‘traditional’’ landscapes
such as the alpine grasslands (Laiolo and others
2004), and the agro-silvo-pastoral systems of
Mediterranean regions (Blondel 2006). These
extensive farming systems have higher species
diversity than intensive farming systems (Bata
and others 2012; Tscharntke and others 2005), and,
at the local scale, often have higher species diver-
sity than non-managed ecosystems and natural
forests (Blondel 2006;Ho
¨chtl and others 2005;
Lindborg and others 2008). Therefore, it has been
suggested that biodiversity peaks for low levels of
land use associated with these extensive farming
systems (Figure 2), following the intermediate dis-
turbance principle (Wilkinson, 1999).
This pattern has been used as an argument to
maintain the active management of extensive
farmland and halt ecological succession. However
at regional scales, this relationship is likely to
exhibit a different pattern (Figure 2). The habitat
turnover of wild landscapes can be a mosaic of
closed forest and open areas, which should accom-
modate many of the species that can usually be
found in extensive farmland habitats. In the early
Holocene, the regional diversity of wild landscapes
would have been even higher (Figure 2). Several
species have now disappeared due to the expansion
of human activities, including the auroch (Bos pri-
meginius), the Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus), or became
extinct in most of their former ranges (for example,
wisent, Bison bonasus).
Deforestation also had important impacts on
ecosystem services. In the Mediterranean basin,
deforestation is thought to have caused desiccation
and soil erosion (McNeely 1994; Blondel 2006). In
the Middle Ages, timber shortage is likely to have
played a role on the impulse to conquer new ter-
ritories (Farrell and others 2000). To build naval
fleets, countries such as Portugal and Spain had to
resort to importing wood from colonies from the
sixteenth century on (Devy-Vareta and Alves
2007). By the end of the nineteenth century, the
dimension of the erosion problems in mountain
slopes and associated silting in rivers and floods
Land-use intensity
Historical - Regional scale
Current - Regional scale
Current - Local scale
Intensive agriculture
Extensive Agriculture Wilderness
Figure 2. Conceptual representation of the response of
current species diversity to land-use intensity at the local
and regional scales, and of the hypothetical regional
response if Holocene extinctions had not occurred. The
response at the local scale is adapted from EEA (2004),
whereas the current and historical responses at the
regional scale are discussed in the text.
902 L. M. Navarro and H. M. Pereira
downstream led to large state sponsored afforesta-
tion programs in Portugal and Spain.
Did Traditional Rural Populations Live
For centuries, populations inhabiting marginal agri-
cultural areas organized their lives in a self-sufficient
manner (Blondel 2006). The industrial revolution
and the globalization of the food and labor markets
brought many of these regions to an economic dis-
advantage with urban and peri-urban areas:
increasing wages associated with economic growth
and the low food prices in global markets rendered the
low-productivity farmland uncompetitive.
Nowadays, marginal agricultural areas through-
out the globe are classified as ‘‘poverty traps’’ where
households suffer from scarcity of resources, low
return on investment, lack of opportunities, and
reduced social services (Conti and Fagarazzi 2005;
Ruben and Pender 2004). For example, in moun-
tains of Southern Europe, rural populations are
constrained by the low productivity of small-scale
parcels and the limited opportunities for mechani-
zation and intensification (MacDonald and others
2000). On average, across European mountain
areas, the income per hectare is about 40% lower
than in other, non-disadvantaged, areas (809 e/ha
vs. 1370 e/ha in EC 2009). The young have limited
access to education and employment while the
elders experience isolation and difficulties to access
services (EC 2008a). This results in out-migration
and aging of the population, leading to an inverted
population pyramid. This rural exodus is driven by a
‘‘circle of decline’’ where low population density
limits business creation, causing fewer jobs and more
out-migrations which, in turn, accentuates the
decrease in population density (EC 2008a).
Rural populations still value the quality of their
environment and its scenic beauty (Bell and others
2009; Pereira and others 2005), but the working
conditions in many of these regions have always
been difficult. Terraces are some of the most
admired cultural landscapes in Mediterranean
areas, but locals often use the expression ‘‘slavery
land’’ to describe the harshness of the working
conditions (Pereira and others 2005).
Are Current Efforts to Maintain
Traditional Landscapes Likely
to Succeed?
Traditional agricultural practices were character-
ized by being labor intensive for relatively low
agricultural yields (MacDonald and others 2000;
Gellrish and others 2007). These characteristics
played a key role in the demise of many of the
traditional practices when labor costs rose due to
economic growth, an effect that contributed to and
was exacerbated by rural exodus. Large numbers of
livestock kept vegetation succession on hold for
centuries, but in the past few decades livestock
numbers have declined in many of these regions
(Cooper and others 2006). In Europe, the number
of livestock (cattle, goats and sheep) declined by
25% between 1990 and 2010 (FAOSTAT 2010).
Still, recognizing the role of European farmers in
maintaining these landscapes (Daugstad and others
2006), several measures have been implemented to
limit farmland depopulation. As part of the Euro-
pean Common Agriculture Policy, Less Favored
Areas (LFAs-Regulation 1257/1999) were desig-
nated mainly to prevent rural abandonment and
maintain cultural landscapes (Dax 2005; Stoate and
others 2009). LFAs went from representing a third
of the European Utilized Agricultural Area (UAA)
in 1975 to more than half in 2005 (Dax 2005;
MacDonald and others 2000). Though the LFA
classification often happens to match High Nature
Value farming systems and extensive agriculture, it
poses no limit to intensification and overgrazing
(Dax 2005).
In the Rural Development Plan for 2007–2013,
the payments to farmers in LFAs totaled e12.6
billion (DG Agriculture 2011). Though the sum of
these subsidies is substantial at the European scale,
at the individual level they might not be enough to
maintain young farmers or attract new residents
(Cooper and others 2006), especially in areas
where the farm size is small. For example, when
considering an average farm size of 23 ha in
mountain areas (MacDonald and others 2000) and
an average LFA subsidy of e100/ha (Dax 2005),
the average payment is of e2,300 per farm/year.
This value can be higher if farmers also adhere to
agri-environmental schemes, but overall LFA
farmers still have lower incomes (Cooper and oth-
ers 2006): the Farm Net Value Added is 13,056 e/
Annual Work Unit in mountain LFAs, 14,174 e/
AWU in other LFAs, and 18,923 e/AWU in non-
LFAs (average for the EU25 countries between
2004 and 2005 in EC 2008b).
Hence the decrease in rural populations that
started in the 1960s is projected to continue into
the next few decades (Figure 3). Future scenarios
predict that the contribution of agriculture in
regards to GDP and employment in Europe will
continue decreasing (Eickhout and others 2007;
Nowicki and others 2006) and the young genera-
tions will keep migrating to the cities, as long as
Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe 903
their life quality and income prospects are higher
there (EC 2008a; Keenleyside and Tucker 2010)
resulting in the non-replacement of the aging
population of European farmers.
Following the decrease in the rural population,
agricultural area in Europe is also expected to keep
contracting (Figure 3), despite an expected increase
in the global demand for agricultural goods,
because enough food is obtained either directly by
production on competitive land in Europe or else-
where in the world (Keenleyside and Tucker 2010).
Regionally labeled and organic products could help
maintain certain forms of extensive agriculture but
this market remains restricted (Strijker 2005).
Projections also take into account an increasing
demand in biocrops (Rounsevell and others 2006;
¨ter and others 2005; Verburg and Overmars
2009), which can explain a moderate increase in
the predicted agricultural area in some scenarios.
The dimension of the agricultural area abandoned
or converted into production forest varies widely
between scenarios (Table 1). If we use the interme-
diate scenarios in Verburg and Overmars (2009),
between 10 and 29 million ha of land will be released
from agriculture between 2000 and 2030. Areas
particularly susceptible to the decline of agro-
pastoral use include semi-natural grasslands and
remote or mountainous areas with poor soil quality
(Keenleyside and Tucker 2010; Pointereau and
others 2008; Stoate and others 2009). Some of these
areas are located in Northern Portugal, Northwest-
ern France, the Alps, the Apennines and Central
Europe (Figure 4).
Defining Rewilding
Rewilding is the passive management of ecological
succession with the goal of restoring natural eco-
system processes and reducing human control of
landscapes (Gillson and others 2011). Note that
although passive management emphasizes no
management or low levels of management (for
example, Vera 2009), intervention may be required
in the early restoration stages.
In contrast, much of the biodiversity conserva-
tion efforts in Europe emphasize active manage-
ment, by maintaining low-level agricultural
practices (Figure 1). Active management also dif-
fers in goals, targeting the increase of the abun-
dance of specific taxa or the maintenance of
particular habitats, using approaches such as veg-
etation clearing and construction of artificial habi-
tats, often working against successional processes.
Natural succession on abandoned farmland and
pastures often leads to scrubland and sometimes at a
later stage, to forest (Conti and Fagarazzi 2005).
Figure 3. Past and future trends of European agricultural area and rural population. Agricultural area (lines): land-use
change predicted in the four scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (van Vuuren and others 2006). The
projections are based on the area of food crops, grass and fodder, and biofuels crops, between 1970 and 2030. OS order
from strength, AM adapting mosaic, GO global orchestration, TG techno-garden. Rural population size (bars): historical
values (dark gray) and future projections (light gray) (FAOSTAT 2010; past data for the Baltic countries from http://
904 L. M. Navarro and H. M. Pereira
Passive forest regeneration restores almost as much
forested areas globally as active tree plantation (Rey
Benayas and Bullock 2012). Nonetheless, ‘‘wilder-
ness’’ is not a synonym of ‘‘contin-
uous forest’’ (Sutherland 2002). The European
megafauna played a role in maintaining open land-
Table 1. Projections of Future Change in the Agricultural Area (Arable Land and Pasture) from Different
Region Variation in the
agricultural area
area (Mha)
Period Reference
EU15 + Norway
and Switzerland
-6%/-10% for cropland
-1%/-10% for grassland
142.5 2000–2080 Rounsevell and others (2006)
+5.5%/-15% 82.5 2000–2030 Eickhout and others (2007)
EU27 -5%/-15% 198 2000–2030 Verburg and Overmars (2009)
Europe -5%/-24% 235 1970–2050 MA (2005)
Developed countries
+8%/-20% 183 2000–2050 Balmford and others (2005)
Initial agricultural area estimate obtained from FAOSTAT (2010).
These values are only for arable land.
This study looked at the 23 most important food crops worldwide, corresponding to 44% of the cropland area in developed countries.
Figure 4. Localization of the hotspots of abandonment and rewilding in Europe. Those hotspots are areas categorized as
‘‘agriculture’’ in 2000 that are projected to become rewilded or afforested in 2030 and that are common to all four
scenarios of the CLUE model (Verburg and Overmars 2009). Hotspots are expressed as a percentage of each 10-km
cell. Agricultural areas correspond to ‘‘arable land (non-irrigated)’’, ‘‘pasture’’, ‘‘irrigated arable land’’ and ‘‘permanent
crops’’. Rewilded and afforested areas correspond to ‘‘(semi)-natural vegetation’’, ‘‘forest’’, ‘‘recently abandoned arable
land’’ and ‘‘recently abandoned pasture land’’. Countries in grey have no data.
Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe 905
scapes, before being brought to global or local
extinction by humans and replaced by domesticated
grazers (Johnson 2009; Vera 2000; Bullock 2009).
This does not mean that rewilding should aim at
rebuilding Pleistocene ecosystems, an approach
which has been proposed elsewhere (Donlan and
others 2006), but that faces many difficulties (Caro
2007), including the lack of many of the original
keystone species, a different climate, and ecosys-
tems modified locally (for example, changes in soil
caused by agriculture) and regionally by humans
(for example, the global nitrogen cycle). Instead,
the emphasis is on the development of self-sus-
taining ecosystems, protecting native biodiversity
and natural ecological processes and providing a
range of ecosystem services (Cramer and others
2008). These novel ecosystems may be designed to
be as similar as possible to some historical baseline
in the recent or distant past, but they will often
involve the introduction of new biotic elements
(Hobbs and others 2009).
Benefits of Rewilding for Biodiversity
Rewilding will cause biodiversity changes with
some species declining in abundance, that is, loser
species, and other species increasing in abundance,
that is, winner species (Russo 2006; Sirami and
others 2008). We reviewed 23 studies identifying a
positive response of species to decreasing human
pressure or to restoration of their habitat following
land abandonment (Supplementary Information).
In total, we identified 60 species of birds, 24 species
of mammals, and 26 species of invertebrates that
could benefit from farmland abandonment (Sup-
plementary Table 1). We also identified 101 species
negatively affected by land abandonment (Sup-
plementary Table 2), but 13 of those species can be
classified as both ‘‘winner’’ and ‘‘looser’’ depending
on the study and the region. Much of the agrobi-
odiversity associated with High Nature Value
Farmland will be in the ‘‘loosing’’ category. In
contrast, many of the winner species have declined
or became functionally extinct in traditional agri-
cultural landscapes, such as large carnivores. These
species will benefit from forest regeneration and
the connection of fragmented natural habitats
(Keenleyside and Tucker 2010; Russo 2006).
Revegetation promotes the increase of the or-
ganic matter content and the water holding
capacity of soils (Arbelo and others 2006). This can
lead to higher biomasses and densities of earth-
worms (Russo 2006) and other invertebrate fami-
lies (Supplementary Table 1A).
Some forest birds benefit from forest regrowth
after farmland abandonment (Pointereau and oth-
ers 2008), such as woodpeckers, treecreepers, and
tits (Supplementary Table 1B). Some birds of prey
have benefited from increases in rodent popula-
tions (Pointereau and others 2008). Perhaps more
surprisingly, populations of several bird species of
the Eastern European steppe have increased after
agricultural activity decline (Ho
¨lzel and others
2002). Some, such as the Little Bustard (Tetrax tet-
rax), have benefited from the tall and dense grass-
land of the regrown steppes. This contrasts with the
concerns that the decrease of open areas in Wes-
tern Europe is contributing to the decline of steppe
Figure 5. Qualitative
assessment of the
ecosystem services
provided by rewilding,
afforestation, extensive
agriculture and intensive
agriculture in Europe.
The relative values given
to the provision of each
service by the different
land management
strategies are discussed in
the text.
906 L. M. Navarro and H. M. Pereira
species. Therefore the biodiversity consequences of
rewilding depend on the geographical context.
Likewise, rural abandonment makes the land
suitable for a comeback of large mammals (Sup-
plementary Table 1C). Large grazers are benefiting
from the lower hunting pressures that usually
accompany abandonment (Breitenmoser 1998;
´zar and others 2000). European carnivore
species have been increasing since the 1960s in
abundance and distribution, as stable populations
of Eastern Europe are naturally recolonizing
abandoned landscapes of Scandinavia, the Medi-
terranean, and the Alps (Enserink and Vogel 2006;
Boitani 2000; Stoate and others 2009).
It is also important to consider the trophic
interactions between species and the cascading ef-
fects driven by rewilding. For example, amphibians
and otter (Lutra lutra) populations are known to
benefit from the restoration of ditches by beavers
(Castor fiber) in abandoned areas of Eastern Europe
(Kull and others 2004). The presence of lynx in
some parts of Switzerland reduced the roe deer and
chamois browsing impact by regulating both pop-
ulations (Breitenmoser 1998).
Benefits of Rewilding for People:
Ecosystem Services
Abandoned farmland is often perceived negatively
as it is associated with the perception of unkept
land and with the decrease on the economic
usability of the land, particularly by the rural
populations (Hochtl and others 2005; Bauer and
others 2009). However there are many ecosystems
services that are provided by this type of land-
scapes, particularly indirect and non-use services,
which are often disregarded in the process of pol-
icy-making (TEEB 2010).
Rewilded areas can, at the regional scale, provide
habitat for biodiversity with conservation results as
high or higher than other land management options
(Figures 2,5). This supporting service can lay the
foundations for some cultural services (Figure 5),
because some of the species benefiting from aban-
donment are linked with recreation through hunting
and tourism (Gorta
´zar and others 2000;Kaczennsly
and others 2004). For instance, in the Abbruze region
of Italy, tourism has benefitedfrom the advertisement
of the presence of bears and wolves (Enserink and
Vogel 2006). In addition to these direct and indirect
use values, the large mammalspecies brought back by
rewilding are amongst the species with highest exis-
tence values (Proenc¸ a and others 2008).
Forest regrowth promotes carbon sequestration
(Kuemmerle and others 2008). The carbon stock in
European forests has grown from 5.3 to 7.7 PgC
between 1950 and 1999 (Nabuurs and others 2003).
Nonetheless, active afforestation can potentially
yield higher carbon sequestration rates than rewil-
ding by using fast growing species (Figure 5). Nat-
ural regeneration allows soil recovery and nutrient
availability, though erosion can increase in the first
years following abandonment (Pointereau and
others 2008; Rey Benayas and others 2007). Forests
regulate hydrological cycles, particularly in moun-
tain areas (Ko
¨rner and others 2005) and water
quality is expected to locally improve in abandoned
fields (Stoate and others 2009). Nonetheless, the
transition from grassland to forest, a higher water-
use system, can reduce the quantity of water
(Brauman and others 2007). Afforested areas
managed for timber provisioning are disturbed both
for plantation and management, thus providing
qualitatively less water and soil related services than
rewilded areas (Figure 5).
Intensive agriculture areas and planted forests
are designed to focus on specific provisioning ser-
vices. Extensive agriculture offers a tradeoff be-
tween food provisioning, cultural services, and
habitat for biodiversity, whereas rewilding provides
a wide range of supporting, regulating and cultural
services (Figure 5).
The passive management associated with rewil-
ding has much lower maintenance costs than other
management options, and therefore significant re-
turns of regulating and cultural services are ob-
tained for limited levels of investment. Still, these
services have characteristics of common goods
(TEEB 2010), and therefore are rarely advanta-
geous for the individual land-owner. Nonetheless,
wilderness is linked to amenity-based growth and
attracts urban individuals seeking different envi-
ronments to both visit and work (Rasker and
Hackman 1996): North American counties favoring
wilderness showed faster growth in their employ-
ment and income level than counties in which the
economy is mainly based on resource extraction.
Rewilding as a landscape management option does
involve several challenges. Our understanding of
those challenges and how they can be overcome
depends on the relationship between humans, the
landscape and the biodiversity that it sustains.
Conflicts with Wildlife
Conflicts occur when wildlife overlaps with human
activities such as hunting and farming (Gorta
Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe 907
and others 2000; Linnell and others 2000; Schley
and Roper 2003). Those conflicts are age-old in
Europe and negative perceptions were transmitted
through generations via folklore and tales (Wilson
2004; Boitani 2000). Hunting wild species, and
particularly carnivores, was socially enforced (En-
serink and Vogel 2006), which led in many cases to
their local extinction by the nineteenth century.
Though many European countries have imple-
mented regulations to protect large carnivores,
such legislation is not understood and accepted by
all (Breitenmoser 1998). In particular, they accen-
tuate a cleavage in opinions amongst countries and
between rural and urban populations (Bauer and
others 2009; Wilson 2004) the latter being usually
more favorable to a wildlife comeback.
The conflicts with carnivores are largely ex-
plained by the fact that they prey on domestic
animals due to the scarcity of wild prey (Russo
2006) but also by the loss of traditional livestock-
guarding knowledge in several countries (Fourli
1999; Kaczensky and others 2004). Nonetheless,
the level of depredation of livestock by carnivores is
generally low, often less than 10% of their diet
(Wilson 2004). Still, the impact at the level of the
livestock owner can be high (Wilson 2004). To
compensate for these impacts, several countries pay
for damages caused by wildlife. For bear and wolf
damages, an average of e2 million/year were
compensated in Europe between 1992 and 1998 in
France, Greece, Italy, Austria, Spain and Portugal
(Fourli 1999) while e2.15 million were spent in
preventive measures.
Large grazers such as deer and wild boars can
also cause significant damage to crops, pastures and
forest plantations (Goulding and Roper 2002;
Kamler and others 2010). As for the carnivores, a
combination of preventive measures such as elec-
tric fencing (Honda and others 2009) with com-
pensation payments can contribute to decrease the
levels of conflict.
Fear of attacks on people also play a factor in this
conflict, but this often can be improved with better
information to the public as there is a correlation
between the fear of an animal and a lack of
knowledge of its behavior (Decker and others 2010;
Kaczensky and others 2004).
Limits to Ecological Resilience
In many regions of Europe, the transition from
abandoned to semi-natural land takes less than
15 years, followed by another 15–30 years before
reforestation (Cramer and others 2008; Verburg
and Overmars 2009). Passive regeneration can
therefore be a slow process, particularly in a dry
environment such as the Mediterranean (Rey
Benayas and others 2008), or when the soils have
been modified by past agriculture, that is, the
‘‘cultivation legacy’’ (Cramer and others 2008), or
the ‘‘grazing history’’ (Chauchard and others
2007). The revegetation also depends on the
availability and quality of the native seed bank
(Rey Benayas and others 2008).
If the abandoned land is too degraded assisted
regeneration may be needed (Cramer and others
2008). Active restoration would involve large-scale
native trees plantation and tree growth manage-
ment (Rey Benayas and others 2008). An inter-
mediate level of intervention involves the creation
and management of forest regeneration sources or
‘‘woodland islets’’ (Rey Benayas and Bullock
2012). Another problem often requiring interven-
tion is the vulnerability of intermediate stages of
natural succession to natural perturbations, such as
invasive species (Kull and others 2004; Stoate and
others 2009) and fire (Pausas and others 2008). Fire
is a particularly acute problem as it has impacts not
only on biodiversity but also on human health
(Proenc¸a and Pereira 2010b). If fire regime is not
appropriately managed, frequent fires will favor
fire-prone scrubland and halt succession towards
forest, in a self-reinforcing feedback loop (Proenc¸a
and Pereira 2010a).
One of the strategies to manage fire regimes is to
maintain open spaces in the landscape, minimizing
also the impacts of revegetation on species that
prefer open areas (Figure 2). This strategy can be
implemented by increasing the populations of large
herbivores (Hodder and Bullock 2009; Sutherland
2002), including reintroduction of extinct species
(Svenning 2002). In the case of species regionally
extinct, it is possible to use individuals from other
populations. For instance, seven European bison
were recently reintroduced in northern Spain,
1,000 years after their extinction (Burton 2011). A
more complex situation occurs with species that are
globally extinct, such as wild relatives of some
domesticated species. A possible solution is to re-
lease into the wild individuals of breeds that are
most likely to be successful in replacing the eco-
logical role of their wild ancestors. For instance,
Iceland ponies have been released in the former
arable fields of the Dutch-Belgian border (Kuiters
and Slim 2003): their grazing favored a dense grass
sward and after 27 years open grassland still rep-
resented 98% of the area.
Natural colonization of abandoned land by car-
nivores can also be limited by the availability of
prey, as is the case for the Iberian lynx (Lynx
908 L. M. Navarro and H. M. Pereira
pardinus) currently negatively affected by the
scarcity of rabbits, decimated by diseases (Delibes-
Mateos and others 2008), or as can be expected for
some populations of wolves and bears currently
preying on livestock (Russo 2006).
Rewilding may be a future option in areas that
are undergoing agricultural development or
intensification today. There is currently a debate
between land sharing and land sparing approaches
to reconcile food production with biodiversity
(Phalan and others 2011). In land sharing, biodi-
versity conservation and food production goals are
met on the same land, with biodiversity friendly
agricultural practices and extensive agriculture,
whereas in land sparing, land is divided between
areas of intensification and of exclusion of agri-
culture. In practice, it is difficult to determine
which is the best option because species respond
differently to the alteration of their habitat (Phalan
and others 2011). To maintain future options for
rewilding, both land sparing and land sharing are
needed. On the one hand, land sharing is essential
to limit land degradation and to maintain the
appropriate seed bank for future passive revegeta-
tion. On the other hand, land sparing would allow
for the conservation of populations of species that
are currently in conflict with human activities,
making ‘‘cohabitation’’ very difficult.
Most landscapes are evaluated and protected
according to emotional and aesthetic values that
societies attribute to them (Antrop 2005; Gobster
and others 2007) and conservation programs are
determined by people’s perceptions of what should
be preserved (Gillson and others 2011) and depend
on shifting baselines of what nature should be like
(Vera 2009). Thus, the values that Europeans give
to farmland and wilderness landscapes are based on
tradition and history but also on socio-economic
backgrounds (Van den Berg and Koole 2006). Yet,
considering that landscapes result from the dy-
namic interaction of natural and cultural drivers
(Antrop 2005), they cannot be perceived as an-
chored in time and we should anticipate occasional
changes that will force us to reevaluate their defi-
Rewilding appears to be a viable management
option for some of these transitions with important
benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services. At
the local scale, some species will decline and other
increase, eventually leading to local species diver-
sity decreases in some taxa (Figure 2). We lack
research studies looking at the regional scale
dynamics, but we hypothesize that no significant
loss in species diversity is expected as long as
mosaics of open spaces and forest are maintained,
and that some dimensions of biodiversity may even
improve, such as the average size of populations of
wild species. At the global scale, many species have
already gone extinct and it will be impossible to get
them back, but the release into the wild of breeds of
some domesticated species may allow recovery of
some historical losses (Figure 2). In terms of eco-
system services, rewilding allows for a wide range
of regulating and cultural services (Figure 5).
The extent and outcome of rewilding will be
heterogeneous across Europe (Figure 4) as different
regions will have different departing points of post-
farmland abandonment and varying limitations to
natural forest regrowth. For example, on some
abandoned areas of Southern Europe, the avail-
ability of forest tree seed banks can be a limiting
factor due to little natural forest left and the fre-
quent fire regime may delay ecological succession.
In contrast, the relative scarcity of open areas in
much of Northern Europe may render the inten-
sification or reestablishment of natural perturba-
tions, such as grazing by large wild herbivores and
fire (for example, prescribed burns), priority goals
for management. Rewilding can also be considered
on available land that does not necessarily result
from farmland abandonment, such as national
forests previously managed for timber production,
decommissioned military areas, salt ponds and
other wetlands, thus increasing the level of heter-
ogeneity of European wild landscapes.
From a conservation standpoint, the option be-
tween rewilding and active management will de-
pend on the goals and the local context. Active
management is likely to be preferred when the goal
is to restore specific species or maintain early suc-
cessional habitats and other habitats associated
with human activities. Passive management
emphasizes dynamic ecological processes over static
patterns of species or habitat occurrence and can be
more sustainable in the long term or at large spatial
Despite many benefits, rewilding has been dis-
regarded as a management option until recently.
Initiatives such as Rewilding Europe (http:// and the PAN Parks
Network ( are now
bringing rewilding to the forefront of the discussion
of European conservation policies. Rewilding poses
many challenges, but those are inherent to the
implementation of any restoration plan. In a world
wounded by biodiversity loss, farmland abandon-
ment is an opportunity to improve biodiversity in
Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe 909
Europe, to study the regeneration of vegetation,
and even to test ecological theories (Hobbs and
Cramer 2007). In the end, the question is not
whether we prefer a domesticated or a wild Euro-
pean landscape but rather which management
options (Figure 1) at each place will be more
achievable and sustainable.
We thank P. Verburg for sharing data from the
CLUE model and commenting on the manuscript.
We also thank V. Proenc¸a, R. Beilin, J. Bullock and
S. Ceausu for comments. This research was funded
by the Fundac¸a
˜o para a Cie
ˆncia e a Tecnologia
(FCT)-ABAFOBIO (PTDC/AMB/73901/2006) and
by FORMAS-Project LUPA. L.N. is supported by a
grant from FCT (SFRH/BD/62547/2009).
This article is distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License which
permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original author(s) and
the source are credited.
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... For example, 'active rewilding' often entails quite significant human intervention, which may be used as a catalyst at the start of a rewilding project or may be ongoing . On the other hand, 'passive rewilding' entails little or no human management of land, allowing natural processes to occur autonomously , and can include 'land abandonment' in which human influence is withdrawn from land which was previously managed (Navarro and Pereira, 2012). Focussing more closely on approaches to rewilding in Europe, an extremely broad range of projects exist; several initiatives all self-identify as rewilding and yet exhibit very different practices, from species reintroduction (e.g. ...
... As agriculture occupies nearly 40% of the world's ice-free land (Foley et al., 2011), the biodiversity status of agricultural land is crucial. While rewilding max generally occurs in landscapes where agriculture is absent, marginal or has been abandoned (Navarro and Pereira, 2012), agricultural rewilding can be found on productive, non-marginal land, on individual farms and/or within wider agricultural landscapes. Agricultural rewilding can enhance biodiversity within these areas to a greater extent than would be possible in conventional agriculture. ...
... Thus, in addition to their role as ecosystem engineers, the domestic species involved in agricultural rewilding have the added benefit of fulfilling a role in productive agriculture which the wild species in rewilding max do not. Moreover, agricultural rewilding can have biodiversity benefits over those of rewilding max since it can create and maintain habitats which may be lost in rewilding max and whose loss would pose a threat to habitat specialists (Navarro and Pereira, 2012). ...
... In France, the free evolution principle is preferred to characterise allowing natural environments to develop without any human intervention and without specific time references [5]. Finally, on a European scale, the rewilding concept is widely used and presented by some authors as an alternative approach to conservation [21][22][23]. It aims to restore natural processes through the return of keystone species, and more specifically herbivores in the case of projects developed in Europe [24]. ...
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In response to the present ecological crisis, new approaches to environmental conserva- tion and management are being developed in Europe. One of the axes considered by nature protection stakeholders since the 2000s is to encourage the return of the wilderness. This has led to thevdeployment of a variety of initiatives, mainly led by civil and non-profit organisations. The objective here, through the analysis of the discourses of stakeholders from semi-directive interviews and the initiatives developed in Western Europe, is to understand how the multitude of projects carried out throughout Europe constitutes a proposal for new environmental management practices. Indeed, the studied initiatives introduce a paradigm shift by reflecting a will to go beyond the mere preservation of nature in order to contribute to a global territorial transition. To this end, the studied projects propose to create both a social and interspecies link around their sites, but also to ensure the development of virtuous economic forms in the territorie
... Active agricultural management is needed to avoid this degrading branch indicated by a functional space termed 'minimum required production' (Fig. 1a). However, abandonment may also slightly improve biodiversity providing a link to natural or rewilded land systems 22 (see dotted branch of black line in upper left-hand corner in Fig. 1a). ...
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Open Access at: ------------------------------------------------------------------ Advances in agrochemistry in the 19th century, along with increased specialisation and intensification of food production, transformed agriculture triggering a farmland biodiversity crisis. Present economic incentives reinforce this crisis to an unprecedented scale. As the loss of farmland biodiversity undermines the basis of agroecosystems’ productivity and, hence, the sustainability of food systems, another transformation is urgently needed. Here, we advocate a concept of future pathways tailored to the characteristics of agricultural land systems and relate these to targeted farming approaches using agroecological principles. The concept depicts a transformative vision to effectively re-establish farmland biodiversity, a cornerstone of sustainable agriculture. It has the potential to support a systematic refinement of existing biodiversity and agricultural policies to enhance their impact and benefit for people and nature.
... Thus, the cessation of cropland covering a relatively small proportion of the catchment may be a viable solution for nitrate removal in locations with certain conditions. For example, remote and mountainous regions of Europe with poor soil quality and decreasing rural populations, such as areas within Spain (Khorchani et al., 2020) and the Balkan Peninsula (Zakkak et al., 2018), have already experienced agricultural land abandonment (Navarro and Pereira, 2012;Ceausu et al., 2015) and hence may be suitable for removing croplands. Nevertheless, additional research on the possible effects of grassing cropland for water quality improvement is lacking and would benefit from examining a larger array of cropland extents and catchments. ...
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As freshwater environments become increasingly threatened, the need for efficient and effective protection grows more urgent. Yet quantitative evidence of management effectiveness within freshwater protected areas is limited, inhibiting our ability to infer the practicality and efficacy of practices. Herein, we employ linear mixed-effects models and time series models to evaluate the connection between catchment-scale management actions and surface water quality within a freshwater protected area, over the past three decades. Within the study area, all croplands were restored to traditional grasslands resulting in a landscape dominated by meadows and forests. The extent of land use change and time frame needed for water quality improvements were investigated and management effectiveness appraised. Results indicate that the complete grassing of croplands was approximately three times more effective at reducing concentrations of nitrate than electrical conductivity and calcium. Significant improvements in water quality occurred within nine years of management implementation, with mean annual nitrate concentrations decreasing from 5.5 to 1.9 mg/L following the grassing of all croplands covering 3.1% of the study area, whereas gradual improvements continued over the next 20 years, ultimately resulting in nitrate concentrations below 1.0 mg/L. The results of this study provide valuable insights on how land use conversions in small headwater catchments can influence stream water quality and helps to establish expectations for outcomes when planning conservation strategies.
... Elle est associée à une perte économique, un changement d'usage et de mode de vie ainsi que la perte de certaines espèces associées aux pratiques agricoles. En revanche, du point de vue de l'écologie ou de certains objectifs climatiques tels que la séquestration du carbone par exemple, elle peut constituer une véritable opportunité(Carver 2019).Pour certains auteurs, l'abandon de terres agricoles permet de favoriser le retour de processus naturels soit à travers le développement de successions végétales entraînant l'évolution des milieux, et des paysages(Ustaoglu et Collier 2018 ;Carver 2019), soit via des pratiques de rewilding qu'elles soient actives ou passives(Carver 2019 ;Navarro et Pereira 2012;. ...
This PhD. focuses on the conditions of protection of the wilderness in Europe, which has become a central concept in the field of environmental conservation. Such areas are considered by their promoters as a means to respond to the contemporary major ecological challenges (e.g. battle against climate change, global biodiversity loss). In 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution encouraging State Members to designate large areas in a natural state in which all major human interference must be avoided. Since the end of the 2000s, many wilderness initiatives have emerged at various scales (i.e. local, national, international) across Europe. The aim of this research is to study the requirements for implementing wilderness protection strategies across Europe in di erent cultural and socio-ecological contexts and the limitations that emerge from these territories. Using a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted in the UK, the Netherlands and France, as well as with actors with European influence. This thesis shows that many stakeholders, mainly from NGOs, are utilizing this concept throughout Europe and are trying to implement its applications in different areas. These attempts could provide feedback on the issues that must be addressed and on the technical requirements necessary when carrying out wilderness projects. However, because the concept of wilderness is a cultural construct, it is difficult to grasp and to transpose. The difficulty to obtain a universal definition of the notion has led to the development of substitute concepts closer to the realities on the field (e.g. wild land, rewilding, free evolution), which result in the implementation of various strategies whose common goal is to promote the recovery of natural processes. Wilderness, shaped by local socio-ecological conditions, thus appears to be a means of rethinking nature protection policies at national and European levels, but also of reinventing the relationship between humans and non-humans.
... Agricultural land abandonment and the general diminution in extensive livestock grazing practices and pastoralism worldwide, especially in marginal lands such as arctic and alpine ecosystems (Mantero et al., 2020), is leading to changes in shrub and tree cover (FAO and UNEP, 2020), fire regimes (Grau et al., 2020) and nutrient cycling (Andriuzzi and Wall, 2018;Cromsigt et al., 2018;Vuichard et al., 2008). In these changing ecosystems, native species -both herbivores and their predators -are recolonizing areas with reduced human footprint (Navarro and Pereira, 2015). These processes, sometimes coined "natural rewilding", have notably been documented for herbivores such as large ungulates in Europe (Austrheim et al., 2011) and North America (Foster et al., 2002), native camelid populations in the Andes (Grau et al., 2020) as well as apex predator species (Prugh et al., 2009;Rana et al., 2018). ...
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A la Comunitat Valenciana hi ha més de 150 municipis en risc de despoblació. A més de les conseqüències socioeconòmiques, els impactes ambientals negatius de l’absència humana i la falta d’activitat a les zones rurals són molt rellevants. El paisatge mediterrani ha sigut ocupat i modificat per la humanitat durant mil·lennis, i tant la dinàmica dels ecosistemes com les característiques de les espècies que els poblen s’han adaptat per a conviure amb les activitats humanes. L’abandonament de les activitats agropecuàries tradicionals està lligat a una degradació generalitzada dels ecosistemes (deteriorament de la qualitat paisatgística, augment de l’erosió, de la freqüència i intensitat d’incendis forestals, de la desertificació), a més de tenir un impacte directe sobre espècies dependents dels sistemes humanitzats. Encara que s’ha proposat que la revegetació passiva després de l’abandonament puga recuperar els hàbitats originals, això no és sempre així i, en tot cas, aquest procés és molt lent als ecosistemes mediterranis. A més a més, la recuperació dels hàbitats «originals» no evita la pèrdua d’espècies pròpies dels sistemes agropecuaris, la qual cosa implica una reducció neta de la biodiversitat en l’àmbit regional. La solució suposa estratègies que consideren la multifuncionalitat dels sistemes agropecuaris i s’adapten a les característiques geogràfiques, culturals i socioeconòmiques particulars de cada territori, incloent-hi el manteniment i la recuperació dels sistemes agropecuaris tradicionals on siga viable. Aquestes estratègies han d’incloure la millora en la rendibilitat de les explotacions (p. ex. valor afegit de la producció ecològica, consum de proximitat) o el pagament per serveis ecosistèmics als propietaris on la rendibilitat no assolisca un mínim raonable. Garantit el manteniment dels valors dels sistemes agropecuaris tradicionals, hi ha zones en què la reversió cap a sistemes naturals és més convenient, la qual cosa pot afavorir espècies, sobretot de certa grandària, que han vist els seus hàbitats reduïts o fragmentats per l’activitat agrícola i ramadera seculars, amb una pervivència compromesa a hores d’ara.
Cultural ecosystem services (CESs) are direct influences on human well-being and sustainable development, and they have become increasingly important in the development and progress of society. This paper reviewed 1248 papers on CESs by using VOSviewer and CiteSpace software. On this basis, we also reviewed 179 selected empirical papers related to this field, with regards to geographical locations, study objects, evaluation methods, and categories. The results show that: (1) the number of publications related to cultural services has increased year by year, and Ecosystem Services, Ecological Indicators, and Sustainability are the top three journals with the greatest amount of research published; (2) ecosystem services, benefits, management, and social–ecological systems are perceptions closely related to CES research, which are also popular topics in the field; (3) the results of a keyword detection show that the cultural landscapes, patterns, mental health services, social value, and other keywords were popular keywords used from 2005 to 2021; (4) CESs have mainly attracted the attention of many developed countries, and the cultural services in cities, oceans, and coastal areas have become the focus for researchers; (5) the recreation and ecotourism, and aesthetic values are the common categories of the CES empirical studies, while the knowledge system and the cultural diversity are the two categories with the least amount of research; (6) the evaluation methods of CESs are mostly carried out using a traditional questionnaire and interview, but mapping and modeling methods have been widely used in recent years.
At the Steppe Research Station “Orenburg Tarpania” of the Institute of Steppe of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Orenburg region, Russia), we carried out work to study acclimatization of large ungulates of inhabiting arid ecosystems to the natural conditions of the South Ural steppe sub-region. The “Orenburg Tarpania” contains introduced animal species: Przewalski’s horse, kiangs, two-humped camels, domestic yaks and an indigenous breed of downy goats. The goal of the project is to return large phytophages to their natural steppe habitat. To prevent an increase in the infection of new populations with helminths to a clinically significant level and to study the adaptation to the existing territorial helminth-faunal complex, we monitor helminth infections of animals kept in the station and in the adjacent areas. Our survey revealed parasitism of nematodes of the suborder Strongylata (families Strongylidae and Trichonematidae ) and the suborder Asagidata ( Ragassagis equorum ) was revealed in ungulates. Parasitism of nematodes of the suborder Strongylata (genera Chabertia and Nematodirus ), and protozoa of the genus Eimegia , was detected in ruminants in the Steppe Research Station. The invasion intensity in all cases ranged from low to medium, with no clinical signs. Further studies are planned to determine the degree of biological equilibrium formation in the helminth-host system of the model plot.
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Rural abandonment and subsequent vegetation regeneration ('passive rewilding') are expected to increase worldwide, producing cascades of dynamic socioeconomic, landscape and biological changes. Although landscape characteristics strongly influence the structure and functioning of scavengers, little is known about the ecological consequences of passive rewilding due to woody encroachment (i.e.'landscape closure') on scavenging assemblages. We investigated differences in 'scavenger assemblage com-position' (species richness and abundances) and 'scavenging efficiency' (scavenging frequency, detection and consumption times and consumption rates) in a mountain agroecosystem (Pyrenees) undergoing passive rewilding. We monitored 178 carcasses in three landscapes: 'open', 'shrubland' and 'forest', and evaluated the effects of landscape type on 'scavenger assemblage composition' and 'scavenging efficiency' at the community and species levels, while accounting for the influences of carcass size, type and placement time. We also examined whether the locally most abundant and efficient scavenger (i.e. the griffon vulture Gyps fulvus) affects scavenging patterns. We found that landscape type was the main factor governing scavenging dynamics. Overall and average scavenger richness were similar in open and shrubland landscapes, while forests contained the lowest number of scavengers, mainly comprising mammals. Unlike mammals, avian scavenging frequency decreased as vegetation cover increased, especially for obligate scavengers (i.e. vultures). Scavenger abundances were highest in open landscapes, and carcasses were detected and consumed more rapidly in these landscapes. Carcass size did not influence detection and consumption times, although it did affect average scavenger richness, abundances and consumption rates. Consumption rates were higher in open landscapes and were strongly associated with the presence of griffon vultures. Interestingly, we found that griffon vultures influenced scavenging dynamics via facilitation processes. However, woody encroachment could reduce the scavenging role of this species, while favoring mammalian facultative scavengers. Finally, our findings highlight the pivotal role of griffon vultures, mediated by landscape characteristics, in reducing carcass persistence.
How can rapidly growing food demands be met with least adverse impact on nature? Two very different sorts of suggestions predominate in the literature: wildlife-friendly farming, whereby on-farm practices are made as benign to wildlife as possible (at the potential cost of decreasing yields); and land-sparing, in which farm yields are increased and pressure to convert land for agriculture thereby reduced (at the potential cost of decreasing wildlife populations on farmland). This paper is about one important aspect of the land-sparing idea - the sensitivity of future requirements for cropland to plausible variation in yield increases, relative to other variables. Focusing on the 23 most energetically important food crops, we use data from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD) to project plausible values for 2050 for population size, diet, yield, and trade, and then look at their effect on the area needed to meet demand for the 23 crops, for the developing and developed worlds in turn. Our calculations suggest that across developing countries, the area under those crops will need to increase very considerably by 2050 (by 23% under intermediate projections), and that plausible variation in average yield has as much bearing on the extent of that expansion as does variation in population size or per capita consumption; future cropland area varies far less under foreseeable variation in the net import of food from the rest of the world. By contrast, cropland area in developed countries is likely to decrease slightly by 2050 (by 4% under intermediate projections for those 23 crops), and will be less sensitive to variation in population growth, diet, yield, or trade. Other contentious aspects of the land-sparing idea require further scrutiny, but these results confirm its potential significance and suggest that conservationists should be as concerned about future agricultural yields as they are about population growth and rising per capita consumption.
Biodiversity is the diversity of life on earth at various organizational levels, from genes to species and ecosystems. Biodiversity comprises the dynamic web of organisms and the interactions between them and the environment. Biodiversity is fundamental for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning and the delivery of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are direct benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, such as food and clean water, or indirect benefits, such as climate regulation and pollination. Human well-being is dependent on ecosystem services and thus on the condition of ecosystems. However, humans are placing increasing pressure on ecosystems, due to the exponential growth of world population over the past decades and increasing consumption patterns. As a result, ecosystems are being degraded and destroyed, resources are collapsing, and the loss of biodiversity has reached unprecedented levels. Ecosystem conditions are seriously threatened along with the maintenance of the benefits provided by ecosystems. The effects on human well-being are felt at several scales from local communities to the global population. Human well-being is being affected worldwide by the consequences of ecosystem changes and biodiversity loss, which include natural disasters, health problems, and poverty. Environmental sustainability is a key concept for the future, being fundamental to find solutions that preserve biodiversity and ecosystems, without disregarding people's needs for ecosystem services and economical development.
Estimates of the role of the European terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle still vary by a factor 10. This is due to differences in methods and assumptions employed, but also due to difference in reference periods of the studies. The magnitude of the sink varies between years because of inter-annual variation of short-term climate, but also due to long-term trends in development of the vegetation and its management. For this purpose, we present the results of an application of a carbon bookkeeping model to the forest sector of the European forests from 1950 to 1999. The analysis includes the compartments trees, soils, and wood products. The model uses statistics on European (30 countries excl. CIS) stemwood volume increment, forest area change, fellings, wood products and their international trade, and natural disturbances, supplemented with conversion coefficients, soil parameters and information on management. An (almost uninterrupted) increasing sink (Net Biome Production) in the European forest sector was found, increasing from 0.03 Pg C year-1 in the 1950s to 0.14 Pg C year-1 in the 1990s (for resp. 132 million hectares and 140 million hectares of forest). The sink in the tree and the soil compartment were approximately of the same size until 1970. After the 1970s the size of the sink in the tree biomass increases quickly, causing the tree biomass to account for some two thirds of the total sink in the 1990s. The results as presented here have to be regarded with caution especially with regard to the early decades of the analysis and with regard to the soil compartment.